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Indirect Effects of Social Skills on Health Through Stress and Loneliness

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Abstract

The social skills deficit vulnerability model predicts that people with inadequate social skills are at risk for a range of psychosocial problems, especially when confronted with stress. People with poor social skills often experience stress and loneliness and these two constructs were tested as potential pathways by which the poor social skills confer a risk for compromised mental and physical health. An online survey was completed by 775 adults, aged 18-91. The sample matched national demographics for race/ethnicity and age, among those over 18. Structural equation modeling revealed indirect effects of social skills on both mental and physical health through both stress and loneliness. The models showed that poor social skills were associated with poor mental and physical health through elevated stress and increased loneliness. The findings reveal that social skills deficits are associated with physical as well as mental health problems.

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... Social cognition difficulties, such as poor emotion perception and understanding, have been canvassed as important risk factors for a variety of internalising and externalising problems (Trentacosta & Fine, 2010). One of the potential intervening factors in the pathway linking social skills deficits with negative psychological outcomes is psychosocial stress (Segrin, 2017;Segrin et al., 2007). According to the social skills deficit vulnerability model (Segrin, 2000;Segrin et al., 2016), children with social cognition difficulties are more likely to experience both chronic and acute stressors in their lives, such as peer victimisation, social rejection, and physical conflicts. ...
... Analyses were performed in Stata 16 (StataCorp, 2019) and Mplus 8.1 (Muthén & Muthén, 1998-2017. First, demographic characteristics, social cognition abilities, inflammatory markers and internalising and externalising problems were compared between the analytic and non-analytic samples (the remaining ALSPAC members who were excluded from the analyses; Figure 1), to describe the sample and assess potential sample bias. Next, for the analytic sample, Pearson's correlation coefficients between social cognition abilities, cortisol measures, inflammatory markers, and internalising and externalising problems were calculated. ...
... If cortisol and inflammation were correlated with both social cognition abilities and internalising or externalising problems, Bayesian structural equation modelling (BSEM) was performed to test their mediating effects on the association between social cognition and internalising/externalising problems. We used a Bayesian estimator with non-informative priors (default normal distribution with a mean hyperparameter of zero and a variance of 10 10 ; Muthén & Muthén, 1998-2017. We chose a Bayesian estimator for the mediation analyses as it does not assume normal distribution of estimates (Muthén, 2010). ...
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Objective Deficits in social cognition are associated with internalising (emotional and peer problems) and externalising (conduct problems and hyperactivity/inattention) symptoms in youth. It has been suggested that stress may be one of the mechanisms underlying these associations. However, no empirical studies have investigated if physiological stress can explain the prospective associations between social cognition deficits and internalising and externalising symptoms in the general youth population. This study addressed this question and focused on two indicators of physiological stress, dysregulated diurnal cortisol patterns and systemic inflammation. Method Participants were 714 individuals from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), a UK population-based birth cohort. Bayesian structural equation modelling was used to investigate a) the associations of social cognition abilities at ages 8, 11, and 14 years with internalising and externalising problems at age 17 years and b) the potential mediating effects of cortisol parameters at age 15 years and inflammatory markers [interleukin 6 (IL-6) and C-reactive protein (CRP)] at ages 9 and 16 years. Results We found that social cognition difficulties were associated with later internalising and externalising problems. Flattened diurnal cortisol slope was associated with hyperactivity/inattention problems two years later. Lower morning cortisol partially mediated the direct association between social communication deficits at 8 years and hyperactivity/inattention and conduct problems at 17 years, even after adjustments for inflammation and confounders (for hyperactivity/inattention: indirect effect = 0.07, 95% CI [0.00, 0.18], p = .042; for conduct problems: indirect effect = 0.04, 95% CI [0.00, 0.11], p = .040). We did not find a significant association between systemic inflammation and social cognition difficulties, internalising problems, or externalising problems. Conclusion Our findings suggest that part of the effect of social communication difficulties in childhood on externalising problems in adolescence was mediated by lower morning cortisol. Hence, our study indicates that the hypoactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis may be one of the physiological mechanisms linking some social cognition deficits to externalising problems.
... We first posit that video chat apprehension should positively associate with loneliness, defined as "a distressing feeling that accompanies the perception that one's social needs are not being met by the quantity or especially the quality of one's social relationships" (Hawkley & Cacioppo, 2010, p. 218). This is consistent with the social skills deficit vulnerability model suggesting that people with lower social skills are at an increased risk for mental distress (Segrin, 2019). Feeling apprehensive using video chat media likely threatens both the quantity and quality of social relationships. ...
... Second, we hypothesize that video chat apprehension will negatively relate to CDC adherence. Theoretically, social skill deficits are linked to increased risky health behaviors (see Segrin, 2019). Moreover, communication apprehension is inversely related to resilience to stressful life events (Curran et al., 2020). ...
... Theoretically, these results align with a social skills deficit perspective on health. Research shows that lacking social skills is related to worse mental and physical well-being (Segrin, 2019). The direct effects add to the body of research on social skill deficits by showing that video chat apprehensiveness is linked to both increased loneliness and less adherence to CDC guidelines. ...
Article
In light of common recommendations to connect with others through video chatting during the COVID-19 pandemic, this study examined how video chat apprehension relates to two health concerns: loneliness and adherence to CDC guidelines. We also examined how relational worry due to COVID-19 mediates these paths. Data were collected via MTurk from 467 people in the United States. The results showed that video chat apprehension related to increased worry about maintaining personal relationships, which in turn related to increased loneliness and decreased adherence to CDC guidelines. This investigation makes a contribution to understanding the links between personal relationships and both mental well-being and health behaviors during the COVID-19 pandemic.
... Cognitive flexibility is a communication skill that involves adapting one's communication behaviors depending on specific social situations and is associated with conversational sensitivity (Chesebro & Martin, 2003) and overall social skills (Curran, 2018). It is logical to reason that higher levels of cognitive flexibility should interact with humor orientation to associate with increased health outcomes because communication competence in general relates to better health outcomes (Segrin, 2019). For example, Segrin (2019) reported that a multidimensional measure of social skills that included the ability to express emotional support, disclose to others, and initiate social contact predicted lower levels of stress and loneliness. ...
... For example, Segrin (2019) reported that a multidimensional measure of social skills that included the ability to express emotional support, disclose to others, and initiate social contact predicted lower levels of stress and loneliness. This measure of social skills indirectly predicted both mental and physical health outcomes (Segrin, 2019). Social skill deficits can threaten one's mental and physical health because social skills can maintain close relationships and promote positive social encounters. ...
... Social skill deficits can threaten one's mental and physical health because social skills can maintain close relationships and promote positive social encounters. On the other hand, those who are socially skilled likely receive social benefits (e.g., increased social support, positive reinforcement) that can buffer them from mental and physical distress (Segrin, 2019). We apply these principles to the current study and reason that high humor orientation and high cognitive flexibility are sound indicators of social competence. ...
Article
Humor orientation is related to numerous prosocial outcomes. This study examined the relationships between humor orientation and mental well-being, loneliness, headaches, and sleep disturbances. We also tested cognitive flexibility as a moderator of these associations among (N = 406) young adults. The results showed that humor orientation was associated with increased mental well-being, lower levels of loneliness, and less headaches. The direct effect from humor orientation to sleep disturbances was not significant. The interaction effects between humor orientation and cognitive flexibility on all four health outcome variables were significant. The implications of the results are discussed in detail.
... One area that appears to have received considerably less attention is the formation and impact of teacher expectations in the early primary years (pre-kindergarten-grade two), with much of the extant research having focused on the upper elementary (Timmermans et al., 2015), middle (Woolley et al., 2010) and secondary grades (Brault et al., 2014). The early primary grades serve as a critical time for children's adjustment to formal schooling, their development of important social and self-regulation skills, and the formation of positive academic trajectories that shape future performance (Callaghan & Madelaine, 2012;McClelland et al., 2013;Segrin, 2019). The expectations that teachers have of students during this period has a meaningful impact on students' future developmental and academic growth. ...
... Their work brings attention to the predominant focus in the research on expectations related to students' academic achievement and the need for further research in student socioemotional learning, class behaviours and engagement, teacher-student relationships, and interaction factors. These factors may be vital to consider and examine in this field as they occupy a meaningful role in the development, well-being, and achievement of students in the early primary grades (McClelland et al., 2013;Segrin, 2019). ...
Article
Teachers are the single most important in‐school factor affecting student learning outcomes. As a result, researchers and policy makers are particularly interested in the ways that teacher‐level factors influence the learning opportunities that teachers provide in their classrooms. A growing body of research suggests that the expectations a teacher sets for individuals and groups of students can significantly affect the learning opportunities that are provided to them. This is highly problematic, especially since teacher expectations can be inaccurate evaluations of student abilities and teacher expectations differentially affect the learning outcomes of racialised students as well as children living in poverty. Much of the research base regarding teacher expectations has focused on upper elementary and secondary grades with little research focus on the ways that teacher expectations are formed and impact children in the first years of formal schooling. Given the potential impact of sustained teacher expectation effects, an in‐depth review of teacher expectation research in the early primary grades is warranted. This study uses a scoping review methodology (H. Arksey and L. O’Malley, ‘Scoping Studies: Towards a Methodological Framework, International Journal of Social Research Methodology, 2005, 8(1), 19–32) to analyse research on teacher expectations in the early primary grades. Five themes encapsulate the scope of research published from 2000–2021: (1) teacher expectations of school readiness skills, (2) factors that influence the formation of teacher expectations, (3) teacher expectation effects, (4) stability of teacher expectations, and (5) intervention studies. This paper presents the current state of knowledge surrounding expectations in the early primary grades, as well as highlights challenges in need of further research.
... However, there continue to be concerning gaps between children with disabilities and their peers, including fewer friendships, lower levels of peer acceptance, and greater social isolation during play periods (Guralnick et al., 2006;Kasari et al., 2011). Early experiences of isolation increase the risk for poorer physical and social outcomes (Segrin, 2019), highlighting the importance of fostering inclusive social participation in early education. ...
... Consequently, some teachers may be hesitant to get involved in children's play if they believe that involvement disrupts the play (Ghafouri & Wien, 2005). However, in the absence of thoughtful teacher support, children with disabilities may remain on the periphery of play and social networks, and early social exclusion can lead to poorer social, academic, and mental health outcomes (Guralnick et al., 2006;Segrin, 2019). It is critical that the benefits of teacher involvement in play and what productive teacher support in play can look like in inclusive settings be disseminated to preservice and inservice teachers. ...
Article
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Policies related to the inclusion of children with disabilities in mainstream classrooms have led to questions regarding how teachers can help cultivate inclusive learning communities where all children are supported and valued. In play-based kindergarten programs, teachers are tasked with ensuring goals for children’s learning and development are cultivated in play. However, debates persist regarding the optimal role of the teacher in play and how to meaningfully support the play of children with disabilities. The current multiple case study explored the perspectives and approaches of three kindergarten teachers who highly valued, and strived to enable, participation and inclusion in play-based learning, referred to here as enactors. A minimum of three hours of observation were conducted in each classroom in the fall, and semi-structured teacher interviews were conducted in the fall and spring of the school year. Enactors shared some common themes related to implementing play-based learning to promote inclusion, including a balance of child agency and teacher guidance, involvement that is child-centred and flexible, and the importance of supporting social interactions in play. These views informed both common and unique practices observed in play, including one-on-one conversations, supporting small groups, becoming an active play partner, and collaboratively addressing problems that arose in play. These results illustrate ways enactors gave meaning to the concept of inclusion through their play practices, providing salient examples of play alongside teachers’ craft knowledge to help support inclusive play-based learning practices going forward.
... As HS são componentes necessários da competência social e são desenvolvidas desde a infância até a idade adulta, sendo fundamentais para a criança desenvolver bons relacionamentos com seus pares (Crowe, Beauchamp, Catroppa, & Anderson, 2011). Dificuldades em HS estão associadas a uma série de problemas comportamentais e a sintomas depressivos ao longo do desenvolvimento (Segrin, 2017). Neste sentido, o ambiente escolar pode ser potencialmente favorável para o desenvolvimento de um repertório habilidoso, pois, nesse contexto, o aluno experiencia uma integração social com o meio, podendo desenvolver e aprimorar novas habilidade. ...
... O Treinamento de Habilidades Sociais (THS) vem sendo amplamente utilizado no trabalho com crianças, tendo em vista que a falta de HS constitui um fator de risco para problemas aprendizagem (Segrin, 2017). Os problemas comportamentais são divididos em internalizantes (PCI), caracterizados pelo excesso de tristeza, retraimento, timidez, insegurança, medos e inibição excessiva, e podem estar associados à depressão, ansiedade e fobia social. ...
Article
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Este relato de experiência descreve uma intervenção baseada no Treinamento de Habilidades Sociais (THS) realizado com crianças do 3° ano do ensino fundamental de uma escola pública do Rio Grande do Sul (Brasil). O objetivo do THS foi desenvolver um repertório de comportamentos mais saudáveis entre os alunos, já que as principais queixas da escola referiam-se a problemas de comportamento, comunicação e interação entre os pares, que afetavam o processo de aprendizagem. Participaram 10 crianças (idades entre 7-9 anos). As atividades foram previamente planejadas e tiveram duração de três meses, distribuídos em oito encontros, com frequência semanal, de uma hora e meia cada. As temáticas abordavam a psicoeducação, técnicas de relaxamento muscular e respiração diafragmática, feedback construtivo, role-play, e resolução de problemas. Os resultados demostram que as atividades proporcionaram aos participantes algumas mudanças positivas de comportamento, como o estabelecimento de regras organizadas pelos próprios alunos para um bom convívio, o aprendizado de técnicas de relaxamento e o aprimoramento de habilidades sociais desenvolvidas ao longo das atividades. A intervenção propiciou uma aproximação da Psicologia ao campo escolar, a fim de investir em intervenções nesse contexto, visto que as habilidades sociais são reconhecidas como fator de proteção no desenvolvimento infantil.
... Without the skills necessary to select and use appropriate social behaviors, which are typically developed early in life, individuals are at a disadvantage. Segrin (2019) conducted a study that demonstrated a relationship between poor social skills and poor outcomes for mental and physical health later in life. This is one of the first studies that linked poor physical health outcomes as well as poor mental health outcomes for individuals with poor social skills. ...
... This is one of the first studies that linked poor physical health outcomes as well as poor mental health outcomes for individuals with poor social skills. The social skills measure looked at indicators that included providing emotional support to others, sharing information with others, ability to stand up to others (i.e., assertion), and relationship initiation skills (Segrin 2019). The impact of this study has implications for the importance of addressing social skill development in early childhood. ...
Article
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During early childhood, practitioners and family members are often tasked with determining optimal approaches to support social skill development in young children with developmental disabilities in inclusive and self-contained settings. Eight different evidence based approaches are highlighted (social narratives, scripting, pivotal response training, structured play groups, peer-mediated interventions, video-modeling, social skills training, and parent-implemented strategies), as well as specific skills in young children that may need additional support (joint attention, play, initiation, turn taking, sharing, conversation, emotion recognition, problem solving, socially appropriate behaviors, emotion/self-regulation, navigating environments, and perspective taking). A table of recommended strategies and checklist of the various social skills important during the early childhood years assist practitioners and family members in selecting and implementing appropriate strategies during the crucial period of life. Vignettes offer examples of steps taken to address specific concerns, paired with possible supports to enhance social development.
... Loneliness is a serious psychological issue that can decrease cognitive functioning, increase the risk of chronic diseases, and is related to poor overall mental and physical health (Hawkley & Cacioppo, 2010;Segrin, 2017). The purpose of this study was to examine how mother loneliness can transmit to child loneliness via a moderated mediation model of familial social support and conflict avoidance. ...
... The significant effects from maternal loneliness to child perceptions of familial social support (a path), and from familial social support to child loneliness (b path) are consistent with research on loneliness and social support. Loneliness is negatively related to communication skills (Segrin, 2017), and lonely people often perceive their social environment as threatening and uncontrollable (Hawkley & Cacioppo, 2010). Thus, mothers with higher levels of loneliness are likely less supportive to children, which might be why maternal loneliness negatively relates to child perceptions of familial social support. ...
Article
Loneliness is a psychological health issue related to deleterious physical health outcomes such as mortality and chronic disease. The aim of this research was to examine intergenerational transmissions of loneliness from mothers to adult child via a moderated mediation model of perceived familial social support and conflict avoidance. Surveys were collected from 146 (N = 292) mother-child dyads on self-reports of loneliness, familial social support, and mother-child conflict avoidance. The results showed that child perceptions of familial social support mediated the relationship between mother-child loneliness. Moreover, child reports of mother-child conflict avoidance moderated the path from familial social support to child loneliness. Specifically, children reported significantly higher levels of loneliness when they perceived low levels of familial social support and high levels of conflict avoidance. These findings expand research on the role of communicative mechanisms in parent-child transmissions of loneliness. The theoretical and practical implications are discussed in detail.
... El proceso de(3) socialización requiere del desarrollo y aprendizaje de habilidades sociales , es decir, la asimilación o(4) interiorización de las normas sociales preestablecidas . De ellas, las habilidades sociales interpersonales son(5) importantes para una interacción adecuada con los demás siendo necesario un dominio y equilibrio emocional así como el desarrollo de habilidades interpersonales positivas como la persuasión, la delegación, la escucha(6) activa y la administración ; la ausencia o el pobre desarrollo de las habilidades sociales puede ser ocasionar incomodidad social y problemas para relacionarse con los demás generando angustia así como problemas(7) adaptativos y de aprendizaje .El desarrollo de adecuadas habilidades sociales fomentadas desde la niñez permitirá que los niños pueda tener conversaciones efectivas y coherentes, así como aprender y llevar una buena relación con personas de su(8) entorno cercano ; esto repercutirá durante su crecimiento y maduración ya que desarrollara rasgos positivos(9) como el respeto, responsabilidad, confianza, justicia, afecto entre otros , en consecuencia, se formaran como(10) ciudadanos con una adecuada moral interna que le permitirá mejorar la posibilidad de tomar buenas decisiones para su desarrollo e interaccion con la familia, compañeros de trabajo, entorno social, etc.(11)Las habilidades sociales inadecuadas (codificadas en el CIE-10 con el código Z73.4) son la ausencia parcial o total para reconocer o reflejar las habilidades sociales así como la dificultad para tener una conducta adecuada(12) en las diferentes etapas de la vida , en el caso de los niños e infantes, además de afectar la interacción con sus(13) compañeros producirá problemas de comportamiento cuando se relaciona con personas mayores como(14) docentes, interfiriendo con su desarrollo psicologico y el aprendizaje . En niños, en ausencia de trastornos orgánicos del neurodesarrollo como el trastorno del espectro autista o el trastorno del déficit de atención e(15) hipercinesia , se puede explicar las causas de los problemas relacionados con habilidades sociales inadecuadas a factores centrados en el déficit, es decir, las habilidades nunca fueron desarrolladas o fueron(16) pobremente aprendidas ; otro factor es el relacionado con la interferencia, donde las habilidades han sido aprendidas pero existen factores que afectan su desarrollo (ansiedad, entorno educativo, violencia intrafamiliar(17) y extrafamiliar, etc) .(18) ...
Article
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Objetivo. Evaluar la frecuencia del diagnóstico CIE-10 denominado “problemas relacionados con habilidades sociales inadecuadas” en niños según edad y sexo en un policlínico de terapia física y rehabilitación del distrito de Villa el Salvador en Lima, Perú. Materiales y métodos. Estudio observacional, descriptivo, retrospectivo y transversal basado en la recopilación de datos concernientes al diagnóstico CIE-10 código Z73.4 “problemas relacionados con habilidades sociales inadecuadas” de 188 pacientes de ambos sexos en un policlínico parroquial de terapia física y rehabilitación localizado en el distrito de Villa el Salvador durante los meses de enero de 2021 a julio de 2022. Las variables de estudio fueron: sexo, edad y diagnostico Z73.4. Se conto con una ficha de recolección validada. La muestra fue el total de la población objetivo la cual fue de 218 pacientes, se excluyó a pacientes con antecedentes de trastornos del neurodesarrollo como el autismo y TDAH, así como trastornos orgánicos como epilepsia. Para el análisis estadístico se utilizó el programa SPSS statistics 25. Se utilizó estadísticos descriptivos y tablas. Resultados. Con un total de 218 pacientes, se encontró que el 87.16% de los pacientes evaluados fueron varones, comparado al género femenino que solo tuvo 12.8%. Los que acudieron al centro de terapia física y rehabilitación para la evaluación y tratamiento concerniente a problemas relacionados con habilidades sociales, en general fueron alumnos en etapa pre-escolar con un 57.79%. Conclusión. Existe una alta frecuencia en atenciones por problemas relacionados con habilidades sociales inadecuadas en niños que en niñas.
... Todos los artículos analizados mostraban un TE positivo para la relación entre ambas variables, a excepción de tres (Hoşoğlu, 2019;Jafari et al., 2019;Kürtüncü et al., 2021). Algunos estudios han hallado que las personas que presentan mayores niveles de soledad poseen bajas habilidades sociales (Segrin, 2019;Wong, Yeung y Lee, 2018), lo que podría favorecer un uso problemático del smartphone, al sentirse las personas solitarias más cómodas relacionándose con otros a través de un dispositivo digital mediante redes sociales o aplicaciones de mensajería instantánea que en situaciones cara a cara (Bian y Leung, 2015). Además, las personas solitarias podrían verse atraidas hacia un uso excesivo del smartphone con el objetivo de ampliar su red de relaciones. ...
Article
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El uso problemático del smartphone se ha convertido en un problema de salud a nivel mun-dial. El objetivo del presente trabajo es examinar mediante técnicas meta-analíticas la relación entre el uso problemático del smartphone y la soledad. Se realizó una búsqueda bibliográfica en las bases de datos Web of Science, Scopus y PsycInfo, recuperando un total de 26 artículos que cumplían los criterios de inclusión (n = 25.026). El tamaño del efecto obtenido mediante un modelo de efectos aleatorios es significativo y positivo (Zr = 0.22). Los análisis de meta-regresión mostraron que el sexo y la edad no son variables moderadoras estadísticamente sig-nificativas. No se aprecia la presencia de sesgo de publicación. Aquellos sujetos que muestran mayores niveles de uso problemático del smartphone también presentan mayores sentimien-tos de soledad. Se presentan las limitaciones del trabajo y se discuten sus implicaciones.
... Research has found that poor physical functioning produces higher social stress and lower social integration [47]. Furthermore, studies reveal that deficiencies in social skills are closely associated with physical health [48], whereas physical illness can also have a negative impact on interpersonal relationships [49]. Investigations into the different aspects (e.g. ...
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Background Employees are considered as one of the most important assets in many organizations, and their health well-being is critical to help achieve a sustainable and motivated workforce that is committed to delivering quality hospitality services through enhanced performance and productivity. Given the extent of the challenges and impact presented by the COVID-19 pandemic to the hospitality industry, it is timely to gain further insights on employees’ health well-being. The key purpose of this study is to examine the relationships between health-related quality of life, achievement motivation and job performance in the Taiwan hospitality industry, to acquire a better understanding of their relationships through the job performance pathway models. Methods This study has used a purposeful sampling technique to select the 10 highest-earning hospitality companies in Taiwan. A total of 292 questionnaires were collected from the employees of these hospitality companies. Based on the multi-dimensional concept of health-related quality of life (HRQoL), the relationships between the five key dimensions (i.e. psychological health, physical health, social health, achievement motivation, and job performance) were examined. To measure these dimensions, the survey questions were adapted from previous research such as the World Health Organization’s WHOQOL-BREF scale, Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire. Partial least squares - Structural Equation Modeling method was used to explore these dimensions, and two job performance pathway models (for manager and staff) were subsequently developed. Results and conclusions Findings showed that psychological health directly affected the manager’s job performance and physical health had a similar effect through social health. While psychological health had not affected the staff’s job performance, but it could affect achievement motivation through both direct and indirect effects of social health. The pathway models that were developed indicated that the manager’s job performance was mainly affected by psychological health and social health, whereas the key dimension that had affected the staff’s job performance was achievement motivation.
... One way to overcome the feeling of loneliness is to improve social integration by boosting social communication abilities [82]. Some studies show that social skills deficits correlate with both physical and mental health [77]. One of the key aspects of communication skills is nonverbal behavior. ...
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We present a conversational agent designed to provide realistic conversational practice to older adults at risk of isolation or social anxiety, and show the results of a content analysis on a corpus of data collected from experiments with elderly patients interacting with our system. The conversational agent, represented by a virtual avatar, is designed to hold multiple sessions of casual conversation with older adults. Throughout each interaction, the system analyzes the prosodic and nonverbal behavior of users and provides feedback to the user in the form of periodic comments and suggestions on how to improve. Our avatar is unique in its ability to hold natural dialogues on a wide range of everyday topics – 27 topics in three groups, developed in collaboration with a team of gerontologists. The three groups vary in “degrees of intimacy”, and as such in degrees of cognitive difficulty for the user. After collecting data from 9 participants who interacted with the avatar for 7-9 sessions over a period of 3-4 weeks, we present results concerning dialogue behavior and inferred sentiment of the users. Analysis of the dialogues reveals correlations such as greater elaborateness for more difficult topics, increasing elaborateness with successive sessions, stronger sentiments in topics concerned with life goals rather than routine activities, and stronger self-disclosure for more intimate topics. In addition to their intrinsic interest, these results also reflect positively on the sophistication and practical applicability of our dialogue system.
... These findings corroborate with Segrin (2017) statements that social skills deficits are a risk factor for psychosocial problems especially when people are confronted with stressful events. Besides that, it also fits the social skills deficit vulnerability model (Segrin, 1996Segrin & Flora, 2000;Segrin, McNelis & Swiatkowski, 2015). ...
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Current literature studies have been found associations between depression symptoms and social skills déficits. Some authors suggest that research in this area could use multimodal methods as a way to deepen our understanding regarding this phenomenon. In this sense, this research aims (1) to investigate the use of participant-generated photographs as a relevant technology to the production of scientific knowledge, and (2) to identify similarities and differences in social skills repertories of adolescents with and without indicators of depression, considering different sexes and social-economic conditions, through the use of self-report instruments and the Photo-Elicitation method. Results of this work were organized in five articles, three of them related to the first aim of this research and two related to the second one. Study 1 is a systematic review regarding the use of participant-generated photographs in research in the mental health field. Study 2 reflects on my experience in using photo-elicitation with adolescents, justifying its use, presenting particularities of the used methodology and discussing its effects regarding participants' experiences and research results. Study 3 addresses ethical and technical issues involved in the analysis of visual data and describes the data analysis procedure developed for this research. Study 4 is a quantitative study that identifies similarities and differences in the repertoires of social skills of 61 adolescents with and without depression indicators using self-report instruments and Study 5 has the same goal, however, it is a photo-elicitation study, seeking for answers through the analysis of photos and interviews of 8 research' participants. Adolescents between 14 and 17 years old, students from public and private schools, participated in the data collection process of Study 4 and 5. Phase 1 included the application of a General Information Script, The Child Depression Inventory, The Level II Pediatric Anxiety PROMIS and The Brazilian Criteria. In phase 2, The IHSA-Del-Prette Social Skills Inventory was applied and the instructions about taking photographs were given by asking the adolescents to take a set of 12 photographs, in a period of two weeks, regarding the question: "How do I see my life now? ". In Phase 3, semi-structured interviews were conducted with each participant to talk about their pictures. According to Phase 1 and 2 data, reported in Study 4, adolescents with depression indicators reported less elaborate social skills repertories than adolescents without indicators. Boys with depressive symptoms reported the most deficient social skills repertoires. Positive correlations were found between participants' social skills and socioeconomic status and between social skills and the presence of concomitant depression and anxiety symptoms. According to Phase 3 data, reported in Study 5, social skills behaviours were associated with adolescents' perceived support and considered a protective factor for depression mainly during stressful life events. Relationships with parents and new school colleagues were the main sources of social skills challenges. Hobbies were found to facilitate adolescents’ engagement in social interactions.
... In her analysis of the educational experiences of African refugee children in Canada, Kanu (2008) notes that even though schools become 'safe spaces' for children, due to differences in language and culture, and financial limitations, if care is not taken, refugee children will suffer greater socio-emotional trauma because of frequent experiences with academic failure. Kanu (2008) and Segrin (2019) further note that these challenges have ripple effects on the future mental and physical health of children which often times lasts well into adulthood. Therefore, schools must adjust their programmes and policies to cater to their needs. ...
Article
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Since 2015, Trinidad and Tobago experienced an influx of over 40,000 migrants from Venezuela. Having signed the Convention on the Rights of the Child and the Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees, young migrant children are entitled to education in Trinidad and Tobago. However, they face obstacles accessing schooling and social services [UNICEF EC (UNICEF Eastern Caribbean). 2019. “Making Friendly Spaces for Venezuelan Children.” Accessed September 14, 2019. https://www.unicef.org/easterncaribbean/media_39482.html]. Broadly, this conceptual study sought to answer one primary question: What are the key issues Trinidad and Tobago's government must address in order to support young children from Venezuelan migrant families in the early years setting? To answer this, data from policy documents, government releases, peer-reviewed articles and news reports were analysed. Six overarching themes emerged from the literature: policy gaps, fear/xenophobia, resource limitations, familial support, political risks and child rights infringements. Recommendations for overcoming challenges are included. KEYWORDS: Educating refugee children, early education, Venezuelan immigrants, educational policy, child rights, migrant education
... Estudios anteriores han vinculado altos niveles de soledad y uso problemático del smartphone (Bian & Leung, 2015;Darcin et al., 2016;Mahapatra, 2019;Wang, Sigerson, Jiang, & Cheng, 2018). Esta relación podría estar provocada por la asociación entre la soledad y bajas habilidades sociales (Lodder, Goossens, Scholte, Engels, & Verhagen, 2016;Segrin, 2019;Wong, Yeung, & Lee, 2018), lo que provocaría que las personas solitarias se sintieran más cómodas relacionándose con otros mediante un dispositivo digital que cara a cara. ...
Article
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El presente estudio investigó las relaciones entre la autoestima, la soledad y el uso problemático del smartphone y las diferencias de género. La muestra fue no probabilística y estuvo compuesta por 202 participantes (106 hombres y 96 mujeres), con edades comprendidas entre los 18 y los 58 años, que completaron las siguientes pruebas: Smartphone Addiction Scale, Social and Emotional Loneliness Scale for Adults y Escala de Autoestima de Rosenberg. Se calcularon los estadísticos descriptivos, la prueba U de Mann-Whitney, análisis de correlación bivariados y dos modelos de regresión múltiple jerárquica. Se hallaron diferencias significativas entre hombres y mujeres en el uso problemático del smartphone. Además, también se encontraron diferencias en función del género en las relaciones entre las variables. Los análisis de regresión mostraron que, entre las mujeres, la autoestima y la soledad social son predictores negativos del uso problemático del smartphone, mientras que la soledad romántica es un predictor positivo. El presente estudio contribuye a un mejor conocimiento de las causas del uso excesivo del smartphone.
... Some theoretical hypotheses that attempt to explain elder abuse base their predictions on the caregiver's mental health or experience of stress -situational theory (Moore, 2019). In this regard, a lack of social skills has been related to the emergence of stress and mental health in adults (Segrin, 2017). Other explanations for elder abuse rely on the equilibrium between the perception of benefits and costs in a relationship -Social Exchange Theory (Moore, 2019). ...
Article
Purpose Identifying and assessing social skills has been a powerful way of linking human behaviour and human interaction with their consequences at significant developmental levels. There are some data connecting social skills with interpersonal violence but not yet with elder abuse. The reason might be the scarcity of quick and easy-to-apply measures of social skills. This study aims to adapt and validate the social skills inventory (SSI) (Del Prette and Del Prette, 2001) to the Portuguese population. Design/methodology/approach The authors conducted two studies. In Study 1, the authors gathered the psychometric characteristics of the SSI-Del-Prette through exploratoryfactor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). In Study 2, the authors correlated the new measure with measures of depression and empathy to test for divergent and concurrent validity. Findings The obtained version of the SSI-Del-Prette showed a good model fit and internal consistency. This measure presented six factors: conversation and social confidence, easiness of self-exposure, self-expression of positive affect, coping assertively with risk, defending interests and opinions and giving and receiving praise. The indicators of convergent and divergent validity supported the integrity of the measure. Research limitations/implications The adaptation of this measure of social skills opens new possibilities for studying these skills. Originality/value This paper provides an adaptation of a measure of six social skills expanded to the older adult population.
... The outcomes of strength-based interventions are multidimensional, including family strength development [18], interpersonal relationships [19], optimism [20], spirituality [21], self-esteem [22], talent/interests, educational, vocational, permanent relationships [23], care involvement, natural supports, and community involvement [24]. ...
Article
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A better understanding of variability in the strengths of youth with psychiatric disorders is critical as a strength-based approach can lead to recovery. This study aimed to identify subgroups of strengths among youth with mental disorders and determine whether subgroups changes were associated with mental health recovery. Youth with mental disorders (N = 2228) from a statewide database were identified in the state fiscal year of 2019. Using the latent profile analysis and latent transition analysis, we identified three strength profiles (i.e., essential, usable, and buildable). Over 90% of youth sustained or developed strengths over time. Positive transitions were associated with mental health recovery, symptom reduction, and personal recovery. Buildable strengths supported youth’s personal recovery independent of improving mental health needs. The findings suggest that subgroups of strengths may be a promising source for planning and tracking youth’s progress and guiding clinicians to more efficiently allocate community-based resources.
... Participants were quota sampled based on the 2011 U.S. Census data for gender and age, meaning that the participants' socio-demographics are representative of the United States' adult population. Many researchers have used this sampling method to obtain good samples that demographically resemble the overall U.S. population (Gil de Zúñiga et al., 2017;Segrin, 2019). Qualtrics advertised our research to its panels by sending out a survey link. ...
Article
To reveal a complete picture of people’s disagreement-related experiences, we explored the relationship between encountering and expressing disagreement in the context of social media settings. We also shed light on the role of three types of emotions – anxiety, enthusiasm, and anger – in determining people’s willingness to express disagreement. Our findings show that frequently encountering disagreement is a positive predictor of expressing disagreement. Those who felt enthusiasm toward the out-party candidate expressed greater disagreement, but the extent of their expressed disagreement declined with exposure to too much disagreement. Our study shows that patterns differed greatly depending on party affiliation. We only observed the positive role of encountering disagreement and enthusiasm in facilitating disagreement expression among Democratic Party presidential candidate supporters. The study employed original two-wave national survey data collected during the 2016 U.S. presidential election.
... Having a high level of loneliness affects both physical and mental health problems (Kong & You, 2013). These problems are self-harm (Rönkä, at al., 2013), depression (Teo, Choi, & Valenstein, 2013), low self-esteem (Civitci & Civitci, 2009), low psychological and subjective well-being (Bhagchandani, 2017), low social acceptance and negative peer relations (Vanhalst et al., 2013), and weak social relations (Segrin, 2019). Having a high level of loneliness also causes one to isolate him/herself from society and experience academic failures (Benner, 2011). ...
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The aim of this study is to examine the mediating role of self-esteem in university students in association with loneliness and psychological and subjective well-being. The study consisted of 340 university students, including 118 males and 222 females. The age range of participants is between 18 and 27. Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, Flourishing Scale, Satisfaction with Life Scale and UCLA Loneliness Scale were used in the study. Results of the study showed that loneliness was significantly and negatively associated with self-esteem, psychological well-being, and subjective well-being. Self-esteem was significantly and positively related to psychological well-being and subjective well-being. In this study, compared to male students, female students tended to report greater self-esteem, psychological and subjective well-being while they reported lower loneliness. Mediation analysis revealed that loneliness was a significant and negative predictor of self-esteem, psychological and subjective well-being. Self–esteem partially mediated the association between loneliness and well-being outcomes; and it significantly and positively predicted psychological wellbeing and subjective well-being. In university students, loneliness, and self–esteem, together, accounted for 38% of the variance in psychological well-being, while subjective well-being was 25%. Researchers can conduct new research to investigate the positive aspects of university students, and psychological counsellors working in schools can work towards strengthening the positive aspects of students.
... When older people play with younger people, it could also improve intergenerational communication (Costa and Veloso, 2016) and decrease social anxiety in older people (Xu et al., 2016). Moreover, communicators could increase their interpersonal competences, such as providing emotional support, and thereby reduce their stress and loneliness (Segrin, 2019). Communicators can influence each other and learn from each other cooperatively (cf. ...
Article
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Physical inactivity and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) signify two pandemics with negative physical, mental, and economic consequences. Younger and older people have not reached the recommended physical activity level for years. Societal restrictions due to COVID-19 additionally reduce opportunities for physical activity, and they increase social isolation. Here, we outline how playing exergames with others (social exergaming) at home could foster physical and mental health and promote communication and discussions on exergaming. Accordingly, we highlight the educational and social benefits of exergaming at home and delineate the concept of Educational and Social Exergaming (EASE). We outline specific benefits and pitfalls of exergaming regarding its physical and nonphysical effects, including educational values of discussing exergaming experiences and related topics. Moreover, we discuss the relevance of practical guidelines for educational and social exergaming at home as well as prospects for future research. Overall, educational and social exergaming could alleviate several detrimental effects of both pandemics on the health and well-being of people of all ages.
... As relações humanas interpessoais, bem como a reflexão de seus movimentos e trânsito, perpassam a história da humanidade desde o contrato social e, como tal, estão no cerne da convivência em sociedade, mediando seus objetivos, como o de propiciar melhores condições de preservação e manutenção da vida, o que contempla a saúde (Russeau, 2011). Nesse sentido, as habilidades sociais (HS) ocupam importante papel, seja na promoção da saúde humana (Peixoto, Santos, Menezes, 2018), compondo um domínio da "boa saúde mental" (Fusar-Polli et al., 2020), com efeitos indiretos na saúde física (Segrin, 2019), seja nas diferentes dimensões da vida social, como nas relações ocupacionais formativas, profissionais, afetivas e familiares (Maleki et al., 2019;Forsell et al., 2019;Deming, 2017;Cardoso & Del Pratte, 2017). ...
Article
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Este estudo objetivou investigar as tendências de contribuições nacionais disponíveis sobre as habilidades sociais em periódicos científicos indexados na área de psicologia. Trata-se de revisão narrativa da literatura científica sobre o campo das habilidades sociais no Brasil realizada na base de dados Index Psi. Atenderam ao critério de seleção estabelecido 36 artigos. Entre os principais resultados, destaca-se um perfil de publicações prevalente, tendo como público-alvo prioritário as crianças e os adolescentes, e o principal instrumento de coleta de dados foi o Inventário de Habilidades Sociais Del Prette. Tiveram destaque as intervenções de apropriação do repertório de habilidades sociais em todas as fases do desenvolvimento humano, desde a infância, com especial cuidado com o sexo masculino. Conclui-se que a razoável quantidade de artigos sobre habilidades sociais está direcionada a abordagens já tradicionais na literatura, com forte influência no campo dos estudos psicológicos e educacionais em geral. O panorama evidenciado no presente estudo sugere abrir no horizonte uma extensa e importante agenda para melhor compreensão das habilidades sociais no cenário brasileiro, em relação à sua associação a temas ainda pouco investigados, a saber, da promoção da saúde no território e em categorias profissionais, do estilo e da qualidade de vida relacionados a saúde, além das ainda emergentes temáticas da espiritualidade e religiosidade.
... Пандемия COVID-19 влияет на устоявшиеся представления о социальной солидарности, поставив в зону риска основу социальности -взаимоотношения людей. Наблюдаемые ранее тенденции роста социальной изолированности и одиночества [Segrin, 2019] в сложившейся ситуации могут перейти в устойчивую характеристику современного социума. Этому может способствовать и все большая цифровизация общества и социальных отношений [Lupton, 2015]. ...
Article
A new coronavirus infection, which affected most countries in the world, besides the direct risk to the health and socio-economic well-being (stability) of the population, determined the large-scale coverage of states and societies with associated risks, including the observed transformation of social space, the increase in the phenomena of voluntary social isolation and encapsulation of part among the population, and the revision of the value of social ties. In temporal terms, the density of the observed changes in the social sentiments of society and the socio-structural characteristics of this period need both retrospective reflection and sociological analysis, as foresight analysis appears to be applicable to the current social situation. This study presents the results of a medical and sociological study (questionnaire survey), implemented during the beginning of the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic in Russia on a sample of residents of Moscow. According to the study, despite the high level of awareness of Muscovites about the immediate risk and consequences of the coronavirus infection on their health, the respondents are mainly concerned about the socio-economic consequences of the pandemic. At the same time, the ideas of the respondents about the post-pandemic world include a large-scale economic decline, a violation of the functionality of the health system, and an increase in social conflicts and social disunity in the society. The main difficulties of medical and sociological research (respondent recruitment and data collection) were determined by epidemiological conditions. The study toolkit was developed considering the main trends in the spread of infection in the country and the observed social sentiment of Russians, but the high dynamics of changes did not allow to cover a wider range of issues that became relevant for Muscovites in the self-isolation period (AprilMay), which determined the understanding of the need for a second wave of research (planned for autumn 2020).
... Пандемия COVID-19 влияет на устоявшиеся представления о социальной солидарности, поставив в зону риска основу социальности -взаимоотношения людей. Наблюдаемые ранее тенденции роста социальной изолированности и одиночества [Segrin, 2019] в сложившейся ситуации могут перейти в устойчивую характеристику современного социума. Этому может способствовать и все большая цифровизация общества и социальных отношений [Lupton, 2015]. ...
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The article results from a medical sociological survey aimed at specifics of perception of the coronavirus infection (Covid-19) problem by Moscow residents. According to the data received, the level of respondents’ awareness about measures to prevent infection, as well as commitment to their implementation is high, and most of all residents of Moscow city are concerned about rapid spread of infection, lack of effective treatment and vaccine, fear for the health of parents and eventual economic destabilization in the country. At the same time, in a situation of forced staying at home in self-isolation, respondents most often experience discomfort from price increases, reducing (losing) income, limiting personal space and broken holiday plans. The authors note that among the most serious consequences of the pandemic (vision of the “post-pandemic world”), residents of Moscow share most common expectations of a recession, a large-scale crisis in the health care system, growing social tension and risk of an “loneliness epidemic” due to the consolidation of distance social practices.
... These significant research findings suggest that lonely people are more likely to have biased and weak social skills, leading to the formation of negative self-concept. Individuals with high loneliness tend to be oversensitive toward the judgment of others, and they are likely to misinterpret the true meanings of the messages (Nowland, Robinson, Bradley, Summers, & Qualter, 2018;Riggio & Kwong, 2009;Segrin, 2017). In another perspective, it seems possible that lonely people have a higher tendency to express their aggression externally (i.e., physical or verbal manner) and internally (i.e., anger and hostility). ...
Article
Insufficient attention has been given to the integration of the mediating effect of Internet gaming disorder (IGD) symptoms on loneliness and four components of aggression—physical aggression, verbal aggression, anger, and hostility—in the Malaysian context. In the present study, 410 participants with (a) at least 1 year of Internet gaming experience and (b) between ages 20– to 39 years were recruited using the probability proportional to size sampling method. Participants were undergraduate students and working adults. Self‐reported questionnaires (the Internet Gaming Disorder Scale, University of California, Los Angeles Loneliness Scale, and the Buss‐Perry Aggression Questionnaire) were used. The present study found that loneliness positively predicted four components of aggression (i.e., anger, hostility, physical aggression, and verbal aggression) and symptoms of IGD. Relationships between loneliness and the four components of aggression were partially mediated by IGD symptoms. The present study enriches and consolidates existing empirical evidence, particularly in the Malaysian context. If the mediating effect is not emphasized, it may lead to spurious conclusions that can significantly diminish the effectiveness of interventions that are meant to manage aggression.
... Communication skills allow people to communicate productively and properly with others. However, poor communication skills is a determinant of suicide ideation and can cause loneliness and more stress in these people (30). In 2017, similar research to the current study showed poor communication skills, as a factor associated with suicidal ideation (31). ...
... An individual's ability to recognize and respond to emotional states in others is closely related to social inclusion, health, and well-being (House, Landis, & Umberson, 1988;Segrin, 2017). Basic human emotions and their facial expressions are universally recognized (Ekman & Friesen, 1976) and recognition of them has been associated with survival against threats, maintaining health, and facilitating relationships (Darwin, 1872;LeDoux, 2012). ...
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Abstract: Emotional valence may have evolutionary adaptive purposes as negative stimuli can be related to survival against threat and positive stimuli to facilitating relationships. This can be seen in the different impact positive and negative stimuli have on human health and well-being, and in the valence-specific cortical activity and neurophysiological patterns reported; for example, negative stimuli are processed more rapidly than positive. Valence-specific patterns are affected by individual differences and personality traits such as empathy, where levels of empathy relate to different reactivity patterns to valence. Here we investigated the effect of valence on neurophysiological responses and interpretation of social interactions depicted by point-light biological motion (PLBM) displays. The meaning of each PLBM display is revealed as the sequence unfolds and is therefore not readily available for snap assessments such as fight or flight responses. We compared electroencephalogram (EEG) reactivity during observation of the displays between individuals with low, moderate, or high levels of empathy. Results indicated that positive displays induced significantly larger suppression in lower beta (13–20 Hz) compared to control displays, while negative displays revealed no difference in suppression compared to scrambled versions. However, no difference between positive and negative displays was observed, suggesting that the rapid processing of negative displays may have been minimized by revealing meaning more slowly. Positive displays were interpreted more accurately, while levels of empathy did not modulate either neurophysiological responses or interpretation, suggesting that empathy under these conditions did not influence the way in which valence was processed or interpreted. Keywords: valence, sensorimotor suppression, social interactions, empathy, point-light biological motion
... Por otra parte, la percepción de autoeficacia se ha relacionado con síntomas depresivos (Santos, Kossakowski, Schwartz, Beeber y Fried, 2018), depresión postparto (Zhang y Jin, 2016), nivel de bienestar (Soysa y Wilcomb, 2015), desarrollo de estrés postraumático y depresión en veteranos de guerra (Blackburn y Owens, 2015) e ideación suicida en TP (Ramos, Delgado y Broco, 2018). La percepción de falta de habilidades sociales parece implicar mayores niveles de estrés y soledad que finalmente repercuten en una peor salud física y mental (Segrin, 2019), media la relación de victimización entre iguales y autoestima (Resnik y Bellmore, 2019) e interviene en la eficacia terapéutica en TP (Ramos, 2013). Por otro lado, los pensamientos automáticos parecen ser un mediador significativo en la relación entre depresión y comportamiento suicida (Choon et al., 2015), intervienen en la ansiedad social (Iancu, Bodner, Joubran, Lupinsky y Barenboim, 2015) y se han relacionado con una amplia variedad de síntomas como somatización, ansiedad, depresión o dificultades para conciliar el sueño en mujeres postmenopáusicas (Ertekin, Beyazit y Sahin 2018). ...
Article
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Los problemas de conceptualización de los trastornos de personalidad (TP) y su acomodo con el resto de las patologías siguen suscitando un prometedor esfuerzo investigador y clínico que va dando frutos al identificar procesos transdiagnósticos y proponer modelos heurísticos de interacción. Desde el marco de la personalidad como diátesis, estudiamos en una muestra de personas con TP grave (N = 310) el papel mediador de diversas variables en la gravedad sintomatológica. Mediante análisis de conglomerados hallamos una tipología bidimensional que divide de manera exhaustiva y exclusiva al 100% de los participantes. El análisis de mediación revela que el efecto de la personalidad como continuum unidimensional en gravedad sintomatológica está mediado por pensamientos automáticos negativos y fusión cognitiva; su efecto como tipología bidimensional (internalización y externalización) parece mediado solo por pensamientos automáticos. Se discuten los hallazgos e implicaciones de cara al nuevo paradigma de una ciencia clínica basada en procesos
... 267 Negative social experiences correlate with poorer health behaviors 268 while loneliness tends to be associated with poorer social skills. 269 Conversely, support from family, friends, or workmates may all contribute to a person making and sustaining healthy lifestyle changes. 270 Belonging to a cohesive, stable, and homogeneous community may in itself have positive health benefits (the so-called Roseto Effect 271 ), something that modernity seems to have undermined. ...
Article
Precision medicine has captured the imagination of the medical community with visions of therapies precisely targeted to the specific individual’s genetic, biological, social, and environmental profile. However, in practice it has become synonymous with genomic medicine. As such its successes have been limited, with poor predictive or clinical value for the majority of people. It adds little to lifestyle medicine, other than in establishing why a healthy lifestyle is effective in combatting chronic disease. The challenge of lifestyle medicine remains getting people to actually adopt, sustain, and naturalize a healthy lifestyle, and this will require an approach that treats the patient as a person with individual needs and providing them with suitable types of support. The future of lifestyle medicine is holistic and person-centered rather than technological.
Article
Background Numerous people have suffered adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) that can have lasting negative consequences. However, few studies have focused on maternal ACEs' effect on their children's health. This study aimed to evaluate the impact on children's health of ACEs that their mothers experienced. Methods Data from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS) 2018 combined with the CHARLS 2014 Life History Survey were analyzed. The logistic regression was used to investigate maternal ACEs' impact on their children's health. Based on the stepwise regression model and bias-corrected bootstrap, we estimated the mediating effects. Results Maternal ACEs could result in harm to the health of children (P < 0.05). If the types of maternal ACEs increased by one unit, the odds ratio of their children's poor health would rise by 9.6 %. Moreover, if the types of maternal ACEs increased by one unit, the odds ratio of daughters' and sons' poor health would increase by 8.3 % and 10.2 %, respectively. Three mediating mechanisms of mothers' education, physical health, and mental health were confirmed by empirical tests. Limitations We could not employ objective indicators to measure children's health. Meanwhile, maternal ACEs were all self-reported from the mothers' recollection, which might descend the accuracy due to memory bias. Conclusion Maternal ACEs harmed the health of both their sons and daughters. The children's health would deteriorate as the maternal ACEs increased. Mother's education, physical health, and mental health mediated the relationships between maternal ACEs and children's health.
Chapter
Das Hauptziel unserer Studie ist, den Einfluss der soziostrukturellen Merkmale und der persönlichen psychologischen Ressourcen der Schüler*innen auf ihren Gesundheitszustand zu analysieren. In der Literatur werden sowohl der soziale Hintergrund als auch die Lebenskompetenzen und die Gesundheitskompetenz als Einflussfaktoren auf das Gesundheitsverhalten und dadurch auch auf den Gesundheitszustand anerkannt. In der Längsschnittstudie „Lions Quest Erwachsen werden“, aus welcher unsere empirischen Befunde stammen, wurden neben den soziodemographischen Eigenschaften auch die Gesundheitskompetenz und fünf Lebenskompetenzen der Schüler*innen untersucht. Unsere Ergebnisse deuten auf die eigenständige Wirkung der Selbstwertschätzung, der Emotionsregulierung, der Gesundheitskompetenz sowie des Geschlechtes auf den Gesundheitszustand der Schüler*innen hin. Diese Befunde bekräftigen die Relevanz der Kompetenzverstärkung für eine erfolgreiche schulische Gesundheitsförderung.
Article
Previous studies have reported associations between low levels of social skills and the prevalence of depressive symptoms in adolescents. Although substantial quantitative research has been carried out on this association, there have been few qualitative investigations into this topic. This study explores the association of depression symptoms and social skills repertoires in adolescence qualitatively, using photo-elicitation. Eight Brazilian adolescents were divided into two groups considering the presence or absence of depression symptoms, gender and socio-economic conditions. Participants were asked to take six pictures regarding a specific question. Individual interviews about their images were conducted. Visual and textual data were analysed using Thematic Analysis and four guidance questions. Socially skilled behaviours were associated with adolescents' perceived support and considered a protective factor for depression during stressful life events. Relationships with parents and new school colleagues were the primary sources of social skills challenges. Parents’ lack of social skills seemed to be associated with adolescents’ low social skills repertories. Hobbies were found to facilitate adolescents’ engagement in social interactions. The study extends our knowledge of how adolescents experience the association of depression and social skills in their daily lives, contributing to inform adolescents' and parents' social skills training focused on decreasing adolescents’ depression symptoms. Limitations and implications for practice and suggestions for future research are discussed. A full-text access to a view-only version of this paper is available at: https://rdcu.be/cObBM
Chapter
How can academics be responsive and orientated to positive changes towards resilience? This chapter provides insight and understanding into using autoethnography and a reflexive practice approach to learn from a difficult emotional experience in response to the unexpected death of a loved one. The chapter considers how reflexive practices can enable learning from difficult emotions in a higher education context. The presentation of narratives and the discussion of findings manifest two primary issues within reflexive practices associated with difficult emotions. First, it exposes the need to provide empirical evidence of the non-linear nature of reflexive practices. Second, it discloses the overlapping parameters within the four key reflexive practices. This chapter presents the potential areas to develop within these parameters that can guide future research to develop a more detailed and in-depth investigation into reflexive learning in relation to difficult emotional experiences.
Article
The literature connecting loneliness and social media use has been variable and, at times, contradictory. Little is known about the impact of loneliness and time spent on social media, or whether one or both of these variables may influence online disinhibition overall or among the six dimensions of online disinhibition. Using the Online Disinhibition Scale, a recently established measure, and the UCLA Loneliness Scale (Version 3), we examined the association between high and low/moderate levels of loneliness and the six dimensions of online disinhibition in a sample of college students (n = 196). A one-way MANOVA was run and three of the six dimensions - Dissociative Anonymity (DA), Invisibility (IN), and Solipsistic introjection (SI) - were significantly associated with higher levels of loneliness. Additionally, we hypothesized that time spent on social media would differ for the dimensions of online disinhibition; a one-way MANOVA was run, and no significant difference was found. Data were collected during the COVID-19 pandemic, which may have impacted the results; however, this study adds to the literature on online disinhibition, loneliness, and time spent on social media.
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The understanding of shyness and social withdrawal has been built over the past half century with research looking into factors that cause this in children. However, not many mention the natural phenomenon of if children mimic social confidence from their adult figure. This study used correlation analyses to investigate the relations between parents’ behaviors and attitudes and their children’s social confidence and ability. Data were from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1986 Child and Young Adult Survey Mother Supplement. Results showed weak correlation between social confidence and outings frequency, either with family and friends or not. However, children who were spanked more frequently positively correlated with their mothers rating them to be more high strung. Furthermore, all hypotheses showed results that follow the direction of the prediction, so further investigation into the topic may show more significant correlation or a causation relationship of the variables.
Article
Grounded in sensitive interaction systems theory, this study examined whether communication competence, emerging adults’ gender, conversation initiation, and stressor appraisal moderated the association between received parental support and emerging adults’ relational satisfaction with parents when discussing a stressor. A cross-sectional, online survey (n = 338, Mage = 20.82, female: n = 190, 56.2%, males: n = 148, 45.8%) was conducted. Results indicated communication competence, more so than parental support, affected relational satisfaction but only under particular conditions. The first condition was when emerging adults initiated the stressor conversation and had lower communication competence. The second condition was when they had similar levels of communication competence as their parent and appraised the stressor as an individual stressor.
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Cuando una persona transmite de manera hábil ideas o emociones distintas a la de su interlocutor de manera efectiva se puede afirmar que posee buenas habilidades sociales (HHSS). A la vez, experimenta emociones negativas cuando no logra que las cosas sean como las que esperaba; esta violación de las expectativas se la conoce como frustración. Una alta tolerancia a la frustración y adecuadas HHSS se asociaron a un mayor bienestar psicológico. Esta investigación tuvo como objetivos evaluar diferencias sociodemográficas en las HHSS y en la intolerancia a la frustración (IF) y las relaciones entre ellas con la hipótesis que estarán inversamente correlacionadas. La muestra fue de 100 adultos argentinos. Se utilizaron la Escala de Intolerancia a la Frustración (EIF), la Escala de habilidades sociales (EHS) y un cuestionario sociodemográfico. En la EHS los participantes de nivel universitario tuvieron puntuaciones más altas que los de educación menor y los varones, puntajes mayores respecto de las mujeres en Autoexpresión. Las correlaciones significativas entre la EHHS y la EIF oscilaron entre - .44 a - .22. Un análisis de regresión tomando como variable dependiente a IF total y como independientes a las dimensiones de EHS arrojaron un r cuadrado = .29).
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The results of our study show that the respondent’s perception of large-scale social changes associated with the pandemic of the new coronavirus infection in the Kyrgyz Republic has a number of features. A sufficient level of awareness of the respondents about the symptoms of the disease, the ways of transmission of the virus, and measures to prevent the spread of infection are combined with an underestimation of the situation (17.2%). The majority (66.6%) of the respondents lived in Bishkek. The survey was held among 247 people, most of whom were women (57.3%) and young people (35.9±14.9 years). Every fourth participant in the study is a chronic tobacco smoker (24%). Less than half (47.3%) of the respondents were engaged in intellectual work. Among the respondents, the most common symptoms of COVID-19 were loss of taste or smell, fever, headache, muscle ache, cough, sore throat. Every third (28.4%) respondent was referred to an X-ray, CT scan. PCR and ELISA studies were carried out, respectively, by 22.5% and 10.9%.
Article
Objective Communication difficulties negatively impact relationship quality and are associated with social isolation and loneliness in later life. There is a need for accessible communication interventions offered outside specialty mental health settings. Design Pilot randomized controlled trial. Setting Assessments in the laboratory and intervention completed in-home. Participants Twenty adults age 60 and older from the community and a geriatric psychiatry clinic. Intervention A web-based communication coach that provides automated feedback on eye contact, facial expressivity, speaking volume, and negative content (Aging and Engaging Program, AEP), delivered with minimal assistance in the home (eight brief sessions over 4–6 weeks) or control (education and videos on communication). Measurements System Usability Scale and Social Skills Performance Assessment, an observer-rated assessment of social communication elicited through standardized role-plays. Results Ninety percent of participants completed all AEP sessions and the System Usability Scale score of 68 was above the cut-off for acceptable usability. Participants randomized to AEP demonstrated statistically and clinically significant improvement in eye contact and facial expressivity. Conclusion The AEP is acceptable and feasible for older adults with communication difficulties to complete at home and may improve eye contact and facial expressivity, warranting a larger RCT to confirm efficacy and explore potential applications to other populations, including individuals with autism and social anxiety.
Article
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a central nervous system disorder that impacts more than 400,000 people in the U.S. The disease results in multiple functional impairments that are diverse and varied across individuals. Additonally, MS has a profound impact on community participation which, like other rehabilitation outcomes, cannot be explained on the basis of functional limitations alone. The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate a model of community participation for people living with MS using the World Health Organization (WHO) International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health ( ICF ) framework. The model focused on the roles that personal factors have as predictors of community participation, while also serving as mediators and moderators for the relationship between activity limitation and participation. Results from the hierarchical regression analysis indicated that demographic characteristics (i.e. MS type), personal factors (i.e. core self-evaluations (CSE), MS self-management, resilience, and social skills), and activity limitations accounted for 64% of the variance in participation. Further, mediation analysis indicated that CSE mediated the relationship between activity limitation and community participation. Finally, moderation analysis indicated an interaction effect between educational attainment and MS self-management. Implications for future research in rehabilitation and clinical application are discussed.
Thesis
This doctoral thesis aimed to contribute to the understanding of the interpersonal relationships of adolescent learners with the various bioecological environments where they interact. It is part of the Interpersonal Relations at School scope, which began in the master’s research, which was a theoretical study. After being approved in 2015, through an upgrade process (Capes / UFPR), it became an empirical study after accepting the recommendation of the Examination board of Masters' program. The focus of the present research is the qualitative investigation of how adolescent learners understand interpersonal relationships based on human values as factors of violence prevention in school. It is based on Bronfenbrenner's (2011) Bioecological theory of human development and on the Ecological Insertion method of contextual research, which was proposed by Cecconello and Koller (2003). The participants of the research were eight teenagers, between 14 and 17 years old. They were members of the Young Apprentice Program that was held at a co-participating educational institution, in Curitiba. Data were collected through a) semi-structured interviews with open questions; b) ethnographic observations; c) demographic data on students and their families. Data analysis was performed using Bardin's (2016) Theory of Content Analysis and statistical techniques, supported by IRAMUTEQ and NVIVO software. Additionally, systematic literature reviews of the underlying and underlying theories were performed, supported by the Bibliometrix software, by Aria and Cuccurullo (2017). Firstly, the results showed that this study contributed to the understanding of the dynamics of interpersonal relationships among adolescents. More than that, the data reveal the central role of mothers in the process of development of children and adolescents. Mothers´ role was also important in the lives of family members, in a dynamic and comprehensive way. The adolescents´ responses showed the ecological validation of human values, learned in family, and the application of these values in the proximal processes, that they established throughout the vital cycle. It was widely discussed and duly substantiated in this doctoral thesis the centrality of the mother in family relationships and their effects on the lives of their children, throughout their lives. Secondly, the research indicates the urgency of public policies, which are important to foster the care, formation, and development of a culture focused on the integral development of mothers, especially in the underprivileged groups. Keywords: Education. Human Development. Family. Proximal processes. Adolescence.
Article
The COVID-19 pandemic places older adults with serious mental illness with medical comorbidity at greater risk for poor physical and mental health outcomes. Social workers can play an important role in promoting well-being by working collaboratively with clients to address loneliness and to develop chronic disease self-management skills. Integration of physical and behavioral healthcare is even more essential now for promoting well-being among older adults with schizophrenia spectrum, bipolar, and major depressive disorders.
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We have previously identified a number of “determinants” of chronic disease, using the acronym NASTIE ODOURS. These have been given the collective term “anthropogens,” in this journal and other publications, to help direct the management of modern chronic ailments to a monocausal focus, akin to that afforded infectious diseases by the “germ theory.” We suggested the acronym NASTIE ODOURS as a starting point for a taxonomy of lifestyle medicine determinants. In the current article, we add 3, less quantifiable, but currently increasingly more important psychosocial experiences to these: Lack of Meaning, Alienation, and Loss of culture, changing the previous acronym to NASTIE MAL ODOURS. As with other determinants, all have accumulating evidence of an underlying low-grade, systemic, inflammatory physiological base (“metaflammation”), but with the need for further research to solidify these findings.
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Background The influence of social relationships on morbidity is widely accepted, but the size of the risk to cardiovascular health is unclear. Objective We undertook a systematic review and meta-analysis to investigate the association between loneliness or social isolation and incident coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke. Methods Sixteen electronic databases were systematically searched for longitudinal studies set in high-income countries and published up until May 2015. Two independent reviewers screened studies for inclusion and extracted data. We assessed quality using a component approach and pooled data for analysis using random effects models. Results Of the 35 925 records retrieved, 23 papers met inclusion criteria for the narrative review. They reported data from 16 longitudinal datasets, for a total of 4628 CHD and 3002 stroke events recorded over follow-up periods ranging from 3 to 21 years. Reports of 11 CHD studies and 8 stroke studies provided data suitable for meta-analysis. Poor social relationships were associated with a 29% increase in risk of incident CHD (pooled relative risk: 1.29, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.59) and a 32% increase in risk of stroke (pooled relative risk: 1.32, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.68). Subgroup analyses did not identify any differences by gender. Conclusions Our findings suggest that deficiencies in social relationships are associated with an increased risk of developing CHD and stroke. Future studies are needed to investigate whether interventions targeting loneliness and social isolation can help to prevent two of the leading causes of death and disability in high-income countries. Study registration number CRD42014010225.
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Lonely adolescents report that they have poor social skills, but it is unknown whether this is due to an accurate perception of a social skills deficit, or a biased negative perception. This is an important distinction, as actual social skills deficits require different treatments than biased negative perceptions. In this study, we compared self-reported social skills evaluations with peer-reported social skills and meta-evaluations of social skills (i.e., adolescents’ perceptions of how they believe their classmates evaluate them). Based on the social skills view, we expected negative relations between loneliness and these three forms of social skills evaluations. Based on the bias view, we expected lonely adolescents to have more negative self- and meta-evaluations compared to peer-evaluations of social skills. Participants were 1342 adolescents (48.64 % male, Mage = 13.95, SD = .54). All classmates rated each other in a round-robin design to obtain peer-evaluations. Self- and meta-evaluations were obtained using self-reports. Data were analyzed using polynomial regression analyses and response surface modeling. The results indicated that, when self-, peer- and meta-evaluations were similar, a greater sense of loneliness was related to poorer social skills. Loneliness was also related to larger discrepancies between self- and peer-evaluations of loneliness, but not related to the direction of these discrepancies. Thus, for some lonely adolescents, loneliness may be related to an actual social skills deficit, whereas for others a biased negative perception of one’s own social skills or a mismatch with the environment may be related to their loneliness. This implies that different mechanisms may underlie loneliness, which has implications for interventions. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s10964-016-0461-y) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
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Prior research demonstrates a positive association between mental health problems and sexual risk for African American women. Using the social skills deficit hypothesis, we proposed that social skills mediate this relationship. African American women (n = 557, M age = 20.58) completed measures of depression, stress, emotional dysregulation, sexual risk behaviors, and perceptions of their social skills with their primary sexual partner. Social skills mediated the link between the mental health assessments and a composite sexual risk index. Theoretical implications of extending the social skill deficit hypothesis are discussed as well as implications for interventions.
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The development of an adequate assessment instrument is a necessary prerequisite for social psychological research on loneliness. Two studies provide methodological refinement in the measurement of loneliness. Study 1 presents a revised version of the self-report UCLA (University of California, Los Angeles) Loneliness Scale, designed to counter the possible effects of response bias in the original scale, and reports concurrent validity evidence for the revised measure. Study 2 demonstrates that although loneliness is correlated with measures of negative affect, social risk taking, and affiliative tendencies, it is nonetheless a distinct psychological experience.
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Regression methods were used to select and score 12 items from the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36) to reproduce the Physical Component Summary and Mental Component Summary scales in the general US population (n = 2,333). The resulting 12-item short-form (SF-12) achieved multiple R squares of 0.911 and 0.918 in predictions of the SF-36 Physical Component Summary and SF-36 Mental Component Summary scores, respectively. Scoring algorithms from the general population used to score 12-item versions of the two components (Physical Component Summary and Mental Component Summary) achieved R squares of 0.905 with the SF-36 Physical Component Summary and 0.938 with the SF-36 Mental Component Summary when cross-validated in the Medical Outcomes Study. Test-retest (2-week) correlations of 0.89 and 0.76 were observed for the 12-item Physical Component Summary and the 12-item Mental Component Summary, respectively, in the general US population (n = 232). Twenty cross-sectional and longitudinal tests of empirical validity previously published for the 36-item short-form scales and summary measures were replicated for the 12-item Physical Component Summary and the 12-item Mental Component Summary, including comparisons between patient groups known to differ or to change in terms of the presence and seriousness of physical and mental conditions, acute symptoms, age and aging, self-reported 1-year changes in health, and recovery from depression. In 14 validity tests involving physical criteria, relative validity estimates for the 12-item Physical Component Summary ranged from 0.43 to 0.93 (median = 0.67) in comparison with the best 36-item short-form scale. Relative validity estimates for the 12-item Mental Component Summary in 6 tests involving mental criteria ranged from 0.60 to 1.07 (median = 0.97) in relation to the best 36-item short-form scale. Average scores for the 2 summary measures, and those for most scales in the 8-scale profile based on the 12-item short-form, closely mirrored those for the 36-item short-form, although standard errors were nearly always larger for the 12-item short-form.
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Actual and perceived social isolation are both associated with increased risk for early mortality. In this meta-analytic review, our objective is to establish the overall and relative magnitude of social isolation and loneliness and to examine possible moderators. We conducted a literature search of studies (January 1980 to February 2014) using MEDLINE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Social Work Abstracts, and Google Scholar. The included studies provided quantitative data on mortality as affected by loneliness, social isolation, or living alone. Across studies in which several possible confounds were statistically controlled for, the weighted average effect sizes were as follows: social isolation odds ratio (OR) = 1.29, loneliness OR = 1.26, and living alone OR = 1.32, corresponding to an average of 29%, 26%, and 32% increased likelihood of mortality, respectively. We found no differences between measures of objective and subjective social isolation. Results remain consistent across gender, length of follow-up, and world region, but initial health status has an influence on the findings. Results also differ across participant age, with social deficits being more predictive of death in samples with an average age younger than 65 years. Overall, the influence of both objective and subjective social isolation on risk for mortality is comparable with well-established risk factors for mortality. © The Author(s) 2015.
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Among the multiple determinants of marital satisfaction, evidence points to the social skills of married couples. This study investigates the correlations between these constructs, cross-correlating data from husband and wives. A total of 406 married individuals, 188 men and 218 women, completed the Marital Satisfaction Scale, Social Skills Inventory (SSI-Del-Prette) and Marital Social Skills Inventory (MSSI-Villa & Del-Prette). The results revealed a significant correlation among the scores of the three instruments, confirming the relationship between marital satisfaction and the social skills of married couples. In the cross-correlations, three classes of marital social skills (proactive self-control, reactive self-control and expressiveness/empathy) were more strongly correlated to husbands' marital satisfaction, and husbands' three social skills (assertive conversation, selfassertiveness and expressiveness/empathy) were correlated with wives' marital satisfaction. Gender differences concerning the importance of one spouse's social skills leading to the other spouse's satisfaction are stressed as an item to be used in detailed diagnostics and effective interventions with couples. Some issues for future research are also discussed.
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Loneliness is seen as a common social experience, best understood through the mechanisms whereby actors attribute causes for their loneliness. From an attributional perspective, the effects of loneliness chronicity on relational, or communicative, competence are delineated in three hypotheses and empirically tested among dyads involved in a conversational exercise. The hypotheses are generally supported, revealing that chronically lonely people generally do not perceive themselves or others as relationally competent and are perceived as incompetent by others as well.
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This paper reports research which is the second in a series designed to examine the relationship of loneliness and communication variables. This study examined the relationships among loneliness, communication anxiety, and communicative competence. The revised PRCA (McCroskey, 1981) and the revised CAS (Duran, 1983) were used as independent variables in a series of multiple regressions. Two dimensions of the CAS (social experience and social confirmation) and one dimension of the PRCA (dyadic apprehension) were found to contribute to loneliness.
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This study integrates research on social skill and self-presentation into the recently introduced cognitive-behavioral theory of generalized problematic Internet use. The model proposed and tested here predicted that individuals who lack self-presentational skill are especially likely to prefer online social interaction over face-to-face communication. Further, the model predicted that a preference for online social interaction fosters compulsive Internet use, which results in negative outcomes. Participants in this study completed measures of social skill, preference for online social interaction, compulsive Internet use, and negative outcomes associated with Internet use. Structural equation modeling analysis techniques tested the proposed model. The analysis indicated a good fit between the hypothesized model and the current data.
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Structural equation modeling was used to test a model in which positive affect, negative affect, perceived stress, and social support were hypothesized to mediate the relationship between forgiveness and mental and physical health. Six hundred and twenty-three undergraduates completed a battery of self-report measures. Results of the analyses indicated that the forgiveness-health relation was mediated by positive affect, negative affect, stress, and the interrelationship between negative affect and stress. There was limited support for social support and the interrelationship between positive affect and social support as mediators. The results suggested that the relationship between forgiveness and health is mediated rather than direct. Implications and directions for future research are discussed.
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In three studies we investigated the utility of distinguishing among different domains of interpersonal competence in college students' peer relationships. In Study 1 we developed a questionnaire to assess five dimensions of competence: initiating relationships, self-disclosure, asserting displeasure with others' actions, providing emotional support, and managing interpersonal conflicts. Initial validation evidence was gathered. We found that self-perceptions of competence varied as a function of sex of subject, sex of interaction partner, and competence domain. In Study 2 we found moderate levels of agreement between ratings of competence by subjects and their roommates. Interpersonal competence scores were also related in predictable ways to subject and roommate reports of masculinity and femininity, social self-esteem, loneliness, and social desirability. In Study 3 we obtained ratings of subjects' competence from their close friends and new acquaintances. Relationship satisfaction among new acquaintances was predicted best by initiation competence, whereas satisfaction in friendships was most strongly related to emotional support competence. The findings provide strong evidence of the usefulness of distinguishing among domains of interpersonal competence.
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The revised UCLA Loneliness Scale (ULS-20) and a four-item short form (ULS-4) are widely used in personality research (Russell, Peplau, & Cutrona, 1980). In an exploratory factor analysis of the ULS-20, we identified eight items that loaded substantially on the first factor. These items were combined to form an alternative short-form measure, the ULS-8. The results of this study indicate that the ULS-8 is reliable, valid, and a better substitute for the ULS-20 than is the ULS-4. Consistent with the previous research, the loneliness measures (ULS-20, ULS-8, ULS-4) were strongly related to socially undesirable personality characteristics, but loneliness was uncorrelated with the six different health-related behaviors (exercise, meal regularity, alcohol use, hard drug use, smoking, and hours of sleep) assessed in this study.
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Two studies using cross-sectional designs explored four possible mechanisms by which loneliness may have deleterious effects on health: health behaviors, cardiovascular activation, cortisol levels, and sleep. In Study 1, we assessed autonomic activity, salivary cortisol levels, sleep quality, and health behaviors in 89 undergraduate students selected based on pretests to be among the top or bottom quintile in feelings of loneliness. In Study 2, we assessed blood pressure, heart rate, salivary cortisol levels, sleep quality, and health behaviors in 25 older adults whose loneliness was assessed at the time of testing at their residence. Total peripheral resistance was higher in lonely than nonlonely participants, whereas cardiac contractility, heart rate, and cardiac output were higher in nonlonely than lonely participants. Lonely individuals also reported poorer sleep than nonlonely individuals. Study 2 indicated greater age-related increases in blood pressure and poorer sleep quality in lonely than nonlonely older adults. Mean salivary cortisol levels and health behaviors did not differ between groups in either study. Results point to two potentially orthogonal predisease mechanisms that warrant special attention: cardiovascular activation and sleep dysfunction. Health behavior and cortisol regulation, however, may require more sensitive measures and large sample sizes to discern their roles in loneliness and health.
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S. M. Monroe and K. L. Harkness reviewed the empirical evidence supporting R. M. Post's kindling model, which suggests the 1st episode of depression is more likely to be preceded by major stressors than are subsequent episodes. Their review highlighted the diverse interpretations of Post's premise in the current literature and the changes in research methods that have contributed to this interpretive shift. The authors conducted a meta-analysis (N=13 studies) to test Post's premise that integrated early and recent research and examined potential moderators. A proportion difference effect size was used. Results indicated that 1st onsets of depression were more likely than recurrences to be preceded by severe life events, supporting Post's premise. The moderator analyses suggested that support may be most evident in patient samples and may vary according to age and gender, with less support for Post's premise evidenced in younger samples and in women. Although these results are preliminary, as the analysis included a small number of studies, they suggest that future research should further examine factors that influence the stress-depression relationship with successive recurrences.
Article
Background: Loneliness is highly prevalent among older people, has serious health consequences and is an important predictor of mortality. Loneliness and depression may unfavourably interact with each other over time but data on this topic are scarce. Aims: To determine whether loneliness is associated with excess mortality after 19 years of follow-up and whether the joint effect with depression confers further excess mortality. Method: Different aspects of loneliness were measured with the De Jong Gierveld scale and depression with the Centre for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale in a cohort of 2878 people aged 55-85 with 19 years of follow-up. Excess mortality hypotheses were tested with Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazard analyses controlling for potential confounders. Results: At follow-up loneliness and depression were associated with excess mortality in older men and women in bivariate analysis but not in multivariate analysis. In multivariate analysis, severe depression was associated with excess mortality in men who were lonely but not in women. Conclusions: Loneliness and depression are important predictors of early death in older adults. Severe depression has a strong association with excess mortality in older men who were lonely, indicating a lethal combination in this group.
Article
The Simulated Social Interaction Test (SSIT), a behavioral procedure for assessing anxiety and social skills, was evaluated using a generalizability approach with college students. In addition to self-report and behavioral ratings, heart rate responsivity during the SSIT was employed as an index of anxiety. For the most part, results of the generalizability analysis replicated previous findings with a psychiatric population, suggesting that the SSIT is a psychometrically sound procedure for obtaining judgments of anxiety and social skills. A moderate negative relationship was found between the ratings of anxiety and social skills, providing further support for the discriminative validity of these constructs. Finally, including a third measurement condition (physiological arousal) did not result in increased generalizability. Indeed, even when a subsample of "heart rate responders" was empirically identified, the unexplained residual variance was not decreased, suggesting a lack of convergence for different methods of measuring anxiety.
Article
The social skills deficit vulnerability model predicts that poor social skills minimize opportunities to acquire social support, in turn, leading to the proliferation of psychological distress. This prediction was tested in a 2-wave longitudinal study that assessed 211 emerging adults at Time 1 (T1), with a 70% response rate 1 year later at Time 2 (T2). The results indicated that, after controlling for psychological distress at T1, social skills at T1 had an indirect effect on lower psychological distress at T2, through higher social support. Thus, people with poor social skills may be vulnerable to the development of psychological distress because they have less access the protective effects of social support.
Article
Previous research suggests that students' social skills and achievement are interrelated, and some findings support bi-directional effects between the two constructs. The purpose of this research study was to estimate the possible longitudinal and reciprocal effects of social skills and achievement for kindergarten through eighth grade students. Data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study program were analyzed; teachers' ratings of students' social skills and students' standardized math and reading achievement performance were collected 4 and 5 times, respectively. Latent variable structural equation modeling was used to test a panel model of reciprocal, longitudinal effects of social skills and achievement. The results suggest that the effects of students' social skills and achievement are bi-directional, but the effects of students' achievement on their later social skills are stronger than the effects of social skills on achievement. The significant effects of students' social skills on their later achievement are mostly indirect. These findings suggest that the future social skills of students who struggle academically may be of particular concern to educators, and intervention and prevention efforts aimed to address both social and achievement skills may help remediate the other skill in the future.
Article
We investigated the association between old age depression and emotional and social loneliness. A cross-sectional study was performed using data from the Netherlands Study of Depression in Older Persons (NESDO). A total of 341 participants diagnosed with a depressive disorder, and 125 non-depressed participants were included. Depression diagnosis was confirmed with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Emotional and social loneliness were assessed using the De Jong Gierveld Loneliness Scale. Socio-demographic variables, social support variables, depression characteristics (Inventory of Depressive Symptoms), cognitive functioning (Mini Mental State Examination) and personality factors (the NEO- Five Factor Inventory and the Pearlin Mastery Scale) were considered as possible explanatory factors or confounders. (Multiple) logistic regression analyses were performed. Depression was strongly associated with emotional loneliness, but not with social loneliness. A higher sense of neuroticism and lower sense of mastery were the most important explanatory factors. Also, we found several other explanatory and confounding factors in the association of depression and emotional loneliness; a lower sense of extraversion and higher severity of depression. We performed a cross-sectional observational study. Therefore we cannot add evidence in regard to causation; whether depression leads to loneliness or vice versa. Depression in older persons is strongly associated with emotional loneliness but not with social loneliness. Several personality traits and the severity of depression are important in regard to the association of depression and emotional loneliness. It is important to develop interventions in which both can be treated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Article
This study developed a research model of mobile voice communication on the basis of the social skills deficit hypothesis. In the model, poor social skills were related to less face-to-face and mobile voice communication, which was linked to greater loneliness. Structural equation modeling analyses of survey responses from 374 adults supported the social skills deficit hypothesis in that poor social skills were related to less involvement in face-to-face communication and greater loneliness. Also, as expected, more face-to-face interactions were associated with lower levels of loneliness; however, more cell phone calling was associated with greater loneliness. Additional regression analyses revealed that the positive relationship between mobile voice communication and loneliness was more pronounced for those who have more friends than those who have fewer friends.
Article
This three-wave panel study sought to determine the extent to which social skills and stressful life events predict the development of psychosocial problems. At Time 1, 142 students completed a laboratory interaction and measures of social skills and depression, loneliness, and social anxiety. At Time 2 (four months later) and Time 3 (nine months later) participants again completed measures of psychosocial problems and a measure of stressful life events. Results indicated that poor social skills are causally linked, in small magnitude, to loneliness and anxiety, but less so to depression. All psychosocial problems worsened over time as a function of experiencing stressful life events. There was no evidence to suggest that social skills worsen over time as a function of experiencing depression, loneliness, or social anxiety.
Article
To examine risk and resilience factors that affect health, lifetime stress exposure histories, dispositional forgiveness levels, and mental and physical health were assessed in 148 young adults. Greater lifetime stress severity and lower levels of forgiveness each uniquely predicted worse mental and physical health. Analyses also revealed a graded Stress × Forgiveness interaction effect, wherein associations between stress and mental health were weaker for persons exhibiting more forgiveness. These data are the first to elucidate the interactive effects of cumulative stress severity and forgiveness on health, and suggest that developing a more forgiving coping style may help minimize stress-related disorders.
Article
The medical residency is recognized as a risk period for the development of burnout and mental health problems, such as anxiety and depression, which have impact on the physician and clientele alike. There is a need for studies that address conditions of risk and protection for the development of such problems. This study aimed to verify the rates of burnout, anxiety, and depression presented by resident physicians, as well as the associations of these problems with social skills, as potential protective factors. The hypothesis was defined that the problems (burnout, anxiety, and depression) would be negatively associated with social skills. A total of 305 medical residents, of both genders, of different specialties, from clinical and surgical areas of a Brazilian university hospital were evaluated using the following standardized self-report instruments: Burnout Syndrome Inventory, Social Skills Inventory, and the Patient Health Questionnaire-4. High rates of burnout and mental health problems were verified and social skills were negatively associated with burnout dimensions such as emotional exhaustion, emotional detachment, and dehumanization, but positively associated with personal accomplishment. Furthermore, residents with indicators of problems presented significantly lower social skills means than those of residents without indicators of burnout, anxiety, or depression. More studies are needed, which include other types of instruments in addition to self-report ones and evaluate not only social skills but also social competence in the professional practice. These should adopt intervention and longitudinal designs that allow the continuity or overcoming of the problems to be verified. Since social skills can be learned, the results of the study highlight the importance of developing the interpersonal skills of the professionals during the training of resident physicians in order to improve their practice.
Article
Objective: Meta-analyses have demonstrated the efficacy of various interventions for psychosis, and a small number of studies have compared such interventions. The aim of this study was to provide further insight into the relative efficacy of psychological interventions for psychosis. Method: Forty-eight outcome trials comparing psychological interventions for psychosis were identified. The comparisons included 3,295 participants. Categorization of interventions resulted in six interventions being compared against other interventions pooled. Hedges' g was calculated for all comparisons. Risk of bias was assessed using four items of the Cochrane risk of bias tool, and sensitivity analyses were conducted. Researcher allegiance was assessed, and sensitivity analyses were conducted for robust significant findings. Results: Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) was significantly more efficacious than other interventions pooled in reducing positive symptoms (g=0.16). This finding was robust in all sensitivity analyses for risk of bias but lost significance in sensitivity analyses for researcher allegiance, which suffered from low power. Social skills training was significantly more efficacious in reducing negative symptoms (g=0.27). This finding was robust in sensitivity analyses for risk of bias and researcher allegiance. Significant findings for CBT, social skills training, and cognitive remediation for overall symptoms were not robust after sensitivity analyses. CBT was significantly more efficacious when compared directly with befriending for overall symptoms (g=0.42) and supportive counseling for positive symptoms (g=0.23). Conclusions: There are small but reliable differences in efficacy between psychological interventions for psychosis, and they occur in a pattern consistent with the specific factors of particular interventions.
Article
The present study examined how social skills and interpersonal trust facilitate the support-seeking process in two different cultures, namely, those of China and the United States. Drawing from Sensitive Interactions Systems Theory and attachment theory, the current study examines the connections between social skill, interpersonal trust, the perceived appropriateness of seeking support, and the likelihood of displaying emotional distress to friends. Results indicated both similarities and differences between Americans and Chinese in terms of support seeking. Across both cultural groups, interpersonal trust was associated with appropriate help seeking, which, in turn, predicted the likelihood of showing emotional distress to friends. The two culture groups differed in terms of attenuating displays of distress (showing less than one actually feels). Among Chinese participants, attenuating displays of emotion was seen as positive and was associated with appropriateness. Among European Americans, attenuating displays of distress was negatively associated with appropriateness.
Article
This research seeks to extend previous findings concerning the relationship between entrepreneurs' social skills and new venture performance. Two potential mediators of such effects (entrepreneurs' success in obtaining information and essential resources) were investigated, and data were collected in a culture not included in previous studies (China). Results indicate that several social skills (e.g., social perception, expressiveness) are significantly related to measures of new venture performance and that these effects are indeed mediated by the two proposed mediating variables. Implications of these findings for efforts to understand how micro-level variables influence macro-level measures of new venture performance are discussed.
Article
The current population-based study of Norwegian adolescents examined gender-specific patterns in the prospective association between social skills in early adolescence (age 12.5; n = 566) and changes in depressive symptoms from early to late adolescence (age 16.5; n = 375). Further, a potential mediation effect of social support (from peers, parents, and teachers) in middle adolescence (age 14.5; n = 456) was examined. The findings indicated that low levels of social skills in early adolescence predicted increases in depressive symptoms for both girls and boys. Low levels of friend support in middle adolescence mediated this relationship for girls, but not boys. The findings underline the importance of including social skills training in primary programs designed to prevent development of depression. Preventive programs should also include actions on how girls can cope with interpersonal difficulties.
Article
Presents a review of the literature on patterns of intelligence, rigidity and age, tolerance of ambiguity, creativity, extremity ratings, and inductive vs deductive reasoning in obsessional neurosis or obsessional personality. A theory of obsessional thinking based on G. H. Kelly's theory of personality constructs is presented, and suggestions for therapy are noted. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
This study examined relationships between social-emotional skills and involvement in bullying and violence among young adolescents from ethnically diverse, economically disadvantaged urban neighborhoods. Data were from 171 sixth- and seventh-grade students involved in a larger intervention study. Analyses examined relationships between social-emotional skills measures (intrapersonal skills, stress management skills, interpersonal skills) and involvement in violence, physical bullying, and relational aggression. Of social-emotional skills indicators, interpersonal skills and stress management skills demonstrated significant bivariate relationships with each of the bullying and violence outcomes. In multivariate models, greater interpersonal skills and greater stress management skills were significantly associated with lower odds of violence involvement. Greater stress management skills were also significantly associated with lower levels of physical bullying and relational aggression. Findings suggest that efforts to foster development of young adolescents' social-emotional skills may, in turn, reduce their risk for involvement in bullying and violence.
Article
This 2-wave panel study sought to test a social skills deficit vulnerability model of psychosocial problems. According to this model, poor social skills are thought to make people vulnerable to psychosocial problems pursuant to the experience of stressful life events. This model was tested in a sample of 118 students who were moving at least 200 miles away from their home town and making the transition to their first semester of college. At the end of their high school career, participants completed measures of social skills and the following psychosocial problems: depression, loneliness, and social anxiety. Toward the end of their first semester of college, they again completed measures of the psychosocial problems and a measure of stressful life events. Results indicated that lower social skills scores at T1 were predictive of a worsening of psychosocial problems over the course of the study. Furthermore, social skills interacted with stressful life events to predict changes in depression and loneliness. In each case, those with lower social skills at T1 appeared more vulnerable to the development of psychosocial problems by T2 than those with better social skills at T1.
Article
The present study investigated the associations between social skills, friendship quality, and happiness, and tested a mediational model positing that friendship quality would mediate the relationship between social skills and happiness among American and Malaysian college students. Although American students reported significantly higher levels of psychosocial well-being than Malaysian students, the study variables were positively associated with each other in both cultures. More importantly, findings supported the proposed model in both groups. Results suggest that part of the reason why social skills are associated with positive psychological well-being is because of friendship experiences. Overall, the findings of the present study reinforce, extend and cross-culturally generalize the presumed benefits of social skills in positive well-being elaborated by Segrin and Taylor (2007). The authors also provided suggestions for future research.
Article
This study was designed to examine the role of positive relations with others as a mediator of the association between poor social skills and depression and between depression and increased perceptions of stress. To test these two models, data were collected from 179 young adults assessed three times over the course of 4 months. Sobel’s product of coefficients test and lower-level mediation modeling were used to evaluate these predictions. The results showed that positive relations with others completely mediated the negative association between social skills and depression. Social skills also moderated the positive association between depression and perceptions of stress. These findings illustrate how positive relations with others function to promote psychological well-being.
Article
This article reviews the empirical evidence of impaired social skills associated with depression. Conceptualizations of social skills are examined followed by evidence from self-report, observer-rating, and behavioral assessments of depressed people's social skills. Evidence of social skills deficits in children with depression and in people with bipolar disorder is also examined. The effectiveness of social skills training as a treatment of depression is evaluated. Three different theoretical relationships between disrupted social skills and depression are described and evaluated, including poor social skills as a cause of depression, depression as a cause of poor social skills, and poor social skills as a vulnerability factor in the development of depression. Currently, there is some evidence to support each of these conceptualizations, as the relationship between poor social skills and depression can take a variety of forms.
Article
Forty decades of sociological stress research offer five major findings. First, when stressors (negative events, chronic strains, and traumas) are measured comprehensively, their damaging impacts on physical and mental health are substantial. Second, differential exposure to stressful experiences is a primary way that gender, racial-ethnic, marital status, and social class inequalities in physical and mental health are produced. Third, minority group members are additionally harmed by discrimination stress. Fourth, stressors proliferate over the life course and across generations, widening health gaps between advantaged and disadvantaged group members. Fifth, the impacts of stressors on health and well-being are reduced when persons have high levels of mastery, self-esteem, and/or social support. With respect to policy, to help individuals cope with adversity, tried and true coping and support interventions should be more widely disseminated and employed. To address health inequalities, the structural conditions that put people at risk of stressors should be a focus of programs and policies at macro and meso levels of intervention. Programs and policies also should target children who are at lifetime risk of ill health and distress due to exposure to poverty and stressful family circumstances.
Article
Drawing upon Kreps's (1988)27. Kreps , G. L. 1988. Relational communication in health care. Southern Speech Communication Journal, 53: 344–359. [Taylor & Francis Online]View all references Relational Health Communication Competence Model (RHCCM), this study examined the effect of perceived communication competence on perceived stress and subsequently perceived job burnout. In addition, the role of social support satisfaction as a potential mediator between perceived communication competence and perceived stress was explored. The extended RHCCM was proposed and tested in a survey of 221 health care workers from three Veterans Administration hospitals in the United States. The model was tested by structural equation modeling. The results indicated support for the extended model. The implications of the findings for the extended RHCCM are discussed along with limitations of the study and directions for future research.
Article
Poor social skills and abnormal behaviors are key features of schizophrenia and comprise important aspects of social functioning. Previous studies have shown that impairment of a social cognitive capacity for mental state attribution may be predictive of poor social skills. Poor social skills also seem to be related to the presence of negative symptoms, whereas the association with other symptom domains seems less clear. The contribution of nonsocial cognition, particularly executive functioning, to functional outcome in schizophrenia, and the relationships between social and nonsocial cognition, continue to be debated. To examine the relationships of mental state attribution with social skills, neurocognition and clinical symptomatology, we pooled data from two previous independent studies into one sample of 69 patients with schizophrenia. The sample was stratified for IQ, age range, and attention deficits. We also used a novel five-factor model of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale. A combined verbal and non-verbal score of mental state attribution was the best cognitive predictor of social skills, whereas neurocognition (i.e., executive planning skills) did not mediate this effect. When measures of psychopathology were included, levels of disorganized and negative symptoms predicted large proportions of variance in social functioning. Nevertheless, mental state attribution remained the sole, significant cognitive predictor variable in the equation. In conclusion, a capacity for mental state attribution is uniquely important for social skills in schizophrenia. As such, training to target social cognitive skills, including mental state attribution, may be particularly beneficial for patients' social functioning.
Article
To examine associations between loneliness and risk of incident coronary heart disease (CHD) over a 19-year follow-up period in a community sample of men and women. Loneliness, the perceived discrepancy between actual and desired social relationships, has been linked to several adverse health outcomes. However, no previous research has prospectively examined the association between loneliness and incident CHD in a community sample of men and women. Hypotheses were examined using data from the First National Health and Nutrition Survey and its follow-up studies (n = 3003). Loneliness, assessed by one item from the Center for Epidemiologic Studies of Depression scale, and covariates were derived from baseline interviews. Incident CHD was derived from hospital records/death certificates over 19 years of follow-up. Hypotheses were evaluated, using Cox proportional hazards models. Among women, high loneliness was associated with increased risk of incident CHD (high: hazard ratio = 1.76, 95% Confidence Interval = 1.17-2.63; medium: hazard ratio = 0.98, 95% Confidence Interval = 0.64-1.49; reference: low), controlling for age, race, education, income, marital status, hypertension, diabetes, cholesterol, physical activity, smoking, alcohol use, systolic and diastolic blood pressures, and body mass index. Findings persisted additionally controlling for depressive symptoms. No significant associations were observed among men. Loneliness was prospectively associated with increased risk of incident CHD, controlling for multiple confounding factors. Loneliness among women may merit clinical attention, not only due to its impact on quality of life but also its potential implications for cardiovascular health.
Article
This paper presents evidence from three samples, two of college students and one of participants in a community smoking-cessation program, for the reliability and validity of a 14-item instrument, the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), designed to measure the degree to which situations in one's life are appraised as stressful. The PSS showed adequate reliability and, as predicted, was correlated with life-event scores, depressive and physical symptomatology, utilization of health services, social anxiety, and smoking-reduction maintenance. In all comparisons, the PSS was a better predictor of the outcome in question than were life-event scores. When compared to a depressive symptomatology scale, the PSS was found to measure a different and independently predictive construct. Additional data indicate adequate reliability and validity of a four-item version of the PSS for telephone interviews. The PSS is suggested for examining the role of nonspecific appraised stress in the etiology of disease and behavioral disorders and as an outcome measure of experienced levels of stress.
Article
Neuroendocrine function, assessed in 90 couples during their first year of marriage (Time 1), was related to marital dissolution and satisfaction 10 years later. Compared to those who remained married, epinephrine levels of divorced couples were 34% higher during a Time 1 conflict discussion, 22% higher throughout the day, and both epinephrine and norepinephrine were 16% higher at night. Among couples who were still married, Time 1 conflict ACTH levels were twice as high among women whose marriages were troubled 10 years later than among women whose marriages were untroubled. Couples whose marriages were troubled at follow-up produced 34% more norepinephrine during conflict, 24% more norepinephrine during the daytime, and 17% more during nighttime hours at Time 1 than the untroubled.
Article
Loneliness is a psychological experience related to social isolation and perceived lack of companionship, and may be relevant to health risk. The revised UCLA loneliness scale was completed by 240 working men and women aged 47-59 years, and related to affective state and neuroendocrine, cardiovascular, and inflammatory responses. Loneliness scores were not associated with gender, age or socioeconomic position, but were lower in married than single or divorced participants, and were positively related to social isolation, low emotional support, ratings of depression, hopelessness and low self-esteem, and to reported sleep problems. Diastolic blood pressure reactions to acute mental stress were positively correlated with loneliness in women but not men, independently of age, socioeconomic status, smoking, body mass and marital status (p = 0.014). Lonely individuals also displayed significantly greater fibrinogen (p = 0.038) and natural killer cell responses (p = 0.042) to stress, independently of covariates. The cortisol response over the first 30 min following waking was positively associated with loneliness after adjusting for waking cortisol value, sex, socioeconomic status, smoking, time of waking, and body mass (p = 0.046). We conclude that loneliness is a psychological experience with potentially adverse effects on biological stress processes that may be relevant to health.
Article
Chronic abdominal pain is linked with school absenteeism and diminished social competence; yet, little is know about the extent to which negative peer encounters contribute to symptoms and functioning in youth with abdominal pain. This study compared children with frequent abdominal pain with a pain-free control group on measures of overt and relational victimization and examined the link between abdominal pain and school-related functioning. Participants were 60 children with frequent abdominal pain and 60 gender- and age-matched peers. Child, peer, and teacher reports were used to assess abdominal pain, peer victimization, use of school medical services, social skills, and academic competence. Children with frequent abdominal pain experienced higher levels of victimization than their pain-free peers, with boys in the pain group rated highest in overt victimization. For children in the pain group, overt and relational victimization made incremental contributions to outcomes and moderated the link between pain- and school-related functioning. Overt and relational victimization may increase risk of concurrent adjustment problems among youth with frequent abdominal pain; thus, it may be useful to assess peer relationships when working with this population.
Article
The goal of this study was to use meta-analytic path analysis to evaluate a theoretical model of stress and health. A meta-analysis technique was adopted to combine and re-analyze 477 studies that investigated stress-related topics between January 1980 and December 2003 in Taiwan. Databases searched included PerioPath-Index to Chinese Periodical Literature, Electronic Theses and Dissertations System, and NSC (National Science Council) Science and Technology Information System. Variables recorded included stress, health, social support, coping strategies, and personality traits. A correlation matrix of these variables was derived from meta-analytic data and then analyzed using structural path analysis to test the fitness of the hypothesized stress-health model to the observed aggregated data. Results showed the revised hypothesized model to be a reasonable, good fit to aggregated data. Based on the theoretical stress-health model developed in this study, subjective stress was found to have a substantively important and direct effect on health, whereas objective stress required the mediating function of subjective stress to exercise an influence on health. Such variables as social support, coping strategies, and personality traits had comparatively weaker influences, either direct or indirect, on the stress-health process. This study provided a holistic view on the relationship between stress and health in the context of stress and proposed a direction for future research and practice.