Conference PaperPDF Available

Food Legumes: Diversity, Utilization and Conservation Status

Authors:
  • Forum for Rural Development and Agriculture Reform for Development, Chitwan Nepal

Abstract and Figures

Food legumes are important crops of Nepal in terms of their contribution to the dietary protein supply to human and livestock, rich source of micronutrients, role in crop diversification and intensification and maintenance of soil fertility through symbiotic nitrogen fixation. Crop residues are valuable as animal feed. About 11 percent of cultivated area in the country is occupied by grain legumes that included lentil, chickpea, grasspea, fieldpea, fababean, pigeonpea, soybean, blackgram, horsegram, ricebean, cowpea, mungbean. The family Leguminosae or Fabaceae comprises of 650 genera and 18000 species worldwide. About 100 genera and 379 species of legumes are widely distributed in varied agro-ecological zones ranging from Tarai to the alpine region of Nepal, with growth habit ranging from annual to perennial shrubs. Out of the 379 species of legumes which include grain, vegetable and forage legumes, 262 are native and 20 species belonging to sub group Papilionacae are used as food legumes. Highest food legume species diversity has been recorded in Macrotyloma (34 spp.), followed by Crotalaria (18 spp.), Vigna (15 spp.), Lathyrus (7 spp.), Vicia (6 spp.), Cajanus (5 spp.), Trigonella (5 spp.) and Phaseolus (4 spp.). Other genus having 1-3 species includes Cicer (3 spp.), Mukuna (3 spp.), Glycine (2 spp.), Canavila (2 spp.), Pisum (2 spp.), Lablab (2 spp.), Pachyrrhizus (1 sp.), Psophocarpus (1 sp.), Lens (1 sp.) and Cyamopsis (1 sp.). Research on grain legumes was initiated since 1976 and systemic collection of grain legume landraces was initiated from 1987 by Grain Legumes Research Program (GLRP). Past collection missions organized in collaboration with International Development Research Centre (IDRC), International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT), International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry areas (ICARDA) and other institutes have resulted in the collection of 1107 landraces and provided opportunity for their inclusion in variety improvement program. National Agricultural Genetic Resources Center (NAGRC) has conserved 2936 landraces of different legumes, 951 landraces have been kept in genebanks of CG centers, while GLRP Khajura and Agronomy Division Khumaltar have active collections of 218 landraces and 627 exotic germplasm of various legume crops. Varietal improvement researches have been conducted in soybean, lentil, chickpea, cowpea, blackgram, mungbean, pigeonpea, ricebean, fababean, grasspea and kidney bean. Uptill now total released, registered and denotified varieties in food legumes are 51, 6 and 2, respectively. Keywords: Agrobiodiversity, fabaceae, food legumes, grain legumes, grain Legume research program
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Conservation and Utilization of Agricultural
Plant Genetic Resources in Nepal
FDD
DoA
MoAD
2017
Photo
Proceedings of 2nd National Workshop
22-23 May 2017, Dhulikhel
Editors:
Bal Krishna Joshi
Hari Bahadur KC
Anil Kumar Acharya
NAGRC
Proceedings of 2nd National Workshop on CUAPGR, 2017
226
Food Legumes: Diversity, Utilization and Conservation Status
Ram K Neupane1, Renuka Shrestha2 and Rajendra Darai3
1FORWARD Nepal, Bharatpur Chitwan; @:rkneupane61@gmail.com; http://orcid.org/0000-0002-4167-2618
2Agronomy Division, Khumaltar; < renuka.shrestha@gmail.com>
3Grain Legumes Research Program, Khajura, Banke; <rajendra5042@yahoo.co.uk>
ABSTRACT
Food legumes are important crops of Nepal in terms of their contribution to the dietary protein supply to human and
livestock, rich source of micronutrients, role in crop diversification and intensification and maintenance of soil fertility
through symbiotic nitrogen fixation. Crop residues are valuable as animal feed. About 11 percent of cultivated area in the
country is occupied by grain legumes that included lentil, chickpea, grasspea, fieldpea, fababean, pigeonpea, soybean,
blackgram, horsegram, ricebean, cowpea, mungbean. The family Leguminosae or Fabaceae comprises of 650 genera and
18000 species worldwide. About 100 genera and 379 species of legumes are widely distributed in varied agro-ecological
zones ranging from Tarai to the alpine region of Nepal, with growth habit ranging from annual to perennial shrubs. Out of
the 379 species of legumes which include grain, vegetable and forage legumes, 262 are native and 20 species belonging to
sub group Papilionacae are used as food legumes. Highest food legume species diversity has been recorded in
Macrotyloma (34 spp.), followed by Crotalaria (18 spp.), Vigna (15 spp.), Lathyrus (7 spp.), Vicia (6 spp.), Cajanus (5 spp.),
Trigonella (5 spp.) and Phaseolus (4 spp.). Other genus having 1-3 species includes Cicer (3 spp.), Mukuna (3 spp.), Glycine
(2 spp.), Canavila (2 spp.), Pisum (2 spp.), Lablab (2 spp.), Pachyrrhizus (1 sp.), Psophocarpus (1 sp.), Lens (1 sp.) and
Cyamopsis (1 sp.). Research on grain legumes was initiated since 1976 and systemic collection of grain legume landraces
was initiated from 1987 by Grain Legumes Research Program (GLRP). Past collection missions organized in collaboration
with International Development Research Centre (IDRC), International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics
(ICRISAT), International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry areas (ICARDA) and other institutes have resulted in the
collection of 1107 landraces and provided opportunity for their inclusion in variety improvement program. National
Agricultural Genetic Resources Center (NAGRC) has conserved 2936 landraces of different legumes, 951 landraces have
been kept in genebanks of CG centers, while GLRP Khajura and Agronomy Division Khumaltar have active collections of 218
landraces and 627 exotic germplasm of various legume crops. Varietal improvement researches have been conducted in
soybean, lentil, chickpea, cowpea, blackgram, mungbean, pigeonpea, ricebean, fababean, grasspea and kidney bean. Uptill
now total released, registered and denotified varieties in food legumes are 51, 6 and 2, respectively.
Keywords: Agrobiodiversity, fabaceae, food legumes, grain legumes, grain Legume research program
INTRODUCTION
Nepal has diverse climatic variation and diverse culture. Three agro-ecological zones ie Tarai, Mid Hill and High
Hill experience a wide range of climate from tropical to temperate and arctic. The variation is mainly attributed
to immense changes in elevation from 60 to 8848 masl. The wide variation in agro-climatic condition within
short range allows a number of species of grain legumes to be grown in the country. The family Fabaceae
comprises of 650 genera and 18000 species worldwide. About 100 genera and 379 species of legumes are
widely distributed from Tarai to the alpine region of Nepal (http://www.Ffloras.org). Out of the 379 species,
262 are native and the other species are either introduced or unknown (Shrestha 1994). Twenty species under
Papilionacae subfamily are used as pulses or grain legumes (Shrestha 1994, Shrestha 1995, Regmi 1995), while
some species like Pachyrrhizus, Psophocarpus or Crotalaria are used for tubers, pods or flowers, respectively.
Legumes may include annual herb or perennial shrub or tree species that have biological nitrogen fixation and
any part of plants such as pod, seed, leaves, flower or roots are edible. Legumes plant parts are usually rich in
protein as compared to cereals. Depending upon plant parts used legumes are categorized as grain legumes or
pulses (dry seed), vegetables (leaves or flower or tender shoots or green pod or roots) or legume pasture crops
(forage or fodder). Food legumes are important crops of Nepal in terms of their contribution to the dietary
protein supply to the people and maintenance of soil fertility through symbiotic nitrogen fixation. Legume crop
residues are important constituents of livestock feed. These crops occupy 10.7% of total cultivated area of the
country. Among cultivated food legumes, lentil occupies a prominent place in terms of area and production
(Shrestha and Neupane 2016). Food legumes that are utilized as dry bean are referred as pulses. Pulse crops
such as chickpea or gram (Cicer arietinum L.), pea (Pisum sativum L.), lentil (Lens culinaris Medikus ssp.
Conservation and Utilization of Agricultural Plant Genetic
Resources in Nepal (BK Joshi, HB KC and AK Acharya, eds).
Proceedings of 2nd National Workshop, 22-23 May 2017
Dhulikhel; NAGRC, FDD, DoA and MoAD; Kathmandu, Nepal
Proceedings of 2nd National Workshop on CUAPGR, 2017
227
culinaris), grasspea or lathyrus (Lathyrus sativus L.) and fababean or broad bean (Vicia faba L.) are grown
during winter months mostly in rotation with rice in residual soil moisture, while soybean (Glycine max (L.)
Merr.), cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp., mungbean or greengram (Vigna radiata (L.) R.Wilczek),
blackgram or mash (Vigna mungo L. Hepper), pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.), horsegram or Kulthi
(Macrotyloma uniflorum (Lam.) Verdc.), common bean or rajma or rajmash (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and
ricebean (Vigna umbellata (Thunb.) Ohwi & H.Ohashi) are grown as sole crop or intercrop with maize or on
bunds during summer or spring or autumn seasons depending upon varieties and agro-ecological zones.
Although FAO defines soybean as an oil crop it is still the food crop in mountainous region where it plays an
important role in the maize based farming system and provides dietary protein to the rural people. In FAO
statistics, dry bean includes Phaseolus spp. and Vigna spp. (except cowpea) and pulses nes includes pulse
crops of minor relevance such as lablab or hyacinth bean (Lablab purpureus (L.) Sweet), sword or jackbean
(Canavalia spp.), winged bean (Psophocarpus tetragonolobus (L.) DC., guar bean (Cyamopsis tetragonolaba (L.)
Taub., yambean (Pachyrhizus erosus (L.) Urb.) etc are also being grown in Nepal. Other summer pulses of
minor importance are Lima or butter bean (Phaseolus lunatus L.); adzuki bean (Vigna angularis (Willd.) Ohwi &
H.Ohashi); scarlet runner bean (Phaseolus coccineus L.); moth bean or haricot bean (Vigna aconitifolius (Jacq.)
Marechal); tepary bean (Phaseolus acutifolius A.Gray), Kause simi or velvet bean (Stizolobium pruriens (L.)
Medik.) and other Vigna spp. (Akibode and Maredia 2011). Horsegram and ricebean are underutilized species
in Nepal (ABTRACO 2006). Food legume species and their wild relatives found in Nepal are in Table 1.
FOOD LEGUME SPECIES
Cajanus
The genus Cajanus consists of one cultivated species pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.) with chromosome
number of 2n=2x=22 along with a genome size of 845 Mbp. It is an important grain legume in drier areas of
central and mid-western Tarai, and in Mid Hills a new introduction. It covers about 5% of the total area and
production of grain legumes (MoAD 2013). This crop can be grown in wasteland, terraces and on bunds and in
agroforestry systems. It has got multiple uses as food, fuel and fodder crop and is grown for soil fertility
improvement and reducing soil degradation in sloppy land. In general, monocrop of pigeonpea is taken in dry
area of western Tarai, while bund planting is popular in central and eastern Tarai. Mixed cropping pigeonpea
with maize, sorghum or sesame is popular among farmers in the Tarai.
Wild pigeonpea species: Atylosia elongata Benth. Atylosia mollis Benth., Atylosia scarabaeoides (L.) Benth.,
Atylosia volubilis (Blanco) Gamble, Atylosia cajanifolia Haines and Atylosia Spp.; syn. Cajanus scarabaeoides (L.)
Thouars, often with tendrils intertwined with other shrubs/ grasses with bright yellow flowers and small
pubescent pods are found growing from Tarai to High Hills in wastelands and forests. Atylosia elongata Benth.,
Atylosia Scarabaeoides (L.) Benth. and Atylosia molis Benth. have been reported in forests around Kakani
(Shrestha and Shrestha 1996).
Canavalia
Two cultivated species: Canavalia ensiformis (L.) DC., and Canavalia gladiata (Jacq.) DC. have been reported in
Nepal. Both the species have a diploid 2n=2x=22 chromosomes. Seeds are edible and other plant parts are
used as fodder. The species are distributed from Mid Hills to High Hills.
Crotalaria
One species Crotalaria juncea L. known as sunhemp is grown extensively as a green manure crop. The leaves,
tender twigs and flowers are consumed as vegetables. Eighteen species of the genus have been found in Nepal
(Table 1). These are distributed from Tarai to High Hills.
Cicer
Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) is a popular winter crop of Nepal. Chickpea is a diploid with 2n=2x=16
chromosome and a genome size of approximately 750 Mbp (Arumuganathan and Earle 1991). The crop covers
about 3% of the total area and production of grain legumes (MoAD 2013). It is mostly consumed as whole seed
(boiled, roasted, parched, fried, steamed or sprouted), daal (decorticated split cotyledons boiled and mashed
to make a soup) or as daal flour (besan). Plucking of tender leaves and twigs and using as green vegetable is a
traditional practice among some communities in the Tarai. Seed is a good source of protein (18-22%),
carbohydrate (52-70%), fat (4-10%), minerals (calcium, phosphorus, iron) and vitamins. Its straw has also good
forage value. The cultivated species is divided into two distinct types Desi and Kabuli. Desi types have small
seeds with gray to brown testa or seed coat, and the flowers are pink. The Kabuli types are large white seeded,
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228
have white flowers and are more susceptible to insect pests. Two wild species Cicer microphyllum Benth. and
Cicer Jacquemontii Jaub. & Spach have been reported in the Western High Hills of Nepal.
Cyamopsis
Cluster bean (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba (L.) Taub.), commonly known as guar, is used as fodder, vegetable and
green manure. Guar is a drought resistant, hardy and deep rooted annual legume. In recent times, it has
become a major industrial crop due to the presence of galactomannan/gum present in the endosperm. Guar
gum is useful in various industries like paper, textile, pharmaceutics, food, cosmaceutics, and explosives. Guar
is a cultivated crop not found in wild conditions and hence its available landraces are the main source of
genetic variability. Guar is strictly a self pollinated diploid legume with chromosome number 2n=14 and
genome size of approximately 2.45 Giga Bases/C. Cross pollination is prevented due to the cleistogamous
nature of flowers. Thus, the heterosis available is reduced, which makes commercial hybrid seed production
difficult and non-economical. This can be overcome by production of improved varieties of guar through
molecular marker based selection and breeding programs.
Glycine
Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) has a diploid chromosome number 2n=2x=40 along with genome size 1100
Mbp. It is an important legume of Mid Hills which contribute 80% to total soybean area and production in the
country. However, soybean is becoming popular as sole crop in Tarai and Inner Tarai due to high yield
potential and high demand of soyameal in poultry industry. Seed contains 45-50% protein, 20% oil and is rich
in vitamin B, C, E and minerals. It can be used as a good supplemental food with cereal especially in the
underdeveloped country where majority population suffers from malnutrition. Soybean has a very diverse
utilization as seed is used to prepare baby food and food for diabetic patients, soyamilk, tofu, soyasauce, green
pods used as green vegetables and dry seeds roasted or fried eaten as snacks. Soybean oil is cholesterol free,
widely used for cooking and in the production of vegetable ghee. Cake and meal are utilized for preparing
various livestock and poultry feeds. Green foliage can be used as green manure and as a fodder crop. The
species Neonotonia wightii (Wight & Arn.) J.A.Lackey called Bhatamase in Nepali is grown as a fodder crop
from Tarai to the Hills.
Lablab
Lablab or hyacinth bean also called Hiunde simi or Tate simi in Nepali is an annual legume. The crop is grown
from Tarai to the High Hills in frost free season. The green pods of various size and shapes are consumed as
vegetables. Only one species Lablab purpureus (L.) Sweet, Syn. Dolichos lablab L., Dolichos purpureus L., Lablab
vulgaris (L.) Savi is reported in Nepal. It is self fertilized with 2n=22and 24 with genome size of 367 Mbp.
Fodder types are extensively grown in throughout the country in various altitudes.
Lathyrus
Grasspea (Lathyrus sativus L.) also known as Kheshari, Latara or Matara in local languages is adapted to both
drought and excess soil moisture conditions (Adhikari et al 1987). Grasspea is an important food item. Most
often it is used as daal (soup cooked with spices), atta (flour boiled in water) and satu (roasted flour mixed
with water). It is often used as adulterant to chickpea and pigeonpea daal or flour (Bharati and Neupane 1989).
The young plant is used as leafy vegetable, eaten with rice meal. They are also rolled and dried for off-season
use as a vegetable (Bharati and Neupane 1989). Plant residue is valuable fodder for livestock. Fresh biomass
yields of 5-6 t/ ha in addition to 1.8 t/ha of seed yields of local varieties have been reported (Neupane 1996).
In spite of its multiple uses, the area and production is reduced drastically primarily due to discouragement in
its consumption as Nepal government imposed a ban on marketing of grasspea since 1991/92 (NGLRP 1998).
Dietary intake of large quantities over a longer period is believed to cause neurological disorder (lathyrism)
due to the presence of neurotoxin ODAP [-(N-Oxalyl)-L-, -diamino propionic acid]. ODAP content in local
varieties is high and ranges from 0.6-0.8 %.
Grasspea is a diploid species with 2n = 14 chromosomes and genome size of approximately 8.2 Gb (Bennett
and Leitch 2012) with a great potential for expansion in dry areas or zones that are becoming more drought-
prone (Hillocks and Maruthi 2012). This species has been also recognized as a potential source of resistance to
several important diseases in legumes (Vaz Patto and Rubiales 2014). Five wild relatives of grasspea have been
reported in Nepal. Lathyrus aphaca L. (Pili matri), annual herb with yellow flower reported from Tarai is used
as fodder. Lathyrus odoratus (L.) also called sweet pea (Kerauphul in Nepali) is a wild form of lathyrus grown as
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an ornamental plant in home garden. Other species are Lathyrus pratensis L.; Lathyrus sphaericus Retz.,
Lathyrus humilis (Ser.) Spreng.
Lens
Lentil (Lens culinaris Medikus spp. culinaris), locally known as Musuro, is a major grain legume accounting for
about 62.5% of area and production of grain legumes. It is self pollinated, diploid with 2n=14 chromosomes
and genome size of ~4 Gbp. The increasing trends in area, production and productivity are due to the
availability of production technologies and its remunerative export market (small seed red lentils fetch higher
price in Bangladesh), breeding lines and technical support from international centers, area expansion in new
areas (introduction in Mid Hills and cultivation in rice fallow) and reduction in grasspea area due to ban on its
marketing 1991/92 (NGLRP 2008). Although landraces of lentil (mostly black seeded) have been grown in high
altitudes, improved varieties have been introduced in recent years in hills (5% area) where productivity is high
due to longer growing season and less diseases. Lentil daal consumption is in rise as the cooking time is the
shortest compared to other grain legumes. Lentil seed contains about 20-25% protein, and is a rich source of
Fe, Zn and vitamins. Fe and Zn content in lentil seed ranged from 64-127 mg/100g and35-88 mg/100g,
respectively (NGLRP 2006, 2008). Lentil consumption is thought to prevent Anemia (Fe deficiency) common in
young women and in children worldwide. Fe requirement vary from 0.23-0.55 mg/day in children to 0.35-
0.55mg/day in adults (FAO 2004).
Macrotyloma
Horsegram (Macrotyloma uniflorum (Lam.) Verdc. syn. Dolichos biflorus L., Dolichos uniflorus Lam.) is a diploid
with 2n=2x=20, 22, 24 chromosomes and genome size of 400 Mbp. It is called Gahat in Nepali and is an
important legume crop grown from Tarai to the Hills. In the Hills, it is grown in maize based system and in the
Tarai as a sole or a mixed crop. Soup prepared from its seeds is consumed in winter months and is traditionally
used for the removal of kidney stones. Differences in color of seed testa eg light red, brown, grey black or
mottled and seed size have been observed in landraces. The genus has 34 wild species including Desmodium
gangeticum (L.) DC. widely used as a fodder crop (http://www.Ffloras.org).
Mucuna
Mucuna pruriens (L.) DC., Syn. Mucuna cochinchinense (Lour.) A. Chev., syn. Dolichos pruriens L. called velvet
bean is an annual climbing legume. It is one of the most important medicinal plants. It is used to treat many
ailments, but is widely used for the treatment especially for Parkinson’s disease because of the presence of 3,
4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-dopa) in seed. Velvet bean pods and plant parts possess dense hairs which gives a
stinging effect on touch. It is used as fodder to animals, green manure and the seeds can be consumed after
cooking properly. Three species have been reported from Nepal (Table 1).
Pachyrrhizus
Yam bean (Pachyrhizus erosus (L.) Urb.) called Mishrikand or Kesour is grown in the central Tarai. Yam bean is a
diploid with basic chromosome number 2n=2x=22. The edible part is tuber and is eaten raw after peeling out
the skin. Yambean is particularly used during Saraswoti Pooja. The tubers have 8690% water, trace amounts
of protein and lipids. Its sweet flavor comes from the oligo fructose inulin (also called fructo-oligosaccharide)
which is a pre-biotic, is very low in saturated fat, cholesterol, and sodium. Seeds are poisonous have
insecticidal properties. In spite of its high content of carbohydrates in the form of dietary fiber, it is a neglected
crop.
Phaseolus
The genus consists of 4 species: Kidneybean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) also known as Simi, Rajma, or Frenchbean,
tepary bean (Phaseolus acutifolius A.Gray), scarlet runner bean (Phaseolus coccineus L.) and Lima bean
(Phaseolus lunatus L.). Phaseolus vulgaris L. is a diploid 2n=2x=22 with genome size of 576 Mbp. The
indeterminate long duration type of kidneybean is grown during summer in Mid/High Hills and the
determinate early maturity type is grown during winter months (post rainy) in Tarai. It is an important cash
generating legume in Jumla and adjoining hilly districts, and Mustang where mixtures of landraces with
different size and seed coat patterns are harvested and sold in the market. In Chitwan, Nawalparasi,
Makwanpur and Rupendehi districts, varieties PDR 14, Four-season, and Hetauda are popular under rice or
maize based cropping system with partial irrigation. The area under rajma is in increasing trends due to ease in
marketing and good return.
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Pisum
Field pea (Pisum sativum L.) is an important crop and can be grown successfully in Tarai (<100 m) during winter
to high mountain (3000 m) during summer months. It is also diploid 2n=2x=14 chromosomes along with a
genome size of 4685Mbp. A great variation in seed size and seed color is observed in local field pea. Green
peas are important as green vegetable. Pisum sativum ssp. arvense (L.) Asch. & Graebn. Poir called small pea is
extensively grown in Kathmandu valley in rice based system.
Psophocarpus
Winged bean (Psophocarpus tetragonolobus (L.) DC.) is legume grown for its green pods, twigs and
underground rhizome. It is a multipurpose crop being grown from Tarai to the Hills. Winged bean has a diploid
genome of 2n=2x=18 and an estimated genome size of 1.22 Gbp/C (A.N. Egan, unpublished data).
Trigonella
Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.) is an important annual legume consumed as vegetable and the
seeds as spices. Somatic chromosome numbers were observed as 2n = 14, 16, 30 and 46 and B chromosome
was also observed in somatic cells of some taxa (Martin et al 2011). Four wild species recorded in Nepal are:
Trigonella emodi Benth., Trigonella gracilis Benth., Trigonella corniculata (L.) L. and Trigonella pubescens
Baker. Fodder species of fenugreek introduced from Australia was poorly adapted in the Tarai of Mid Western
Nepal.
Vigna
Fifteen species of the genus have been recorded in Nepal (http://www.Ffloras.org). The major ones are Vigna
aconitifolius (Jacq.) Marechal, Vigna angularis (Wild.) Ohwi. & H.Ohashi, Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper, Vigna
radiata (L.) Wilczek, Vigna umbellata (Thumb.) Ohwi and Ohashi, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. and Vigna
unguiculata (L.) Walp. var. sesquipedalis (L.) H. Ohashi. Other species are growing wild in various parts of the
country.
Blackgram (Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper) is an important summer grain legume in Mid Hills. It is a diploid with
2n=2x=22 chromosomes and genome size of 574 Mbp. Blackgram produced in the hills is considered to have
better cooking quality. Landraces collected in 1998 and materials introduced from Bangladesh before 1988
were evaluated and single plant selections were made to identify/develop the best genotypes. Very recently,
materials from India have been tested at various agro-ecological zones for yield performance.
Mungbean (Vigna radiata (L.) R.Wilczek) is a diploid 2n=2x=22 chromosomes and genome size of 509Mbp. It is
a short duration (60-70 days) crop grown as rainfed crop after maize in bariland, and as irrigated crop in
lowland after wheat harvest in the Tarai and Inner Tarai. More than 75% mungbean area is mainly
concentrated in the eastern and central Tarai, where irrigation facility is available, while the remaining 25%
area is in the western Tarai and foothills. Green foliage is used as fodder and green manure. Mungbean is
considered as the most digestible among other pulses and its soup and sprout are widely used as healthy diet.
Fried mungbean is popular as snack. Large quantity of mungbean is imported from India as domestic
production is inadequate to meet the growing demand.
Ricebean (Vigna umbellata (Thumb.) Ohwi & H.Ohashi) locally known as Mashyang, Siltung, Jhilinge or Guras is
one of the neglected and underutilized summer grain legumes cultivated mainly in the hilly areas under mixed
cropping with maize with no additional inputs and care. Ricebean is known for its diverse distribution and is
adapted to a range of altitudes from the lowlands to the High Hills, and across the country from the east to the
far west. The crop has excellent food and fodder values and is grown for fodder, green manure and cover crop.
The dry seeds are eaten boiled as daal (soup) and young immature pods are consumed as vegetables (Gupta et
al 2009). It is an important food legume, particularly in the Mid Hills of Nepal, and has a pivotal role as a pulse
in supporting the food security of the rural poor people. A great variation in seed color has been observed in
landraces and research on development of high yielding short duration varieties was initiated through FOSRIN
project since 2006. Ricebean is a diploid species with 2n=2x=22 chromosomes.
Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) and Vigna unguiculata var. sesquipedalis (L.) H.Ohashi is diploid
2n=2x=22 with genome size of 576 Mbp. It is one of the important grain legumes consumed as green vegetable
or dried pulse as daal. In Mid Hills, local cowpea (Kartike bodi, Makai bodi trailing type long duration landrace)
is grown as an intercrop with maize. Short duration varieties are grown as a monocrop in the spring season or
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after rainy season in September with supplemental irrigation. Area and production are increasing every year
because of availability of dual purpose (green pods as vegetable and dried pulse) short duration varieties.
Vicia
Fababean (Vicia faba L.) or broad bean (local name Bakula) is the minor grain legume. Fababean is a diploid
2n=2x=12 chromosomes with genome size of 12797 Mbp. Large seeded type Vicia faba ssp. faba is commonly
grown in Kathmandu valley and adjoining districts as a kitchen garden vegetable, whereas small seeded Vicia
faba L. syn. Faba minor Roxb. with green or black color testa are grown as a field crop or in a home garden in
the Tarai. Large pods are consumed mostly as green vegetable and dry seed as roasted bean and small seed
usually splitted and consumed as soup. Wild species: Vicia anugustifolia L., Vicia rigidula Royle syn. Lathyrus
himalensis (Cambess.), Vicia hirsuta (L.) Gray, Vicia bakeri Ali, Vicia tetrasperma (L.) Schreb., Vicia rigidula
Royle and Vicia tenufolia Roth grow as weeds in crop and pasture lands from Tarai to the High Hill.
Table 1. Cultivated Food legume species and their wild relatives in Nepal
English name
Nepali name
Scientific name
-
-
Vigna vexillata var. angustifolia (Schum. & Thonn.) Baker
Adzuki bean
Ratomas Maslahari
Vigna angularis (Willd.) Ohwi. & H.Ohashi
Bhatmashe
Bhatmase
Neonotonia wightii (Wight & Arn.) J.A.Lockey
Blackgram
Mas
Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper
Broad bean
Bakula (sano)
Vicia faba L. var. eu faba major
Broad bean
Bakula (thulo)
Vicia faba L. var. eu faba minor
Broad beans (wild)
Rahariya simi
Vicia angustifolia L.
Broad beans (wild)
Kutuli kosa
Vicia rigidula Royle
Chickpea
Chana
Cicer arietinum L.
Cluster bean
Juppe simi
Cyamopsis tetragonoloba (L.) Taub., syn. Cyamopsis psoralioides
(Lam.) DC.
Cowpea
Bodi
Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.
Cowpea
Bodi
Vigna unguiculata var. catjang (Burm.f.) Bertoni
Cowpea
Bodi
Vigna unguiculata var. unguiculata
Fenugreek
Methi
Trigonella foenum-graecum L.
French bean, Common bean
Ghui Simi, Dal simi,
Asare simi
Phaseolus vulgaris L.
Grasspea
Khesari, Latara
Lathyrus sativus L.
Horsegram
Gahat
Macrotyloma uniflorum (Lam.) Verdc.
Jackbean
Khunde simi
Canavalia ensiformis (L.) DC.
Lablab bean
Tate simi
Lablab purpureus (L.) Sweet, syn. Dolichos lablab L.
Lathyrus pea
Kerauful
Lathyrus odoratus L.
Lentil
Musuro
Lens culinaris subsp. culinaris
Lima bean, butter bean
Simi
Phaseolus lunatus L.
Mothbean
Kulthi
Vigna aconitifolius (Jacq.) Marechal
Mungbean
Mugi
Vigna radiata (L.) R.Wilczek
Pea
Matar Kerau
Pisum sativum L.
Pea
Sanu Kerau
Pisum sativum subsp. arvense (L.) Asch. & Graebn.
Pigeonpea
Rahar
Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.
Ricebean
Mashyang, Siltung
Vigna umbellata (Thunb.) Ohwi & H.Ohashi
scarlet runner bean
Simi
Phaseolus coccineus L.
Soybean
Bhatmas
Glycine max (L.) Merr.
Sunhemp
Sanai, Chinchine
Crotalaria juncea L.
Swordbean
Tarbare simi
Canavalia gladiata (Jacq.) DC.
Tepary bean
Simi
Phaseolus acutifolius A.Gray
Velvet bean
Kause simi
Mucuna pruriens (L.) DC., syn. Mucuna cochinchinense (Lour.) A.
Chev., syn. Dolichos pruriens L., syn. Stizolobium pruriens (L.)
Medik
Velvet bean
Kause simi
Mucuna macrocarpa Wall., Mucuna nigricans (Lour.) Steud.
Vetch
Aakata (Wild
species)
Vicia hirsuta (L.) Gray
Vetch
Kutuli kosa (Wild
species)
Vicia bakeri Ali
Vetch
Munmun (Wild
species)
Vicia tetrasperma (L.) Moench
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232
English name
Nepali name
Scientific name
Vetch
Kutuli kosa (Wild
species)
Vicia rigidula Royle
Vetch
Kutuli kosa (Wild
species)
Vicia tenufolia Roth
Wild
Pili matari
Lathyrus aphaca L.
Wild
-
Lathyrus pratensis L., Lathyrus sphaericus Retz., Lathyrus humilis
(Ser.) Spreng.
Wild
Gahate ghas
Desmodium gangeticum (L.) DC.
Wild chickpea
Jungali chana
Cicer microphyllum Benth., Cicer Jacquemontii Jaub. & Spach
Wild Cowpea
Bodi
Vigna nepalensis Tateishi & Maxted
Wild Fenugreek
Methijhar
Trigonella emodii Benth., Trigonella gracilis Benth., Trigonella
corniculata (L.) L., Trigonella pubescens Baker
Wild pigeonpea
Jungali rahar
Atylosia elongata Benth., Atylosia scarabaeoides L. Benth.,
Atylosia volubilis (Blanco) Gamble, Atylosia cajanifolia Haines
Winged bean
Pate simi
Psophocarpus tetragonolobus (L.) DC.
Yambean, Potato bean
Kesour, Misrikand
Pachyrhizus erosus (L.) Urb.
Yardlong bean
Tane bodi
Vigna unguiculata var. sesquipedalis (L.) H.Ohashi
Zombi pea
-
Vigna vexillata (L.) A.Rich.
COLLECTION, CHARACTRIZATION AND EVALUATION OF GERMPLASM
Landraces of grain legumes have been grown by the people from times immemorial. However, due to the
introduction of high yielding varieties of cereals and also legumes, expansion of irrigated area, and
introduction of input responsive cereals, grain legumes have been pushed to more marginal areas and some of
the landraces are being eroded due its replacement by high yielding exotic lines or varieties. Shift in cropping
patterns and crop area among others have resulted in loss of landraces. For example, grasspea area has
decreased from 51,170 hectares in 1984/85 to 5,662 hectares in 2013/14 and valuable landraces might have
been lost.
Grain Legumes Research Program (GLRP) initiated systemic collection of germplasm in 1979 jointly with
International Crop Research Institute for the Semi-arid Tropics (ICRISAT), and collected 100 pigeonpea and 45
chickpea landraces from 16 districts of Nepal. In 1987, Nepal Agricultural Association (NAA) with funding
supports from International Development and Research Centre (IDRC), Canada collected 76 landraces of
grasspea from 18 Tarai and Inner Tarai districts (Adhikary et al 1987). Following this, Winrock International and
US Peace Corps sponsored for the collection of 43 landraces of lentil from 11 Tarai districts (Furman et al
1988). In 1995, legume germplasm collection was organized jointly by Center for Legumes in Mediterranean
Agriculture (CLIMA) and NARC, and 693 accessions of different legumes (Annex 1 and 2) were further added to
the existing germplasm (Robertson et al 1995). Landraces collected from the above collection missions were
shared with PGRU/NARC-GLRP. Then National Legumes Research Program (NGLRP) collected 90 landraces of
Phaseolus bean from Jumla and adjacent districts through Hill Agriculture Research Program (HARP) supported
project in 1999. In addition, sporadic collection of grain legume germplasm by GLRP, Agronomy Division, other
NARC centers and joint collection missions organized by Agriculture Botany Division from time to time has
contributed to the existing germplasm in the country. A total of 2,936 landraces of different legume crops have
been conserved at the Gene Bank of NAPGRC (Annex 3). GLRP Khajura and Agronomy Division Khumaltar have
active collections of 218 landraces and 627 exotic germplasm of various legume crops (Annex 4). Duplicate
samples of landraces collected during joint collection missions have been maintained at gene banks of ICRISAT,
ICARDA, AVRDC, and University of Manitoba, Canada. AVRDC has 8 genotypes of ricebean from 2000 m
altitude in Bajura district (World Vegetable Center 2007).
Characterization of Grain Legume Germplasm
The first systemic characterization of legume germplasm using IBPGR descriptors was carried in 2087/88 at
NARC research centers (Furman and Bharati 1989). Following the collection, 270 chickpea, 70 cowpea, 87
grasspea, 137 lentil, 53 mungbean, 227 pigeonpea and 30 soybean germplasm were characterized by GLRP.
Similarly, 230 soybean, 250 beans, 140 pea, 136 ricebean, 90 lentil and 171 grasspea accessions have been
characterized as per the IBPGR descriptors at NPGRC, Khumaltar (Joshi et al 2013). Neupane et al (2007)
conducted characterization of 90 common bean germplasm at ARS Jumla, and Pandey et al (2011) at RARS
Lumle. Wide variations in morphology, yield components and yield have been observed among landraces.
Suitable varieties identified through the study have been used in crop improvement program and some of the
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233
cultivars promoted in farmers’ field. Bajracharya et al (2010) conducted molecular diversity analysis of 91
ricebean landraces from Nepal and 21 from India. Similarly, DNAs of 75 accessions of beans and 50 accessions
of ricebean have been preserved at NAGRC, Khumaltar (Joshi 2017, Bajracharya et al 2010).
VARIETAL DIVERSITY
Grass pea: A wide range of variability was recorded in plant height, number of pods per plant seeds per pod
100 seed weight and grain yield in evaluation of 76 local and 17 exotic germplasm (Furman and Bharati 1989).
Local germplasm lines were found to be more adopted higher yielding and early but were having smaller seed
size than the exotic germplasm (Bharati and Neupane 1988). Landraces showed high level of ODAP content in
the seeds (Table 2). In an attempt to promote grasspea lines with low level of ODAP in seeds, low ODAP lines
19-A, 20-A, CLIMA Pink, CLIMA-2 and BARI-2 were introduced from CLIMA, Australia through the ACIAR funded
project "Lentil and lathyrus in the cropping systems of Nepal". Due to better adaptability of CLIMA Pink, 19-A
and 20-A, these were introduced in grasspea growing pockets in some districts to replace the landraces with
high level of ODAP (Neupane and Tiwari 2005). CLIMA pink has been adopted by farmers in Padharia village in
Siraha district of Nepal.
Lentil: Lentil cultivars grown in Nepal are small seeded pilosae types belonging to the subspecies Microsperma
(Bahl et al 1991) that have limited genetic variation (Erskine and Saxena 1991, Erskine et al 1998). These are
characterized by small seeds, plant parts covered with white hairs and have red cotyledons, whereas the
Macrosperma types introduced from Mediterranean region are bold seeded, have no pubescence in the
foliage, flower and mature late in south Asian environment and have yellow cotyledons. In recent years,
successful introduction of early flowering line Precoz (ILL4605) as a parent in crossing programs with
Microsperma types has led to the development of high yielding varieties in the Indian subcontinent. All
varieties released in Nepal are of Microsperma types with seed sizes ranging from small to medium (Annex 5).
Lentil varieties HUL 57, DPL 62 and PL 4 introduced through SAARC Shuttle Breeding Project on Pulses
“Breeding for the Development and Identification of High Yielding Varieties of Pulses for Sustainable
Agriculture in South Asia were promising in terms of grain yield and size (bold) (NGLRP 2012).
Kidneybean: Ninety landraces of kidney were characterized as per the IBPGR descriptor at ARS Jumla
(Neupane et al 2007). A wide range of variability was recorded in seed size, seed color and plant morphology
and as many as 18 local names were given to beans. Kharani Khairo, Mriggaula, Phokserang, Bhotesimi
Bokasimi, Gheusimi, Ratodolpaya, Piyalasimi, Kalosimi, Setosimi, Rajma, Rajmash, Simi, Motosimi, Malesimi,
Akashesimi, Hariyosimi, Lekalisimi are some of the names by which beans are known to different ethnic groups
in the area. Most of the local landraces were a mixture of different types, varying in seed size, shape, and
color. Examination of seed samples revealed that color of the seed ranged from pink, purple, ash, cream,
yellow, maroon, black, and violet, shining purple, red and different shades of the main color. Seed shape was
predominantly elliptical. Others were ovoid, round, kidney shaped, flat or square and cuboids. Kidneybean
genotypes PB0002 and PB0048 selected from landraces were high yielding and promising both for green pods
and dry seeds for growing as a rainy season crop in the mid to High Hills of Mid/Far Western Region
(FORWARD Nepal). Other landraces found promising at Jumla are KBL 2, KBL 3, KBL 3, KBL4, KBL5, and KBL6.
Blackgram: It is comparatively hardy pulse crop and is mostly grown in well drained upland Mid Hills regions of
the country after maize harvest or is intercropped in with maize. Landraces are photo period sensitive and
location specific. Much genetic variation is observed in this crop in Nepal. In some areas scented varieties have
been recorded. It is a most profitable crop for the farmer because it commands good market price. Yellow
mosaic is the major problem. In most cases, seed color is dull black. However, shiny black and shiny green
seeded blackgram is also cultivated in Nepal. Only one variety Kalu has been recommended so far. Blackgram
varieties IPU-2002-1, IPU-2002-2, NDU-1 introduced through SAARC Shuttle Breeding Project on Pulses were
promising while Bhutanese varieties: Tsirang Local Yellow and Tsirang Local Black were severely affected by
MYMV (NGLRP 2012). Other promising lines identified at GLRP were BLG0003-2-1, BLG0069-1, BLG0072-1,
BLG0076-2, BLG0061-2-2 and BLG0068-3 and BLG-0067-1 and BLG0076-1.
Table 2. Grain legume Landraces with specific traits
SN
Crop
Local name
Special traits
1
Soybean
Sathiya
Puff when roasted, brown testa color, matured in 90 days,
determinate with white flower, grown in rice bund and as intercrop
in maize
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SN
Crop
Local name
Special traits
Thulo Bhatmas
Late maturity, bold seeded and tasty
Kalo Bhatmas
Early (90 days maturity), short plant stature, black testa color, bold
seeded, seeds valuable for Hindu rituals
2
Blackgram
Chillo Chhebetar
Better consistency of Daal soup, faster cooking, tasty
Phushro mas
Better consistency of Daal soup, faster cooking, tasty
Kalo mas
Better consistency of Daal soup, faster cooking, tasty
Mugi mas, Hariyo
mas
Green seeded blackgram , grown after early rice as a relay or
sequence crop in Deukhuri valley
3
Lentil
Kalo Musuro
Tasty, good cooking quality
Local Musuro
Tasty, fast cooking, small seeds, high export potential, recognized
as Tasty, Small, Pink lentils in international market
4
Pigeonpea
Dhanusha Local
(coded as PR 5147)
Small seeds, better taste and cooking quality, Resistant to Sterility
Mosaic Virus Disease (SMD)
Rampur local
Early, multicolored, white brownish or spotted seed coat, resistant
to sterility mosaic
5
Common bean
Jumli Simi
Good taste , faster cooking, high market price, multi-colored
Asare Simi
Early maturity, semi determinate, suitable for both green pod and
dry seeds, grown in Kathmandu valley
6
Mungbean
Mugi sthaniya
(Saptari local)
Small seeds, plant architecture Pyramid shaped, tasty and fast
cooking
7
Cowpea
Kartike Bodi
Late maturing, trailing, seeds black-eyed, green-pods used as
vegetable and dry seeds as pulses
Makai Bodi
Medium maturity, grown as mixed crop with maize, used as green
pod and dry seeds
8
Grasspea
Latara or Matara or
Khesari
Blue/violet flowered crop grown in the Tarai/Inner Tarai under
relay cropping with rice. Seeds used as pulses and straw as fodder
to the livestock. Seeds contain high levels of neuro toxin ODAP
9
Horsegram
Ghode Gahat
Bold mottled seed coat, Daal tasty, grown in Ramechhap district
Mungbean: Mungbean area is very much concentrated in the eastern part of the country. It is mostly grown in
the rice wheat system where irrigation facilities are available. It is sown in March-April and harvested before
the unset of monsoon rains. One or two picking are done and then the crop is residue is incorporated into the
soil as green manure. Three varieties have been recommended cultivation. Mungbean varieties such as HUM
12, IPM 16, HUM 12 and HUM 1 introduced through SAARC Shuttle Breeding Project performed better in
terms of grain yield and seed size as compared to Saptari local (NGLRP 2012). Other promising lines identified
are: NIMB-101, VC6173A and VC 6368(46-40-4), Bari Mung and VC-6173 (B-10). BARI Mung and HUM-16
identified as having stable in yield, synchronous and early maturity, bold and shining seeds and tolerant to
mungbean yellow mosaic virus.
Soybean: In evaluation of soybean at Rampur, high diversity found in seed coat color of the soybean landraces.
Out of thirty three accessions, thirteen had black seed coat color; two had buff, one grey, three imperfect
black, two reddish brown, eight yellow and remaining four had yellowish white seed coat color. Flower color
and patterns were also found diverse among accessions. Out of the thirty three local landraces, twenty one
had white flower color, four had purple throats, and three had purple flower. Five landraces had trailing type,
typical little leaves like wild type along with purple flower colors. This study indicated the presence of high
levels of genetic variability among the soybean accessions. Cluster analysis using seven morphological traits
grouped 101 soybean accessions collected from National Agricultural Genetic Resources Centre (Genebank)
and exotic lines from IITA, Nigeria into five major groups at the genetic distance of 267.82, and 84 landraces
were grouped into cluster I. Cluster analysis has facilitated for the selection of parents having distant
relationship to obtain greater heterosis. Out of the eight varieties released so far, one variety Hill has been
denotified (Annex 5).
Pigeonpea: Pigeonpea is the third most important legume crop in Nepal. It is mostly grown under upland
conditions as a sole crop or mixed crop with maize and on paddy bunds. Pigeonpea on bunds is popular in the
eastern part of the country, whereas it is grown as sole crop in the western part as mixed crop in the Mid Hills
and Tarai. Long duration varieties are popular in the western part of the country whereas medium duration
varieties and post rainy season are popular in the eastern part. Apart from release of two varieties from the
landraces, dual purpose (vegetable and seed) variety ICP7035 is at the final stage of registration/release.
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Breeding lines developed from crosses at Nepalgunj are: NP-02-3-10, NP02-4-17, NPJ-08-1-1, NPJ-08-2-6 and
NPJ-08-4-6.
Chickpea: Chickpea is grown on relatively heavier soils under rice-chickpea and maize-chickpea cropping
system and also as a mixed crop with linseed, barley and rape seed mustard. Eight varieties consisting of seven
Desi and one Kabuli type have been released so far. Crossing program is in place for development of high
yielding, Botrytis gray mold (BGM) and wilt tolerant varieties.
Ricebean: Ricebean is self-pollinated crop but natural out crossing has been reported by various authors. It is
highly photosensitive short-day crop so its cultivation is restricted to rainy season in Hills. However,
indeterminate cultivars when sown in August showed determinate growth habit. A great variation in seed
color has been observed in landraces. A total of 218 ricebean accessions were collected from different
districts of the country in early 1970’s. High yielding accessions identified are LRGR 91, LRGR 111, NPGR
05364 and NPGR 00008 (NGLRP 2010).
UTILIZATION OF LANDRACES IN VARIETY IMPROVEMENT PROGRAM
Following the principles of conservation through utilization, efforts have been made to utilize landraces in
variety improvement program through official release of the variety directly or as a parent in the crossing
program to transfer desirable traits of landraces to high yielding genotypes or lines. NARC has released
pigeonpea varieties Bageshwori and RampurRahar-1, chickpea varieties Trishul and Dhanush, lentil variety
Sindur, asparagus bean (Vigna unguiculata var. sesquipedalis) varieties Khumal Tane and Sarlahi Tane from
landraces (Upadhyay 1999). Apart from high yields, pigeonpea variety Bageshwori, a selection from landrace
from Dhanusha district is resistant to sterility mosaic virus disease (SMD) and it has been used as a source of
resistance in crop improvement program (ICRISAT 2007). In the context of increasing demand of vegetable
soybean, crossing program has been initiated at Agronomy Division Khumaltar. Derivatives of cross between
the landrace Kalo Bhatmas and Tarkari Bhatmas 1, a selection from Huichin #2 are in the advanced stage of
testing under sole cropping and intercropping with maize (Agronomy Division 2015). Black lentil, a landrace
from Rasuwa district has been selected by GLRP for release/registration. In pigeonpea, Dhanusha Local and
Atylosia scarabaeoides (L.) Benth., a wild relative, have been used in a crossing program with adapted varieties
ICPL 99089, ICP 7035 and Bahar -1. Derivatives of the crosses are in the advanced stage of evaluation.
However, due to the multiplicity of grain legumes species and the inadequacy of scientific manpower at NARC,
efforts towards utilization of landraces in variety improvement program has been far from satisfactory and
import of elite lines or segregating population from CG centres has got priority in the Grain Legume Research
Program. To address the issue, collaborative crop breeding program with CG centres has been initiated
wherein suitable crosses for Nepali environment are made in CG Centres and the advanced lines and
segregating materials brought to Nepal for local selection and advancing as a variety.
SOCIO-CULTURAL USE OF LEGUMES
A number of legume crops have special socio-cultural and religious significance in the Nepali community
(Annex 6). In this context, blackgram, black seeded soybean, horsegram, mungbean and pea (Regmi 1983) and
ricebean (Khadka and Acharya 2009) have special significance. Ricebean has cultural and religious values in
Nepalese society. Batuk and Bara prepared from ricebean is used during wedding ceremony and other social
functions in Magar and Newar communities. The Nepalese have a tradition of preparing soup (Kwanti) from a
mixture of nine grain legumes during the festival of Janai-Purnima. Khichadi is a traditional dish prepared from
a mixture of rice and blackgram or ricebean on the occasion of Maghe-Sankranti, a festival celebrated by
Nepalese during mid-January. Black soybean has a special place in Newari culture and finds its place as an
important constituent of Syabaji. In some villages of Karnali zone, instead of rice grains the broken cotyledons
of Kidneybean is used for putting in the forehead as Akshata. Blackgram find sits place in many rituals in Nepali
community.
CONCLUSION AND WAY FORWARD
Nepal has a rich diversity in food legume species. These legume crops are indispensable part of the prevailing
farming systems in various agro-ecological zones of the country. Due to the role played by legumes in human
food, livestock feed and maintenance of soil fertility, and increased market demand of legumes, the area and
production of these crops has increased in recent years. However, due to the introduction of input intensive
high yielding varieties of cereal crops, population pressure on land area and other developmental
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interventions, there has been shift in area of pulses, resulting in losses in agrobiodiversity at the species and
variety level. Past efforts on collection and conservation of landraces have to be supported by their utilization
in crop improvement program. Collection of landraces from new area and of neglected species eg ricebean,
horsegram should get top priority. We suggest the following intervention areas for the conservation of PGR in
the context of Grain Legumes:
Priority for collection of horsegram, pea, common bean, and ricebean germplasm
Collection of lentil germplasm from High Hills/Mountains, cowpea germplasm from Mid Hills
Characterization and maintenance of database of legume landraces and their wild relatives for easy
access to breeders
Prioritizing using of landraces in crop improvement program to confer local adaptation traits into new
varieties
Establishment of satellite breeding programs at different agro-ecological zones as per importance of
grain legume crops
Characterization and evaluation of germplasm at agronomic, biochemical and molecular levels to
support crop improvement program
Identification of trait specific germplasm and gene pools of food legumes for use in crop improvement
program
Ensuring maintenance of germplasm in a safe and secure way
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the workshop on plant genetic resources conservation, use and management 28 Nov-1 Dec 1994. NARC, Kathmandu,
pp.52-59.
Robertson LD, R Shrestha, C Francis, C Piggin, R Pandey, SR Gupta and PK Rana. 1995. Collection and conservation of
landraces of pulses in Nepal. NARC/ICARDA/CLIMA.
Shrestha GL and B Shrestha. 1996. New frontiers of knowledge on Nepalese plants. Environment and biodiversity in the
context of south Asia (PK Jha, GPS Ghimire, SB Karmacharya, SR Baral and P Lacoul eds). Ecological society (ECOS),
Kathmandu, Nepal, pp.461-171.
Shrestha KK. 1994. Checklist for fabaceae for flora of Nepal. Proc: Nat Seminar on Sci. & tech RONAST, pp.678-683.
Shrestha KK. 1995. Legume crop resources of Nepal. In abstract: Second international seminar cum workshop on the design
and establishment of a computerized database of legumes of south Asia on 26-29 and May1-3. ILDIS RICOSA, India and
ILDIS National Center of Nepal, Central Department of Botany TU, Kathmandu Nepal.
Shrestha R and RK Neupane. 2016. Agronomic management and cropping patterns of pulses. In: Pulses for sustainable food
and nutrition security in SAARC Region (TR Gurung and SM Bokhtiar eds). SAARC Agriculture Centre (SAC) Dhaka,
Bangladesh, pp.33-64.
Upadhyay MP. 1999. Status of plant genetic resources conservation and utilization in Nepal. In: Wild relatives of cultivated
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Vaz Patto MC and D Rubiales. 2014. Lathyrus diversity: available resources with relevance to crop improvement--L. sativus
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World Vegetable Center. 2007. https://avrdc.org.
Proceedings of 2nd National Workshop on CUAPGR, 2017
238
Annex 1. Summary of grain legume germplasm collection missions
Collection mission
Year
Crops
Chp
Pgp
Len
Grp
Phb
Bgm
Mbn
Soy
Pea
Fbn
Cp
Fng
Vic
Rbn
Oth
ICRISAT/NARC
1979
45
100
NAA/IDRC
1987
76
US/Peace Corps
1988
43
CLIMA/NARC
1995
70
29
140
90
44
9
6
116
93
3
13
51
19
NGLRP
1999
100
LIBIRD/NARC/FOSRIN
70
Total (1117)
115
129
183
166
100
44
9
6
116
93
3
13
51
70
19
Note: Chp=Chickpea, Pgp=Pigeonpea, Len=Lentil, Grp= Grasspea, Phb= Phaseolus bean, Bgm=Blackgram, Mbn=Mungbean
Soy=Soybean, Pea= Pea, Fbn= Fababean, Cp=Cowpea, Fng=Fenugreek, Vic=Viceae species, Oth=others, Rbn=Ricebean
Annex 2. Status of legume landraces at NAGRC, Khumaltar and other world centers
SN
Species
NAGRC,
Khumaltar
Other centers
ICARDA
ICRISAT
Agriculture
Canada
AVRDC
1
Soybean
539
6
2
Lentil
490
140
3
Blackgram
166
44
4
Pigeonpea
279
29
129
5
Lathyrus
164
100
76
6
Pea
188
99
7
Pea arvense
-
17
8
Chickpea
-
70
191
9
Fababean
62
93
10
Mungbean
82
9
11
Ricebean
150
8
12
Cowpea
221
3
13
Common bean
498
14
Horsegram
56
15
Adzuki bean
7
16
Hyacinth bean
9
17
Sword bean
7
18
Fenugreek
13
19
Kidney bean
2
20
Vicia species
51
21
Common spring vetch
16
22
Others
19
Total
2936
693
320
76
8
Annex 3. Total number of legumes germplasm available at GLRP, Khajura
SN
Crop
Total active germplasm
Exotic lines
Local landraces
1
Lentil
146
145
1
2
Chickpea
116
115
1
3
Grasspea
30
25
5
4
Kidneybean/ Rajma
21
15
6
5
Mungbean
171
56
115
6
Cowpea
86
82
4
7
Soybean
150
113
37
8
Blackgram
40
1
39
9
Pigeonpea
85
75
10
Grand Total
845
627
218
Annex 4. Summary of grain legume germplasm characterized as per IBPGR Descriptors at GLRP
SN
Crop
Total
Landrace
Exotic
1
Chickpea
237
121
116
2
Cowpea
72
0
72
3
Kidneybean
100
90
10
4
Lathyrus
87
82
5
5
Lentil
137
124
13
Proceedings of 2nd National Workshop on CUAPGR, 2017
239
SN
Crop
Total
Landrace
Exotic
6
Mungbean
53
2
51
7
Pigeonpea
227
128
99
8
Soybean
230
73
157
Total
1043
530
513
Annex 5. Released varieties of food legumes in Nepal as of 2017
SN
Variety
Accession no
Source
Release year
Lentil
1
Sindur
LO-111-25
Nepal
1979
2
Sisir
P43
India
1979
3
Simrik
T36
India
1979
4
Shikhar
LL 4404
Pakistan
1989
5
Simal
LG 7
India
1989
6
Khajura Musuro 1
LG 198
India
1999
7
Khajura Musuro 2
PL 639
India
1999
8
Shital
ILL 2580
ICARDA
2004
9
Sagun
ILL 6829
ICARDA
2009
10
Maheshwor Bharati
ILL 7982
ICARDA
2009
11
Khajura Musuro 3 (RL 4)
ILL 6037 x ILL 8007
Nepal
Technical
committee 2017
Chickpea
1
Dhanush
Landrace
Nepal
1980
2
Trishul*
Landrace
Nepal
1980
3
Radha
JG 74
India
1987
4
Sita
ICC4
ICRISAT
1987
5
Koseli
ICCC32
ICRISAT
1991
6
Kalika
ICCL82108
ICRISAT
1991
7
Tara
ICCX840508-36
Nepal
2009
8
Avarodhi
Avarodhi
India
2009
Soybean
1
Hill*
(Downfield x XHaberlandt) x
Sib of Lee
USA
1976
2
Hardee
D 49-772 x Improved Pelican
USA
1976
3
Cobb
F 57-737 x D 58-3358
USA
1989
4
Ransom
(N 55-5931 x N55-3818) x D56-
1185
USA
1989
5
Seti
KS 419 x KS 525
Taiwan
1989
6
Lumle-1
Local
Nepal
1997
7
Tarkari Bhatmas-1
Huichin#2
China
2004
8
Puja
PK 416
India
2006
Pigeonpea
1
Bageshwori
PR 5147
Nepal
1991
2
Rampur Rahar-1
Local
Nepal
1991
Blackgram
1
Kalu
T 9
India
1971
Mungbean
1
Pusa Baisakhi
India
1975
2
Pratikshya
VC 6372(45-8-1)
AVRDC
2006
3
Kalyan
NM 94
AVRDC
2006
Cowpea
1
Aakash
IT82D-752
IITA
1990
2
Prakash
IT82D-889
IITA
1990
3
Surya
IT86D-792
IITA
2004
4
Malepatan-1
IITA Nigeria
IITA
2011
5
Gajale Bodi
IT98K205-8
IITA
Technical
committee 2017
Asparagus bean
1
Khumal tane
Local
1994
2
Sarlahi tane
Local
1994
Proceedings of 2nd National Workshop on CUAPGR, 2017
240
SN
Variety
Accession no
Source
Release year
Kidney bean
1
Trishuli Geu Simi
Nepal
1994
2
Jhange Simi-1
Nepal
1994
Field Pea
1
Sarlahi Arkel
India
1994
2
New Line
India
1994
3
Sikkime
India
1994
Registered food legume varieties
Cowpea
1
Double harvest
China
2010
2
Karma stickless
Thailand
2013
3
NO-324
Japan
2013
4
Sila-464
Thailand
2013
5
Chandra 041 OP
Thailand
2010
Pole bean
1
Mandir OP
Thailand
2010
*Denotified
Annex 6. Religious cultural importance of grain legumes
Species
Religious uses
Blackgram
Bara made from blackgram is offered to ancestors during Pitripooja by Hindus,
For Rahu and Ketu graha Shanti,
In Newar community, Blackgram is offered to Saturn during graha pooja conducted in the birthday.
During Hanuman Pooja in Shrawan, Bara from Blackgram is offered to the deity. Blackgram leaves are
eaten during Narak Chaturdashi in the first lunar of Kartik, Samayabaji with Bara is offered to
Bhagawati.
Chickpea
Roasted chickpea offered to Shantoshi Mata Pooja on Friday, for offering sweets to Goddess Saraswoti
during Saraswoti Pooja
Common bean
In Karnali zone, broken cotyledons of beans are used for Tika in the foreheads.
Horsegram
Grahadaan of Saturn, wedding auspicious day obstacles, it is used
Lentil
Lentil is offered to pacify Mangal (Mars)
Mungbean
Mungbean seeds are used in Mercury planet (Bhudhagraha shanti). In Rama Ekadashi, Mung laddo is
offered to Lord Keshav, Krishna-Satyabhama
Pea
Offered to Shukra graha during birthday in Newar community, in Swasthani pooja pea and roasted
wheat is offered, water-soaked small pea is thrown during chariot ceremony of Chandeshory fair in
Banepa
Mungbean
Mungbean seeds are used in Mercury planet (Bhudhagraha shanti). In Rama Ekadashi, Mung laddo is
offered to Lord Keshav and Krishna-Satyabhama
Soybean
Black seeded soybean is a constituent of Samayabaji (a mixture of salted beaten rice Syavabji, (choyela)
black soybean, cowpea and dried fish) offered to Goddesh Bhagawati. It is also used to pacify Saturn,
and bad- spirits
Yambean
Extensively used in Saraswoti pooja, or by women fasting in Ekadashi in the Central Tarai
Ricebean
During Gaura Parba, a festival celebrated widely in Far Western Region of Nepal, ricebean is one of the
five grains used in preparing Biruda, an offering made to the festival deity.
Source: PP Regmi 1983-Patram Puspam.
Proceedings of 2nd National Workshop on CUAPGR, 2017
241
Annex 7. Some grain legumes
Diversity of Lentil (Lens Culinaris subsp. culinaris)
Diversity of Mungbean (Vigna radiata (L.) R.Wilczek)
Proceedings of 2nd National Workshop on CUAPGR, 2017
242
Diversity of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)
Diversity of Ricebean (Vigna umbellata (Thunb.) Ohwi & H.Ohashi)
Proceedings of 2nd National Workshop on CUAPGR, 2017
243
Grasspea (Lathyrus sativus L.)
Sunhemp (Crotalaria juncea L.)
Fababean (Vicia faba L. eu major)
Fababean (Vicia faba L. eu major)
Diversity of Cowpea (Vigna unguitlata (L.) Walp.)
Proceedings of 2nd National Workshop on CUAPGR, 2017
244
Diversity of pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.)
Diversity of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.)
Diversity of Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.)
Preprint
Full-text available
This review paper is prepared to know the information about the present scenario of grain legumes in Nepal. Grain legumes are important crops for improving soil condition and dietary status of human. The area, production and productivity of grain legumes are collected from the data which is published by the Ministry of Agriculture and Livestock Development (MoALD). During the fiscal year 2019/20, Grain legumes are grown in 333,740 ha with the production and productivity of 381,987 Mt and 1,151 kg/ha respectively. Among pulses, the winter crop lentil dominates in production (65.76%) as well as in area coverage (62.93%). Grain Legumes Research Program (GLRP) of Nepal in collaboration with the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGAIR) centres works for genetic improvement of lentil, chickpea, pigeon pea, soybean, black gram, fababean and cowpea.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Detail status of agrobiodiversity in Nepal along with conservation and utilization
Article
Full-text available
Variability was studied among 18 exotic and indigenous French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) genotypes collected from research centers, agro-vets and traditional farming villages of the western hills of Nepal. The collected genotypes were field evaluated at the Agriculture Research Station, Malepatan, Pokhara at 848 m above sea level during the summer season of 2010 with the objectives to assess the variability in the exotic and indigenous genotypes and their potential for utilization in improvement programs. The results of the study showed that the variability was higher in adaptation, vegetative growth, floral and pod characteristics. The plant survival at harvest was higher in pole-type than in bush-type beans ranging from 97.92 to 54.17% with means of 83.71% and 79.80%, respectively. Bush-type beans were earlier in flowering than pole-type beans ranging from 32 to 174.33 d with a mean of 35.76 and 76.61 d, respectively. Pod length and width were higher in pole- type beans than in bush-type beans ranging from 20.45 to 7.67 cm in length and 33.53 to 7.37 mm in width. The variability indicated that the collected genotypes were distinctly different. The results revealed that the French bean genotype in the mid hills of Nepal is highly diverse and could be considered as the secondary center of genetic diversity. The diverse genotypes should be conserved and utilized for varietal improvement.
Article
Full-text available
Fifty-two genotypes of rice bean (Vigna umbellata Thunb. (Ohwi and Ohashi)), an under-cultivated crop, were evaluated in the rainy (kharif) seasons of 2001, 2002 and 2003 in the North Eastern Hill Region, India to select suitable genotypes for cultivation in the North Eastern Hill region and to identify promising parents for hybridization programmes. The germplasm studied comprised 44 Indian and eight foreign genotypes. A wide range of variability was observed for eight characters studied (plant height, number of branches/plant, stem thickness, pod length, number of seeds/pod, 100-seed weight, pod weight/plant and seed yield/plant). Number of days to mid-flowering and number of days to maturity showed little variation. High heritability (0·58) and high genetic advance (0·53) were observed for 100-seed weight, high heritability (0·93) and moderate genetic advance (0·37) for seed yield/plant, and high heritability (0·60) and low genetic advance (0·13) for number of days to mid-flowering. Since the main aim in rice bean breeding is to develop high yielding, early maturing genotypes with low plants, selection was based mainly on the mean performance of these three traits over the 3 years, as well as their stability. One of the genotypes, RBL 1, was very high yielding, although the yield was not stable across years. Another genotype, RBS 24, was very early maturing and had very short plants compared with the other genotypes studied. These two, along with several other genotypes selected, may be promising for a hybridization programme aiming to develop dwarf, early maturing genotypes with high yield. The best yielding genotypes, namely RBL 1, RCRB1-3 and IC 187911, may be recommended for cultivation in the shifting cultivation areas (Jhum) regions of North Eastern India.
Article
Full-text available
Nuclear DNA contents of more than 100 important plant species were measured by flow cytometry of isolated nuclei stained with propidium iodide.Arabidopsis exhibits developmentally regulated multiploidy and has a 2C nuclear DNA content of 0.30 pg (145 Mbp/1C), twice the value usually cited. The 2C value for rice is only about three times that ofArabidopsis. Tomato has a 2C value of about 2.0 pg, larger than commonly cited. This survey identified several horticultural crops in a variety of families with genomes only two or three times as large asArabidopsis; these include several fruit trees (a pricot, cherry, mango, orange, papaya, and peach). The small genome sizes of rice and the horticultural plants should facilitate molecular studies of these crops.
Article
Background The Lathyrus genus includes 160 species, some of which have economic importance as food, fodder and ornamental crops (mainly L. sativus, L. cicera and L. odoratus, respectively) and are cultivated in >1·5 Mha worldwide. However, in spite of their well-recognized robustness and potential as a source of calories and protein for populations in drought-prone and marginal areas, cultivation is in decline and there is a high risk of genetic erosion.ScopeIn this review, current and past taxonomic treatments of the Lathyrus genus are assessed and its current status is examined together with future prospects for germplasm conservation, characterization and utilization. A particular emphasis is placed on the importance of diversity analysis for breeding of L. sativus and L. cicera.Conclusions Efforts for improvement of L. sativus and L. cicera should concentrate on the development of publicly available joint core collections, and on high-resolution genotyping. This will be critical for permitting decentralized phenotyping. Such a co-ordinated international effort should result in more efficient and faster breeding approaches, which are particularly needed for these neglected, underutilized Lathyrus species.
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