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Anti-Diabetic Effects of Aronia melanocarpa and its Other Therapeutic Properties

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Anti-Diabetic Effects of Aronia melanocarpa and its Other Therapeutic Properties

Abstract

Diabetes is a global pandemic which warrants urgent attention due to its rising prevalence and economic burden. Thus, many alternative therapies are being researched for anti-diabetic properties, given the inefficacy of current medicinal treatments. From this perspective, Aronia melanocarpa or Black Chokeberry has been investigated for its therapeutic properties in many studies, especially for its ability to combat hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress and the macrovascular complications of diabetes including cardiovascular disease. Though A. melanocarpa is native to the eastern areas of North America, it has been planted extensively in Europe and Asia as well. Several in vivo studies have displayed the antioxidant properties of A. melanocarpa berry juice and plant extract in rat models where oxidative stress markers were observed to have significant reductions. Some of the potent bioactive compounds present in the fruits and other parts of the plant were identified as (-)-epicatechin, chlorogenic acid, neochlorogenic acid and cyanidin-3-galactoside. Overall, A. melanocarpa could be considered a good source of antioxidants which is effective in combating hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress.
November 2017 | Volume 4 | Article 531
MINI REVIEW
published: 06 November 2017
doi: 10.3389/fnut.2017.00053
Frontiers in Nutrition | www.frontiersin.org
Edited by:
Marcello Iriti,
Università degli Studi di Milano, Italy
Reviewed by:
Jesus Osada,
University of Zaragoza, Spain
Marcin Szyman´ ski,
Poznan University of Medical
Sciences, Poland
*Correspondence:
Viduranga Y. Waisundara
viduranga@gmail.com
Specialty section:
This article was submitted
to Food Chemistry,
a section of the journal
Frontiers in Nutrition
Received: 18September2017
Accepted: 18October2017
Published: 06November2017
Citation:
BanjariI, MisirA, ŠavikinK, Jokic´S,
MolnarM, DeZoysaHKS and
WaisundaraVY (2017) Antidiabetic
Effects of Aronia melanocarpa and Its
Other Therapeutic Properties.
Front. Nutr. 4:53.
doi: 10.3389/fnut.2017.00053
Antidiabetic Effects of Aronia
melanocarpa and Its Other
Therapeutic Properties
Ines Banjari1, Andreja Misir1, Katarina Šavikin2, Stela Jokic
1, Maja Molnar1,
H. K. S. De Zoysa3 and Viduranga Y. Waisundara 3*
1 Faculty of Food Technology Osijek, Josip Juraj Strossmayer University of Osijek, Osijek, Croatia, 2 Institute for medicinal
plants research “Dr Josif Pancˇic´”, Belgrade, Serbia, 3 Department of Food Technology, Faculty of Technology, Rajarata
University of Sri Lanka, Mihintale, Sri Lanka
Diabetes is a global pandemic which warrants urgent attention due to its rising prev-
alence and economic burden. Thus, many alternative therapies are being researched
for antidiabetic properties, given the inefficacy of current medicinal treatments. From
this perspective, Aronia melanocarpa or black chokeberry has been investigated for its
therapeutic properties in many studies, especially for its ability to combat hyperglyce-
mia-induced oxidative stress and the macrovascular complications of diabetes including
cardiovascular disease. Though A. melanocarpa is native to the eastern areas of North
America, it has been planted extensively in Europe and Asia as well. Several in vivo
studies have displayed the antioxidant properties of A. melanocarpa berry juice and plant
extract in rat models where oxidative stress markers were observed to have significant
reductions. Some of the potent bioactive compounds present in the fruits and other parts
of the plant were identified as ()-epicatechin, chlorogenic acid, neochlorogenic acid,
and cyanidin-3-galactoside. Overall, A. melanocarpa could be considered a good source
of antioxidants which is effective in combating hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress.
Keywords: Aronia melanocarpa, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, oxidative stress, phenolic compounds
INTRODUCTION
Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder of the endocrine system and is currently considered a
global pandemic. e disease is prevalent in all parts of the world and is especially on the rise in
developing and newly developed nations. Individuals with diabetes are not able of producing or
properly utilizing insulin in the body, thus resulting in elevated glucose levels. e cause of diabetes
is multi-faceted, although both genetic and environmental factors such as obesity and lack of exercise
appear to play critical roles (13). Ethnic and racial dierences have also been found to contribute
to the prevalence of diabetes, especially among heterogeneous populations within the same area
(1). Additionally, scientic evidence leads to the belief that in the presence of a particular genetic
predisposition, environmental factors trigger the development of diabetes. On the other hand, in
type 2 diabetes mellitus, a chronic exposure of βTC3 cells to high glucose levels has been known
to result in glucose toxicity via increased oxidative stress (4). e injury caused by hyperglycemia-
induced oxidative stress can aect all organs. A growing amount of evidence indicates that the con-
sumption of plant foods is correlated with a lower risk from development of oxidative stress-related
diseases, especially diabetes (5). Although there are a number of antidiabetic medications, no single
marketed drug has succeeded in lowering hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress. Most therapies
target at lowering HbA1c. However, these drugs—when used in combination with other pharma-
ceutical agents—tend to lose much of their ecacy aer continuous usage (6). Weight gain is the
2
Banjari et al. Therapeutic Properties of A. melanocarpa
Frontiers in Nutrition | www.frontiersin.org November 2017 | Volume 4 | Article 53
primary side-eect of many of the antidiabetic therapies such as
sulfonylureas, α-glucosidase inhibitors, and thiazolidinediones.
Because many diabetic patients are already obese, this side-eect
is particularly undesirable. When it comes to a point where oral
therapies can no longer adequately control blood sugar, the only
remaining option is injectable insulin therapy. Nevertheless, none
of these interventions adequately address oxidative stress, and
therefore, the complications arising from the disease condition
worsen. As a result, there is an existing need for novel therapies,
and more importantly, dietary interventions and changes in the
lifestyle to provide both enhanced benets for diabetic patients.
e purpose of this mini review is to serve as an updated
summary of the antidiabetic eects of A. melanocarpa and its
applications in other disease conditions. Several recent studies
focused on A. melanocarpa potential in this context. Figure S1 in
Supplementary Material summarizes all the disease conditions
for which A. melanocarpa has been used to date (including its
traditional medicinal applications) and has been proven eective.
ANTIDIABETIC EFFECTS
OF A. melanocarpa
From the perspective of oxidative stress, plant-based products
which are rich in anthocyanins have been shown to exhibit a
plethora of pharmacological properties, such as anti-inamma-
tory, antitumor, and antioxidant activities. ese properties have
scientically displayed benecial eects for mitigating hypergly-
cemia-induced oxidative stress and its resulting complications
(79). A. melanocarpa (Michx.) Elliott or black chokeberry is a
fruit/plant which has been extensively investigated for its antidia-
betic properties. Images of this plant are shown in Figure S2A–C
in Supplementary Material and its major bioactive compounds
in Figure S2D in Supplementary Material. Due to the astringent
taste of these fruits and their smell of bitter-almonds, pure
A. melanocarpa products are not particularly popular among
many consumers, although they have been documented as a
“functional food” in Russia since the 1940s (10).
Aronia melanocarpa preparations are sometimes consumed as
a complementary and alternative therapy for conditions such as
achlorhydria, avitaminoses, convalescence, and hemorrhoids (11).
High anthocyanin contents in A. melanocarpa have led to investi-
gating the bioactives present in its extracts (12, 13). A. melanocar pa
juice (200mL) was shown to have a potent eect on postprandial
glucose in healthy subjects aer an oral meal tolerance test (14).
is eect was imparted regardless of the gender of the subjects
and was additionally shown to reduce the activity of dipeptidyl
peptidase IV, α-glucosidase, and angiotensin-converting enzyme
(ACE) in a dose-dependent manner (14). Ta b l e  1 summarizes
studies which have successfully demonstrated the hypoglycemic,
hypolipidemic, and antioxidant eects of various parts and
extracts of the plant. Tab l e  2 summarizes the studies dedicated to
identifying the components and bioactive compounds of interest
along with their ndings. Furthermore, reviews such as those by
Jurikova and others (15), Chrubasik etal. (10), Kokotkiewicz etal.
(11), and Parzonko and Naruszewicz (16) have appeared recently
highlighting the antidiabetic eects of A. melanocarpa in relation
to mitigating hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress and other
precipitating conditions of the disease.
THE POTENTIAL OF A. melanocarpa
IN THE MODULATION OF OTHER
PRECIPITATING CONDITIONS
OF DIABETES
Although the number of published studies on A. melanocarpa
increases by day, only a few have been conducted to evaluate its
therapeutic eects clinically. According to Chrubasik etal. (10),
only 13 clinical trials which encompassed various A. melanocarpa
products for treatment of metabolic syndrome, hypercholester-
olemia, and type 2 diabetes have been published to date, while 2
studies had been conducted on healthy participants, and another
3 on other health issues. Nevertheless, all studies showed signi-
cant improvements in the observed parameters at a clinical level.
e initial use of A. melanocarpa by Native Americans was for
the treatment of colds, but its popularity increased aer it was
introduced to Russia and Eastern Europe where it was extensively
used as an anti-hypertensive drug (11). e anti-hypertensive
potential of A. melanocarpa was proven by Kardum etal. (38).
ey conducted a 4-week intervention study with 200 mL of
A. melanocarpa berry juice administered per day to subjects with
pharmacologically untreated high normal blood pressure (BP)
and grade I hypertension. In this study, the average 24-h and
awake systolic (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP) had signicantly
decreased, while these were higher in the group with a prevalence
of sympathetic activity. Interestingly, reduction in SBP and DBP
was more signicant when a period of regular consumption of
A. melanocarpa berry juice was followed (39). Another study by
Broncel etal. (40) also demonstrated signicant reductions in
both SBP and DBP aer 2months of consumption of 300mg of
A. melanocarpa berry extract per day among patients with meta-
bolic syndrome. Overall, these studies showed the potential of
long-term consumption of A. melanocarpa berry juice, although
periods of continuous usage were recommended to be accompa-
nied with a period of abstain.
e therapeutic potential of A. melanocarpa was proven to
be higher among people with increased cardiovascular risk (41),
inferring that they should be one of the target populations to whom
this plant extract should be administered. One of the underlying
therapeutic mechanisms of action of A. melanocarpa is t he stimula-
tion of the endothelial formation of nitric oxide (NO) in coronary
arteries (via phosphorilation of eNOS) (42). Yamane and others
(43) showed that in spontaneously hypertensive rats, a diet con-
taining freeze-dried A. melanocarpa berries signicantly reduces
SBP along with a signicantly reduced ACE activity at 4weeks.
Inhibition of ACE activity has been attributed to anthocyanidins
and avonoids which are all highly abundant in A. melanocarpa
(36, 37, 44, 45). More recently, the study by Bhaswant etal. (23)
found similar benecial eects on parameters related to the
metabolic syndrome in rats fed with either A. melanocarpa juice
or purple maize our. e main conclusion of this study was that
anthocyanins are the most probable bioactive components respon-
sible for the observed benecial eects in A. melanocarpa.
TABLE 1 | Studies demonstrating the therapeutic properties of Aronia melanocarpa.
Administered
component
Study model Observed effects Reference
Extract from
A. melanocarpa leaves
Streptozotocin (STZ)-
induced diabetic rats
Hypoglycemia (17, 18)
A. melanocarpa fruit
juice
STZ-induced diabetic
rats
Hypoglycemia and hypolipidemia (19)
Reduced thiobarbituric acid (TBARS) concentration in blood, positive changes on total cholesterol
and triglycerides, as well as attenuated kidneys’ hypertrophy and lipid peroxidation
(20)
C57BL/6JmsSlc and
KK-Ay mice
Significantly reduced body weight, weights of white adipose tissues and blood glucose level in
KK-Ay mice given A. melanocarpa juice, along with reduced α-glucosidase activity in the upper
portion of the small intestine
(21)
C57BL/6J mice fed
with a low-fat, high-
sucrose, or high-fat
(55% energy from fat)
diet
Except for the significant reduction on body weight (especially for LFHS diet) no significant effect
was found on adipose tissue gene expression, plasma insulin or triglycerides
(22)
Healthy rats fed a maize
starch (C) or high-
carbohydrate, high-fat
diet (H)
A significant reduction in visceral adiposity index, total body fat mass, and systolic blood pressure;
improved glucose tolerance, liver, and cardiovascular structure and function (decreased total
cholesterol and triglycerides) along with decreased macrovascular steatosis and portal inflammation
(23)
Clinical study in type 2
diabetic patients
Reduced fasting blood glucose levels (24, 25)
Clinical study on
healthy subjects
After a 3-week consumption, significant increase in serum antioxidant capacity was found (already
at week 1), no change in blood lipid status, but reduced triglycerides
(26)
Clinical study on
healthy subjects
200ml of Figure S2 in Supplementary Material summarizes all the disease conditions for which
A. melanocarpa has been used to date and has been proven effective. juice reduced the
postprandial blood glucose after an oral meal tolerance test and significantly reduced the activity
of dipeptidyl peptidase IV, α-glucosidase and angiotensin-converting enzyme in a dose-dependent
manner
(14)
Anthocyanin-rich
fraction separated from
A. melanocarpa fruit
Pancreatic β-cells Scavenging effect of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) (27)
Human HepG2 cells Reduced ROS levels induced by high glucose (28)
Anthocyanins and
procyanidin-rich
fraction from
A. melanocarpa In vitro evaluation
Reduced blood glucose levels due to inhibition of α-glucosidase (29)
A. melanocarpa plant
extract
A good source of phenolic compounds as compared with the other species examined in the study,
which led to its identification as a potential functional food against diseases related to elevated
oxidative stress levels
(30)
A. melanocarpa fruit
extract
Healthy rats fed on
normal diet
A decrease in the oxidative stress markers such as total antioxidant capacity, total thiol groups
and glutathione; the enzymes CAT and ceruloplasmin were unaffected by the treatment
(17)
Healthy rats fed with
a high-fructose diet
A significant reduction in weight gain, epididymal fat accumulation, blood glucose and lipid
metabolism (total and LDL cholesterol, triglycerides), increased plasma adiponectin levels, and
decreased plasma TNF-α and IL-6 levels, along with gene expression activity in multiple pathways
involved in insulin signaling, adipogenesis, and inflammation
(31)
STZ-induced diabetic
rats
A significantly lower inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IFN-γ) regardless of the concentration of
A. melanocarpa extract that was administered
(32)
3
Banjari et al. Therapeutic Properties of A. melanocarpa
Frontiers in Nutrition | www.frontiersin.org November 2017 | Volume 4 | Article 53
Another therapeutic potential of A. melanocarpa is its modu-
lation of the lipoprotein prole (10, 11). is was particularly
demonstrated in the study by Kardum and others (46) where
signicant reductions in the triglyceride content (TG) was
observed among mildly hypertensive patients aer 4 weeks of
consumption of A. melanocarpa berry juice. Signicant reduc-
tion in TG was also demonstrated in the study by Nowak and
others (26), which was conducted in healthy individuals. In this
study, men with mild hypercholesterolemia consumed 250mL
of the fruit juice for 3weeks and achieved signicant metabolic
changes (40). It is important to note that regular consumption of
A. melanoc arpa is recommended even for people already on statin
therapy (47).
e anti-inammatory potential of A. melanocarpa juice was
demonstrated in few studies through reduced levels of cytokines
(38, 40), as well as in studies which used patients with cardiovas-
cular disease (47). Badescu and others (32) demonstrated that
the chronic inammatory reaction related to diabetes mellitus
improves under the action of polyphenols from A. melanocarpa,
specically through its ability to lower TNF-α and IFN-γ.
TABLE 2 | Compositional details and bioactive compounds in Aronia
melanocarpa fruits.
Reference Components
(11, 25) Sugar (10–18%), pectins (0.6–0.7%), sorbitol, parasorboside
and small amount of fat (0.14% fresh weight, composed
mainly of linoleic acid glycerides and phosphatidylinositol),
minerals—K, Zn, Na, Ca, Mg, and Fe, vitamin B complex,
vitamin C and A, and carotenoids, tannins, and triterpenes
(b-sitosterol and campesterol), amygdalin, volatile
compounds—benzaldehyde cyanohydrin, hydrocyanic acid,
and benzaldehyde
(15) Neochlorogenic and chlorogenic acids, cyanidin-3-galactoside,
cyanidin-3-arabinoside, ()-epicatechin units
(10, 11, 16, 33) Procyanidins, anthocyanins, and phenolic acids
(34, 35) Phenolic compounds, chlorogenic acid, neochlorogenic acid,
and cyanidin-3-galactoside
(36, 37) Procyanidins
(3, 9, 16) ()-epicatechin
4
Banjari et al. Therapeutic Properties of A. melanocarpa
Frontiers in Nutrition | www.frontiersin.org November 2017 | Volume 4 | Article 53
CONCLUSION AND FUTURE DIRECTIONS
At present, approximately 415 million people around the world
have been contracted with diabetes, while a constant increase
in the number is expected. Furthermore, pre-diabetes (dened
as impaired fasting glucose or impaired glucose tolerance)
has observed to signicantly increase the risk for developing
diabetes and its complications, where the current prevalence is
estimated to be 6.7% (48). e quality of life is aected by this
disease while the life expectancy among diabetics is reduced
by 5–10years as compared with the healthy population, with
cardiovascular complications representing the major cause of
mortality. e nancial burden occurring from this disease is
evident to be substantial. Globally, 12% of the total health-care
resources are being spent for diabetes treatment, ranging from 5
to 20% (48). However, along with reduced nancial allocations
toward health care, especially in terms of preventive measures
and pharmaceuticals, the burden falls onto patients and their
families. People with diabetes spend 2.5 times for health care
from their own nancial reserves than their healthy counterparts
(49), especially if they have developed cardiovascular disease
(50). Finding a way to bridge the gap between current treatments,
preventive measures (directed toward pre-diabetes as well as
delay of diabetes complications), possible adjuvant therapies,
and dietary and lifestyle modication is strongly encouraged
given this situation (48). As highlighted in this review, A. mel-
anocarpa berry juice and plant extract has displayed evidence
as a potent modulator of hyperglycemia-related oxidative stress
which is directly correlated with its complications, in particu-
lar, cardiovascular disease. Nevertheless, continuous use of A.
melanocarpa is recommended to be accompanied with the same
period of abstain. Also, people with increased cardiovascular
risk (i.e., with abdominal obesity, mild hypercholesterolemia,
grade I hypertension) seem to benet more from the consump-
tion of A. melanocarpa berry juice and extract. us, overall,
consumption of A. melanocarpa could be recommended as
a possible approach to reducing the nancial burden for both
diabetics and their families, as well as that of national health-care
systems in countries where diabetes poses a signicant liability.
Additionally, the fruit and its extract appear to have a multitude
of benecial eects against other disease conditions, which could
potentially be explored and scientically substantiated through
systematic studies and investigations.
AUTHOR CONTRIBUTIONS
IB, AM, KŠ, SJ, MM, HZ, and VW equally contributed to the
acquisition of information, draing the manuscript, and approv-
ing the nal version.
SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIAL
e Supplementary Material for this article can be found online
at http://www.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fnut.2017.00053/
full#supplementary-material.
FIGURE S1 | Disease conditions for which administration/consumption of A.
melanocarpa has proven to be effective.
FIGURE S2 | Images of (A) A. melanocarpa in fields during summer-time (B),
bushes with fruits, (C) fruits & leaves and (D) the chemical structures of some of
the potent bioactive compounds present in A. melanocarpa.
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6
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Conict of Interest Statement: e authors declare that the research was
conducted in the absence of any commercial or nancial relationships that could
be construed as a potential conict of interest.
Copyright © 2017 Banjari, Misir, Šavikin, Jokić, Molnar, De Zoysa and Waisundara.
is is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons
Attribution License (CC BY). e use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is
permitted, provided the original author(s) or licensor are credited and that the original
publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No
use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

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... Chokeberry (Aronia melanocarpa L.) is a very valuable fruit due to its pro-health properties, in particular in the prevention of many civilization diseases, including some cancers, hypertension, diabetes, atherosclerosis, stomach diseases and age-related deterioration of eyesight [1][2][3][4]. These properties stem from high bioactive phytochemicals content, such as anthocyanins, flavanols, phenolic acids and flavonols [1,5,6]. ...
... the drying air heater and fan producing the drying air flow. EWEC was calculated using Equation(3). ...
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The production of chokeberry powder, an important functional additive in food, should exhibit both maximization of bioactive properties retention and minimization of energy consumption. The process of spray drying chokeberry juice on a maltodextrin carrier was tested on a semi-technical scale. The research scope included the variability of the inlet air temperature in the range of T = 150–185 °C and concentration of the feed solution in the range of Ud.m = 15–45% d.m. The powder yield, energy consumption and bioactive properties of the obtained powders were determined. The highest levels of bioactive properties retention were expressed in total polyphenol content (TPC) and anthocyanin content (AC) and obtained at T = 150 °C and Ud.m = 25–30% d.m. However, the most advantageous process parameters in terms of specific energy consumption (SEC) minimization were T = 160–170 °C and Ud.m = 30–35% d.m. Analysis of the dependence on SEC versus TPC and SEC versus AC showed that the most favorable drying parameters for chokeberry juice were as follows: inlet air temperature T = 170 °C and feed solution concentration Ud.m = 35%. Hence, under such process conditions, chokeberry powders were produced with approx. 3% lower bioactive properties retention (in relation to the maximum values), but with 20.5% lower SEC.
... Indeed, the use of traditional medicine has been eclipsed by modern medicine as a way to cure and manage human illnesses [2]. However, in recent decades, the use of herbal medicines in promoting health and treating conditions has increased in several countries, including developing societies [3]. Natural products can be considered as sources of therapeutic ingredients for discovering innovative drugs [4][5][6]. ...
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This exploratory investigation aimed to determine the chemical composition and evaluate some biological properties, such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, and antimicrobial activities, of Matricaria chamomilla L. essential oils (EOs). EOs of M. chamomilla were obtained by hydrodistillation and phytochemical screening was performed by gas chromatography–mass spec- trophotometry (GC-MS). The antimicrobial activities were tested against different pathogenic strains of microorganisms by using disc diffusion assay, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) methods. The antidiabetic activity was performed in vitro using the enzyme inhibition test. The antioxidant activity of EOs was tested using the free radical scavenging ability (DPPH method), ferrous ion chelating (FIC) ability, and β-carotene bleaching assay. The anti-inflammatory effects were tested in vivo using the carrageenan-induced paw edema method and in vitro using the inhibition of the lipoxygenase test. The analysis of the phytochemical composition by GC-MS revealed that camphor (16.42%) was the major compound of EOs, followed by 3-carene (9.95%), β-myrcene (8.01%), and chamazulene (6.54%). MCEO, honey, and their mixture exhibited antioxidant activity against the DPPH assay (IC50 ranging from 533.89 ± 15.05 µg/mL to 1945.38 ± 12.71 µg/mL). The mixture exhibited the best radical scavenging activity, with an IC50 of 533.89 ± 15.05 µg/mL. As antidiabetic effect, EO presented the best values against α-glucosidase (265.57 ± 0.03 µg/mL) and α-amylase (121.44 ± 0.05 µg/mL). The EOs and honey mixture at a dose of 100 mg/kg exhibited a high anti-inflammatory effect, with 63.75% edema inhibition after 3 h. The impact of EOs on the studied species showed an excellent antimicrobial (Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213 (22.97 ± 0.16 mm)), antifungal (Aspergillus niger (18.13 ± 0.18 mm)) and anti-yeast (Candida albicans (21.07 ± 0.24 mm) effect against all the tested strains. The results obtained indicate that the EOs of M.chamomilla could be a potential drug target against diabetes, inflammation and microbial infections; however, further investigations to assess their bioactive molecules individually and in combination are greatly required.
... Previous studies have demonstrated that rosmarinic acid and astilbin exhibit various pharmacological activities, such as anti-inflammatory (Chu et al., 2012), hepatoprotective , and anti-oxidative activities (Sharma et al., 2020;Wang et al., 2020). Phenolic compounds, including neochlorogenic, chlorogenic, cryptochlorogenic, and caffeic acid, can treat metabolic syndrome since they exert antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, and antilipidemic effects (Banjari et al., 2017;Santana-Galvez et al., 2017;Zhao et al., 2020). More importantly, isofraxidin is used as an index component for evaluating the quality of SGN medicinal materials and their preparations in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia; it mainly exhibits anti-inflammatory activity and is a potential ROS scavenger Su et al., 2019;Liu et al., 2020). ...
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Gastric ulcer (GU) is one of the most commonly diagnosed diseases worldwide, threatening human health and seriously affecting quality of life. Reports have shown that the Chinese herbal medicine Sarcandra glabra (Thunb.) Nakai (SGN) can treat GU. However, its pharmacological effects deserve further validation; in addition, its mechanism of action is unclear. An acute gastric ulcer (AGU) rat model induced by alcohol was used to evaluate the gastroprotective effect of SGN by analysis of the histopathological changes in stomach tissue and related cytokine levels; the potential mechanisms of action of SGN were investigated via serum metabolomics and network pharmacology. Differential metabolites of rat serum were identified by metabolomics and the metabolic pathways of the identified metabolites were enriched via MetaboAnalyst. Furthermore, the critical ingredients and candidate targets of SGN anti-AGU were elucidated. A compound-reaction-enzyme-gene network was established using Cytoscape version 3.8.2 based on integrated analysis of metabolomics and network pharmacology. Finally, molecular docking was applied to verify the acquired key targets. The results showed that SGN exerted a certain gastroprotective effect via multiple pathways and targets. The effects of SGN were mainly caused by the key active ingredients isofraxidin, rosmarinic, and caffeic acid, which regulate hub targets, such as PTGS2, MAPK1, and KDR, which maintain the homeostasis of related metabolites. Signal pathways involved energy metabolism as well as immune and amino acid metabolism. Overall, the multi-omics techniques were proven to be promising tools in illuminating the mechanism of action of SGN in protecting against diseases. This integrated strategy provides a basis for further research and clinical application of SGN.
... A. melanocarpa has the highest polyphenols concentration compared to other fruits providing many health benefits. It has been also shown that their consumption could stimulate cardiovascular, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and antidiabetic properties (Banjari et al., 2017;Cebova et al., 2017;Istas et al., 2019;King and Bolling, 2020). Based on the pharmacological compounds of A. melanocarpa and their well-established physiological properties, the objective of this work was to evaluate the A. melanocarpa ethanol-extract effects on the modulation of intestinal microbiota in mice as well as their anti-inflammatory properties via the signaling pathways involved. ...
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Ethnopharmacological relevance Aronia melanocarpa (Michx.) Elliott. Is one of the most functional berries usually used in the preparation of juice and jams, but it has revealed its ethnopharmacological properties due to their richness in biologically active molecules with pharmaceutical and physiological effects. Aims of the study The aim of this study was to assess the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of Aronia melanocarpa ethanol-extract as well as the possible mechanisms of action involved and the modulation of gut microbiota in Dextran Sulfate Sodium (DSS)-induced Inflammatory bowel disease in mice. Materials and methods Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) were induced by DSS in drinking water for 7 days to evaluate the properties of A. melanocarpa ethanol-extract (AME) on the intestinal microflora. AME was administered orally to DSS-induced IBD mice for 21 days. Clinical, inflammatory, histopathological parameters, and different mRNA and proteins involved in its possible mechanism of action were determined as well as gut microbiota analysis via 16S high throughput sequencing. Results AME improved clinical symptoms and regulated histopathological parameters, pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress factors as well as mRNA and protein expressions of transcription factors involved in maintaining the intestinal barrier integrity. In addition, AME also reversed the DSS-induced intestinal dysbiosis effects promoting the production of cecal short chain fatty acids linked to signaling pathways inhibiting IBD. Conclusion AME improved intestinal lesions induced by DSS suggesting that A. melanocarpa berries could have significant therapeutic potential against IBD due to their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory capacities as well as their ability to restore the gut microbiota balance.
... The black chokeberries (berries of Aronia melanocarpa L. and A. melanocarpa (Michx.) Elliott, Rosaceae) are characterized by a very high content of these compounds, especially proanthocyanidins and anthocyanins [29,32,33], and thus, they exhibit numerous beneficial actions for health, such as anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, antiatherosclerotic, antithrombotic, and antineoplastic effects [29,[34][35][36]. The beneficial activity of polyphenols in a variety of diseases and other states arises from the strong antioxidative properties of these compounds determined by their structure and the location of hydroxyl groups (-OH) in the aromatic ring [29,32,33]. ...
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... In recent years, black chokeberries have gained popularity due to their high content of polyphenols, particularly anthocyanins and flavonoids, with antioxidant activity, which are mostly responsible for its therapeutic potential [22][23][24]. Previous studies showed that chokeberry fruit and extracts, rich in polyphenols such as quercetin, and epicatechin [25,26] exert wide beneficial effects in chronic diseases, especially in diseases connected with oxidative stress [27][28][29]. Our recent studies showed that standardized Aronia melanocarpa extracts (SAE) could reduce oxidative stress and increase the levels of iron in rats with metabolic syndrome [30]. ...
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... In recent years, black chokeberries have gained popularity due to their high content of polyphenols, particularly anthocyanins and avonoids, with antioxidant activity, which are mostly responsible for its therapeutic potential [22][23][24]. Previous studies showed that chokeberry fruit and extracts, rich in polyphenols such as quercetin, and epicatechin [25,26] exert wide bene cial effects in chronic diseases, especially in diseases connected with oxidative stress [27][28][29]. Our recent studies showed that standardized Aronia melanocarpa extracts (SAE) could reduce oxidative stress and increase the levels of iron in rats with metabolic syndrome [30]. ...
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The aim of our study was to investigate the effects of one-month consumption of polyphenol-rich standardized Aronia melanocarpa extract (SAE) on redox status in anemic hemodialysis patients. The study included 30 patients (Hb < 110g/l, hemodialysis or hemodiafiltration > 3 months; > 3 times week). Patients were treated with commercially available SAE in a dose of 30 ml/day, for 30 days. After finishing the treatment blood samples were taken in order to evaluate the effects of SAE on redox status. Several parameters of anemia and inflammation were also followed. After the completion of the treatment, the levels of superoxide anion radical and nitrites significantly dropped, while the antioxidant capacity improved via elevation of catalase and reduced glutathione. Proven antioxidant effect was followed by beneficial effects on anemia parameters (increased hemoglobin and haptoglobin concentration, decreased ferritin and lactate dehydrogenase concentration), but SAE consumption didn`t improve inflammatory status, except for minor decrease in C-reactive protein. The consumption of SAE regulates redox status (reduce the productions of pro-oxidative molecules and increase antioxidant defense) and has beneficial effects on anemia parameters. SAE could be considered as supportive therapy in patients receiving hemodialysis which are prone to oxidative stress caused by both chronic kidney disease and hemodialysis procedure. Additionally, it could potentially be a good choice for supplementation of anemic hemodialysis patients. TRN: NCT04208451 December 23, 2019 “retrospectively registered”
... Over the years, modern medicine has overshadowed the use of extracts and concoctions from plants human diseases treatment (Tansaz and Tajadini, 2016;Yuan et al., 2016). Recent interests in natural products and the use of medicinal plants in disease treatment stems from the lack of efficacy of purified compounds used in drug discovery (Banjari et al., 2017;Thomford et al., 2016a,b,c;Yatoo et al., 2017). In many countries worldwide medicinal plant extracts are now available over the counter or are used in combination with prescription drugs (Ji et al., 2017;Ruhsam and Hollingsworth, 2017). ...
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A paradigm shift in the way drug are designed and developed is needed to curb the rise in new infectious diseases and also drug resistance. Innovative ways to develop new drugs are needed. To achieve this, innovative strategies based on inspiration from natural products have helped in the designing and development of many compounds that are potential drugs. In this regard, technological advances have allowed profiles of complex compounds to be studied, resulting in many compounds being designed and synthesized. Indeed, many compounds and other blockbuster drugs have already been developed from natural products or from compounds derived from natural products. This makes natural products central to drug discovery and with recent trends in technological advances, will aid in increasing the success rate of new therapeutic moieties. Overall, natural products will remain a major contributor to drug development and in our effort to curbing global health challenges as well as achieving sustainable development goals on health.
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The traditional use of plants and their preparations in the treatment of diseases as a first medication in the past centuries indicates the presence of active components for specific targets in the natural material. Many of the tested plants in this study have been traditionally used in the treatment of Diabetes mellitus type 2 and associated symptoms in different cultural areas. Additionally, hypoglycemic effects, such as a decrease in blood glucose concentration, have been demonstrated in vivo for these plants. In order to determine the mode of action, the plants were prepared as methanolic and aqueous extracts and tested for their effects on intestinal glucose and fructose absorption in Caco2 cells. The results of this screening showed significant and reproducible inhibition of glucose uptake between 40 and 80% by methanolic extracts made from the fruits of Aronia melanocarpa, Cornus officinalis, Crataegus pinnatifida, Lycium chinense, and Vaccinium myrtillus; the leaves of Brassica oleracea, Juglans regia, and Peumus boldus; and the roots of Adenophora triphylla. Furthermore, glucose uptake was inhibited between 50 and 70% by aqueous extracts made from the bark of Eucommia ulmoides and the fruit skin of Malus domestica. The methanolic extracts of Juglans regia and Peumus boldus inhibited the fructose transport between 30 and 40% in Caco2 cells as well. These findings can be considered as fundamental work for further research regarding the treatment of obesity-correlated diseases, such as Diabetes mellitus type 2.
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This study was conducted to investigate the quality and antioxidant characteristics of rice porridge supplemented with 3%, 6%, and 9% Aronia melanocarpa (aronia) powder. The moisture content of the porridge was 80.41-80.84%, and no significant difference was observed between the control and porridge supplemented with 3-9% of aronia powder. The sugar content of the porridge increased, but pH and viscosity of the porridge decreased as the aronia content increased. Moreover, with respect to chromaticity determination, the L* and b* values decreased and the a* value increased as the aronia content increased. Of note, the total polyphenol, flavonoid, and anthocyanin contents also increased in the amount of aronia powder, compared to that in the control. The increase in the antioxidant activity measured by DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activities and reducing power corresponded to the increase in the amount of aronia powder added as supplement. From the above results, the commercialization potential of the aronia-added porridge is considered to be positive. However, from the viewpoint of the astringency of aronia and the viscosity of the porridge, it is recommended that the content of aronia powder does not exceed 9% of the ratio of rice to maintain the quality of the porridge.
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Background: Aronia berries contain many important effects on potential health, with previous studies suggesting that aronia juice is useful for the treatment of hypertension. Objective:To examine whether aronia berries have improvement effects on hypertension through the inhibition of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)activity.Method:The normal diet containing 10% freeze-dried aronia berries was administered to five spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) in each group for 28 days, with their body weight, food intake,and systolic blood pressure being measured. At 28 days after administration of aronia berry-containing diets, the serum, lungs,and kidneys were isolated and used for measurement of ACE activity.Results:In this study, we found that blood pressure in SHRs fed freeze-dried aronia berries-containing diet decreased compared with the blood pressure in SHRs fed normal diet. We also discoveredthatthecatalytic activity of ACE was reduced in the kidney of SHRs fed freeze-dried aronia berries-containing diet but not in the lungs of aronia berries-administered rats. Conclusion: Aronia berries have beneficial effects on the amelioration of hypertension through inhibition of the kidney renin-angiotensin system.Key word:aronia, hypertension improvement, kidney renin-angiotensin system, ACE.
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In recent years, growing attention has been focused on the utilization of natural sources of antioxidants in the prevention of chronic diseases. Black chokeberry (Aronia melanocarpa) represents a lesser known fruit species utilized mainly as juices, purees, jams, jellies and wine, as important food colorants or nutritional supplements. The fruit is valued as a great source of antioxidants, especially polyphenols, such as phenolic acids (neochlorogenic and chlorogenic acids) and flavonoids (anthocyanins, proanthocyanidins, flavanols and flavonols), particularly cyanidin-3-galactoside and cyanidin-3-arabinoside, as well as (−)-epicatechin units. The berries of A. melanocarpa, due to the presence and the high content of these bioactive components, exhibit a wide range of positive effects, such as strong antioxidant activity and potential medicinal and therapeutic benefits (gastroprotective, hepatoprotective, antiproliferative or anti-inflammatory activities). They could be also contributory toward the prevention of chronic diseases including metabolic disorders, diabetes and cardiovascular diseases, because of supportive impacts on lipid profiles, fasting plasma glucose and blood pressure levels.
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Many studies have indicated that consumption of vegetables and fruits are positively related to lower incidence of several chronic noncommunicable diseases. Although composition of fruit and vegetable juices is different from that of the edible portion of fruits and vegetables, they contain polyphenols and vitamins from fruits and vegetables. Drinking vegetable and fruit juices is very popular in many countries, and also an efficient way to improve consumption of fruits and vegetables. The studies showed that fruit and vegetable juices affect cardiovascular risk factors, such as lowering blood pressure and improving blood lipid profiles. The main mechanisms of action included antioxidant effects, improvement of the aspects of the cardiovascular system, inhibition of platelet aggregation, anti-inflammatory effects, and prevention of hyperhomocysteinemia. Drinking juices might be a potential way to improve cardiovascular health, especially mixtures of juices because they contain a variety of polyphenols, vitamins, and minerals from different fruits and vegetables. This review summarizes recent studies on the effects of fruit and vegetable juices on indicators of cardiovascular disease, and special attention is paid to the mechanisms of action.
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Aronia has various functions toward human health, including the beneficial effect on hypertension, hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia. Recently, we identified cyanidin-3,5-O-diglucoside as DPP IV inhibitor from Aronia juice. We also found its beneficial effect on hyperglycemia in KKAy mice fed aronia juice. In this study, to examine the effect of aronia juice on postprandial blood glucose levels in Japanese, we performed an oral meal tolerance test (OMTT). We found that postprandial blood glucose levels were reduced in aronia juice-administered adult healthy Japanese. We also found that there was no difference of reduction levels of postprandial blood glucose between male and female. We also found that activities of dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP IV), α-glucosidase and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) were reduced by aronia juice. These results suggest that aronia juice suppresses the elevation of postprandial blood glucose levels through inhibition of these enzyme activities and may be useful for prevention of metabolic diseases in adult healthy Japanese.
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BACKGROUND: Products derived from black chokeberry are claimed to be beneficial in treating chronic diseases, such as obesity and diabetes. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine if supplementation with Aronia melanocarpa (black chokeberry) juice concentrate (AJC) has anti-obesity properties in mice fed obesogenic diets. METHODS: Male C57BL/6J mice (n=10/dietary treatment) were placed on either a low-fat, high-sucrose (LFHS; 5 fat), LFHSAJC (1.44g AJC/kg diet), high-fat (HF; 30 fat), or HFAJC for 12-weeks. RESULTS: Final body weight was lower in LFHSAJC compared to LFHS, HF and HFAJC (∼14, 20 and ∼16, respectively; P < 0.05). Mice receiving LFHS and LFHS+AJC had significantly higher (P = 0.001) energy intake than HF and HF+AJC. LFHS-fed mice had less (-30) epididymal fat (p < 0.05) than HF-fed mice, however mice on the LFHS+AJC had less epididymal fat per gram body weight than LFHS controls. There was no effect of diet or AJC on adipose tissue gene expression. There was no difference in plasma insulin, glucose or triglycerides between groups, however there was a positive effect of AJC on adiponectin (P = 0.059). There was also a significant effect of diet (LFHS versus HF) on HOMA-IR (P = 0.004) and HOMA-BCF (P = 0.002). CONCLUSIONS: The results from this study demonstrate that AJC supplementation has the potential to prevent weight gain and markers of obesity. Further research is needed to determine mechanisms of action.
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Aronia berries, [Aronia melanocarpa (Michx.) Elliott var. Moscow (Rosaceae)], originate from North America and have been traditionally used in Native American medicine. Extracts, subfractions, isolated anthocyanins and isolated procyanidins B2, B5 and C1 from berries and bark of A. melanocarpa were investigated for their antioxidant and enzyme inhibitory activities. Four different bioassays were used, namely scavenging of the diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical, inhibition of 15-lipoxygenase (15-LO), inhibition of xanthine oxidase (XO) and inhibition of α-glucosidase. Among the anthocyanins, cyanidin 3-arabinoside possessed the strongest and cyanidin 3-xyloside the weakest radical scavenging and enzyme inhibitory activity. These effects seem to be influenced by the sugar units linked to the anthocyanidin. Subfractions enriched in procyanidins were found to be potent α-glucosidase inhibitors, they possessed high radical scavenging properties, strong inhibitory activity towards 15-LO and moderate inhibitory activity towards XO. Trimeric procyanidin C1 showed higher activity in the biological assays compared to the dimeric procyanidins B2 and B5. This study suggests that different polyphenolic compounds of Aronia may have beneficial effects in reducing blood glucose levels due to inhibition of α-glucosidase and, provided sufficient bioavailability, may have a potential to alleviate oxidative stress.
Article
Objective: Increased consumption of fruits and vegetables as functional foods leads to the reduction of signs of metabolic syndrome. The aim of this study was to measure and compare cardiovascular, liver, and metabolic parameters following chronic administration of the same dose of anthocyanins either from chokeberry (CB) or purple maize (PM) in rats with diet-induced metabolic syndrome. Methods: Male Wistar rats were fed a maize starch (C) or high-carbohydrate, high-fat diet (H) and divided into six groups for 16 wk. The rats were fed C, C with CB or PM for the last 8 wk (CCB or CPM), H, H with CB or PM for the last 8 wk (HCB or HPM); CB and PM rats received ∼8 mg anthocyanins/kg daily. The rats were monitored for changes in blood pressure, cardiovascular and hepatic structure and function, glucose tolerance, and adipose tissue mass. Results: HCB and HPM rats showed reduced visceral adiposity index, total body fat mass, and systolic blood pressure; improved glucose tolerance, liver, and cardiovascular structure and function; decreased plasma triacylglycerols and total cholesterol compared with H rats. Inflammatory cell infiltration was reduced in heart and liver. Conclusion: CB and PM interventions gave similar responses, suggesting that anthocyanins are the bioactive molecules in the attenuation or reversal of metabolic syndrome by prevention of inflammation-induced damage.
Article
Aronia berries have many potential effects on health. Previous human studies have shown that aronia juice may be useful for treatment of obesity disorders. Recently, we have reported that aronia juice has an inhibitory effect on dipeptidyl peptidase (DPP IV) activity and that the DPP IV inhibitor in aronia juice was identified as cyanidin 3,5-diglucoside. In this study, we found that body weights and blood glucose levels were reduced in diabetes model KK-Ay mice given aronia juice. We also found that weights of white adipose tissues were reduced in KK-Ay mice given aronia juice. Furthermore, levels of DPP IV activity in the serum and liver from KK-Ay mice were lower than those in the serum and liver from C57BL/6JmsSlc mice. Interestingly, although levels of DPP IV activity were not changed in the serum and liver from aronia-juice-administered KK-Ay mice, levels of DPP IV activity were increased in those from aronia-juice-administered C57BL/6JmsSlc mice. Furthermore, α-glucosidase activity was inhibited in the upper region of the small intestine from aronia-juice-administered KK-Ay mice but not in the lower region. Inhibition of α-glucosidase activity in the upper portion of the small intestine induced a reduction of glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) level. The results suggest that DPP IV activity in diabetic mice is inhibited by aronia juice, that the GIP level in the upper region of the small intestine is reduced by inhibition of α-glucosidase activity and that weights of adipose tissues are reduced by aronia juice.
Article
Nowak D., Grąbczewska Z., Goślinski M., Obonska K., Dąbrowska A., Kubica J. (2016): Effect of chokeberry juice consumption on antioxidant capacity, lipids profile and endothelial function in healthy people: a pilot study. Czech J. Food Sci., 34: 39–46. Many studies show that the consumption of juices rich in polyphenols may increase serum antioxidant capacity, improve blood lipid profile, and endothelial function. The relation between the consumption of chokeberry juice and changes in the antioxidant capacity, blood lipid profile, and endothelial function as important indicators in the assessment of cardiovascular risk were determined. The study was conducted on a group of 11 healthy volunteers, who consumed chokeberry juice for three weeks. The research included determination of serum antioxidant capac ity, blood lipid profile analysis, and measurements of endothelial function. The 3-week consumption of chokeberry juice significantly increased serum antioxidant capacity, and the best results were observed just after one week of the experiment. However, there was no significant change in the blood lipid profile, except for the persons with a higher level of triglycerides, in whom the consumption of chokeberry juice reduced these compounds to normal values. The endothelial function was normal in all patients and did not significantly change during the study.