ArticlePDF Available
September 2017 | Volume 30 | Issue 3 | Page 1
Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Research
Research Article
Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) is native plant of trop-
ical regions. It belongs to genus Ocimum which
comprises between 50 and 150 species of herbs and
shrubs (Paton et al., 1999). It is one of endemic plant
which is used not only as pharmaceutical plant but
also used as culinary herb (Naghibi et al., 2005).
Seeds of basil have been used as traditional medicine
for treatment of dyspepsia, ulcer, diarrhea and oth-
er illness. Many parts of Asia basil seeds are used to
prepare traditional beverages (sharbat) and many ice
desserts like falooda (Hosseini-Parvar et al., 2010).
Basil seeds are used as diuretic, antipyretic, antispas-
modic and stomachic (Alcicek et al., 2004). Basil
seeds are black in color and with oval shape and are
good source of ber. When seeds of basil are soaked
in water they swell up and produce gelatinous mass
because poly saccharide layer is present on outer ep-
idermis wall of seed (Azoma and Sakamoto, 2003).
Two major fractions of poly saccharides has been
reported from basil seeds, glucomannan (43%) and
(1-4)-linked xylan (24.29%) and a minor fraction of
glucan (2.31%) (Hosseini Parvar et al., 2010). Suit-
ability of basil seed gum in model system has been
reported recently (Bahram-Parvar and Razavi, 2012).
Recent epidemiological studies have strongly suggest-
ed that consumption of certain plant materials such
as seeds, leaves, fruits and roots may reduce the risk of
chronic diseases related to oxidative stress on account
of their antioxidant activity and promote general
Abstract | Basil seeds are used not only as pharmaceutical plant but also for culinary purpose. e current
study has been undertaken to develop a nutritious, healthy and value added drink. Proximate, mineral anal-
ysis, total polyphenol content and mineral analysis of basil seeds was conducted. Result revealed that basil
seeds are not only good source of ber and protein but they provide appreciable amount of minerals and phe-
nolic compounds. Swollen basil seeds were used to prepare beverage at three supplementation levels i.e. 0.2,
0.3 and 0.4%. Sensory evaluation of basil seed drink revealed that 0.3% basil seeds supplemented drink was
liked most in term of taste, texture and over all acceptability whereas 0.4% basil seeds supplemented drink
were least liked as compared to other treatments. It was concluded that basil seed could be supplemented in
dierent food products for the preparation of value added, healthy and nutritious diets.
Masooma Munir1,2*, Aqsa Qayyum1, Saeeda Raza1, Nouman Rashid Siddique1, Amer Mumtaz1, Naeem
Safdar1, Sahar Shible1, Sohaib Afzal3, Saiqa Bashir4
1Food Science and Product Development Institute, National Agricultural Research Centre, Islamabad, Pakistan; 2Institute of
Food Science and Nutrition, University of Sargodha, Sargodha, Pakistan; 3Institute of Agricultural Sciences, University of Pun-
jab, Pakistan; 4Department of Food science and Technology, University of Poonch, Rawalakot, Pakistan.
Received | June 13, 2016; Accepted | August 16, 2017; Published |----- 00, 2017
*Correspondence | Masooma Munir, National Agricultural Research Centre-Islamabad, Pakistan; Email:
Citation | Munir, M., A. Qayyum, S. Raza, N.R. Siddique, A. Mumtaz, N. Safdar, S. Shible, S. Afzal and S. Bashir. 2017. Nutritional assessment
of basil seed and its utilization in development of value added beverage. Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Research, 30(3): xxx-xxxx.
Keywords | Basil seeds, Nutritional plant seed, Poly phenols, Value addition, Beverage
Nutritional Assessment of Basil Seed and its Utilization in Develop-
ment of Value Added Beverage
Utilization basil seed in of in value added beverage
September 2017 | Volume 30 | Issue 3 | Page 2
health benets (Ramarathnam et al., 1995). Phenolic
compounds present in plant parts have been reported
to have multiple biological eects such as antioxidant
activity, antimutagenic, antitumor and antibacterial
properties (Pietta et al. 1998). Essential oil extract-
ed from basil leaves and seeds have antimicrobial and
antioxidant properties. Physical and chemical com-
position of indian and Iranian basil seeds has been
reported by Mathews et al. (1993) and Razavi et al.
(2009). Basil seeds were used as thickening and sta-
bilizing agent because of their high polysaccharide
contents or these were usually processed into essential
oil products in many studies (Rafe et al., 2012) while
information about phenolic prole of basil seeds is
limited. So phenolic content estimation of basil seeds
is necessary to nd relation of basil seed with health
promoting functions, as antioxidant capacity of phe-
nolic compounds protect the cell from free radicals
which cause damage (Zhang et al., 2013).
In recent years, due to busy life styles peoples diet
demand and pattern has been changed. ey tend to
consume delicious, readily available and aordable
foods. Intake of such foods many diseases have been
found in new generation due to low ber intake and
less nutritious components (antioxidant and miner-
als) in ready made food products (NHMRC, 2006).
Food scientists and technologists are doing eorts
to develop nutritious and healthy foods with suita-
ble sensory characteristics. Until now many research
and studies have been conducted on enrichment, sup-
plementation and value addition of food products
such as bakery, dairy and beverages (Alqahtani et al.,
2014; Caleja et al., 2015; Hajmohammadi et al., 2016;
Paquet et al., 2014; Pentikainen et al., 2014). Carbox-
ymethyl cellulose (CMC) is used in most of beverage
as stabilizer and it is obtained from drying the stem
exudates of Asiatic species of alkali-cellulose. is
hydrocolloid is suitable as stabilizers due to its some
properties such as high viscosity at low concentration,
good suspension and low cost (Arinaitwe and Pawlik,
Beverage is an excellent media to intake nutrients in-
side body, because it is consumed all over the world
to quench thrust and to meet water requirement of
body. is study was designed to assess the nutrition-
al composition of basil seeds and their utilization in
beverages so that nutritional requirement of consum-
ers can be met by economical way. Basil seeds are eas-
ily available and cheaper source of micronutrients.
Materials and Methods
Present research project was conducted at Food Sci-
ence and Product Development Institute, National
Agricultural Research Center, Islamabad. Raw ma-
terials such as basil seeds, sugar, lemons, CMC and
Citric acid were purchased from the local market of
Islamabad. Chemicals for analysis were purchased
from Sigma Aldrich (Seelze, Germany) and Lab-
Scan (Dublin, Ireland) available in the local market.
Chemical analysis of basil seed
Proximate composition such as moisture, ash, crude
fat, crude protein and crude ber of basil seeds was
determined according to the procedures given in
AOAC (2000). For moisture determination samples
were dried in oven at 130ºC for 60 minutes. For ash
determination samples were placed in mued fur-
nace at 550ºC to burn out all carbon compounds
leaving in organic part (ash). Fat was determined by
fat extraction unit by using n. Hexane. For ber deter-
mination, samples were treated with 1.25% Sulphuric
acid and Sodium Hydroxide solution. After ltration
of digested material it was washed with hot water and
then ignited. By calculating loss of weight after igni-
tion, crude ber contents were determined. Protein
contents were determined by using kjeldhal unit.
Total phenolic contents of basil seed
Total phenolic contents were measured by using
Folin–Ciocalteu colorimetric method (Singleton et
al., 1999) spectrophotometrically with some modi-
cations. Extraction of sample (5g basil seeds) was
carried out by using ethanol. One mL of 10% (v/v)
Folin–Ciocalteu reagent in distilled water was mixed
with sample extract. After 6min, 2.0 mL of a20%so-
dium carbonate solution was added. e mixture was
placed at 30 ºC for 60 min. Absorbance was deter-
mined at 765nm. Gallic acid was used as standard and
the total phenol content was expressed as mg GAE/g
of sample.
Mineral analysis of basil seeds
Mineral contents were measured by atomic absorp-
tion spectrophotometric method according to meth-
od given in AOAC (2000). Sample was ashed at 550
ºC in furnace. en digestion of dry ash was carried
out by adding 6M HCL and 0.1 MHNO3 at equal
ratio. After dilution, mineral contents were meas-
ured by using atomic absorption spectrophotometric
Utilization basil seed in of in value added beverage
September 2017 | Volume 30 | Issue 3 | Page 3
Preparation of basil seed beverage
Basil seeds were purchased from local market and
cleaned carefully to remove stones, stalks and dust.
Seed preparation was done by using modied method
based on earlier studies (Razavi et al., 2009). Seeds
were soaked in water at 50ºC for 20 min with water/
seed ratio of 50:1. Frequent stirring was done. en
by using perforated container, swollen seeds were sep-
For preparation of hydrocolloid solution 2g CMC
powder was dissolved in distilled water at 70ºC for 2
hour with continuous stirring by magnetic hot plate.
1 litter water, 140 g sugar, 2 g salt, 2mL lemon extract,
1g sodium benzoate were mixed together to prepare
beverage for all treatments. Swollen basil seeds were
added according to treatment. is mixture was pas-
teurized and hot lled in 250 mL bottles.
ºBrix and titratable acidity
e pH was determined by a digital pH meter, ºBrix
was measured by Abbe refractometer and Titratable
acidity of the sample was determined according to the
standard method of AOAC (1999).
Sensory evaluation of basil seed beverage
Sensory evaluation of basil seed drinks were evalu-
ated for sensory characteristics such as color, appear-
ance, avor, mouth feel and overall acceptability at
17±5ºC by expert panel of 20 judges (12 females and
08 males) from NARC. e evaluation was done in
sensory evaluation laboratory by a panel with normal
lights on 9-points Hedonic Scale (Land and Shep-
herd, 1988).
Statistical analysis
Results were statistically analyzed by using analysis
of variance technique (ANOVA). e dierence in
means was evaluated by the Least Signicant Design.
is analysis was done by using statistic 9.0 software
(Analytical software, Tallahassee, FL).
Result and Discussion
Proximate composition of basil seeds
Proximate composition of basil seeds in given in Table
2 Basil seeds contain 9.19% moisture, 17.32% crude
protein, 9.68% crude fat, 5.80% ash, % ber and %
Results of the present study are comparable with the
work of Razavi et al. (2009) who reported that the
chemical composition of Indian basil seeds was dif-
fered with Iranian basil seeds. ey reported that the
range of moisture content (5-9%), protein (14-20%),
fat (13-23%). ash (5-7%) and carbohydrates (47-
63%) in Indian and Iranian basil seeds. In Iranian
basil seeds protein and fat contents were signicantly
higher while moisture and ash contents were lower
than Indian seeds. Changes in proximate composi-
tion of the present study might be due to change in
soil chemistry, climate condition and dierent agri-
cultural practices (Mathews et al., 1993). Hajmoham-
madi et al. (2016) also determined the chemical com-
position of basil seeds who used swollen basil seeds
for enrichment of fruit based beverage.
Table 1: Treatment plan for 1 liter of beverage
Treatments Raw basil seed (g)
T1= Beverage with 2g basil seeds; T2= Beverage with 3g basil seeds;
T3= Beverage with 4g basil seeds
Table 2: Proximate composition of Basil seeds (% wet
Moisture 9.19±0.45
Protein 17.32±1.12
Fat 9.68±0.67
Fiber 7.11±0.39
Ash 5.80±0.11
Carbohydrates 50.9±0.35
Table 3: Total phenols(mg GAE/g) and mineral con-
tents (ppm)
Total phenols 63.78±1.75
Fe 22.74±1.01
Zn 15.81±0.93
Mg 315.53±2.15
Mn 10.11±0.87
Total phenol and mineral contents of basil seeds
Total phenolic contents in basil seeds are 63.78±1.75
mg GAE/g as shown in Table 3. Standard calibra-
tion curve for total phenols has also been shown in
Figure 1. Our ndings are dierent from previous
ndings of Shen et al. (2015), which might be due
to change in soil chemistry. Mineral contents of food
have nutritional importance as far as body physiology
Utilization basil seed in of in value added beverage
September 2017 | Volume 30 | Issue 3 | Page 4
concerned. Deciency of micronutrient is prevailing
around the world. High Mg contents may boost bone
development and strength also eective against heart
stroke. Zinc has also been linked with alleviating hy-
perglycemia in diabetics. Fe is important as part of
blood (Fallon and Enig, 2001).
Mineral contents in basil seeds have been reported
in Table 3. Basil seeds and leaves are good source of
minerals. Mg contents were found in high amount
(315.53±2.15) as compared to other determined min-
erals. Agunbiade et al. (2015) has reported mineral
contents in basil seeds and leaves. Mlitan et al. (2014)
also studied mineral contents of basil from Libya but
change in mineral concentration was observed be-
tween our and their ndings which might be due to
varietal dierences and soil chemistry.
ºBrix and acidity of basil seed drink
Titratable acidity and ºBrix of basil seed drinks have
been shown in Table 4. ere was no signicant
change in ºBrix and acidity of beverage. ese results
are in agreement with other previous studies (Jabbar
et al., 2014; Saeeduddin et al., 2015).
Table 4: ºBrix and Acidity of beverage
Treatment (T) ºBrix Acidity
T112.9±0.09 0.168±0.01
T212.7±0.05 0.160±0.03
T312.5±0.07 0.155±0.01
T1= Beverage with 2g basil seeds; T2= Beverage with 3g basil seeds;
T3= Beverage with 4g basil seeds
Figure 1: .........?
Sensory evaluation of basil seed beverage
Eect of seed ratio on sensory parameters (color, a-
vor, taste, texture and overall acceptability) of drink is
presented in Figure 2. All treatment were in accept-
able range but T2 secured high sensory scores in term
of color (7.63± 0.29), avor (7.43±0.41) taste (7.50±
0.32) texture (8.01± 0.45) and overall acceptability
(8.11±0.37) followed by T1 and T3. Reduction in de-
sirability of taste avor and texture with increase in
seed ratio was also reported by Hajmohammadi et al.
(2016). It might be due to decrease in total soluble
solids of drink because seeds had previously swollen
in water and had amounts of water inside and be-
tween them.
Figure 1: .........?
Our ndings revealed that basil seeds are good source
of micronutrients and have antioxidant potential
which is highly benecial for human health. Swol-
len basil seeds in beverage also showed good sensory
scores (T2) in beverage which shows it would be ac-
ceptable by consumers too. erefore, further studies
should be conducted about polyphenol composition
and vitamins to better understanding of nutritional
importance of basil seed.
Authors’ Contributions
Masooma Munir and Aqsa Qayyum: Executed re-
search plan. Nouman Siddique
Amer Mumtaz: ey have participated in research
Naeem Safdar: wrote abstract
Saeeda Raza: reviewed the manuscript.
Sahar Shibbli and Saiqa Bashir: Helped in drafting
the manuscript
Sohaib Afzal: Statistical analysis
e present study was supported by the Food Science
and Product Development Institute, National Agri-
Utilization basil seed in of in value added beverage
September 2017 | Volume 30 | Issue 3 | Page 5
cultural Research Center (NARC), Pakistan.
Agunbiade, S.O., M.O. Ojezele and O.O. Alao. 2015.
Evaluation of the nutritional, phytochemical
compositions and likely medicinal benets of
vernomiaamygdalina, talinumtriangulare and
ocimumbasilicum leafy-vegetables. Adv. Bio.
Res., 9: 151-155.
Alcicek, A., M. Bozkurt and M. Cabuk. 2004.
e eect of a mixture of herbal essential
oils, an organic acid or a probiotic on broiler
performance. S. Afr. J. Anim. Sci., 34: 217-222.
Alqahtani, N.K., J. Ashton, L. Katopo, E. Haque,
O.A.H. Jones and S. Kasapis. 2014. Consistency
of UHT beverages enriched with insoluble
ber during storage. J. Bioact. Carbohyd. Diet.
Fiber, 4: 84- 92.
AOAC. 1999. Ocial methods of analysis (16th
edition ed.). USA: Gaithersburg.
AOAC, 2004. Ocial method of analysis of
association of ocial Analytical chemists. 15th
ed., Washington. USA.
Arinaitwe, E., and M. Pawlik. 2014. Dilute
solution properties of Carboxymethyl celluloses
of various molecular weights and degrees of
substitution. Carbohyd. Polymers., 99: 423-431.
Aydemir, T. and S. Becerik. 2011. Phenolic content
and antioxidant activity of dierent extracts
from Ocimumbasilicum, Apiumgraveolens
and Lepidiumsativum seeds. J. Food Biochem.,
35: 62-79.
Azoma, J. and M. Sakamoto. 2003. Cellulosic
hydrocolloid system present in seed of plants.
Trends Glycosci. Glycotechnol., 15: 1-14
Bahram-Parvar, M. and S.M.A. Razavi.
2012. Rheological interactions of selected
hydrocolloids-sugar-milk-emulsier systems.
Int. J. Food Sci. Technol. 47: 854-860. https://
Caleja, C., L. Barros, A.L. Antonio Ciric, J.C.M.
Barreira and M. Sokovic. 2015. Development
of a functional dairy food: Exploring bioactive
and preservation eects of Chamomile
(Matricariarecutita L.). J. Functional Foods.,
16: 114-124.
Fallon, S.A.F. and M.G. Enig. 2001. Nourishing
Traditions 2 ed. Washington DC. New Trends
Publishing, pp: 11.
Hajmohammadi, A., J. Keramat, M. Hojjatoleslami
and H. Molavi. 2013. Evaluation eect of
enriched with oat beta-glucan on the physical
properties of sponge cake. Iran. Food Sci.
Technol. Res. J., 9: 253-259. https://doi.
Hajmohammadi, A., M. Pirouzifard, M. Shahedi
and M. Alizadeh. 2016. Enrichment of a fruit-
based beverage in dietary ber using basil
seed: Eect of Carboxymethyl cellulose and
Gum Tragacanth on stability.LWT-Food Sci.
Technol., 74: 84-91.
Hosseini-Parvar, S.H., L. Matia-Merino, K.K.T.
Goh, S.M.A. Razavi and S.A. Mortazavi. 2010.
Steady shear ow behaviour of gum extracted
from basil seed (Ocimumbasilicum L.): eect
of concentration and temperature. J. Food Eng.,
101: 236–243
Jabbar, S., M. Abid, B. Hu, M.M. Hashim, M.
Saeeduddin, S. Lei, and X. Zeng. 2014.
Inuence of sonication and high hydrostatic
pressure on the quality of carrot juice. Int. J.
Food Sci. Technol., 49: 2449-2457.
Land, D.G. and R. Shepherd. 1988. Scaling and
ranking methods. In: J.R. Piggot (ed.). Sensory
Analysis of Foods. Elsevier Applied Science,
New York, USA
Mathews, S., R.S. Singhal and P.R. Kulkarni.
1993. Ocimumbasilicum: A new non-
conventional source of ber. Food Chem.,
47: 399–401.
Mlitan, A.M., M.S. Sasi and A.M. Alkherraz. 2014.
Proximate and minor mineral content in some
selected basil leaves of Ocimumgratissimum L,
in Libya. Int. J. Chem. Eng. Appl., 5: 502.
Naghibi, F., M. Mosaddegh, S.M. Motamed
and A. Ghorbani. 2005. Labiatae family in
folk medicine in Iran: from ethnobotany to
pharmacology. Iran. J. Pharm. Res., 2: 63–79.
NHMRC (National Health and Medical
Research Council). 2006. Nutrient
reference values for Australia and New
Zealand eIncluding recommended dietary
intakes. Canberra: Australian Government
Utilization basil seed in of in value added beverage
September 2017 | Volume 30 | Issue 3 | Page 6
Publishing Service.
Paquet, E., R. Hussain, L. Bazinet, J. Makhlouf,
S. Lemieux and S.L. Turgeon. 2014. Eect of
processing treatments and storage conditions on
stability of fruit juice based beverages enriched
with dietary bers alone and in mixture with
xanthan gum. LWT Food Sci. Technol., 55: 131-
Paton, A., M.R. Harley, and M.M. Harley. 1999.
e genus Ocimum. In: R. Hiltumen, and Y.
Holm (Eds.), Basil (pp. 1e38). e Netherlands:
Harwood Academic Publishers.
Pentikainen, S., L. Karhunen, L. Flander, K. Katina,
A. Meynier and P. Aymard. 2014. Enrichment
of biscuits and juice with oat B-glucan enhances
postprandial satiety. Appetite, 75: 150-156.
Pietta, P., P. Simonetti and P. Mauri. 1998.
Antioxidant activity of selected medicinal
plants. J. Agric. Food Chem., 46: 4487–4490.
Rafe, A., S.M.A. Razavi and S. Khan. 2012.
Rheological and structural properties of
b-lactoglobulin and basil seed gum mixture:
Eect of heating rate. Food Res. Int., 49: 32–38
Ramarathnam, N., T. Osawa, H. Ochi and S.
Kawakishi. 1995. e contribution of plant food
antioxidants to human health. Trends Food Sci.
Technol., 6: 75–82.
Razavi, S., S.A. Mortazavi, L. Matia‐Merino, S.H.
Hosseini‐Parvar, A. Motamedzadegan and E.
Khanipour. 2009. Optimisation study of gum
extraction from basil seeds (Ocimumbasilicum
L.). Int. J. Food Sci. Technol., 44: 1755-
Razavi, S.M.A., S.A. Mortazavi, L. Matia-Merino,
S.H. Hosseini-Parvar, A. Motamedzadegan and
E. Khanipour. 2009. Optimization study of gum
extraction from Basil seeds (Ocimumbasilicum
L.). Int. J. Food Sci. Technol., 44: 1755–
Saeeduddin, M., M. Abid, S. Jabbar, T. Wu, M.M.
Hashim, F.N. Awad and X. Zeng. 2015. Quality
assessment of pear juice under ultrasound
and commercial pasteurization processing
conditions. LWT-Food Sci. Technol., 64: 452-
Shen, Y., W. Prinyawiwatkul P. Lotrakul and Z.
Xu. 2015. Comparison of phenolic proles
and antioxidant potentials of the leaves and
seeds of ai holy and sweet basils.Int. J. Food
Sci. Technol., 50: 1651-1657. https://doi.
Simon, J. E., M.R. Morales, W.B. Phippen, R.F.
Vieira and Z. Hao. 1999. Basil: A source of
aroma compounds and a popular culinary and
ornamental herb. In J. Janick (Ed.), Perspectives
on new crops and new uses (pp. 499-505).
Alexandria, VA: ASHS Press.
Singleton, V.L., R. Orthofer and R.M. Lamuela-
Ravento. 1999. Analysis of total phenols and
other oxidation substrates and antioxidants
by means of Folin Ciocalteu reagent. Method
Enzymol., 299: 152–178. https://doi.
Zhang, X., Y. Shen, W. Prinyawiwatkul, J.M. King
and Z. Xu. 2013. Comparison of the activities
of hydrophilic anthocyaninsand lipophilic
tocols in black rice bran against lipid oxidation.
Food Chem., 141: 111–116. https://doi.
... Basil seed is oval in shape and black in color, with mean dimensions of 3.11 ± 0.29 mm (length), 1.34 ± 0.19 mm (height), and 1.82 ± 0.26 mm (width) [98]. The mineral components of basil seeds are Fe (2.27 mg/100 g), Mn (1.01 mg/100 g), Zn (1.58 mg/100 g), Mg (31.55 mg/100 g), Na, K, and Ca [99]. Basil seed gum is the mucopolysaccharide obtained from basil seed, and it shows a fibrillar structure connected with many globules and suggests different practical usages, including as an emulsifier, a stabilizer, a fat replacer, and a thickener [100][101][102]. ...
... [ [90][91][92][93][94][95][96][97][98][99][100] The main non-essential amino acids of basil seeds are aspartic and glutamic acid. [95][96][97][98][99][100] All essential amino acids except tryptophan and S-containing types can be found in basil seeds. ...
... [ [90][91][92][93][94][95][96][97][98][99][100] The main non-essential amino acids of basil seeds are aspartic and glutamic acid. [95][96][97][98][99][100] All essential amino acids except tryptophan and S-containing types can be found in basil seeds. [90][91][92][93][94][95][96][97][98][99][100] The amino acid composition of basil seeds is aspartic acid, serine, glutamic acid, glycine, histidine, arginine, threonine, tyrosine, valine, lysine, alanine, proline, isoleucine, leucine, phenylalanine, cysteic acid, methionine sulfone, and tryptophan. ...
Full-text available
Knowledge about the pharmacological benefits of different seeds is an important factor for the cultivation and application of medicinal herbs and plants. The seeds of medicinal plants are stores of valuable and active secondary metabolites that have been commercially and economically beneficial and helpful for medicine and pharmacy. The major parameter of reproduction and the preservation of plants are seeds, which have a functional role in the distribution and establishment of plants in different regions. Five important seeds that have tremendous medicinal and pharmacological benefits are anise, basil, borage, cilantro, and chamomile. Anise seed is used as a spice, either whole or ground, and its essential oil and extract are also obtained from the seeds. Basil seeds have a long history of usage in Chinese and Ayurvedic medicine, and they are a good source of minerals, are high in fiber (including pectin), and are rich is flavonoids and other polyphenols. Borage seed oil is used for skin disorders, such as seborrheic dermatitis, atopic dermatitis, and neurodermatitis. Coriander is an annual herb that is part of the Apiaceae family, and the seeds are rich in iron, zinc, copper, and essential minerals, which can decrease bad cholesterol and improve good cholesterol in the body. Chamomile can be considered for the treatment of insomnia, hemorrhoids, anxiety, and diarrhea, and it may help with wound healing and skin irritation.
... Finally, basil seeds and other oil seeds, such as chia seeds, can vary in nutritional composition and bioactive compounds according to the agronomic management, environmental conditions, geographical location, altitude, soil properties, origin of the seeds, and degree of absorption of water, among other influences [8,30,34]. ...
... As is the case with amino acid composition, there are only a few studies concerning the mineral composition of basil seeds in the literature. Table 5 shows a comparison of the mineral compositions of O. bacilicum and O. tenuiflorum seeds according to studies by Munir et al. [34] and Ziemichód et al. [46], respectively. The results show that, according to the Dietary Reference Intake (DRI) values, basil seeds are a good source of minerals [44]. ...
... Basil seeds are used in different products for culinary, nutritional, pharmacological, and aesthetic purposes, and are common in many Asian countries, such as Iran and India. In these countries, the seeds are consumed frequently in drinks (Sharbat) and frozen desserts (Faloodeh) for aesthetic purposes and as a source of dietary fiber [10,31,34,71]. A study by Munir et al. [34] showed that a drink with up to 0.3% basil seeds had good sensory properties, such as taste, texture, and acceptability; moreover, there was an increase in the fiber and protein contents, and provided a significant amount of minerals and phenolic compounds, as compared to the control drink. ...
Full-text available
Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) is found worldwide and is used in the food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic industries; however, the nutritional and functional properties of the seeds are scarcely known. Basil seeds contain high concentrations of proteins (11.4–22.5 g/100 g), with all the essential amino acids except S-containing types and tryptophan; dietary fiber (soluble and insoluble) ranging from 7.11 to 26.2 g/100 g lipids, with linoleic (12–85.6 g/100 g) and linolenic fatty acids (0.3–75 g/100 g) comprising the highest proportions; minerals, such as calcium, potassium, and magnesium, in high amounts; and phenolic compounds, such as orientine, vicentine, and rosmarinic acid. In addition, their consumption is associated with several health benefits, such as the prevention of type-2 diabetes, cardio-protection, antioxidant and antimicrobial effects, and anti-inflammatory, antiulcer, anticoagulant, and anti-depressant properties, among others. The focus of this systematic review was to study the current state of knowledge and explore the enormous potential of basil seeds as a functional food and source of functional ingredients to be incorporated into foods.
... Iranian basil seed is oval in shape and black in color with mean dimensions of 3.11 ± 0.29 mm (length), 1.34 ± 0.19 mm (height) and 1.82 ± 0.26 mm (width) [98]. The mineral components of basil seeds are Fe (2.27 mg/100 g), Mn (1.01 mg/100g), Zn (1.58 mg/100 g), Mg (31.55 mg/100 g), Na, K and Ca [99]. Basil seed gum is the mucopolysaccharide obtained from basil seed and it shows a fibrillar structure connected with many globules and suggests different practical use as emulsifier, stabilizer, fat replacer, and thickener [100][101][102]. ...
Full-text available
Knowledge about pharmacological benefits of different seeds is an important factor for cultivation and application of medicinal herbs and plants. The seeds of medicinal plants are stores of valuable and active secondary metabolites that have been commercially and economically beneficial and helpful for medicine and pharmacy. The major parameter of reproduction and preservation of plants are also seeds which have a functional role in the distribution and establishment of plant in different regions. Five important seeds which have tremendous medicinal and pharmacological benefits are anise, basil, borage, cilantro and chamomile. Anise seed is used as a spice, either whole or ground, and its essential oil and extract are also obtained from the seeds. Basil seeds have a long history of usage in Chinese and Ayurvedic medicine, which are the good source of minerals, high in fiber including pectin, rich is flavonoids and other polyphenols. Borage seed oil is used for skin disorders such as seborrheic dermatitis, atopic dermatitis, and neurodermatitis. Cilantro is an annual herb that is part of the Apiaceae family. The seeds are rich in iron, zinc, copper and essential minerals which can decrease bad cholesterol and improves good cholesterol in the body. Chamomile can be considered for treatment of anxiety, insomnia, hemorrhoids, diarrhea and may help with wound healing and skin irritation. The keyword searches for Anise, Seed, Basil, Borage, Cilantro, Chamomile, Seed biology, Traditional medicinal science and seed anatomy were performed by using Scopus, Web of Science, PubMed and Google scholar. The aim of this article review is to survey the pharmacological and health benefits of seeds of five important medicinal plants.
... Yogurt consumers have a high intake of fiber, calcium, potassium, magnesium, potassium, vitamin A and vitamin B12 as compared to non-consumers. According to American dietary guidelines these nutrients are considered to be shortfall nutrients because these nutrients current low consumption is leading to low impact on health [13] The current study percentage of carbohydrates and protein is low as compare to [14]. Proximate mineral and polyphenol analysis of basil seed was performed by the researcher. ...
Full-text available
Abstract The study was conducted to investigate physiochemical, techno-functional, and sensory attributes of yogurt supplemented with basil seed gum. Two levels of gum as 0.5% and 1% was used to develop a product. The product was stored for 21 days at 4°C and assessed on each 3rd day for texture properties such as cohesiveness, adhesiveness and stringiness, pH, and sensory evaluation. Proximate analysis showed moisture content 10.76%, protein content 16.93%, fat content 6.93% fiber content 27.25%, ash content 4.95% and carbon content 33.18%. Basil seed gum showed water holding capacity 30.94mL/g, oil holding capacity 2.8mL/g, and solubility of 30g mass of gum in 1 liter of water with no occurrence of swelling of gum in 15mL water. pH level significantly decreased during the trial. In texture properties, cohesiveness, adhesiveness, and stringiness amount were significantly decreased throughout the trial. Overall acceptability of yogurt was improved after supplementing with basil seed gum.
... 5 Falooda seed promotes health, blood sugar, seeds of basil have been used as traditional medicine treatment of dyspsia, ulcer, diarrhea, and other illness. 6 Mustard seeds are used for treatment of inflammatory condition, cancer and cardiovascular disease. Whereas garden cress seeds used in food, cooking remedy to treat health problems used in healing fracture, accidental injuries. ...
Full-text available
p> Background: Biowaste of onion and garlic peel is remaining unexploited for their sustainable use having potential as source of organic fertilizer. The present work was intended to investigate biowaste of onion and garlic peel water extract on germination and growth of fenugreek, mustard, falooda and garden cress seeds which could resource as microgreens Methods: Germination studies in selected seeds are carried out by water extracts of onion and garlic peel. Results: As far as growth is concerned variation is observed in all seeds. Significant escalated results were observed in garlic peel extract on fenugreek seeds as compared to other seeds. However, after treatment of onion extract moderate enhancement in growth observed in falooda and garden cress seeds. It is observed that there is no significant influence of treatment on germination of all seeds. Conclusions: Onion and garlic peels biowaste can be used as a natural growth enhancer in a sustainable way for growing microgreens of fenugreek and falooda seeds whereas onion and garlic peel extracts could inhibit the growth of Mustard and garden cress seeds.</p
... mg GAE/g of total phenolic content. 2 Basilseeds are proven to have good antimicrobial, antioxidant and anticancer activities.Bioactivity of O.basilicum seeds has projected the great importance of functional foods. 3 Idli being a fermented and steamed food, contributes to wholesome meal with sufficient carbohydrates, source of protein and B-Complex vitamins 4 and has been accepted as a healthy breakfast for all ages by the different health organizations, including WHO. ...
Full-text available
The incidence of obesity and prediabetes is high, especially in the southern Indian states, Kerala and Tamilnadu, which will pave its way for other chronic metabolic diseases. The steamed rice cake or Idli, the staple diet, of South Indian population is high in glycaemic index. Despite, the diabetics from middle and high income population consume Idli for at least twice a day, for many ages. Hence, in this study, the notion of incorporating Ocimum basilicum seeds, has been considered, to ascertain if this can add value to the staple diet of major populace i.e Idli or steamed rice cake. The raw or unprocessed, roasted and steamed Ocimum basilicum seeds in a proportion of 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% of the black gram was added to the steamed rice cake batter prepared by standardised procedure and was steamed until doneness. All the variations of Ocimum basilicum seed incorporated Idlis were subjected to proximate, textural and sensory analysis.The proximate analysis results depicted that the composition of parameters viz. moisture, energy, protein, fibre and ash, of the Ocimum basilicum seed incorporated steamed rice cake showed significant difference (p<0.05) in all the variations, on comparison with control. The TPA results signify that the textural parameters of Idlis with 15% of roasted O.basilicum seeds (V7) and 20% of roasted O.basilicum seeds (V8) incorporation seem to be more acceptable. On organoleptic analysis, the mean score for overall acceptability of the 20% raw O.basilicum seeds incorporated variation and 20% roasted O.basilicum seeds incorporated variations of the steamed rice cake was maximum and showed acceptance index parallel to the control. Thus, it can be opined that the seeds of Ocimum basilicum can be used in steamed rice cake preparation as a means of value addition.
Full-text available
Medicinal plants have traditionally been used in folk medicine for their natural healing effects. It is estimated that around two-thirds of the world’s population uses traditional medicine for their primary medical needs. Basil (Ocimum basilicum) is one of the main herbal crops in the world that has shown components that can be beneficial for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases, inflammatory disorders, and decreased risk of cancer. This article presents a review of the state of the art about the basil plant and seeds from 2010 to date, with the aim of identifying the chemical composition (macronutrients-proteins, lipids, carbohydrates; volatile compounds and polyphenols) and its benefits on health based on evidence in humans, in vivo and in vitro models. Recent literature shows that basil leaves and seeds are a good source of α-linolenic fatty acids, essential oils and polyphenols with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties that would have a favorable impact on health, restoring homeostasis in various pathologies. However, to date, the molecular mechanisms involved have not been fully elucidated.
Full-text available
he genus Ocimum possesses several species of plants which are distributed throughout the tropical regions of Asia, Africa and South America. Ocimum basilicum L. is a popular culinary plant known as Tiruniruppaccai, Tiruneetruppachcilai in Tamil, Sweet basil in English, Sabzah, Babuli, Jangli Tulsi in Hindi and Faranjmusk, Firanjmishk in Urdu. The plant produces oval shaped black coloured seeds which swells up and produces a gelatinous mass when soaked in water. The seeds are used prevalently all over the world as flavouring agent in the preparation of soups, beverages (Sharbat), in making ice desserts like Falooda, etc. The seeds, apart from its culinary usage, have a long history of folklore claims, but their health effects have been tested in very few studies. Hence, the present study aimed to explore the antimicrobial property of the basil seeds against few pathogenic organisms that cause urinary tract infection (UTI) in human beings. The ethanol extract of Ocimum basilicum seeds was studied for its potency against certain UTI causing organisms namely Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus spp., Klebsiella spp., Pseudomonas spp., Proteus spp. and the yeast Candida albicans. The obtained results revealed that the seeds of Ocimum basilicum have a significant effect on most of the organisms tested and could be concluded that the seeds can be taken as herbal drug at the time of UTI by people of all age groups. The study drug also validates the claims of ancient Unani physicians about its beneficial effects on symptoms of UTI, viz. micturition, dysuria, diuresis, etc.
Selasih (Ocimum basilicum) and chia seed (Salvia hispanica L.) are plant-based sources that have a unique characteristic of being able to form a gel when hydrated because they have a poly-saccharide layer that can bind water. The purpose of this study was to characterize selasih seed, Indo-nesian indigenous basil seed, compared to chia seeds which have been widely studied. The characteri-zation leads to functional properties for health and their potential to be applied to food products including crude fiber content, water holding capacity (WHC), and emulsification ability. The value of total dietary fiber which was quite high in both seeds (48.78 to 54.07%) had potential as a source of healthy dietary fiber. The selasih seed has water holding capacity and emulsion capacity that not significantly different from chia seed. The emulsification ability of selasih seeds and chia seeds needs proving by being applied to processed food products such as bakery products and processed meat products (sausages).
Full-text available
Basil Seeds, being a healthier fat, replaces the fat content of the recipe and in turn enhances its taste, flavor, mouth feel as well as nutritive quality. In total, 4 numbers of recipes selected from different food groups were modified and standardized by incorporating Basil Seed Gum (BSG) and Basil Seed Powder (BSP) separately in different ratios. These modified recipes were evaluated by the panelists to select the most appropriate one, then standardized and later consumer feedback were noted on basis of sensory parameters. Modifications and standardization trial improved the sensorial quality gradually to acceptable level. The mean overall acceptability scores for the final standardization of mix vegetables cooked with 30% replacement of fat by using basil seed gum were 8.0, semolina dessert (30% BSG) were 9.0, chicken gravy (30% BSG) were 8.5 and chickpea lentils(30% BSG) were 8.0. While those made from BSP mix vegetables (30% BSP) got 8.7 and chicken gravy (10% BSP) got 8.4. Whereas, semolina dessert and chickpea lentils (20% BSP) secured 8.6 and 8.2, respectively. This research was performed to develop and standardize selected traditional recipes in which Basil Seed Gum and Basil Seed Powder had been incorporated as a healthy fat replacer in different ratios.
Full-text available
Due to the importance of dietary fiber intake on health, in this study, the production of fruit based beverages containing basil seeds, as a dietary fiber source, was evaluated. Basil seeds were evaluated for nutrients and were used in beverages at three levels (10, 30 and 50: 100 (Wswell basil seed/Wfruit based beverage)). Also Gum Tragacanth (GT) and Carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) were added to these samples, separately, for the suspension of the seeds. The beverages were examined over a period of 60 days, at 4 °C, by evaluating color factors (L*, a*, b*), zeta potential (Z), rheological and organoleptic properties etc. Results showed that basil seeds have a high ratio of protein and fiber, and their addition to beverage led to increase in absolute Z, but the taste satisfaction and color factors decreased. Also addition of both hydrocolloids, led to the increase of absolute Z and the development of pseudo-plastic behavior in the beverages. Samples stability and appearance improved with increasing concentrations of hydrocolloids but an increase of more than 0.25%, caused reduction in mouthfeel satisfaction. Results indicated that using basil seeds with the addition of 0.25% GT, led to the production of enriched beverage with suitable stability.
Full-text available
and exist in whorled and panicled inflorescence. The fruits of nutlets are subglose, 1.5-2mm diameter and slightly rugose. Ocimum gratissinum is popularly used in folk medicine for the treatment of upper respiratory tract infection, diarrhea, cough, fever, gonorrhea, worm infection, stomach aches, headaches, pile, pneumonia and surface wound. It is also implicated in blood coagulation, anti- inflammatory, cardiovascular and renal function properties have been observed (7). Ocimum gratissinum is a herbaceous plant which belongs to the Labiatae family. The plant is indigenous to tropical areas especially Libya and it is also in West Africa. The leaves of Ocimum gratissinum are used to prepare soups and porridge for women after delivery among the Igbos of Africa and also in the management of the baby's cord after delivery. The plant is used as food spice and for the treatment of ailments such as; malaria, diabetes, respiratory and urinary tract infections, cough, fever, diarrhea, abdominal pains, pneumonia, conjunctivitis, oral wounds and tooth infection (8), (9). In this study, therefore, the leaves from three region of Ocimum gratissinum collected from Libya was analyzed for proximate and minerals constituents with view if there are variations in these accessions and if there are, to determine the heritable and non heritable components and estimates of heritability and genetic advance expected.
Full-text available
The investigation deals with the effect of incorporating insoluble fibre in UHT treated beverages in order to improve the nutritional profile of these product concepts. A variety of insoluble fibres are used including orange fibre, kibbled wheat fibre and oat fibre, whose particle size distribution ranges an order of magnitude from 372–35 µm. The work demonstrates that the overall acceptability of UHT beverages is significantly affected by the particle size distribution and level of fibre addition varying from 0.5–5% w/w in formulations. The colour appearance of the UHT beverages is also influenced by the incorporation of insoluble fibre where preparations with wheat fibre appear darker than their counterparts. Results indicate a positive relationship between fibre characteristics and beverage consistency, with increasing concentration or size distribution in particles yielding higher steady-shear viscosity. Further, extended storage over 12 weeks at 22 °C exhibits increasing viscosity at a given concentration and type of fibre, whereas storage at 30 °C results in increasing flow, which is an interesting outcome for the commercialisation of the industrially based formulations.
The antioxidant (free radical scavenging activity, reducing power and lipid peroxidation inhibition) and antimicrobial (against bacteria and fungi) potential of Matricaria recutita L. (chamomile) extracts obtained by decoction was demonstrated. The characterization of the extracts highlighted dicaffeoyl-2,7-anhydro-3-deoxy-2-octulopyranosonic acid (diCDOA) and luteolin-O-glucuronide as the main phenolic compounds. Extracts containing these natural ingredients were incorporated into cottage cheese, and the prepared products were compared with samples incorporated with chamomile powder and plain cottage cheese (control). Nutritional composition, colour and antioxidant activity of all samples were evaluated along storage time. Chamomile decoctions (natural bioactive ingredient) did not alter significantly the nutritional and fatty acid profiles of cottage cheese, but improved its antioxidant potential, independent of the storage time. Moreover, it increased the shelf life since only the control samples showed signs of degradation after 14 days of storage. The development of this novel functional dairy product emphasizes the bioactive and preservation potential of chamomile.
Eight phenolics rosmarinic, caftaric, caffeic, chicoric, p-hydroxybenzoic, p-coumaric, protocatechuic acid and rutin were identified in Thai holy/sweet basil leaves or seeds. The overall phenolics in THBL were two, three and twenty times higher than that in TSBL, THBS and TSBS, respectively. Oppositely, the TP content of TSBL was one and a half times higher than THBL which was followed by THBS and TSBS. The order of scavenging DPPH free radical activity from high to low was THBL, TSBL, THBS and TSBS and consistent with their overall phenolics. In a cholesterol oxidation model, THBL exhibited higher antioxidant activity with lower level of 7-ketocholesterol (2.67 ± 0.31 μg/mL) than TSBL (4.49 ± 0.32), THBS (7.78 ± 1.25) or TSBS (13.10 ± 0.61). The results demonstrated that Thai holy basil has higher antioxidant capability than sweet basil and could be used as an effective bioactive ingredient to provide health-promoting function in food.
Hydrocolloids containing cellulose microfibrils having a diameter smaller than 3 nm are found to be present in the berries of mistletoe, Viscum album L., and the outer epidermis layer of basil seeds. The cellulose microfibrils in V. album are tightly coiled in a rope-like fashion with their axes perpendicular to the long axis of the cells in the viscin tissue. In the case of basil, the cellulose microfibrils are also tightly coiled in a doughnut-like fashion in the cylindrical cells present at the outer epidermis of their seeds. When the viscin tissues and cylindrical cells adsorbed water, the cellulose microfibrils became unwound to be perfectly aligned along the stretching direction. The hydrocolloids are present as a kind of cellulose-hemicellulosic polysaccharide composite. In both hydrocolloids, the presence of highly branched arabinogalactan in addition to (1,4)-linked xylan and glucomannan is noted by methylation analysis. The remainder of the glucose and mannose after partial acid hydrolysis of the hydrocolloids indicates that glucomannan type hemicellulose is closely attached to cellulose while acidic polysaccharides may act to keep cellulose-hemicellulose composite soluble in water.
Rheological properties of solutions containing different ratios and concentrations of three hydrocolloids, i.e., basil seed gum (BSG), guar gum and carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) were investigated. In addition, the effect of sucrose, skim milk powder and emulsifier, as key ice cream constituents, on the rheological properties of selected hydrocolloids was studied. Power law model was used to describe the rheological properties. Results showed that flow behaviour index of selected hydrocolloids, without any additives, was in the range of 0.501–0.789, while consistency coefficient and apparent viscosity of samples varied from 0.052 to 0.750, and 0.014 to 0.110 Pa.s, respectively. Addition of sucrose and emulsifier to hydrocolloids led to more viscous and more pseudoplastic solutions, whereas skim milk decreased viscosity and pseudoplasticity in some cases. BSG as a new source of hydrocolloid revealed promising results. Synergistic interactions between gums improved the viscosity of solutions, especially in the case of CMC and guar.
The combined effects of ultrasound (US) and high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) on enzymes, micro-organisms, colouring pigments, total polyphenols, ascorbic acid and physicochemical properties of carrot juice were investigated. Carrot juice was treated with sonication (20 kHz, 70% amplitude) and HHP (250, 350, 450 MPa) at room temperature for 10 min. For comparison, fresh carrots were water blanched (WB) at 100 °C for 4 min and carrot juice was then extracted. As results, highest improvements in colouring pigments were observed in WB and US-HHP450 treatments, which also completely inactivated micro-organisms. The highest reduction in enzymes was observed in WB treatment followed by US-HHP450. Total polyphenol contents increased significantly in US, HHP and US-HHP treatments with the highest increase in US-HHP450, but it decreased significantly in WB treatment. Ascorbic acid contents significantly decreased in WB and HHP450, while increased in US and US-HHP treatments. Results indicate that US-HHP450 treatment improves the quality of carrot juice and serves as a good alternative for blanching treatment.