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Training Computational Thinking: Game-Based Unplugged and Plugged-in Activities in Primary School


Abstract and Figures

Computational thinking (CT) denotes the idea of developing a generic solution to a problem by decomposing it, identifying relevant variables and patterns, and deriving an algorithmic solution procedure. As a general problem solving strategy, it has been suggested a fundamental cognitive competence to be acquired in education-comparable to literacy and numeracy. However, integrating CT into general curricula has been challenging. Therefore, the current project aims at developing an extra-curricular training of CT for primary school students. From a literature review we identified seven concepts central to CT: i) sequencing, ii) loops, iii) parallelism, iv) events, v) conditionals, vi) operators, and vii) data/variables. In our targeted educational training program, we will specifically address these concepts (which are shared concepts between CT and programming / computer science education) in 2-step procedures using corresponding game-based unplugged and plugged-in activities. Playful unplugged activities, such as a treasure hunt board game for the concept of using variables as placeholders for information, shall allow students getting a first grip on CT processes by actively engaging them. In the game, a treasure is to be hunted by completing a series of arithmetic operations, in which players have to handle different variables (e.g., dice faces, scores, etc.). Building on this unplugged activity, a related plugged-in scenario is a programmable simulation of rain drops filling a glass. While raindrop and glass volume are constants, the fill level of the glass may be the variable to manipulate. In both kinds of activities we aim at clarifying the association between CT-based solving real-life problems and aspects of different STEM disciplines. The series of unplugged and plugged-in activities are integrated into a gamified approach suitable for primary school children, employing badges for mastering specific CT processes to increase students' engagement and for giving feedback about their learning progress. The instructional design will integrate principles of constructionism, game-based and project-based learning, such that students will construct knowledge through playing and interacting with interdisciplinary educational scenarios. The course will be empirically evaluated with 3rd and 4th graders in primary schools. Thereby, the idea of evidence-based instruction is pursued to ensure efficiency and validity of our training.
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Training Computational Thinking: Game-Based Unplugged and
Plugged-in Activities in Primary School
Katerina Tsarava1, Korbinian Moeller1,2,3, Niels Pinkwart4, Martin Butz5, Ulrich Trautwein6,3
and Manuel Ninaus1,3
1Leibniz Institut für Wissensmedien, Germany
2Department of Psychology, University of Tübingen, Germany
3LEAD Graduate School and Research Network, University of Tübingen, Germany
4Department of Computer Science, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Germany
5Department of Computer Science, University of Tübingen, Germany
6Hector Research Institute of Education Sciences and Psychology, University of Tübingen,
Abstract: Computational thinking (CT) denotes the idea of developing a generic solution to a problem by decomposing it,
identifying relevant variables and patterns, and deriving an algorithmic solution procedure. As a general problem solving
strategy, it has been suggested a fundamental cognitive competence to be acquired in education - comparable to literacy
and numeracy. However, integrating CT into general curricula has been challenging. Therefore, the current project aims at
developing an extra-curricular training of CT for primary school students. From a literature review we identified seven
concepts central to CT: i) sequencing, ii) loops, iii) parallelism, iv) events, v) conditionals, vi) operators, and vii) data/variables.
In our targeted educational training program, we will specifically address these concepts (which are shared concepts
between CT and programming / computer science education) in 2-step procedures using corresponding game-based
unplugged and plugged-in activities. Playful unplugged activities, such as a treasure hunt board game for the concept of using
variables as placeholders for information, shall allow students getting a first grip on CT processes by actively engaging them.
In the game, a treasure is to be hunted by completing a series of arithmetic operations, in which players have to handle
different variables (e.g., dice faces, scores, etc.). Building on this unplugged activity, a related plugged-in scenario is a
programmable simulation of rain drops filling a glass. While raindrop and glass volume are constants, the fill level of the glass
may be the variable to manipulate. In both kinds of activities we aim at clarifying the association between CT-based solving
real-life problems and aspects of different STEM disciplines. The series of unplugged and plugged-in activities are integrated
into a gamified approach suitable for primary school children, employing badges for mastering specific CT processes to
increase students’ engagement and for giving feedback about their learning progress. The instructional design will integrate
principles of constructionism, game-based and project-based learning, such that students will construct knowledge through
playing and interacting with interdisciplinary educational scenarios. The course will be empirically evaluated with 3rd and
4th graders in primary schools. Thereby, the idea of evidence-based instruction is pursued to ensure efficiency and validity
of our training.
Keywords: computational thinking, programming, coding, unplugged activities, game-based learning, gamification
1. Introduction
In recent years, there is growing emphasis on the importance of computer programming or coding skills as 21st
century skills (Wing, 2006, 2010; NRC, 2011). For STEM disciplines, in particular, programming/coding has been
argued to be an indispensable instrument for solving complex problems or increasing efficiency through
automation (Wing, 2010). Thus, fostering those relevant skills early on in education seems a desirable
prerequisite, preparing children for current and future demands of our knowledge societies, spanning from job
requirements to leisure time activities. Against this background, the current article proposes an educational
course and training for 3rd and 4th-graders to foster programming/coding skills. However, in contrast to most
similar courses, we take a more cognitive skill-oriented approach, integrating the training of
programming/coding skills into the conceptual theoretical framework of computational thinking (henceforth
CT), by employing 2-step procedures using unplugged and plugged-in activities. Moreover, we embedded this in
a game-based constructivist pedagogical approach with the aim of introducing CT to young students (by means
Katerina Tsarava et al.
of coding). CT as an overarching cognitive skill is closely related to the different STEM disciplines (e.g., Sanders,
2009). Thus, CT allows for an interdisciplinary perspective on the use of actual coding skills to solve real world
problems. Accordingly, the main contribution of this study will be the development of an integrated framework
that fosters coding competence as a practical skill and CT competence as a conceptual cognitive skill.
In the following, we will first elaborate on the close association between programming/coding as a practical and
CT as a cognitive skill, before highlighting the relevance of CT for modern educational programs. We then provide
a short overview of existing coding and CT trainings, followed by a detailed description of the training we
developed to foster coding in 3rd and 4th-graders and a brief conclusion.
1.1 Coding and computational thinking
Computer programming – also referred to as coding – has been coined a crucial 21st century skill due to the
constantly increasing need to keep up with the growing impact of information and communication technologies
(henceforth ICT) on human activities. ICT have become prevalent in many facets of everyday life, like production,
health and education, security, job requirements, but also leisure time activities etc. This is reflected in latest
interest of scientific organizations and also governments (e.g., European Schoolnet, European Coding Initiative)
all over the world on the establishment of an effective framework for introducing ICT, coding, and CT skills to
students already at a young age. Although these three terms share common meanings, they should not be
confused as identical. ICT skills refer to general skills related to the use of computer devices and relevant digital
content, like software, digital documents, etc. In contrast, coding skills describe the practical ability to write and
design software programs as functional computer applications. Finally, CT denotes more general cognitive
problem solving skills based on systematic and computationally oriented procedures (Balanskat & Engelhardt,
2015). Each of these skills is important not only to become a competent user of ICT, but also to be able to meet
the needs of our increasingly digitized world. However, while programming/coding is considered a more
practical skill, we want to emphasize that CT reflects a broader cognitive concept that is fundamentally critical
for becoming computationally literate, besides the fact that at least rudimentary CT is essential for the
acquisition of more practical coding skills (Balanskat & Engelhardt 2015; Garcia-Peñalvo et al., 2016). At the same
time, fostering CT, detached from coding, might result in rather subpar and abstract educational scenarios. This
fact supports latest efforts and increased interest into fostering CT as a conceptual cognitive skill, that can be
applied interdisciplinarily in different domains over the mere training of practical skills, such as coding (e.g.,
Yadav et. al, 2016; see also Figure 1).
Being able to code reflects the “21st century vision of students who are not just computer users but also
computationally literate creators” ( Unsurprisingly, ideas to specifically promote and teach
coding abilities already starting in primary school have become increasingly popular (e.g., Balanskat &
Engelhardt, 2015; Central concepts in coding are the generic ideas of sequencing, loops,
parallelism, events, conditionals, operators, and data/variables (e.g., Brennan & Resnick, 2012). Interestingly,
coding as a practical skill shares these concepts with the psychological construct of CT as a cognitive skill (see
Figure 2). Computational Thinking is construed as “the thought processes involved in formulating problems and
their solutions so that the solutions are represented in a form that can be effectively carried out by an
information-processing agent” (Cuny et al., 2010). CT denotes the idea of developing a generic solution to a
problem by decomposing it, identifying relevant variables and patterns, and deriving an algorithmic solution
procedure (e.g., Wing, 2006; Kazimoglu, 2013). In fact, this closely resembles the proceeding in coding. As such,
code is usually organized in loops of sequences of defined events, that involve specific operations performed on
the to-be defined variables. Correspondingly, CT skills specifically draw on processes such as algorithmic
thinking, conditional logic, decomposition, abstraction, pattern matching, parallelization, evaluation, and
generalization (e.g. Wing, 2010; Briggs, 2014); thereby reflecting cognitive instantiations of concepts central to
coding. Importantly, these concepts as well as their cognitive counterparts in CT are not to be understood as
domain-specific in the sense that they can only be applied to the domain of computer science. Instead, CT should
be viewed as a much more general problem solving strategy, which can be applied to different domains over
and beyond computer science (e.g., deductive reasoning). Therefore, CT has been suggested a fundamental
cognitive competence that should be acquired in education – comparable to literacy and numeracy (Yadav et
al., 2014).
Katerina Tsarava et al.
Figure 1: Illustration of Google trends over the course of time, for the search terms “computational thinking”
and “programming skills”. Worldwide interest (y-axis) reflects search interest of the corresponding
topic relative to the highest point in the chart ( [Accessed
Figure 2: Illustration of association between the practical skills of coding, CT as corresponding cognitive skills
and the broad applicability of CT as a general problem solving strategy to different content domains
such as STEM
Katerina Tsarava et al.
1.2 Computational thinking in education
As a general problem solving strategy, influences of CT are closely related to STEM disciplines (Barr and
Stephenson, 2011). Furthermore, CT has also begun to influence areas of active study over and beyond STEM
such as algorithmic medicine, computational archaeology, computational economics/finance, digital humanities
etc. (Wing, 2010). For this reason, governments and educational institutions all over the world worked on a
coherent definition of CT and the integration of CT in the curricula of educational programs of primary,
secondary, and higher education over the last decade. For instance, educational institutions in the US revised
their undergraduate curriculum in computer science and changed their first course in computer science to cover
fundamental principles and processes of CT as a cognitive skill (e.g. Perkovic et al., 2010; Wing, 2010). Moreover,
in 2013, the computer science curriculum for universities in the UK was revised, by focusing strongly on the
promotion of CT as a widely applicable and transferable skill in computer science (Brown et al., 2014).
Furthermore, the relevance and importance granted to CT is also reflected by the fact that in 2014 the European
Coding Initiative was founded. In collaboration with several European Ministries of Education, members of the
European Schoolnet and the support of major technological enterprises (e.g., Microsoft, Facebook), the initiative
aims at promoting a sensible integration and evaluation of coding and CT in the official educational curricula
(Balanskat & Engelhardt, 2015).
This envisaged societal relevance of CT and its wide range of applicability let us decide to develop a training of
practical coding skills, integrated into a course on CT applied to various STEM contexts for 3rd and 4th graders.
To realize broad applicability of the training and because of reasons of platform independency, we suggest that
coding in young ages should not be based on a specific programming language, as these change rapidly according
to market and technology changes. For this reason, we aimed at fostering children’s coding skills on the broader
and more transferrable level of CT. Moreover, we tried to avoid common concerns on introducing coding already
in primary school (Garcia-Peñalvo, 2016) by i) implementing a game-based approach of learning by doing, ii)
focusing on cognitive processes of CT and not on practical coding skills related to specific programming
languages, iii) using unplugged haptic games and plugged-in low-threshold visual programming environments,
and iv) by adopting an overarching gamified framework accompanying the training for maintaining and
increasing motivation. Thereby, we build our training on the theory of constructionism following the principles
of “learning-by-doing” (e.g., Harel & Papert, 1991), which were established and evaluated in well-known
environments for early programming, like the Logo programming language, Scratch, etc.
2. Course concept
2.1 Course aim
We specifically designed the course to address CT processes defined and identified as shared with coding. In
particular, we considered the concepts of sequences, loops, parallelism, events, conditionals, operators, and
data and integrated them into non-programming (i.e., unplugged) and programming (i.e., plugged-in) activities.
The instructional design of our training is based on introducing each of the CT processes in a multimodal way
using unplugged and plugged-in activities and demonstrating their applicability within different STEM-related
contexts. The general idea of the whole course follows the theme: “play-modify-create”. Students are
introduced to CT processes through playful unplugged activities. Subsequently, they are asked to modify
elements within existing plugged-in activities before they finally have to create their own usable designs.
In the following description of the course concept, we first describe the actual lesson content and activities and
their aim. Subsequently, we elaborate on how the employed activities allow for a broad applicability of CT by
relating the activities to different STEM contexts. Moreover, we outline how the combination of unplugged and
plugged-in activities allows for an integrated constructivist approach to convey the respective content. Finally,
we briefly describe how we use a gamification framework to incorporate lessons on differing content conveyed
in different modes into a coherent and overarching course design.
2.2 Course outline
The course is structured as a series of eight lessons of 90 minutes each (see also Figure 3). During these lessons,
CT processes are introduced gradually beginning from more unplugged haptic, practical, and experiential
activities, moving on to plugged-in more abstract and demanding ones. During the lessons, students create their
own applications with MIT AppInventor which they can reuse on their own devices. Teacher’s guidance is
Katerina Tsarava et al.
gradually decreased towards students’ gradual independence of learning and creating. The specific lesson plan
is as follows:
2.2.1 Lesson 1
Description: Students are first introduced to the gamified assessment framework (see below). Moreover, they
get acquainted with unplugged concepts and tangibles and are introduced to the idea of computing without a
computer. The first activity is an unplugged life-size board game with turtles. The game shares ideas with the
concepts of the educational programming language Logo and is inspired by the commercial board game Robot
Turtles (Shapiro, 2013). In this treasure hunting game small groups of students have to manipulate turtle pawns,
which move by following specific commands written on game cards. Players need to edit and combine
command-cards and make strategic decision to create effective sequences, which allow them to lead their
pawns to the place where a treasure can be found. The aim of the game is the fast and efficient collection of
treasure items.
Aim: The main purpose of this first activity is the playful introduction to CT processes, such as logical and
algorithmic thinking, as well as pattern recognition through the use of common coding mediums, like sequences
and loops.
2.2.2 Lesson 2
Description: This lesson encompasses playing within unplugged activities and recognizing CT processes in STEM
disciplines. The second activity also employs an unplugged treasure hunt like board game and utilizes math
problems as progression stages. Specifically, this multiplayer board game is a competitive scenario, where
groups of players have to find their way through a maze of various difficulty levels. Each challenge includes
equations containing variables and placeholder images for constants (e.g., a blue crystal reflecting a value of 4).
Small groups of players have to solve the respective arithmetic equations in alternating order and find the best
strategy to progress on their way to the center of the maze. Conditions set by the game’s board (maze) provide
obstacles to obstruct the most direct way of reaching the center.
Aim: This activity aims at introducing conditionals, operators, variables, and constants, as well as previously
presented coding concepts (i.e., sequences and loops) to foster CT skills of logic, algorithmic thinking, and
2.2.3 Lesson 3
Description: Students play within unplugged activities and concepts, which are then gradually transferred to the
plugged-in environment of AppInventor, reusing established concepts from previous lessons. In this blended
activity, students have the opportunity to observe how unplugged coding and CT processes, like, for example,
events and parallelism, are applied and how they function within the plugged-in programming environment
through simple precoded scripts and scenarios. For instance, in a science simulation about rain (event) drops
(variable) increasing the fill level (variable) of a glass (constant) students need to recognize the coding concepts
previously introduced unplugged and understand how they are depicted and used in the plugged-in
environment. Students should be able to recognize, use, and modify coding concepts in these pre-built
AppInventor applications.
Aim: In this lesson, students should comprehend the interconnections between coding concepts and the newly
introduced CT abstract processes of decomposition and generalization.
2.2.4 Lesson 4
Description: After recapitulating the coding concepts and CT processes already introduced, Lesson 4 requires
students to brainstorm real-life scenarios and applications of these concepts, to highlight the importance of CT
processes in everyday life and STEM disciplines in particular. Following this, students are introduced to the
AppInventor software through multiple interactive tutorials as well as editing and playing simple game
applications. Pre-developed simple games in the MIT AppInventor environment are used as demonstrators and
allow students to manipulate code elements, e.g. building blocks/variables, in order to grasp the effects of
changes in a running system.
Katerina Tsarava et al.
Aim: The activities of this lesson are intended to support students’ familiarity and understanding of the
environment and how visual coding blocks can replicate coding concepts already identified in the previous
2.2.5 Lesson 5 and 6
Description: In Lessons 5 and 6, students are guided through the creation of a simple app using scenarios in
STEM contexts. A simple calculator is developed by first explaining and understanding its usability and later on
designing and programming it in AppInventor. Afterwards, students are asked to create other and more
advanced apps in other STEM disciplines, for instance, science simulations. By providing pre-built AppInventor
assets to students we can facilitate work and guide the learning experience even in complex projects. Different
projects are assigned randomly to small groups of students. For instance, the creation of a simple pool billiard
physics app, to understand and visualize kinetic energy/momentum conservation of colliding balls. Other
projects require, for example, the creation of apps that simulate a magnetic field and the forces operating in it,
and the creation of the four seasons, or how the water cycle works, etc. After completing their respective app
all the student groups have to interact and test creations of their peers.
Aim: Both activities aim at fostering students’ coding independence through fading out teacher guidance. The
CT processes fostered by these activities are the process of evaluation and abstraction. Moreover, using and
developing simulated real-life STEM contexts should increase the awareness of the necessity of coding skills, in
order to solve problems in different STEM disciplines.
2.2.6 Lesson 7
Description: During the 7th lesson students are asked to brainstorm simple game ideas. Once they decided on
one of the designs, students can create their own game. Of course, they need to create rather simple games
(e.g. dice, memory game, mini golf, etc.) to keep it feasible. The instructor is crucial in this part of the lesson as
he/she has to assist in deciding on a realizable game, by taking into consideration its basic mechanisms. After
deciding on a game, students collaboratively create the game application. Importantly, in such complex projects
students have to apply all their previously learned coding and CT skills by understanding, analyzing, designing,
implementing, and evaluating their own game app. Created games can also be shared among group members
and peer-evaluated by fellow groups of students.
Aim: The aim of this activity is the engagement of students with more complex activities of problem solving and
procedural thinking, by creating and evaluating designs of their own.
2.2.7 Lesson 8
Description: In the last lesson students have to create their own applications. They are asked to create an
application dedicated to one of the STEM disciplines already presented and adapt or extend existing programs.
They are urged to do so by reusing parts of code created in previous lessons, to facilitate the working process,
but should also integrate new mechanics or functionalities, respectively, into the application. For instance,
scripts of app interface functionalities, such as interactive screen components, random number generators, etc.
Aim: During this activity, students also have to follow the procedure of analyzing the demands and requirements
to design an effective structure for their app. The evaluation procedure relies on sharing and peer reviewing, as
beta testers will test the apps of fellow student groups, repeating and fostering the obtainment of all the
previously identified CT processes.
2.3 Unplugged and plugged-in activities
Contemporary board games have proven to represent an informal and interactional context in which
computational thinking has to be applied. For instance, Pandemic (Leacock, 2008) and RaBit EscApe (Apostolellis
et al., 2014), are two strategic board games, in which computational thinking was embedded in collaborative
play. Considering this evidence, unplugged activities employed in the present course are realized as life-size
board games, in which students play collaboratively around a floor-board by strategically solving problems and
manipulating their pawns accordingly in space. Their active engagement in those unplugged games should raise
their motivation for participation and learning (see Echeverría et al., 2011; for an overview), as well as allowing
for an embodied experience of basic coding concepts and CT processes (cf. Barsalou, 2008 for embodied
Katerina Tsarava et al.
cognition), supporting conceptual abstractions in a natural manner (Butz, 2016). Moreover, the game-based
approach of the employed plugged-in activities does not only aim at engaging students into the learning
activities, but should also enhance the training and development of students’ symbolic thinking through
multimodal representations (Plass et al., 2015) and simplifications of complex computer-related concepts (e.g.
the concept of variables and constants described above, represented by the game rules as objects of
predetermined value).
For plugged-in activities of the course, we selected the MIT AppInventor software in its browser-based version.
MIT AppInventor offers a novice-oriented introduction to programming and app creation, that transforms the
complex language of text-based coding into visual drag-and-drop building blocks. The low-threshold graphical
interface allows even an inexperienced novice to create a basic, fully functional app within an hour or less.
AppInventor allows the development of applications for Android-run devices, using a web browser and either a
connected smartphone/tablet or emulator. This allows for taking home self-generated apps as a trophy after
the learning activity. We consider this software an advanced alternative to Scratch visual-programming
language, as it allows the creation and distribution of a standalone application.
Figure 3: Illustration of the course design taking into consideration the factors of mode (i.e., unplugged/plugged-
in), coding concepts (C1-Sequences to C7-Parallelism, see Figure 2), CT processes (P1-Decomposition
to P7-Generalization, see Figure 2) and the gamification framework. C*/P*: all concepts (C1-7) and
processes (P1-7)
The design of the course embeds the training of CT skills in a multimodal procedure. Coding concepts and
associated CT processes are first introduced in a playful and embodied way (unplugged activities), before they
are reconsidered in programming context (plugged-in activity), which also implies their application in a STEM
discipline. This aims at highlighting the relevance of coding concepts and CT processes not only for digital
contexts, but also real-life problems in general and STEM contexts in particular. For instance, in Lesson 2 students
play a math-based treasure hunting game. Following the rules of the game, players have to devise effective
sequences of commands, by combining constants, variables and operators correctly. They have the opportunity
to make their sequence even more successful by recognising patterns of moves, which may be folded and
operated by loops. Those unplugged game rules reflect fundamental and applicable coding concepts, which can
easily be applied and transferred to any programming language or complex problems in STEM. Accordingly, the
aforementioned activity is integrated into a plugged-in task in Lesson 3, where several of these coding concepts
are integrated into short simple pre-coded scripts. As an advanced task, students are then asked to modify those
Katerina Tsarava et al.
scripts experimentally to observe and experience the immediate consequences of their changes (picking up on
the idea of live coding, e.g. Paxton, 2002).
2.4 Gamification and assessment framework
By employing digital games as learning medium and providing an overarching gamification framework for the
course, we aim at increasing motivation and enjoyment of students. In fact, as a medium for lear ning, games
provide promising possibilities to motivate and engage students in learning (e.g., Chen et al., 2012). Importantly,
even simple game-like extrinsic motivators, such as score points and badges, can increase enjoyment and
performance (e.g. Ninaus et al., 2015; for a review see Hamari et al., 2014). In the current CT course we use a
gamified assessment framework, which is based on the assessment framework created by Dorling and Walker
(2014) for the effective evaluation of the UK computer science and CT curriculum (see also Moreno-León, et al.,
2015). As such, we apply a gamified award system, awarding badges for the successful acquisition of coding
concepts, core CT processes, STEM specialization domain (e.g. leaderboard for Maths, Science, etc.), creativity,
and social skills (e.g. cooperation within or between group, etc.). For instance, students receive stickers for each
attended session to put down in their individual course membership card, or, after successfully creating a science
simulation, students are awarded a science-badge.
3. Future studies and conclusion
The current course is planned to be part of the Hector-Core-Course program of the Hector-Children Academies
in Germany, which provide extra-curricular enrichment programs (
Therefore, the course will undergo a rigorous three-stage evaluation process. Phase 1 will include piloting and
testing the course concept. For this reason, multiple rounds of discussion with experts on the content as well as
educators will take place. This phase also includes an initial evaluation of the effectiveness of the course in a
small-scale intervention study at about 3-6 Hector-Children Academies to acquire first empirical data on training
gains and the feasibility of the course design. In Phase 2 feedback and experiences generated in Phase 1 might
result in modifications of the course. Following this, another empirical evaluation of the effectiveness of the
course at about 10 Hector-Children Academies will be run using a pre-post-test control group design.
Importantly, in this phase we will also evaluate the training of instructors as well as the training material itself.
Finally in Phase 3, implementation and effectiveness of the course will be evaluated in a randomized controlled
field trial, involving at least 20 Hector-Children Academies. Evaluation in Phase 2 and 3 will also aim at assessing
possible transfer effects of the training, by employing standardized psychological tests in order to examine
whether CT training affects other related cognitive skills, such as reasoning or general problem solving skills. The
primary objective at this stage of the evaluation is to whether the course yields any overall effect on
computational thinking. Given positive effects are observable in all three evaluation phases, the current course
will be certified as a Hector-Core-Course to be offered to all Hector-Children Academies. Moreover, in order to
better understand underlying mechanisms on how the various elements of the course influence the overall
efficiency, design research methods will be applied. After the design, development, and evaluation phases, we
expect to deliver hands-on un-plugged games and their related plugged-in activities built in AppInventor, along
with instructional materials for future teachers of the course.
The design and development of the current course is based on the most recent literature on educational
practices for coding and CT introduction into official curriculums and latest educational practice in STEM. We
integrated elements of game-based learning and gamification methods aiming at engaging and motivating
students, while specifically addressing STEM context to reflect the broad applicability of CT. Importantly, this
course does not aim at being a core programming course. Using a more general and cognitive perspective on
programming and coding we aim at fostering the underlying cognitive concept of CT, which might have broader
beneficial effects than instructing a single programming language alone. Consequently, the course is not only
aiming at improving practical programming skills, but fundamental cognitive skills relevant for the 21st century.
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... Robotics learning emphasizes computational thinking (CT) elements in learning activities that can boost thinking and problemsolving abilities [17]. However, lacking teaching skills and learning facilities may lead to incompetent computational thinking skills [18], [19]. The matter worsens if students are apathetic toward STEM subjects [20]. ...
... However, the lack of access to technological-based toys such as LEGO or racecars makes it difficult for them to practice their computational thinking skills. In contrast, [19] stated that unplugged CT activities had experimented with the primary school students whereby a programmable simulation of raindrops filling a glass and treasure hunt board games using cards with Logo language were employed for instructions. The research results conclude that using games as a medium for CT learning increases motivation and enjoyment. ...
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The rise of the Industrial Revolution 4.0 and the increasing reliance on the digital economy drive the need for a new set of skills, especially in robotics learning, that includes computational thinking (CT) and adversarial thinking (AT) for the young generation. The need for CT-related skills includes various fields, such as robotics, engineering, computer science, mathematics, music, arts, and humanities. Therefore, adopting robotic learning with CT and AT can enhance learning skills over the conventional learning model. This paper presents a systematic literature review on CT and AT practices in robotics learning to improve educational methods. This study conducts a systematic literature review from four databases: ACM, Scopus, IEEE Xplore, and ScienceDirect. Sixty-five studies in robotics learning to increase CT and AT skills were analyzed by applying the inclusion and exclusion criteria. The study’s findings show that CT and AT are significant in training students to engage in robotics learning activities. These considerations will lead to strengthening their skill and critical thinking. The study also suggests that integrating these skills can prepare teachers for critical thinking and boost student learning. The findings suggest that CT and AT can directly adopt digital adversarial learning skills to improve overall robotics learning activities. For future studies, the difference in learning ages related to robotics activities with CT and AT applications can be studied to deeply comprehend the effectiveness of CT and AT applications.
... These tasks are usually interactive, which allows for the tracking of users' actions to evaluate progress made and suggest possible further actions. Research has shown that the use of such XR tools has a significant positive impact on students' performance (Saraiva et al., 2021;Tsarava et al., 2017). ...
... 286 The TeamViewer Frontline software is device-agnostic, working on smart glasses and other wearable mobile devices, and is thus adaptable to every IT infrastructure and business environment. 287 With TeamViewer Frontline, employees can work hands-free while receiving real-time information and pre-defined workflows directly to their devices. The easy-to-use software can be used by employees in their day-to-day operations to add immediate value to processes. ...
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The overall objectives of this study are to describe the state of the art and to provide an assessment of the strengths and weaknesses of the use of extended reality (XR) technologies in the healthcare and education sectors. The study employs a mixed-methods approach based on desk research, surveys, interviews, case studies and sectoral workshops. The study begins by identifying XR affordances in the healthcare and education sectors, coupled with examples of European XR tools and applications. In addition, it identifies barriers associated with the wider adoption of XR in Europe. These relate to market conditions, technical limitations, research gaps and policymaking issues. Furthermore, the study analyses the European XR market, including: a) a presentation of the status quo and an exploration of future market potential; b) a vertical breakdown of the market by European players and their business models; and c) an investigation of technological standards in relation to XR. Lastly, based on the results of this analysis, the study provides a set of recommendations in terms of policy interventions and potential research and innovation areas.
... Among these interventions aimed at children, serious games can be distinguished [ 31,32 ], some commercial video games [ 33,34 ], programs based on classic tasks [ 35,36 ]; interventions that incorporated virtual reality technology [ 37 ], among others. The authors also found that research on computational thinking training is another area of study that has shown different effects of teaching coding and programming on children's executive functions [38][39][40][41][42][43][44][45][46][47][48][49][50][51]. ...
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We designed a controlled trial protocol that seeks to contribute to cognitive science by studying the effect of thought training on children's executive functions. The study design is a cluster randomized controlled trial, with intra-subject and inter-subject evaluation, with two parallel groups: an experimental group and a TAU control group. With three measures, pre-test, post-test, and follow-up after three months. The participants will be children aged 9 to 11. The allocation will be randomized by groups and not individually. The sample will be a minimum of 44 participants. The primary measures will be neuropsychological tests to assess executive functions. Secondary measures will be a computational thinking test, neuropsychological tests to assess metacognition and attention, and an acceptability scale. The experimental group will participate in the COGNI-MACHINE computational thinking training designed by the first author. The training frequency will be twice a week in 60 min sessions for 12 weeks. The TAU control group will receive computer science classes as usual during the same time as the experimental group. The evaluators taking the measurements will be blinded to the assignment. The investigators in charge of the intervention will be blinded to the results of the evaluations.
... Fidai et al. (2020) conducted a meta-analysis on computational thinking with Arduino and Scratch, which pointed out that the length of intervention positively affected CT achievement. However, the length of implementing unplugged activities differs across studies, and therefore is yet to be assessed on CT skills, with some being as short as one or two hours (Chen & Chi, 2020;Tsarava et al., 2019b), and others extending over 10 weeks (Hsu & Liang, 2021;Tsarava et al., 2017;Twigg et al., 2019;). Therefore, in this study, we investigated whether the length of the intervention might explain the differences in effectiveness between the studies. ...
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Unplugged activities as a low-cost solution to foster computational thinking (CT) skills seem to be a trend in recent years. However, current evidence of the effectiveness of unplugged activities in promoting students’ CT skills has been inconsistent. To understand the potential of unplugged activities on computational thinking skills, a systematic review and meta-analysis were conducted. Our review of 49 studies examined the influence of unplugged activities to improve students’ CT skills in K–12 education between 2006 and 2022. The literature review showed that studies on CT skills were mainly (81.64%) conducted in computer science and STEM education, with board and card games being the most common unplugged activities for fostering CT skills in K–12 education. CT diagnostic tools (36.37%) were frequently used as assessment tools. A follow-up meta-analysis of 13 studies with 16 effect sizes showed a generally large overall effect size (Hedges’s g = 1.028, 95% CI [0.641, 1.415], p < 0.001) for the use of unplugged activities in promoting students’ CT skills. The analysis of several moderator variables (i.e., grade level, class size, intervention duration, and learning tools) and their possible effects on CT skills indicated that unplugged activities are a promising instructional strategy for enhancing students’ CT skills. Taken together, the results highlight the affordances of unplugged pedagogy for promoting CT skills in K–12 education. Recommendations for policies, practice, and research are provided accordingly.
... An extra-curricular CT training approach for primary school students based on the integration of both unplugged and plugged activities in a gamified environment was elaborated by Tsarava et al. [134]. In both types of activities, the researchers tried to clarify the association between CT-based solving of real-life problems and aspects of different STEM disciplines. ...
One of the most researched domains of computing education research (CER) that attracts attention is computing education in schools, starting from pre-primary level up to upper secondary level (K-12). A high number of initiatives and related research contributions have appeared over half a century of computing history in schools. This chapter presents an overview of CER in the K-12 domain, including globally influential movements such as that of Logo pedagogy, constructionism, inquiry based learning or computational thinking (CT). Development of CT in education, based on a number of previous reviews on CT and K-12, paints a diverse picture of the approaches, educational technologies, pedagogical innovations, and related challenges such as lack of teacher training or shortage of learning resources. This article presents also a scientometric overview of CER research in the K-12 domain. The analysis identifies the top topics of research, and foundational articles. While much of the research is centered around the US, key research from other parts of the globe is also highlighted. Emergence of new trends such as teaching artificial intelligence and machine learning in schools are also discussed.
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Gamification research area is a consolidated topic since 2011, where the main definition appears. Despite a lot of academic documents reporting evidence in the field of gamification in education, and frameworks to design the gamification process, only few of them are focused on the unplugged educational contexts. So, in this paper we are focused on the definition of unplugged gamification considered previous research and proposals from the education field. The evidence shows that the field is still in its infancy and more research is needed, in order to determine and evidence the pros or cons of this kind of gamification (unplugged gamification) in comparison to gamification supported with technologies (plugged gamification).KeywordsGamificationUnpluggedSystematic reviewEducation
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Computer science education has been researched in Israel for a few decades, both at the K-12 and the undergraduate levels. The rich variety of the investigated topics addressed from the very beginning issues beyond the introductory course and programming, including the nature of the discipline and its fundamental ideas and concepts, which are stable, unlike the more technological aspects. Understanding the nature of the discipline and mapping its fundamental ideas and concepts constitute the basis on which curricula stand. Therefore, we chose to organize this chapter around ideas and concepts of CS. In line with this perspective, we will discuss research of all age levels: K-12, undergraduate, and even the graduate level, as well as research relating to teachers. We will present design-based research, which accompanied the design of new curricula, as well as studies aiming at identifying phenomena, or investigating educational hypotheses. We will also point out current challenges and possible future directions.
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Despite the increasing awareness of the importance of computational thinking and coding for younger generations, the offer of courses for Colombian kids from 9 to 12 years of age who are not yet developing these skills at school is quite limited. This thesis aims to explore how elements of didactic architecture can be incorporated into the design of an integrative pedagogical model for the development of computational thinking and coding skills in children from this age range, and how to create a prototype virtual course that follows the principles of the proposed model and could potentially be offered to contribute to bridging the market gap in this regard. Grounded on the socio-critical paradigm and utilizing a mixed-method approach, this study collected information on Colombian ICT teachers' beliefs and perceptions about suitable didactic strategies to develop children's computational thinking to supplement the literary review done. There was non-probabilistic intentional sampling to select seven experts who met the criteria of being Computer Science teachers with MA or PhDs and at least three years of experience developing learners' computational thinking. Aiken's V coefficient with a 99% confidence interval was used to quantitatively estimate the validity of the pedagogical model. The results showed that the proposed pedagogical model, which implies, among others, the use of didactic strategies such as unplugged activities and PRIMM, is effectively reflected in the virtual prototype course created. Keywords: computational thinking, pedagogical model, unplugged activities, PRIMM, Use-Modify-Create, virtual course, coding, MakeCode, block-based language. A pesar de la creciente conciencia sobre la importancia de desarrollar el pensamiento computacional y la codificación para las generaciones más jóvenes, la oferta de cursos para niños colombianos de 9 a 12 años de edad es bastante limitada. El objetivo de esta tesis es explorar cómo incorporar los elementos de la arquitectura didáctica al diseño de un modelo pedagógico integrador para el desarrollo del pensamiento computacional y de habilidades de programación en menores de este rango de edad, además de cómo crear un prototipo de curso virtual que siga los principios del modelo propuesto y que potencialmente pueda ofrecerse para contribuir a cerrar la brecha de mercado. Basado en el paradigma sociocrítico y utilizando un enfoque de método mixto, este estudio recopiló información acerca de las creencias de docentes colombianos de TIC sobre estrategias didácticas adecuadas para desarrollar el pensamiento computacional de los niños, con el fin de complementar la revisión literaria realizada. Hubo un muestreo intencional no probabilístico para seleccionar siete expertos que cumplieran con los criterios de ser docentes de Ciencias de la Computación con maestría o doctorado y al menos tres años de experiencia en el desarrollo del pensamiento computacional. Se utilizó el coeficiente V de Aiken con un intervalo de confianza del 99% para estimar cuantitativamente la validez del modelo pedagógico. Los resultados mostraron que la propuesta, que implica, entre otras, el uso de estrategias didácticas como actividades desconectadas y PRIMM, se reflejan efectivamente en el curso prototipo virtual creado. Palabras clave: pensamiento computacional, modelo pedagógico, actividades desconectadas, PRIMM, Usa-Modifica-Crea, curso virtual, programación, MakeCode, lenguaje por bloques.
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Different instructional strategies have been drawn to assist elementary school students in improving computational thinking (CT) skills and student engagement (SE) in unplugged programming activities. This paper aimed to explore how the interactive strategies of unplugged programming affect CT skills and SE. The study was conducted based on a quasi-experimental research method. The sample was composed of 104 sixth-grade students from northern China. The students in the experimental group learned with interactive unplugged programming, whereas those in the control group learned with non-interactive unplugged programming. Analysis of Covariance statistics and Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modeling were adopted for data analysis. Results showed that the performance of the experimental group in CT skills and SE was considerably better than that of the control group. Moreover, the predictive relationships were more complex between CT skills and SE in the experimental group. In general, these findings confirmed the teaching value of interactive unplugged programming, and further emphasized the important role of students' CT skills in programming engagement. Therefore, through the application of interaction in instruction design, each student can be assigned a positive role to create a programming classroom that is more conducive to students.
Technical Report
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The rationale for this literature review is to take the main areas of debate surrounding the teaching of coding to primary aged children and examine the polemic and the different positions that writers and practitioners are taking on these issues. This is intended to be a literature review useful to practitioners rather than academics. In that vein, in addition to published peer referenced journal articles we have decided to make maximum use of blog posts and opinions on social media for our source material as we believe that the most informed debate on kids coding is not actually going on in academic journals! In fact, in a meta-analysis of 27 peer-reviewed papers on the subject of teaching computational thinking to school aged children, it was found that only ‘nine peer-reviewed intervention studies were based in K-12 settings’, highlighting the gap in the research of developing computational thinking in school aged children. ‘Even with these limited studies, most were conducted as after-school activities.’ (Lye, S. Y. & Koh, J. H. L., 2014.) So even the academics know that the scope of their own work is limited. Based on the preceding, the TACCLE 3 team members have compiled reviews of academic papers and have also trawled through blogs, news-articles and opinion pieces to find some answers to the questions teachers regularly ask us, along with a few extras that we found interesting. The information in this paper has been divided into 5 chapters. In the first chapter TACCLE 3 team members try to answer the following questions: • Why are we teaching coding? • Should we actually be teaching coding to young children at all? • How should we be teaching it? • How to best use tangible user interfaces? • Are there gender issues to overcome? In chapter 2 Francisco Jose García-Peñalvo provides a deeper introduction into computational thinking: what it is, what are the core concepts of it and how to introduce this approach into the classrooms. In chapter 3 Daniela Reimann introduces us ‘smart textiles’ as a creative environment for programming interactive objects. In chapter 4 Maire Tuul gives an overview of Makey Makey, a platform for improvising tangible user interfaces. In chapter 5 Ilkka Jormanainen takes a look into the world of robotics. All of the chapters have been written in a way that it is possible to understand the content of each chapter without reading the paper from cover to cover. You can just pick out the parts you find interesting. Enjoy reading! References Lye, S. Y. & Koh, J. H. L. (2014). Review on teaching and learning of computational thinking through programming: What is next for K-12? Computers in Human Behavior, 41, 51-61.
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This paper proposes how various disciplinary theories of cognition may be combined into a unifying, sub-symbolic, computational theory of cognition. The following theories are considered for integration: psychological theories, including the theory of event coding, event segmentation theory, the theory of anticipatory behavioral control, and concept development; artificial intelligence and machine learning theories, including reinforcement learning and generative artificial neural networks; and theories from theoretical and computational neuroscience, including predictive coding and free energy-based inference. In the light of such a potential unification, it is discussed how abstract cognitive, conceptualized knowledge and understanding may be learned from actively gathered sensorimotor experiences. The unification rests on the free energy-based inference principle, which essentially implies that the brain builds a predictive, generative model of its environment. Neural activity-oriented inference causes the continuous adaptation of the currently active predictive encodings. Neural structure-oriented inference causes the longer term adaptation of the developing generative model as a whole. Finally, active inference strives for maintaining internal homeostasis, causing goal-directed motor behavior. To learn abstract, hierarchical encodings, however, it is proposed that free energy-based inference needs to be enhanced with structural priors, which bias cognitive development towards the formation of particular, behaviorally suitable encoding structures. As a result, it is hypothesized how abstract concepts can develop from, and thus how they are structured by and grounded in, sensorimotor experiences. Moreover, it is sketched-out how symbol-like thought can be generated by a temporarily active set of predictive encodings, which constitute a distributed neural attractor in the form of an interactive free-energy minimum. The activated, interactive network attractor essentially characterizes the semantics of a concept or a concept composition, such as an actual or imagined situation in our environment. Temporal successions of attractors then encode unfolding semantics, which may be generated by a behavioral or mental interaction with an actual or imagined situation in our environment. Implications, further predictions, possible verification and falsifications, as well as potential enhancements into a fully spelled-out unified theory of cognition are discussed at the end of the paper.
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The recent focus on computational thinking as a key 21st century skill for all students has led to a number of curriculum initiatives to embed it in K-12 classrooms. In this paper, we discuss the key computational thinking constructs, including algorithms, abstraction, and automation. We further discuss how these ideas are related to current educational re- forms, such as Common Core and Next Generation Science Standards and provide specific means that would allow teachers to embed these ideas in their K-12 classrooms, in- cluding recommendations for instructional technologists and professional development experts for infusing computational thinking into other subjects. In conclusion, we suggest that computational thinking ideas outlined in this paper are key to moving students from merely being technology-literate to using computational tools to solve problems.
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One of the barriers to entry of computer programming in schools is the lack of tools that support educators in the assessment of student projects. In order to amend this situation this paper presents Dr. Scratch, a web application that allows teachers and students to automatically analyze projects coded in Scratch, the most used programming language in primary and secondary education worldwide, to check if they have been properly programmed, learn from their mistakes and get feedback to improve their code and develop their Computational Thinking (CT) skills. One of the goals of Dr. Scratch, besides supporting teachers in the evaluation tasks, is to act as a stimulus to encourage students to keep on improving their programming skills. Aiming to check its effectiveness regarding this objective, workshops with students in the range from 10 to 14 years were run in 8 schools, in which over 100 learners analyzed one of their Scratch projects with Dr. Scratch, read the information displayed as feedback by Dr. Scratch, and tried to improve their projects using the guidelines and tips offered by the tool. Our results show that at the end of the workshop, students increased their CT score and, consequently, improved their coding skills.
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The utilization of game elements in a non-game context is currently used in a vast range of different domains. However, research on game elements' effects in cognitive tasks is still sparse. Thus, in this study we implemented three game elements, namely, progress bar, level indicator, and a thematic setting, in a working memory training task. We evaluated the impact of game elements on user performance and perceived state of flow when compared to a conventional version of the task. Participants interacting with game elements showed higher scores in the working memory training task than participants from a control group who completed the working memory training task without the game elements. Moreover, game elements facilitated the individuals' performance closer to their maximum working memory capacity. Finally, the perceived flow did not differ between the two groups, which indicates that game elements can induce better performance without changing the perception of being " in the zone " , that is without an increase in anxiety or boredom. This empirical study indicates that certain game elements can improve the performance and efficiency in a working memory task by increasing users' ability and willingness to train at their optimal performance level.
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As a medium for learning, digital games provide promising possibilities to motivate and engage students in subject learning. In this study, a game-based learning system, My-Pet-My-Quest, is developed to support pupils' math learning. This is due to the fact that most students in Taiwan have relatively lower positive attitude towards math learning, even though their math performance is prominent. To this end, a three-tire framework is proposed to guide the design of the My-Pet-My-Quest system. A quasi-experiment was conducted to examine the influence of game quests on pupils' enjoyment and goal-pursuing in math learning. The results revealed that game quests were favored by students in terms of enjoyment, goal orientation, and goal intensity. Possible reasons for these results and a discussion of related issues are presented in this paper.
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Mitchel Resnick ( MIT Media Lab Brennan, K., & Resnick, M. (2012). Using artifact-based interviews to study the development of computational thinking in interactive media design. Paper presented at annual American Educational Research Association meeting, Abstract Computational thinking is a phrase that has received considerable attention over the past several years – but there is little agreement about what computational thinking encompasses, and even less agreement about strategies for assessing the development of computational thinking in young people. We are interested in the ways that design-based learning activities – in particular, programming interactive media – support the development of computational thinking in young people. Over the past several years, we have developed a computational thinking framework that emerged from our studies of the activities of interactive media designers. Our context is Scratch – a programming environment that enables young people to create their own interactive stories, games, and simulations, and then share those creations in an online community with other young programmers from around the world. The first part of the paper describes the key dimensions of our computational thinking framework: computational concepts (the concepts designers engage with as they program, such as iteration, parallelism, etc.), computational practices (the practices designers develop as they engage with the concepts, such as debugging projects or remixing others' work), and computational perspectives (the perspectives designers form about the world around them and about themselves). The second part of the paper describes our evolving approach to assessing these dimensions, including project portfolio analysis, artifact-based interviews, and design scenarios. We end with a set of suggestions for assessing the learning that takes place when young people engage in programming.
In this article we argue that to study or apply games as learning environments, multiple perspectives have to be taken into account. We first define game-based learning and gamification, and then discuss theoretical models that describe learning with games, arguing that playfulness is orthogonal to learning theory. We then review design elements of games that facilitate learning by fostering learners' cognitive, behavioral, affective, and sociocultural engagement with the subject matter. Finally, we discuss the basis of these design elements in cognitive, motivational, affective, and sociocultural foundations by reviewing key theories from education and psychology that are the most pertinent to game-based learning and by describing empirical research on learning with games that has been or should be conducted. We conclude that a combination of cognitive, motivational, affective, and sociocultural perspectives is necessary for both game design and game research to fully capture what games have to offer for learning.
Computer science in UK schools is undergoing a remarkable transformation. While the changes are not consistent across each of the four devolved nations of the UK (England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland), there are developments in each that are moving the subject to become mandatory for all pupils from age 5 onwards. In this paper, we detail how computer science declined in the UK, and the developments that led to its revitalisation: a mixture of industry and interest group lobbying, with a particular focus on the value of the subject to all school pupils, not just those who would study it at degree level. This rapid growth in the subject is not without issues, however: there remain significant forthcoming challenges with its delivery, especially surrounding the issue of training sufficient numbers of teachers. We describe a national network of teaching excellence which is being set up to combat this problem, and look at the other challenges that lie ahead.