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Guidelines for tourism partnerships and concessions for protected areas: Generating sustainable revenues for conservation and development

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Abstract and Figures

The guidelines on tourism partnerships and concessions for protected areas developed were in response to an under-utilized potential of protected areas to utilise tourism as a means to contribute towards the financial sustainability of protected areas and to recent decisions of the CBD on tourism, which invite Parties to “. . . build the capacity of park agencies to engage in partnerships with the tourism industry to contribute financially and technically to protected areas through tools such as concessions, public-private partnerships.”
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Content may be subject to copyright.
Anna Spenceley, Susan Snyman, and Paul F. J. Eagles
Members of the IUCN WCPA Tourism and Protected Areas Specialist Group
Report to the Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity and IUCN
June 2017
Guidelines for tourism partnerships and concessions for protected areas:
Generating sustainable revenues for conservation and development
Acknowledgements
This publication is part of a project entitled “Tourism partnerships and concessions in protected areas: Cooperating for success”, executed
on behalf of the Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) by the IUCN World Commission on Protected Areas (WCPA)
Tourism and Protected Areas Specialist Group (TAPAS Group). The project has been enabled by funding provided by the Ministry for the
Environment, Nature Conservation, Building and Nuclear Safety of Germany and by the Government of the Republic of Korea through the
Bio-Bridge Initiative.
The authors would like to thank Oliver Hillel, Erie Tamale and Neil Pratt (Secretariat of the CBD), Carla Faustino Coelho (International
Finance Corporation), Soa Gutierrez (World Tourism Organisation), and Michael Wright (SiVEST) for comments on draft versions of
these guidelines. Thanks also to the representatives of government ministries of tourism and environment, protected area agencies, and
tourism boards who participated in the iSimangaliso Wetland Park Authority networking meeting between 30 May and 2 June 2017, and
who provided detailed feedback on the draft guidelines: Fara Mihanta Andriambelo, Felirija Andrianatoavina, Hervé Bakarizafy, Nandipha
Bhengu, Terri Castis, Yvonne Chingarande, Tsvakai Chiwunya, Catherine Chunga, Mohamed Harun, Jana Kanig, Mayando Kanyata, Ananias
Weja Lugendo, Lilian Magoma, Chizamsoka Manda, Seth Maphalala, Lizy Matos, Mamasheane Motabotabo, Asia Hassan Moyo, Vitalis
Mushongo, Richard Mwamba, Titie Nkumane, Rantonirina Rakotoaridera, Chantal Razanajovy, Lieketseng Selinyane, Bigani Setume,
Uatirohange Tjiuoro, Hugo Van der Westhuizen, Elsabe Van der Westhuizen, and Roland Vorwerk. For their contributions to the case
studies, we would also like to thank to Juan Carlos Pacheco, Juan Pablo Contreras (CONAF), Daniela Bravo (Universidad Andrés Bello),
Camila Rodriques (Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro), Larissa Diehl (Chico Mendes Institute for Biodiversity Conservation)
and Andrea Ferry (Singita). We would also like to thank Mary-Anne van der Byl for the design and typesetting of this guideline.
Photographs in this guideline were shared by Paul Eagles, Susan Snyman, Anna Spenceley, Larissa Diehl, Anvil Bay and Wilderness Safaris.
Citation: Spenceley, A., Snyman, S. & Eagles, P. (2017). Guidelines for tourism partnerships and concessions for protected areas: Generating
sustainable revenues for conservation and development. Report to the Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity and IUCN.
An initiative contributing to the 10YFP Sustainable Tourism Programme
CONTENTS
1. INTRODUCTION .............................................................................................................................................................................6
1.1. BACKGROUND ........................................................................................................................................................................6
1.2. AIM AND OBJECTIVES ........................................................................................................................................................8
1.3. KEY TERMS ...............................................................................................................................................................................9
2. FUNDAMENTALS OF TOURISM PARTNERSHIPS AND CONCESSIONS ......................................................... 11
2.1. TOURISM IN PROTECTED AREAS .............................................................................................................................11
2.2. PARTNERSHIP TYPES ....................................................................................................................................................... 17
2.3. CHOOSING A PARTNERSHIP TYPE ...........................................................................................................................18
2.4. SOURCES OF FINANCE FOR CONCESSIONS PROCESSES ........................................................................... 23
2.5. LEGAL FRAMEWORK AND FOUNDATIONS FOR CONCESSIONS ...........................................................28
2.6 INTEGRATING SUSTAINABILITY ................................................................................................................................ 30
3. PROCESSES FOR CONCESSIONING AND PARTNERSHIPS ................................................................................... 33
3.1. OVERALL PROCESS ........................................................................................................................................................... 33
3.2. SCOPING ................................................................................................................................................................................. 33
3.3. DESIGN AND FEASIBILITY ............................................................................................................................................ 36
3.4. PROCUREMENT, NEGOTIATION AND CONTRACTING ............................................................................... 40
4. CONTRACT MANAGEMENT ................................................................................................................................................. 49
4.1. PARTNERSHIP MANAGEMENT ...................................................................................................................................49
4.2. CONTRACT MONITORING AND ENFORCEMENT .......................................................................................... 53
4.3. RENEGOTIATING AND TERMINATING AGREEMENTS ................................................................................54
5. PROTECTED AREA CONCESSION CAPACITY .............................................................................................................. 55
6. LINKS AND RESOURCES ......................................................................................................................................................... 58
We recommend that readers use the wealth of broader literature on tourism concessions and partnerships
to supplement these guidelines. Throughout these guidelines a series of references and weblinks have been
provided in the footnotes. Additional weblinks are provided at the end of the document.
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GENERATING SUSTAINABLE REVENUES FOR CONSERVATION AND DEVELOPMENT
ASF African Safari Foundation
AWC African Wildlife Capital
AWF African Wildlife Foundation
AZC Ahi Zameni Chemucane Association
BOT Build Operate and Transfer
CBD Convention on Biological Diversity
CONAF National Forestry Corporation
CTC Chemucane Tourism Company
DBO Design-Build-Operate
DFI Development Finance Institutions
EIA Environmental Impact Assessment
EoI Expression of Interest
GSTC Global Sustainable Tourism Council
ICMBio Chico Mendes Institute for Biodiversity Conservation
IDC Industrial Development Corporation
IFC International Finance Corporation
IRR Internal Rate of Return
ISO International Organization for Standardization
IUCN World Conservation Union
KNP Kruger National Park
NGO Non-governmental organization
PA Protected area
PPP Public private partnership
RfP Request for proposals
ACRONYMS
TABLES
TABLE 1: OPPORTUNITIES AND CHALLENGES OF TOURISM CONCESSIONS AND PARTNERSHIPS IN PROTECTED AREAS ........................................ 13
TABLE 2: RELATIVE BENEFITS OF DIFFERENT PARTNERSHIP TYPES .............................................................................................................................................................18
TABLE 3: CHARACTERISTICS OF LEGAL INSTRUMENTS ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 20
TABLE 4: FUNDING SOURCES FOR COMMUNITY CONCESSIONS .................................................................................................................................................................... 27
TABLE 5: ENSURING SUSTAINABILITY IN CONCESSIONS AND PARTNERSHIPS ...................................................................................................................................... 30
TABLE 6: EXAMPLE OF WEIGHTING COMPARISON OF CONCESSION SITES .............................................................................................................................................36
TABLE 7: LEGAL ASSESSMENT CHARACTERISTICS ...................................................................................................................................................................................................36
TABLE 8: CONSIDERATIONS FOR INVESTORS FOR TOURISM INVESTMENTS OUTSIDE AND WITHIN PROTECTED AREAS .........................................39
TABLE 9: TYPICAL INSTITUTIONAL COSTS OF TOURISM CONCESSIONS TO PROTECTED AREA AUTHORITIES ................................................................ 40
TABLE 10: PROS AND CONS OF DIFFERENT TRANSACTION STRATEGIES ..................................................................................................................................................42
TABLE 11. TRANSACTION STEPS ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................48
TABLE 12: POTENTIAL CHALLENGES WITH CONTRACTS, AND OPTIONS TO ADDRESS THEM .....................................................................................................50
TABLE 13: TYPICAL PROTECTED AREA AUTHORITY STAFF CAPACITY AND SKILLS FOR TOURISM CONCESSION AND PARTNERSHIPS ..............57
TABLE 14: INTERNATIONAL RESOURCE GUIDE .......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 58
TABLE 15: SPECIFIC RESOURCES ON CONCESSION AND PARTNERSHIP TRANSACTION PROCESSES ........................................................................................59
FIGURES
FIGURE 1: FLOW DIAGRAM FOR DECIDING THE TYPE OF LEGAL INSTRUMENT TO USE ...............................................................................................................22
FIGURE 2: GENERIC STAGES AND CHARACTERISTICS OF CONCESSIONING .......................................................................................................................................... 33
FIGURE 3: MANAGEMENT OBJECTIVES OF IUCN CATEGORIES OF PROTECTED AREAS IN RELATION TO TOURISM ..................................................... 34
FIGURE 4: PROCESS TO MAKE UNSOLICITED BIDS COMPETITIVE .................................................................................................................................................................43
FIGURE 5: EXAMPLE OF A CONCEPTUAL DESIGN FOR A COASTAL TOURISM CONCESSION OPPORTUNITY ...................................................................... 45
4
ROT Rehabilitate Operate and Transfer
SADC Southern African Development Community
SANParks South African National Parks
SCBD Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity
SNASPE National System of Chilean Protected Areas
TAPAS Group Tourism and Protected Areas Specialist Group
UNDP United Nations Development Program
UNWTO World Tourism Organization
USD United States Dollar
USP Unique selling point
WCPA World Commission on Protected Areas
WWF World Wildlife Fund
BOXES
BOX 1: PRIVATE-PUBLIC SECTOR CONCESSION AGREEMENT: SINGITA AND SOUTH AFRICAN NATIONAL PARKS, SOUTH AFRICA ......................11
BOX 2: PARTNERSHIP TYPES IN BRAZILIAN PROTECTED AREAS ..................................................................................................................................................................... 15
BOX 3: CASE STUDY ON INSOURCING OF PROTECTED AREA TOURISM: ONTARIO PARKS .......................................................................................................... 15
BOX 4: ECOTOURISM CONCESSIONS BETWEEN GOVERNMENT AND INDIGENOUS PEOPLE ........................................................................................................ 17
BOX 5: NON-GOVERNMENT ORGANIZATIONS IN PROTECTED AREA MANAGEMENT: ONTARIO PROVINCIAL PARKS ................................................22
BOX 6: USING MULTIPLE PARTNERSHIP TYPES IN PROTECTED AREAS .......................................................................................................................................................24
BOX 7: SOURCES OF FINANCE FOR PRIVATE INVESTORS FOR CONCESSIONS ........................................................................................................................................ 24
BOX 8: OPTIONS FOR PRIVATE SECTOR FINANCING WHEN PARTNERING WITH A COMMUNITY ............................................................................................25
BOX 9: AFRICAN WILDLIFE CAPITAL FACILITATING PRIVATE SECTOR-COMMUNITY FUNDING ................................................................................................. 26
BOX 10: PERSPECTIVES OF A FINANCIAL INSTITUTION ON FINANCING CONCESSIONS ................................................................................................................ 26
BOX 11: CHEMUCANE CONCESSION, ANVIL BAY, MOZAMBIQUE ................................................................................................................................................................... 28
BOX 12: CHARACTERISTICS OF CONCESSION LAW, REGULATIONS AND POLICIES ................................................................................................................... 28
BOX 13: EXAMPLES OF NATIONAL POLICIES FOR CONCESSIONS AND PARTNERSHIPS IN SOUTHERN AFRICA ...............................................................29
BOX 14: SUSTAINABILITY INCLUSIONS OF THE SOUTH AFRICAN NATIONAL PARKS CONCESSION PROGRAMME .......................................................... 32
BOX 15: EXAMPLE OF SCOPING FOR PROTECTED AREA CONCESSIONS IN MOZAMBIQUE ...........................................................................................................35
BOX 16: CONTENTS OF A HIGH-LEVEL BUSINESS PLAN FOR CONCESSIONING .................................................................................................................................... 44
BOX 17: BID SECURITY SYSTEM NIASSA NATIONAL RESERVE, MOZAMBIQUE ........................................................................................................................................44
BOX 18: ELEMENTS OF A TYPICAL CONCESSION CONTRACT .......................................................................................................................................................................... 49
BOX 19: GOOD PRACTICES IN STAKEHOLDER ENGAGEMENT DURING CONSTRUCTION AND OPERATION ....................................................................... 49
BOX 20: CASE STUDY FROM CHINA: GOVERNMENT EQUITY IN PARTNERSHIPS .................................................................................................................................53
BOX 21: POLITICAL LOBBYING BY CONCESSIONAIRES ......................................................................................................................................................................................... 53
BOX 22: CONTRACT TERMINATION: SANPARKS AND GLACIER NATIONAL PARK ................................................................................................................................. 54
BOX 23: EXAMPLE OF SETTING GOALS FOR CAPACITY BUILDING ................................................................................................................................................................. 55
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GENERATING SUSTAINABLE REVENUES FOR CONSERVATION AND DEVELOPMENT
1. INTRODUCTION
“...build the capacity of park agencies to engage
in partnerships with the tourism industry
to contribute nancially and technically
to protected areas through tools such as
concessions, public-private partnerships.1
1.1. Background
The Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) has been
addressing the area of biodiversity and tourism development
since 2004, including the adoption of Guidelines on
Biodiversity and Tourism Development (2004) and
production of two guideline user manuals: ‘Managing
tourism and biodiversity’2(2007), and ‘Tourism supporting
biodiversity’3(2015). Work presented to the Conference of
the Parties to the CBD in 20124 concluded that the tourism
sector is the largest, global, market-based contributor to
nancing protected area systems in many countries, through
entrance and other user fees, partnerships and concessions.
However, many Parties to the CBD underutilise tourism as
a means to contribute towards the nancial sustainability of
protected areas. The development of the present guidelines
on tourism partnerships and concessions for protected areas
is a response to this under-utilized potential and to recent
decisions of the CBD on tourism, which invite Parties to
...build the capacity of park agencies to engage in
partnerships with the tourism industry to contribute
nancially and technically to protected areas through tools
such as concessions, public-private partnerships.5 The
IUCN denes a protected area as: a clearly dened
geographical space, recognised, dedicated and managed,
through legal or other eective means, to achieve the long term
conservation of nature with associated ecosystem services and
cultural values6. It is important to note that any tourism
activities in protected areas should be compatible with
the protected area’s primary objective of conserving
biodiversity.
The Tourism and Protected Areas Specialist Group (TAPAS
Group) is one of several voluntary groups convened under
the International Union for the Conservation of Nature
(IUCN) World Commission on Protected Areas (WCPA).
The TAPAS Group is a network of over 480 volunteers
who are committed to promoting sustainable tourism in
protected and other appropriate natural areas as a tool
in achieving the long term conservation of nature and
the associated ecosystem and cultural values. The TAPAS
Group’s mission is to provide a forum where people
collaborate, stimulate dialogue, share expertise, develop and
disseminate knowledge, and enhance learning, in order to
enhance the planning, development and management of
sustainable tourism in protected areas. Its objectives include
6
1 Convention on Biological Diversity Decision XII/11 on Biodiversity and Tourism Development (paragraph 1(d))
2 Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity (2007) Managing tourism and biodiversity- User’s manual on the CBD Guidelines on Biodiversity
and Tourism Development. Montreal, https://www.cbd.int/doc/programmes/tourism/tourism-manual-en.pdf
3 Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity (2015) Tourism supporting Biodiversity - A Manual on applying the CBD Guidelines on Biodiversi-
ty and Tourism Development. Montreal, https://www.cbd.int/tourism/doc/tourism-manual-2015-en.pdf
4 See https://www.cbd.int/decisions/cop/?m=cop-11
5 Convention on Biological Diversity Decision XII/11 on Biodiversity and Tourism Development (paragraph 1(d))
6 Dudley, N (2008) Guidelines for applying protected area management categories. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland
7 Spenceley, A., Hvenegaard, G., Snyman, S., McCool, S., Mader, R., Nikolaeva, E., Bushell, R., Carbone, G., Paleczny, D., Epler Wood, M. and 35 members of
the TAPAS Group. (2015) TAPAS Group Strategy 2015-2020, Adopted by the TAPAS Group Exco on 29 September 2015
8 e.g. Eagles, P. F. J., MCool, S. F., and Haynes, C. (2002) Sustainable tourism in Protected Areas: Guidelines for Planning and management. Best Practice
Protected Area Guideilnes Serioes No. 8. Gland, Switzerland: IUCN; Leung, Y-F., Spenceley, A., Hvenegaard, G., and Buckley, R. (In press) Tourism and
visitor management in protected areas: Guidelines for sustainability, Best Practice Protected Area Guideline Series, IUCN, Geneva; Spenceley, A., Kohl, J.,
McArthur, S., Myles, P. Notarianni, M., Paleczny, D., Pickering, C., Turner, K., Bhutia, P. and Worboys, G. L. (2015) Visitor management, In Worboys, G. L.,
Lockwood, Ml, Kothari, A , Feary, S and Pulsford, I., (eds) Protected Area Governance and Management, ANU Press, Canberra.
9 Spenceley, A., Nevill, H., Coelho, C. F., and Souto, M. (2016) An introduction to tourism concessioning: 14 Characteristics of successful programs, World
Bank Group; Thompson, A., Massyn, P. J., Pendry, J., Pastorelli, J. (2014) Tourism concessions in protected natural areas: Guidelines for managers. United
Nations Development Program; Spenceley, A. (2014) Tourism concession guidelines for Transfrontier conservation areas in SADC, Report to GIZ / SADC
10 Snyman, S., Spenceley, A., and Eagles, P. (2017) Tourism partnerships and concessions in protected areas: Cooperating for success, Needs assessment
report, Report to the Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity, 31 March 2017
provision of strategic advice to governments and others on
the optimum approaches to sustainable tourism in protected
and natural areas, and also to develop and disseminate
knowledge on tourism and protected areas, including
case studies and best practice syntheses.7 These guidelines
complement other materials created by the group, including
best practice guidelines on sustainable tourism in protected
areas and visitor management.8 This initiative also builds on
previous technical guidance documents provided by TAPAS
Group members to agencies such as the World Bank Group,
United Nations Development Program (UNDP), and GIZ
on tourism concessions in protected areas.9
To inform the design of the guidelines, and associated
capacity building activities, the TAPAS Group conducted a
needs assessment in March 2017. An online questionnaire
was circulated to over 400 people including representatives
of protected area authorities and ministries of environment,
regional and international experts working in this eld
as well as TAPAS Group members and the Southern
African Development Community (SADC) Transfrontier
Conservation Area Network. The 67 responses helped to
establish the information needed within protected areas,
and also the respondents’ knowledge of existing tools
and guidelines.10 A draft of the guidelines was widely
circulated to practitioners internationally for review, and
comments were received from the SCBD, the World Bank
Group, World Tourism Organisation (UNWTO), TAPAS
Group members, and also 32 representatives government
ministries of tourism and environment, protected area
agencies, and tourism boards from southern Africa (i.e.
Botswana, Lesotho, Madagascar Malawi, Mozambique,
Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland, Tanzania, Zambia, and
Zimbabwe).
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GENERATING SUSTAINABLE REVENUES FOR CONSERVATION AND DEVELOPMENT
1.2. Aim and objectives
The aim of these guidelines is to provide information to
support protected area authorities to achieve sustainable
tourism operations in their protected areas; to bring
benets to conservation and other purposes for which the
protected area has been declared; and to avoid or mitigate
negative impacts.
Specically, the guidelines aim to assist protected area
authorities in their development and use of tourism
partnerships and concessioning to contribute nancially
and technically to protected areas through sustainable
tourism.
The objectives include to:
Provide a short and accessible guideline that includes
clear and practical information;
Address needs of protected area authorities;
• Indicate how concessions can be used to mobilise
resources for protected area management;
Share case study examples to illustrate good practices
and challenges of tourism concessions;
Integrate the principles of sustainable tourism; and,
Provide links to complementary technical guidelines
produced under other initiatives.
The guideline’s scope focuses predominately on tourism
concessions. The guideline also addresses other options that
protected area authorities have to form partnerships with
the private sector in tourism, including the use of licences,
leases and permits.
The main audience for these guidelines is protected area
authorities and ministries of environment and tourism who
aim to enhance the level of nancial resources available
for conservation management obtained from tourism
concessions and partnerships.
8
For the purposes of this guideline, the following key terms
are used throughout. It should be noted that in some
countries and regions, the terms may be dened or applied
dierently.
Biodiversity: The variability among living organisms from
all sources including, inter alia, terrestrial, marine and
other aquatic ecosystems and the ecological complexes of
which they are a part; this includes diversity within species,
between species, and of ecosystems.11
Community: A social group of any size whose members
reside in a specic locality, share government and may
have a common cultural and historic heritage/s. It can also
refer to a group of individuals who interact within their
immediate surroundings. A typical local community consists
of business operators, public agency sta and residents, and
their interactions and can include sharing of resources,
information and support as well as establishing commercial
relationships between local businesses and consumers.12
Concession: The right to use land or other property for
a specied purpose, granted by a government, company,
or other controlling body. It can include a commercial
operation and/or a piece of land.13 A tourism concession
could provide accommodation, food and beverage,
recreation, education, retail, and interpretive services.14
Concession contract: A written agreement between the
protected area authority and partner, specifying the rights
and obligations of both parties. It might also be called a
concession agreement, lease, management or services
contract, or by various other names.15 The partner signing
the contract with the authority is commonly known as the
‘contractor’, ‘concessionaire’, or ‘investor’.
Consumptive tourism: Forms of tourism where wildlife or
plants are collected, hunted or shed (preferably applying
principles and approaches to sustainable use).
Lease: A contractual agreement in which one party conveys
an estate (i.e. land and facilities) to another party for a
specied, limited time period. The lessor retains ownership
in the property while the lessee obtains rights to use the
property. Typically a lease is paid for.
License: Gives permission to a legally-competent
authority to exercise a certain privilege that, without such
authorization, would constitute an illegal act. Often seen
by the public as a form of quality control and requires
due diligence by the competent authority, in contrast to a
permit. Possession of the land is not granted through the
license. Licenses give protected area authorities the ability
to screen applicants to ensure that they fulll a set of
conditions.16
Non-consumptive tourism: Forms of tourism that do
not consume wildlife, such as photographic tourism with
wildlife viewing.
Partnership: An arrangement in which two or more
individuals share the prots and liabilities of a business
venture. Various arrangements are possible: all partners
might share liabilities and prots equally, or some partners
may have limited liability.17
Permit: A temporary form of permission giving the
recipient approval to do a lawful activity within the
protected area. Permits normally expire within a short
length of time (e.g. 1 day, 1 week). Usually the number
of permits is large and limited by social or environmental
considerations. In most cases, permits are given to anyone
who pays the corresponding fee.
Protected area: A clearly dened geographical space,
recognised, dedicated and managed, through legal or other
eective means, to achieve the long term conservation of
nature with associated ecosystem services and cultural
values.18 There are dierent categories of protected areas
described by IUCN, some of which are aligned with tourism
development. Protected areas are commonly called ‘parks’.
Public-Private Partnership (PPP): An agreement between
a state institution and a private party, where the private
party is granted the right to access and use public assets
such as land and infrastructure for its own commercial
use and assumes related substantial nancial, technical and
operational risks. The private party receives a benet from
using the state property by charging fees to customers that
they provide a service to.19
Stakeholders: Stakeholders are persons or groups who
are directly or indirectly aected by a project, as well
as those who may have interests in a project and/or the
ability to inuence its outcome, either positively or
negatively. In relation to protected areas, stakeholders may
include government agencies, non-governmental agencies
(NGOs), the private sector, local community groups, local
communities and other resource management agencies.20
11 United Nations (1992) Convention on Biological Diversity Article 2,
accessed on 9 June from http://www.cbd.int/doc/legal/cbd-en.pdf
12 Spenceley, A., Rylance, A., Nanabhay, S. and van der Watt, H. (2016)
Operational guidelines for community-based tourism in South Africa,
Department of Tourism: Republic of South Africa
13 Pocket Oxford English Dictionary, 2006
14 Eagles, P. F. J., Baycetich, C. M., Chen, X., Dong, L, Halpenny, E., Kwan,
P. B., Lenuzzi, J. J., Wang, X., Xiao, Hl, and Zhang, Y. (2009) Guidelines
for planning and management of concessions, licenses and permits for
tourism in protected areas, Tourism planning and management program,
University of Waterloo, Ontario, Canada, 23 April 2009.
15 Dornbusch, D. (2011) Memorandum: Innovative Park Partnerships for
Managing Tourism and Recreation – Financial Issues.
16 Eagles, P. F. J. and Legault, M. (2012) Guidelines for the Planning and
Management of Concessions, Leases, Licenses, and Permits in Parks and
Protected Areas. Unpublished manuscript.
17 Investopedia (2017) Partnership, accessed on 12 June from www.
investopedia.com/terms/p/partnership.asp
18 Dudley, N (2008) Guidelines for applying protected area management
categories. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland
19 Adapted from National Treasury (2005) PPP Toolkit for tourism, PPP
Practice Note 1 of 2005, pp 3, accessible from http://www.ppp.gov.za/
Pages/Governance.aspx?RootFolder=%2fLegal%20Aspects%2fPPP%20Tool-
kit%20for%20Tourism&FolderCTID=&View=%7b33F91A9E%2d68FB%2d-
40CC%2dB511%2d45D91A7CC95B%7d
20 IFC (2007) Stakeholder Engagement: A Good Practice Handbook
for Companies Doing Business in Emerging Markets, pp10 & Walton A.
Gomei M. and Di Carlo G. (2013) Stakeholder engagement: Participatory
Approaches for the Planning and Development of Marine Protected Areas.
World Wide Fund for Nature and NOAA— National Marine Sanctuary
Program, accessible from http://awsassets.panda.org/downloads/stakehold-
er_engagement.pdf
1.3. Key terms
9
9
GENERATING SUSTAINABLE REVENUES FOR CONSERVATION AND DEVELOPMENT
Tourism (and related denitions)
Tourist: A visitor (domestic, inbound or outbound) is
classied as a tourist (or overnight visitor), if his/her trip
includes an overnight stay.21
Visitor: A visitor is a traveller taking a trip to a main
destination outside his/her usual environment, for less
than a year, for any main purpose (business, leisure or
other personal purpose) other than to be employed by a
resident entity in the country or place visited. A visitor
(domestic, inbound or outbound) is classied as a tourist
(or overnight visitor), if his/her trip includes an overnight
stay, or as a same-day visitor (or excursionist) otherwise.22
For protected areas (PAs), a visitor is a person who visits
the lands and waters of the PA for purposes mandated for
the area. A visitor is not paid to be in the PA and does not
live permanently in the PA. The purposes mandated for
the area typically are recreational, educational or cultural.23
Sustainable tourism: Tourism that takes full account of
its current and future economic, social and environmental
impacts, addressing the needs of visitors, the industry, the
environment and host communities.24
Nature-based tourism: All forms of tourism that use
natural resources in a wild or undeveloped form - including
species, habitat, landscape, scenery and salt and fresh-water
features. Nature based tourism is travel for the purpose of
enjoying undeveloped natural areas or wildlife.25
Ecotourism: Responsible travel to natural areas that
conserves the environment, sustains the well-being of the
local people, and involves interpretation and education.26
2.1. Tourism in protected areas
Tourism and recreation are linked to protected areas, and
recreation is a key ecosystem service in natural areas.
Tourism has the potential to contribute directly to protected
areas as a global conservation strategy, and to the Aichi
Biodiversity Targets adopted under the CBD that relate to
conservation (Targets 11 and 12), community development
(Target 18) and public awareness (Target 1).27 Successful
tourism in protected areas requires the ability to develop
and market tourism products based on what the protected
area has to oer, and the ability to maintain the quality of
these areas for ongoing future use. The tourism potential of
any protected area depends on a variety of factors, including
location, accessibility, market demand, proximity to other
popular tourism destinations, marketing, presence of local
tourism businesses and infrastructure (e.g. accommodation,
catering, guiding, etc.).28 The ability of a protected area to
manage tourism depends on the implementation of eective
management strategies, the scale of demand for visits to
2. FUNDAMENTALS OF TOURISM PARTNERSHIPS AND
CONCESSIONS
10
the site, the sta and resources available for management
of tourism, and the legal and political environment
covering nature protection in the countries in which they
are located.29 Long-term sustainability is, therefore, key
(see section 2.6). To encourage successful tourism it can,
in some cases, be more ecient for the protected area
authority to outsource tourism concessions (see section
2.2.). This decision is dependent upon current government
policy and the capabilities of the protected area authority in
regards to business operation.
All organizations that create products, such as tourism
experiences, must decide the appropriate service delivery
mechanism. They must ask the question: What tourism
should the organization operate internally and what should
they outsource?
A tourism concession is dened here as a lease, licence,
easement or permit for an operation undertaken by any party
other than the protected area agency30” and it “provides
public service and may require some capital investment by a
concessionaire for buildings, equipment and operating costs. A
concession could provide accommodation, food and beverage,
recreation, education, retail, and interpretive services”.31
Tourism concessions in protected areas are part of a much
larger system of Tourism User Fees for permitted uses in
protected areas, which allow the protected area to raise
revenues and meet goals of making the protected area
accessible to visitors with quality services, while meeting
social and environmental objectives.32
Private sector or other stakeholder’s capacity to generate
revenues from concessions will depend on their ability to
attract tourists to the protected area. This will depend on the
protected area’s location, facilities, access, and the feasibility
of oering services that visitors are willing to pay for which
cover more than the cost of operations. A feasibility study
is the accepted way to determine if a concession can be
protable, and the best practice is for the protected area to
undertake a feasibility study before deciding if concessions
are a good option. The feasibility study should include an
analysis of the numerous dierent kinds of tourism activities
that can take place in protected areas, and specically in
the protected area being assessed. It should also look at
matching tourism products to market demand and should
be creative in terms of the possibility of including a wide
range of tourism products. Ideally, tourism concessions
should be compatible with, and complement, the protected
area’s own provision of tourism opportunities, resources
and attractions present. A protected area management
plan is an essential for concession planning, to ensure that
there is guidance related to what tourism can be developed,
where, and how.33
Concessions are generally overseen by a small group of
specialised protected area sta who understand commercial
tourism operations and work with protected area
operational sta and decision‐makers to administer and
award concession opportunities (see section 5).34
Types of tourism concessions and partnerships
The types of tourism concessions that are considered
acceptable within protected areas vary a great deal
worldwide. Viable options depend on the history of
protected area use, the culture of the country and the
evolution of protected area policy. Some countries have
approaches that accept more intensive human use in certain
zones, while others have a stronger protection approach
which limits tourism to low impact uses. For example, some
activities such as hunting are accepted in some categories
of protected areas and banned in others. Within this wide
variation, concessions may provide for such services as
accommodation from camping areas, cabins to lodges,
hotels, restaurants; activities such as guided walking/hiking
trails, mountain biking, mountaineering, rock climbing,
4x4 trails, shing, hot-air ballooning, lming, rafting and
boat transport or cruises and retail activities. Potential
concessionaires will have varying interests as to why they
would like to operate in a protected area (see example in
Box 1), but some of the main reasons include: the ability
to earn a prot; uniqueness of biodiversity of the area;
remoteness and privacy of the location; facilities provided
by the protected area authority (e.g. road network);
marketability and public awareness of the protected area;
ease of access; ability to link into an already existing
tourism circuit; good existing infrastructure, appropriate
legislation and a protected area authority supportive of
developing tourism.
21 UNWTO (undated) Understanding tourism, basic glossary, Accessed on
9 June 2017 from statistics.unwto.org/sites/all/les/docpdf/glossaryen.pdf
22 UNWTO (undated) Understanding tourism, basic glossary, Accessed on
9 June 2017 from statistics.unwto.org/sites/all/les/docpdf/glossaryen.pdf
23 Hornback, K.E. and Eagles, P.F.J. (1999) Guidelines for Public Use Mea-
surement and Reporting at Parks and Protected Areas. First Edition. IUCN,
Gland, Switzerland. Available at: http://www.ahs.uwaterloo.ca/~eagles/
parks.
24 UNEP and UNWTO. (2005) Making Tourism More Sustainable, A
Guide for Policy Makers, Madrid, Spain
25 Goodwin, H. (1996) In Pursuit of Ecotourism’, Biodiversity and Conser-
vation, vol 5, pp277-292.
26 The International Ecotourism Society. (2015) TIES announces eco-
tourism principles revision, Accessed on 5 June 2017 from https://www.
ecotourism.org/news/ties-announces-ecotourism-principles-revision
27 CBD (2010). ‘Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020 and the Aichi
Targets’. <https://www.cbd.int/doc/strategic-plan/2011-2020/Aichi-Tar-
gets-EN.pdf>. Accessed 15 February 2017. and Leung, Y-F., Spenceley,
A., Hvenegaard, G., and Buckley, R. (In press) Tourism and visitor
management in protected areas: Guidelines for sustainability, Best Practice
Protected Area Guideline Series, IUCN, Geneva.
28 Font, X., Cochrane, J. and Tapper, R. (2004). Pay per view: understand-
ing tourism revenues for eective management plans, Report for the WWF
by Leeds Tourism Group and The Environmental Business Development
Group, Leeds.
29 Font et al (2004). Op. cit.
30 Thompson et al (2014). Op. cit.
31 Eagles, PFJ, Baycetich, C.M., Chen, X., Dong, L., Halpenny, E., Kwan,
P.A., Lenuzzi, J.J., Wang, X., Xiao, H., & Zhang, Y. (2009). Guidelines for
planning and management of concessions, licenses and permits for tourism
in protected areas. Tourism Planning and Management Program, Universi-
ty of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada
32 Epler Wood, M. (2010). Best practice for tourism concessions in
protected areas: Case studies from Latin America. DAI Project 1000282.
Available at:
https://www.academia.edu/10773205/Best_Practice_for_Tourism_Conces-
sions_in_Protected_Areas_Cases_from_Latin_America (accessed March
2017).
33 Thompson et al (2014). Op. cit.
34 Thompson et al (2014). Op. cit.
11
11
GENERATING SUSTAINABLE REVENUES FOR CONSERVATION AND DEVELOPMENT
12
Table 1: Opportunities and challenges of tourism concessions and partnerships in protected areas
Opportunities Challenges
Additional tourism products and
services: Oering additional tourism
services, goods and infrastructure which
the protected area authority cannot aord
to do, or is not able to provide;
Additional funding: Fees and rentals
contribute to funding protected areas;
Increased tourism demand: Permits the
expansion of protected areas to include
adjacent critical biodiversity areas, and to
create biodiversity corridors and linkages,
which in turn leads to enhanced nature
tourism opportunities and increased
education;
Raising awareness and increasing
knowledge: Tourism concessions enhance
visitor and education outcomes through
good interpretation and by providing a
quality visitor experience;
Ability to focus on core function:
Protected area sta can focus on their
core function of biodiversity conservation;
funding from government and other
sources can be used for conservation
activities rather than tourism activities;
Providing important socio-economic
links: Concession activities can provide a
vital link between local communities, socio-
economic development and biodiversity
conservation;
Increasing employment: Potential
for increased local direct and indirect
employment through tourism concessions;
Increasing local multipliers: Development
of new opportunities for employment and
small businesses for local communities.
Capacity and skills issues: Lack of capacity and tourism skills
of protected area sta to manage concessions and work with the
private sector (covered in more detail in section 5).
Time-constraints: The selection, management, monitoring and
evaluation of concessions can occupy a signicant amount of
protected area sta’s time.
Infrastructure issues: It is often dicult for the protected area
authority to provide adequate infrastructure to service tourism,
e.g. roads, water supply, communication, etc.
Non-compliance and threats to sustainability:
Concessionaires who do not comply with protected area rules and
regulations, or their concession agreement conditions, can cause
damage, environmentally, culturally and socially (covered in more
detail in section 2.6).
Political power of concessionaires: Leading to inappropriate
approvals or conditions, or inadequate enforcement of concession
agreement conditions (see section 4.2).
Tourism-demand issues: The tourism industry is highly
competitive; tourism can be seasonal and volatile: impacted by
political, natural, economic and health issues;
Governance issues: Corruption and ineciencies in the
concession process can result in a low demand for concessions;
Legal issues: A non-supportive, unclear legal framework will
discourage investors;
Financial constraints: An inability to nd sucient nancial
support for the tourism concession process (see section 2.4 for
information on solving this challenge).
Fees and term: A reasonable fee structure and term (time period)
of concession needs to be oered to the private partner;
Prescriptive empowerment requirements: In some cases, the
prescriptive scale and nature of empowerment partners (e.g.
community ownership) can impact on the private partner’s
structure and feasibility of the concession;
Size and location of concession land: Determining the size (area)
and location of the concession, relative to other infrastructure
and services (roads, gates, routes, protected area boundary, other
camps/concessions, power supply, private traversing, etc.).
13
13
GENERATING SUSTAINABLE REVENUES FOR CONSERVATION AND DEVELOPMENT
To generate revenue in support of its conservation
mandate, and to transfer some of the risk and
responsibility for tourism investment and operations
to the private sector, South African National Parks
(SANParks) embarked on a commercialisation process
in 2000. Singita, a private sector company, entered a
bid within SANParks commercialisation programme,
and won the Nwanetsi Concession in Kruger National
Park (KNP).
Singita’s objective for developing and operating in the
KNP was to create, in collaboration with a substantive
empowerment vehicle, a luxury wildlife tourism
experience aimed primarily at attracting international
visitors to South Africa and the national park. The KNP
oered a well-known and iconic destination with which
to attract these guests. Furthermore, Singita had an
existing presence with a lodge in the Sabi Sand Private
Game Reserve which borders KNP, thus creating an
attractive tourism “circuit”.
Prior to the concession’s renewal date, Singita applied
to extend the Concession tenure period and also to
reduce the concession fee payable to SANParks in
2012. The purpose of the application was two-fold: to
enable Singita KNP to continue to operate a nancially
sustainable business, as well as allow time to recoup its
signicant capital investment over this extended lease
period. Singita was suering nancial stress caused by
the knock on eects of the global nancial crisis, which
severely aected their international guests who tend
to make up +-90% of their occupancies. The business
model at the time showed that unless the concession
fees were reduced, the company risked either closure
halting further development at one of their two lodges.
During this open re-bid Singita faced the risk of
losing the concession. However, they were successful
in extending the concession term by another 20
years and signicantly reducing their concession fees
to the proposed level. Based on their experience they
recommended:
• Longer concession leases, with appropriate exit
clauses for under-performance by concessionaires,
are favourable to operators, as they allow higher
levels of capital investment and greater likelihood of
recouping this investment;
• Without prejudice to other bidders, Protected Area
Authorities could consider concession applications
on an individual basis to cater for the exact
circumstances of the stakeholders for the particular
concession; and
Other protected area authorities should consider
replicating the professional bid process conducted by
SANParks.
Box 1: Case study on private-public sector concession agreement: Singita and South African National Parks,
South Africa35
35 Source: Adapted from information provided by Andrea Ferry,
Singita Sustainability Manager and Carla Faustino Coelho
International Finance Corporation
14
36 Source: Camila Rodrigues - Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ) and Larissa Diehl - Chico Mendes Institute for Biodiversity Conservation
(ICMBio) (2017).
37 Eagles, P. F. J. (2014) Fiscal Implications of Moving to Tourism Finance for Parks: Ontario Provincial Parks. Managing Leisure 19(1): 16-27
Box 3: Case study on insourcing of protected
area tourism: Ontario Parks 37
There are protected area (PA) agencies operating as
public utilities, operating as a private tourism company.
In 1996 Ontario Parks in Canada started moving from
government funding of operations to tourism fees and
charges. This was successful so that tourism funding
constitutes 90% of PA agency funding, with 10% coming
from government.
Ontario Parks manages a large system of 339 provincial
PAs, covering 8.2 million hectares and serving about
10 million visitor days of tourism a year. Only 110
of the PAs operate with visitor services and on-the-
ground sta. The activity is highly seasonal, with
the vast majority of use in the warmer seasons. The
system operates with about 220 full time sta, many
more contract sta, and thousands of short-term
employees, typically students. From 1996 to 2010, the
agency budget increased from CAD28.2 to CAD76.5
million, an increase of 271%. The PAs tourism income
increased through: 1) increased levels of fees charged;
2) increased diversity of pricing; and, 3) broadening
the income through introduction of new services. This
increase in income was associated with a mild increase
in visitor use. The return per visitor day increased from
CAD2.51 per visitor day in 1995 to CAD6.83 in 2010.
The Ontario Parks’ tourism-based income became
dominated by accommodation sales, providing 61% of
all tourism income, most of it from camping.
Ontario Parks increasingly used the policy of directly
operating activities that had income potential, in order
to obtain higher levels of income. Concessions are
now only used for highly-specialized activities, such as
specialized maintenance. Some concession agreements
operate cooperatively with local municipal governments,
such as the contracting out of the collection of garbage
and recyclable materials. A couple of campgrounds are
now operated by the PAs and recreation departments
of local municipalities. Educational services were
increasingly moved to non-government bodies, Friends
Groups. This case study reveals nancial success for
tourism-based funding of a major PA agency, which
reveals that government operations of PAs can be
nancially eective in providing public services. It also
reveals that this management model, a mild parastatal,
has been eective in providing the structure for
increasing income for tourism management, and the
continuation of all other aspects of PA management,
such as management planning and resource protection.
Box 2: Partnership types in Brazilian protected
areas36
Brazil has 327 protected areas managed by the
federal government, of which 72 are national parks,
corresponding to 26.7 million hectares. These areas are
under the responsibility of the Chico Mendes Institute
for Biodiversity Conservation (ICMBio). Concessions
and partnerships are promoted by ICMBio as a way
to strengthen the quality of visits, while respecting
the diversity of recreational opportunities, and goals
of these areas related to biodiversity conservation and
sustainability.
There are concession contracts in progress in the
following national parks in Brazil: Tijuca National Park,
Iguaçu National Park, Fernando de Noronha Marine
National Park and Serra dos Órgãos National Park. In
addition to these concessions, the implementation of
contracts and partnerships in more than 14 national
parks is expected by the end of 2018. In the northeast
of the country, the Fernando de Noronha Marine
National Park, known for its beautiful beaches and rich
marine biodiversity, also provided some services and
infrastructure such as entrance fees, trail maintenance,
information centre with equipment rental and a snack
bar through a concession. In 2016, the park received
390 000 visitors and raised about USD 386 000 from
tourism.
In addition to the concessions, some services such as
a visitor’s guide, boat tours, transportation, are oered
through authorizations (as a licence for operation).
In the Chapada dos Veadeiros National Park, in
the central region of the country that protects the
cerrado ecosystem, the canyoning is operated by an
authorization, which establishes some obligations for
operators related to visitor safety and to the minimum
impact on the natural environment.
15
15
GENERATING SUSTAINABLE REVENUES FOR CONSERVATION AND DEVELOPMENT
16
2.2. Partnership types
There are many services provided in protected areas for
visitors, either services directly to the visitors, such as
the rental of equipment, or through services that support
visitation, such as an electrical system. A decision must
be made by protected area authority on the level of each
service, the method of delivery of the service, and the
nancing for each service.
For insourcing, protected area authority sta deliver
and nance the service. Insourcing involves the authority
functioning like a business, with the protected area facilities
and sta providing visitor services. The authority functions
like a public utility.
For outsourcing, the protected area contracts a third
party to deliver a service. Outsourcing of tourism
services to a company or organization has both benets
and disadvantages (see Table 2). The case for private
management of resources on public lands is often one of
eciency: that the resources that those lands provide may
be best turned into desired outcomes by specialist rms
who bid for the rights to provide services to visitors. When
public agencies do not have the expertise to perform a
service, or when they lack the funding or legal abilities
required to build such capability in-house, transference of
rights on the lands to other organizations can relieve public
agencies from resource constraints of budget, capability, or
expertise.38
The provision of tourism services in PAs is a complex,
professional activity. There are ve options available for
service delivery through outsourcing. These include:
Using for-prot, private companies
Using non-prot organizations
Using local community organizations
Using another government department
Using a joint-venture company (i.e. public-private,
private-community, public-community or public-
private-community)
38 Eagles, P.F.J. (2002) Trends in Park Tourism: Economics, Finance and Management. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 10(2), 132-153
39 Sources:Juan Carlos Pacheco - Gerencia Áreas Silvestres Protegidas CONAFJuan Pablo Contreras - Departamente Áreas Silvestres Protegidas CONAF
AntofagastaDaniela Bravo - Escuela de Ecoturismo Universidad Andrés Bello (2017).
Box 4: Case study on ecotourism concessions
between government and indigenous people,
Los Flamencos National Reserve Chile39
Los Flamencos National Reserve is part of
“Atacama La Grande” indigenous development
area in the northern Andes mountains of Chile.
The Reserve belongs to the National System of
Chilean Protected Areas (SNASPE), managed by
the National Forestry Corporation (CONAF). It
is the most important example of an ecotourism
concession contract between a government agency
and the Lickan Antay indigenous people of San
Pedro de Atacama.
In 2003, CONAF promoted the design of the
“Contract of Associativity” with Lickan Antay
Indigenous People. The contract considered the
national legislation related to environmental
conservation, the International Labour Organization
Convention 169, CONAF regulations, the reserve’s
management plan (which was co-designed with
the community), amongst others. This framework
provided many guarantees for a solid contract
between both parts. The contract aimed to:
1) Recognize the ancestral land use of Lickan
Antay Indigenous People,
2) Empower conservation actions in the Reserve,
3) Contribute to visitor management in highly
value ecological, cultural and spiritual sites and
4) Regulate public use in high visitation periods.
Some of the most important accomplishments
made by the communities have been supporting
the development and construction of three
environmental education centres that were built
using local materials and designs, supported the
construction of trails, which can be guided by
indigenous local guides, constructed tourism
infrastructure such as bathrooms and signage.
Considering that the Reserve has around 80,000
hectares and approximately ve PA rangers to
manage all the land, this cooperation has become
an extraordinary management support for CONAF.
Currently, there are ve ecotourism concessions run
by nine dierent communities of the Lickan Antay
people. They operate in 5 dierent areas of the
Reserve creating an income of approximately USD
1 million. The communities spend those incomes
in biodiversity conservation (30%), infrastructure
maintenance (30%) and social development (30%)
such as scholarships, water accessibility and land
regularization.
17
17
GENERATING SUSTAINABLE REVENUES FOR CONSERVATION AND DEVELOPMENT
2.3. Choosing a partnership type
Outsourcing to a for-prot corporation, a community group, or a non-government organization has benets and
disadvantages, as does insourcing to the protected area authority (see Table 2). Outsourcing to another government
department is not listed on the table, as this is usually a highly specialised activity, such as working with a local hospital for
medical care, a transportation agency for road maintenance, or the military for security. The ranking within each cell of
the table is subjective, and highly dependent upon the eectiveness and eciency of the PA administration, as well as the
related legislation in each country.
Table 2: Relative benets of dierent partnership types
Theme Criteria for choosing partnership type Outsource:
For-Prot Outsource:
Community Outsource:
NGO Outsource: joint-
venture Insource:
PA Authority
Financial issues
Protected area (PA) and government costs Low cost to PA Variable costs
to PA Low cost to PA Moderate cost
to PA High cost to PA
Gaining income for the PA Moderate Low Moderate Moderate Moderate,
depends on
policy
Expense of contract management,
monitoring High High Moderate High Low
Expense of tendering procedures High High, variable High High None
Diculty and expense of monitoring
nance High High Low High Low
Ability of the PA to function like a
business Needed Needed Needed Needed Needed
Expense of resolving conicts High High, variable High, variable High Low
Tourism operations
Quality of visitor services High
Low (unless
managed by
for-prot sub-
contractor)
Moderate,
variable High Moderate,
depends on
tourism policy
Specialised tourism expertise High Low Hired by NGO High Hired by PA
PA seen as competing with private
enterprise No Low Low No High
Access to new tourist markets More access Low access More access More access Depends on PA
policy
Tourism workable with low visitor
numbers No No Yes No No
Direct contact of PA sta with PA visitors Low Low Low Low High
Socio-economic impact
Opportunity for community equity Depends on
contracts High High High High
Business and job creation for local
population Moderate,
variable High Moderate High High
Flexibility in purchasing High High High High Low
Note: Use of the word ‘variable’ means that iSimangaliso workshop attendees suggested that the outcomes vary according to administrative
policy and administrative experience.
18
Theme Criteria for choosing partnership type Outsource:
For-Prot Outsource:
Community Outsource:
NGO Outsource: joint-
venture Insource:
PA Authority
Governance
Concession selection process open and
transparent High High Low High None
Control of services by PA Moderate Low Low Moderate High
Potential source of corruption during
procurement Moderate Moderate Moderate Moderate Moderate
Concessionaire inuence PA authority
policy Moderate Low Low High None
Concessionaires gain political power Moderate Yes Moderate Moderate Not a problem
Power of public sector unions Low Low Low High, variable High
Risk
Political inuences on PA management by
concessionaire High potential Moderate
potential Moderate
potential High potential None, no
concessionaire
Liability exposure Concessionnaire Concessionnaire Concessionnaire Concessionnaire Protected Area
Conict over PA objectives Moderate High Moderate High None
Reversibility of decisions Low Low High Low High
Transaction costs to establish partnership Moderate High Moderate High None
Diculty of removing a bad concessionaire High High Moderate High None, no
concessionaire
Bankruptcy of the concessionnaire Problem Problem Problem Problem Not a problem
Human resources
Public sector union contracts None None None None Full
Employment rules and regulations Company rules Government
rules Company rules Company rules Government
rules
Sta working on all PA needs Seldom Sometimes Sometimes Sometimes Not a problem
Contract management expertise needed in
protected area Yes Ye s Yes Yes Somewhat true
Ability to use volunteers Moderate High High Moderate Moderate
Ability to obtain donations of money and
time Moderate High High High Low
Environment and
conservation
Likelihood of contributing to biodiversity
conservation Moderate Low High Moderate High
Likelihood of applying an environmental
management system (e.g. renewable
energy, water conservation, recycling) Moderate Low High High Low
Likelihood of using of third party
certication to demonstrate ‘sustainability’ High Moderate Moderate High Low
19
19
GENERATING SUSTAINABLE REVENUES FOR CONSERVATION AND DEVELOPMENT
There is a range of legal options for the use of outsourcing, which include concessions, leases, licences and permits. The
characteristics of these options are described in Table 3. Typically, PA management uses several of these legal options,
sometimes within one contract for one service. For example, a guiding company may need a licence to operate its business
and also a lease to work out of a protected area-owned building. It should be recognised that many countries have
specialized legal instruments that aect tourism outsourcing procedures.
Table 3: Characteristics of legal instruments40
Type of Legal
Instrument Description Length Examples
Concession
A concession is the right to use land or other property
for a specied purpose, granted by a government,
company, or other controlling body. It can include a
commercial operation and/or a piece of land.41 A tourism
concession could provide accommodation, food and
beverage, recreation, education, retail, and interpretive
services
10 - 40
years Accommodation, restaurant
or retail facilities.
Lease /
management
contract
A contractual agreement in which one party conveys
an estate (i.e. land and facilities) to another party for
a specied, limited time period. The lessor retains
ownership in the property while the lessee obtains rights
to use the property. Typically a lease is paid for.
5- 30
years
Use of xed infrastructure
such as accommodation,
airports, restaurants, shops
etc. for a rental fee.
Licence
Gives permission to a legally-competent authority
to exercise a certain privilege that, without such
authorization, would constitute an illegal act. Often seen
by the public as a form of quality control and requires
due diligence by the competent authority, in contrast to
a permit. Possession of the land is not granted through
the license. Licenses give protected area authorities the
ability to screen applicants to ensure that they fulll a
set of conditions.42
Up to 10
years
Vehicle-based tours (e.g.
game drives, hot-air
ballooning, white-water
rafting, boat cruise) using
operators own equipment.
Permit
A temporary form of permission giving the recipient
approval to do a lawful activity within the protected
area. Permits normally expire within a short length of
time. Usually the number of permits is large and limited
by social or environmental considerations. In most cases,
permits are given to anyone who pays the corresponding
fee.
Up to 10
years
Activities such as guiding,
canoeing, hunting, and
climbing using operators’
own equipment.
40 Adapted from Spenceley et al, 2016 Table 3, and Thompson et al, 2014: Table 5.2
41 Pocket Oxford English Dictionary, 2006
42 Eagles, P. F. J. and Legault, M. (2012) Guidelines for the Planning and Management of Concessions, Leases, Licenses, and Permits in Parks and Protected
Areas. Unpublished manuscript.
20
21
21
GENERATING SUSTAINABLE REVENUES FOR CONSERVATION AND DEVELOPMENT
Box 5: Case study on non-government organizations
in protected area management: Ontario Provincial
Parks
Ontario Parks in Canada manages a system of 339
provincial protected areas (PAs), and there are
Friends Groups operating in 25 of those that operate
with visitor services and on-the-ground sta. These
groups typically provide guiding, interpretation,
and environmental education programs to visitors.
Increasingly, the groups also operate environmental
and cultural festivals. Each is a legally-constituted
charity under federal law. The members pay an
annual fee. Each group operates under a contract with
one PA, typically including a lease on a government
building to operate a store. Each group has a board of
directors, and must lease an annual nancial statement
with the federal government in order to maintain
their charitable status. Funding is through the sale of
products and services. Donations of money and time
are also important. All prot must be invested in an
approved PA management activity. Ontario Parks has
one sta member in head oce with the responsibility
to encourage and assist the development and operation
of these groups. The Friends Groups are an important
institution that encourages PA visitors to become
involved in PA management, through the provision
of services and donations that support management
eorts.
Within concessions, there are forms that have dierent
implications for the level of capital investment and
maintenance that the concessionaire takes for responsibility
for. These include Build Operate and Transfer (BOT),
where the concessionaire is responsible for the construction
costs and activities, their operation, and then transfers them
to the PA Authority at the end of the concession period.
Other forms include Rehabilitate Operate and Transfer
(ROT), Design-Build-Operate (DBO), and also Maintain
and Operate. PA Authorities can include performance bonds
in contracts to ensure funds to invest in capital repairs and
maintenance during the last few years of a contract.
Protected area authorities must decide which tourism
services to operate and which service delivery option to use.
The ow diagram in Figure 1 can help with this decision-
making process, coupled with an understanding of the
benets and disadvantages of each option.
Figure 1: Flow diagram for deciding the type of legal instrument to use
Question 1: Does the protected area authority
have money and personnel to develop tourism
infrastructure?
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
No
No
Insource:
PA authority develops tourism infrastructure itself
Outsource:
PA authority looks for a partner
for development
Concession:
Seek a partner to invest, develop and operate facility
Question 2: Does the PA have existing
infrastructure, and the mandate/ skills/personnel
to manage and maintain it?
Outsource:
PA authority looks for a
management partner
Lease:
Contract to outside operator for use of facilities/land for a specied
period
Question 3: Does the PA want to oer public services,
and have mandate/skills/personnel to do so?
Insource:
PA authority oers trips and tours itself
Outsource:
PA authority looks for partners
to oer trips and tours
Licence:
Contract to outside operator for use of facilities/land for a specied
period
Permit:
Access provided for a short time to access the area
Insource:
PA authority manages the tourism services itself
22
2.4. Sources of nance for concessions
processes
Financing tourism concessions processes can be one of the
biggest challenges facing protected area authorities, but
there are appropriate institutions that can oer nancial
assistance and advice. One of the major reasons for
protected areas managers seeking concessionaires is due to
their ability to nance capital. The potential contribution
of tourism to the funding of protected areas needs to be
set in the context of other funding sources available to the
protected area. Each funding source brings with it some
degree of risk, and as with any nancial package it is
important to balance the risks and opportunities presented
by each one.43 The key is to build up a portfolio of revenue
streams that are suited to the specics of each particular
protected area, and which together oer greater stability of
funding ows than any one mechanism could provide on its
own. The selected revenue stream portfolio will inevitably
depend to some extent on the specic features of dierent
protected areas and the options available. For example,
generation of revenues through fees, concessions and sales
is most likely to be appropriate in protected areas where
visitation levels are high.
As tourism is seen as a high-impact sector in most African
countries, it can be among donor’s list of options to promote
both conservation and sustainable development. Attracting
investors also requires the protected area to identify its
unique selling points (USPs) to highlight to the investor
why they should invest and what benets they will receive
from investing. Once tourism concession opportunities
have been identied: they have to be marketed!
All investors, banks, and commercial lenders need to
be condent that they are investing in or lending to a
potentially sound, nancially viable business. Generally,
they are concerned about mechanisms for injecting capital,
mechanisms for the return of their capital, and dividends
and interest payments. Equity investors are particularly
concerned about protection for their investment and how
they will be able to exit at the end of the investment period.
Banks are especially focused on the adequacy of the project’s
cash ow to service debt obligations and the securities the
borrower can provide. They also want to know that the
project concept and business plan is sound, well researched
and in line with market assumptions.44
All lenders require projects to meet minimum criteria
before proceeding with nancing. Lenders assess the
following criteria45:
Will the business be viable? 
Is the sponsor credible? 
What collateral is available? 
Is this project protable enough for us to take the risk? 
Choosing the right investors
To identify appropriate investors to approach (whether they
are tourism companies, individual investors, communities,
or donors), research is needed to nd out which are most
likely to be interested in the type of opportunity being
oered. Sources of information include the internet, local
contacts in the tourism and development industry, and
tourism information oces. Authorities should prioritize
investors that are most likely to be able to promote tourism
that will benet their protected area, and can diversify their
product oering. It is important to look out for investors
that have: similar values and goals as the protected area
to ensure compatibility of values from the start; a track
record of engaging in sustainable tourism (including
engaging communities and growing local multipliers) and
commercial success.
Finance for private sector investors
There are a number of development nance institutions
(DFIs), other nancing institutions and support
organizations that can help private parties with nancing
tourism concessions. These include: investment grants;
concessionary loan nance; training grants and incentives;
and marketing support. For example, the International
Finance Corporation and certain NGOs may also oer
assistance to communities wanting to form partnerships
with the private sector (see Box 7 and Box 8).46 The
perspectives of a commercial bank in nancing tourism
concessions are described in Box 9.
43 Font et al. (2004). Op. cit.
44 Paragraph taken from: The World Bank Group. (2014). Getting
Financed: 9 tips for community joint ventures in tourism. Available https://
openknowledge.worldbank.org/handle/10986/21698
45 The World Bank Group. (2014). Op. cit.
46 The World Bank Group. (2014). Op. cit.
23
23
GENERATING SUSTAINABLE REVENUES FOR CONSERVATION AND DEVELOPMENT
Box 7: Sources of nance for private investors for
concessions
International Finance Corporation (IFC): The
IFC is the largest global development institution
focused exclusively on the private sector in developing
countries. Since 1956, IFC has invested over
USD2.8 billion in over 260 tourism projects in 89
countries with more than half of these investments in
frontier countries.47 To be eligible for IFC funding, a
project must meet a number of criteria. The project
must be located in a developing country that is a
member of IFC; in the private sector; be technically
sound; have good prospects of being protable;
benet the local economy; and be environmentally
and socially sound, satisfying our environmental and
social standards as well as those of the host country.
IFC does not lend directly to micro, small, and medium
enterprises or individual entrepreneurs, but many
investment clients are nancial intermediaries that on-
lend to smaller businesses.
UNDP’s Enterprise Challenge Fund: This fund
distributes grants (or concessional nance) to prot-
seeking projects on a competitive basis.48 A challenge
fund subsidizes private investment in developing
countries where there is an expectation of commercial
viability accompanied by measurable social and/or
environmental outcomes. Enterprise challenge funds
(challenge funds) are established by a public entity,
foundation or development partner to provide nancial
contributions in the smallest possible eective amount
to socially or environmentally worthwhile projects that
are delivered by the private sector.
Box 6: Using multiple partnership types in
protected areas
The iSimangaliso Wetland Park World Heritage Site in
South Africa employs a range of dierent partnership
types for tourism. These included concessions for
joint-venture operations (e.g. community-private-
public partnerships at Rocktail Camp, Thonga Beach
Lodge and Mabibi Camp), licenses for tourism activities
for example estuary boat tour operators (including a
number reserved for community owners/operators),
permits for ad hoc tourism operators, lming,
events, research. It also has partnerships with other
government agencies for the management of tourism
accommodation. The agreement is much the same as a
public-private-partnership agreement. It outsources the
management of access control, facilities management
and construction to third parties.
24
Box 8: Options for private sector nancing when partnering
with a community
The Thakadu Lodge in South Africa shows the diversity of
funding options available:
The community Sebolao Trust raised USD 1 million
Grants of USD 0.6 million
USD 0.26 million from local government 
USD 0.09 million from Ford Foundation 
USD 0.25 million from Khula’s Community Equity Fund 
Interest-bearing loans of USD 0.4 million*:
USD 0.25 million from Khula’s Land Empowerment
Credit Facility (at JIBAR) (via IDC) 
USD 0.15 million from IDC (at prime) 
* Lease rights ceded to IDC as security
Private operator invested USD0.3 million
Community ‘equity’
40%
Community loans
31%
Private Investment
23%
47 International Finance Corporation (undated) Our funding, Accessed 14 April 2017 from http://www.ifc.org/wps/wcm/connect/corp_ext_content/ifc_
external_corporate_site/about+ifc_new/ifc+governance/funding/ourfunding
48 http://www.undp.org/content/sdnance/en/home/solutions/enterprise-challenge-fund.html
25
25
GENERATING SUSTAINABLE REVENUES FOR CONSERVATION AND DEVELOPMENT
Box 10: Perspectives of a nancial institution on
nancing concessions
Christo Viljoen, Head, First National Bank (FNB) Agri &
Tourism, Namibia50
Q: What have been the main barriers?
A: Often, our biggest challenge is to determine the
nancial viability of the ventures. Business plans are
sometimes incomplete and the risks involved are not
properly addressed. Collateral is important. Repayment
ability is even more important. We would like to see an
up-to-date history of nancial performance that indicates
good nancial discipline and nancial management. We
use this to determine the future repayment ability of the
business—but many ventures are unable to deliver this.
Q. What is the most important deciding factor for
you?
A. Its the project sponsor—without a doubt! Since cash
ow projections are done on assumptions and these
can obviously change, we put a huge reliance on the
person running the business. Do they have the necessary
experience to manage a business of this nature? Can
we trust that person to inform the bank in time of any
challenges and deviations on the cash ow? Will he/
she be able to come up with solutions to challenges and
make things work out?
Q: What advice would you give to the sector?
A: I always tell prospective clients to prepare properly
before coming to see us. Your business plan is key. I
can’t overstate how important it is that it addresses
upfront our main concerns and provides good detail
on marketing, management structure, expertise and
a Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats
analysis as well as detailed nancial history and
projections (i.e. Balance Sheets, Income Statements and
Cash Flow Projections)
Box 9: African Wildlife Capital facilitating
private sector-community funding49
African Wildlife Capital (AWC) was founded
by African Wildlife Foundation (AWF) in 2011
as Africa’s rst impact-investment vehicle for
conservation enterprise. The company provides
investment nancing to small and midsize
enterprises that have the capacity to make a
signicant conservation and socioeconomic impact,
thereby positively engaging the private sector in
conservation eorts. AWC has invested a total of
USD 2 million to develop the rst two ecolodges
in Ethiopia’s national protected area (PA) system:
Bale Mountain Lodge in Bale Mountains National
Park and Limalimo Lodge in Simien Mountains
National Park. Both lodges received in excess of
USD 800,000 in nancing from AWC. AWC has
also nanced the award-winning community-
based tourism company, Village Ways, to develop it
operations in Ethiopia with an initial focus on the
Simien Mountains.
AWC has further worked with the Ethiopian Wildlife
Conservation Authority to ensure that global best
practices in private-sector concessioning in national
PA contexts were built into these developments.
Demonstrating its ability to innovate, USD
200,000 of the AWC funding in Limalimo Lodge
was used to create a revenue-based royalty, secured
by AWF, to generate an ongoing revenue stream for
a new local conservation primary school that AWF
is constructing on the edge of the national park.
This creates a unique circular symbiosis between
conservation, tourism and education in and around
a national park.
49 African Wildlife Foundation: http://www.awf.org/blog/building-conservation-tourism-ethiopia. Accessed on 14th April 2017.
50 The World Bank Group. (2014). Op. cit.
26
Finance for community investors
Non-governmental organisations can be a source of nancial resources to support community investors in tourism concessions.
They can provide money to pay directly for capital investment, or purchase equity in a joint-venture partnership. These
funds are often provided in the form of a grant, rather than a loan, making it low-risk nance for community members.
Since communities rarely have collateral to secure loans, grants can be one of only limited sources of investment nance
available to them. Communities need to ensure that mitigation mechanisms are in place to manage perceived investor
risks.51 Some examples of funding sources are listed in Table 4.
Table 4: Funding sources for community concessions
Potential funders Background
African Wildlife
Foundation (AWF)
AWF has created a process of developing and brokering eco-lodges between communities
and experienced private operators. While both provide funding, the community owns
the land and lodge, and the operator is responsible for running it. The operators then
lease the land from the community and agree to pay a percentage of all revenue earned,
creating incentives for communities to protect area wildlife.
Concessions nanced: Clouds Mountain Gorilla Lodge, Uganda; Grootberg Lodge,
Namibia
African Safari
Foundation (ASF)
The ASF is a not-for-prot organization which builds mutually rewarding partnerships
between communities, ecotourism operators and conservation agencies in some of
Africa’s poorest regions. The ASF has provided nance, and also brokered nance from
others, for community concessions.
Concessions nanced: Chemucane, Mozambique; Etendeka Mountain Camp, Namibia;
Thakadu River Camp, South Africa
Ford Foundation
The Ford Foundation is the second-largest private foundation in the United States, with
an endowment of USD12 billion. They use nancial resources to help grantees achieve
the greatest possible impact to challenge inequality.
Concessions nanced: Chemucane, Mozambique
Finance for protected area authorities
Basic infrastructure, including roads, electrical distribution,
and water supply, should be nanced by government in
state-managed protected areas. In addition, governments
may provide capital for high-prole tourism infrastructure,
such as visitor centres, shops, and lodges. Often protected
areas nd it easier to obtain capital funds, than operating
funds from government. In these cases, concessionaires
can be used to provide the services, using government-
owned infrastructure. The process of designing, procuring,
and managing concessions and partnerships can have
high nancial and high associated transaction costs to the
protected area authorities. In countries with well-resourced
protected area authorities, self-nancing concession
processes is possible (e.g. Canada, USA, New Zealand),
but in other instances donor support has been mobilised.
For example, sources of nancial and technical support for
concessioning processes in southern Africa have included the
World Bank and International Finance Corporation (IFC)
(e.g. South Africa, Lesotho, Mozambique, Madagascar), the
African Development Bank (e.g. Zambia), United States
Agency for International Development (USAID) (e.g.
Mozambique), and non-governmental organizations (e.g.
in Mozambique). Donor support for concessioning may
be integrated into a broader conservation and development
projects (e.g. Mozambique’s World Bank Transfrontier
Conservation Area and MozBio projects), or as stand-
alone initiatives negotiated by the government or protected
area authority with a donor (e.g. Lesotho and the IFC).
Therefore, nance can be a combination of government
funds, NGO grants, and private sector investments.
Ideally, a proportion of the revenue generated by concessions
and partnerships should be invested in protected area
management, to nance conservation management, improve
facilities, and mitigate any negative environmental impacts
of tourism. This process is often determined by national
legislation on how protected areas are nanced in general.
Specialized NGOs, such as Friends Groups, are often
required by their contracts with the PA to spend prot on
PA authority-approved projects.
51 The World Bank Group. (2014). Op. cit.
27
27
GENERATING SUSTAINABLE REVENUES FOR CONSERVATION AND DEVELOPMENT
Box 11: Case study on Chemucane concession, Anvil
Bay, Mozambique
Anvil Bay is a 12 chalet (24-bed) lodge situated in the
Maputo Special Reserve in Mozambique. The lodge
oers guests game drives, walks in the dune forest and
on the beach, beach bikes, watersports (e.g. kayaks,
stand up paddle boards), snorkelling, shing, and turtle
nesting walks.52
The Government of Mozambique awarded a 50-year
concession to the community association, Ahi Zameni
Chemucane Association (AZC), which in turn has
a 25-year agreement with the Chemucane Tourism
Company (CTC) to develop and operate the lodge.
In terms of nancing: the CTC has 40% ownership by
AZC, which was nanced by both a USD500,000 grant
from the World Bank’s Community Enterprise Fund
and a USD500,000 from a loan from the African Safari
Foundation. The other 60% equity is owned by the Bell
Foundation, which invested USD2 million.53 Within
the Maputo Special Reserve, the land is owned by the
Government of Mozambique, and the community has
been awarded a Special Licence (permission to develop
in a protected area).
52 Anvil Bay. (2017) Rates, validity between 7 January 2017 and 6 January 2018, accessed on 8 March 2017 from http://anvilbay.com/special-oers/
53 Collins, S. (2012) Ponto Chemucane Maputo Special Reserve: Putting community at the centre? Technical workshop on concessioning and investment in
TFCAs, Presentation at the international workshop on concessioning tourism opportunities in conservation areas and maximising rural development, Maputo,
Mozambique, 19-22 March 2012; Collins, S. (2014) The role of NGOs facilitating tourism concessions and providing support to communities entering joint-
venture agreements. Technical workshop on concessioning and investment in TFCAs, Presentation at the international workshop on tourism concessions in
transfrontier conservation areas in SADC, Johannesburg, South Africa, 1 September 2014
54 Thompson et al. (2014). Op. cit.
55 Thompson et al. (2014). Op. cit.
2.5. Legal framework and foundations
for concessions
Most governments have laws and policies on the purchase
of outside services. Protected area authorities must have
sta with the appropriate training in national laws and
policies on outsourcing that aect the choice, management
and enforcement of contracts. To supplement these, they will
also have laws that relate to the governance of protected
areas (e.g. by a government, private or community entity),
and laws that relate to land tenure and security (see
Table 7). In some countries, the law will stipulate what
kind of tourism activities can, and cannot, take place in a
particular type of protected area. For example, some may
permit hunting or night drives in certain types of protected
areas, and not in others. Concessions and partnerships
policies should:
keep tourism in balance with conservation goals, such as
outlined in the protected area management plan;
encourage sucient volumes of tourism to ensure
nancial viability;
set limits for acceptable change associated with tourism;
• establish a framework to ensure that these limits are
applied fairly and eectively; and,
create institutional and nancial structures to manage
tourism revenues.54
Box 12: Characteristics of concession law,
regulations and policies55
• Concession contract terms, such as length of
contract operation
Process for obtaining concession proposals
Award process
Evaluation criteria
Protections for concessionaires
Control of concessionaire rates and charges for
services to visitors
Concession fees (to government or the protected
area authority)
How concession fee revenues are spent (i.e. on
conservation, maintenance etc.)
Economic development
• Preferences (e.g. for local or community
businesses)
Assignments and transfers of rights
Suspension or termination procedures
Prosecution, breach and penalties
(© http://anvilbay.com)
28
Protected area managers decide what form of legal
instruments to be used for outsourcing; often a combination
is used. For example, a tour company may have to purchase
a day use permit for each client, obtain a professional
guiding licence to show sucient sta training and liability
insurance, and obtain a lease on a parcel of land for the
exclusive use of their clients, such as a picnic site.
The process for negotiating a bid and selecting a
concessionaire (i.e. the tendering process) is usually long,
complex, and expensive for all parties involved (see section
3). This cost often creates an incentive for the protected
area authority to use other approaches, such as long-term
contracts, easy methods for contract renewal, or insourcing.
The process of choosing the winning tender is typically
secret; with only the result being publically announced.
In many cases, the resulting contracts are not publicly
available.
The high transaction costs (i.e. time and money) needed
to tender concessions can encourage some protected area
managers to insource the tourism services by using their
own facilities and sta. The high transaction costs can
also discourage some potential bidders from bidding. The
bidder must decide if the cost of bidding can be justied
given the potential of long-term benet of winning the bid.
A contract is an agreement between two parties in which
both parties agree to do something in return for a benet to
both parties. Important points related to contracts:
Contracts can be verbal, but this leaves important issues
to later interpretation in case of dispute.
• It is more preferable for all contracts to be written
to make interpretation much easier and enhance the
likelihood that disputes will be successfully resolved
through mediation or legal action.
Contract law underpins all outsourcing activities
in protected area tourism. It is important that the
responsibilities of each partner are listed in sucient
detail in a contract. Having a clear idea of these
responsibilities allows for the regular measurement of
contract performance. Typically, there are nancial and
other penalties for non-compliance.
The contract includes a section outlining the rules for
cancellation of the contract in the case of major non-
compliance with contract stipulations.
Inclusion of clauses for periodic review, to allow for
exibility and adaptation during long contracts.
Ultimately all the contract stipulations, including those
dealing with contract cancellation will be subject to
interpretation by the courts.
A unique situation that involves bilateral negotiations
is that of transboundary PAs. This situation requires
negotiation and legal clarication concerning the rights
of concessionnaires to move and operate across national
boundaries. Legal barriers to crossing of international
boundaries in transfrontier PAs remain a major barrier to
easy tourist and tourist operator crossings.56
Box 13: Examples of national policies for
concessions and partnerships in southern
Africa57
Namibia: Policy on Tourism and Wildlife
Concessions on State Land (2007)
South Africa: The Public Finance Management Act
(1999), combined with a National Treasury Public
Private Partnership Toolkit for state controlled game
reserves and national parks.
Zambia: Public private partnership Act (2010)
Tanzania: Public Private Partnership Act (no 14 of
2009)
56 Issues raised by southern African delegates to the iSimangaliso Wetland
Park workshop, as part of the broader CBD/IUCN project on tourism
concessions and partnerships.
57 Spenceley (2014); Government of Zambia, (2016) Guidelines and
checklist in designing public private partnership (PPP) projects for wildlife
conservation
29
29
GENERATING SUSTAINABLE REVENUES FOR CONSERVATION AND DEVELOPMENT
2.6 Integrating sustainability58
Sustainable tourism principles refer to the environmental,
economic and socio-cultural aspects of tourism development,
and a suitable balance must be established between these
dimensions to guarantee long-term sustainability59. Thus,
sustainable tourism60 should:
Make optimal use of environmental resources that
constitute a key element in tourism development,
maintaining essential ecological processes and helping
to conserve natural heritage and biodiversity.
• Respect the socio-cultural authenticity of host
communities, conserve their built and living cultural
heritage and traditional values, and contribute to inter-
cultural understanding and tolerance.
Ensure viable, long-term nancial operations, providing
socio-economic benets to all stakeholders that are
fairly distributed, including stable employment and
income-earning opportunities and social services to host
communities, and contributing to poverty alleviation.
Some sustainability policies are driven by governments
and authorities, and some driven by the industry or
consumers. Governments can set standards and mandatory
requirements through legislation. Regulating and enforcing
sustainable behaviour through construction permits,
licensing, environmental impact assessments, as well as
the concessioning framework or contracts themselves
are commonplace. Voluntary mechanisms driven by the
industry to enhance sustainability tend to work in parallel
- such as award schemes, sustainability certication, and
codes of conduct, as well as consumer-feedback platforms
and ratings61.
Sustainability at all stages
In order to ensure sustainability of tourism concessions,
it is essential to integrate sustainability, measurement
and monitoring at all stages: planning, development
and operational phases. Full integration of economic,
environmental and socio-cultural aspects into the business
will result in a more holistic approach that engages
all stakeholders and has a greater chance of long-term
sustainability. Integration can be done through stipulating
certain conditions in the protected area management
plan, tourism concession tender documents and tourism
concession contracts.
Table 5: Ensuring sustainability in concessions and partnerships62
Theme
Concession and partnership scoping, design and feasibility, procurement phases Concession and partnership contract management.
Include the following requirements for partners in the concession contract:
Theme
Economic
Require partnership proposals to include a development plan, which indicates how concessionaries will; (a)
procure goods and services from local and fair-trade sources, (b) employ and advance people from local and
marginalized groups, (c) provide equity to local and marginalized groups.
Preferentially approve agreements which directly benet local communities / marginalized groups.
Ensure that bidder’s proposals do not undermine traditional resource access rights.
Educate community investors about tourism, including visitation, nance, marketing, etc.
Check investor’s business models, and ensure they are realistic relating to potential bed nights, revenues,
employment gures, etc.
Create a framework that incorporates benet-sharing plans for all engaged stakeholders, whether from
revenue generated by the concessions for the authority, or by the concessionaire.
To recruit and employ sta in an equitable and transparent way.
To promote ongoing business and tourism skills training and development for all engaged stakeholders.
To promote sustainable Corporate Social Responsibility.
To promote use of local suppliers of goods and services.
To ensure eective, transparent and ecient benet-sharing.
To advise local small businesses to equip them to trade their goods and services with concessionaires.
Requirement to monitor and provide a high-level of tourist satisfaction
Economic
Environmental
Conservation is the primary objective of protected areas and should always be taken into consideration in all
decision-making.
• Assess the Limits of Acceptable Use of the area in terms of tourism numbers and associated environmental
impacts.
Determine suitable tourism activities for the area, e.g. photographic tourism, hunting, walking trails, 4x4, etc.
Consider impact of location, size, etc.
Consider the siting of access roads.
Ensure the conducting of an Environmental Impact Assessment.
Considering development plans in relation to lowest possible ecological impact, including energy-saving
and environmentally-friendly products and services. Always keep in mind that conservation is the primary
objective of protected areas.
Maximizing the use of sustainably harvested, local materials.
Use of energy ecient appliances; use solar wherever possible.
Minimising and monitoring water, non-renewable energy and material use.
Incorporating local architectural styles to reduce aesthetic impact.
Educating sta and guests about saving resources.
Managing all waste (i.e. sewage, rubbish, etc.) eectively; recycling.
Avoiding use of environmentally-unfriendly products.
Planting of indigenous vegetation.
Considering impact of driving o-road, etc.
Environmental
Socio-cultural
Ongoing engagement and open dialogue with all stakeholders*.
Ensure consideration of development plans in relation to respecting community access, land rights and sites
of cultural importance.
Assess potential opportunities for integrating local cultures and cultural activities into the tourism product in
a respectful way.
Provide capacity building for community members and institutions related to tourism, business, etc.
Manage community expectations through realistic goal setting and benet-sharing plans.
Engage local communities as to how they can be involved in the tourism product, if they would like to be.
Ongoing engagement and open dialogue with all stakeholders*.
Manage community expectations through realistic goal setting and benet-sharing plans.
Respecting social and cultural way of life of host community.
Providing capacity building for community members and institutions related to tourism, business, etc.
Promoting local cuisine.
Promoting local businesses to support tourism (e.g. crafts, village tours, etc.)
Preserving integrity of cultural resources.
Providing ongoing capacity building for community members and institutions related to tourism, business, etc.
Encourage bidders to incorporate environmental awareness programmes for local people (particularly
children)
Socio-cultural
58Adapted from Casimiro & Spenceley, (2012). Op. cit.
59 UNEP and UNWTO (2005) Making Tourism More Sustainable - A Guide for Policy Makers, UNEP and UNWTO, 2005, accessed on 9 June from http://
www.unep.fr/shared/publications/pdf/DTIx0592xPA-TourismPolicyEN.pdf p.11,
60 See Leung et al (in press). Chapter 10
30
Theme
Concession and partnership scoping, design and feasibility, procurement phases Concession and partnership contract management.
Include the following requirements for partners in the concession contract:
Theme
Economic
Require partnership proposals to include a development plan, which indicates how concessionaries will; (a)
procure goods and services from local and fair-trade sources, (b) employ and advance people from local and
marginalized groups, (c) provide equity to local and marginalized groups.
Preferentially approve agreements which directly benet local communities / marginalized groups.
Ensure that bidder’s proposals do not undermine traditional resource access rights.
Educate community investors about tourism, including visitation, nance, marketing, etc.
Check investor’s business models, and ensure they are realistic relating to potential bed nights, revenues,
employment gures, etc.
Create a framework that incorporates benet-sharing plans for all engaged stakeholders, whether from
revenue generated by the concessions for the authority, or by the concessionaire.
To recruit and employ sta in an equitable and transparent way.
To promote ongoing business and tourism skills training and development for all engaged stakeholders.
To promote sustainable Corporate Social Responsibility.
To promote use of local suppliers of goods and services.
To ensure eective, transparent and ecient benet-sharing.
To advise local small businesses to equip them to trade their goods and services with concessionaires.
Requirement to monitor and provide a high-level of tourist satisfaction
Economic
Environmental
Conservation is the primary objective of protected areas and should always be taken into consideration in all
decision-making.
• Assess the Limits of Acceptable Use of the area in terms of tourism numbers and associated environmental
impacts.
Determine suitable tourism activities for the area, e.g. photographic tourism, hunting, walking trails, 4x4, etc.
Consider impact of location, size, etc.
Consider the siting of access roads.
Ensure the conducting of an Environmental Impact Assessment.
Considering development plans in relation to lowest possible ecological impact, including energy-saving
and environmentally-friendly products and services. Always keep in mind that conservation is the primary
objective of protected areas.
Maximizing the use of sustainably harvested, local materials.
Use of energy ecient appliances; use solar wherever possible.
Minimising and monitoring water, non-renewable energy and material use.
Incorporating local architectural styles to reduce aesthetic impact.
Educating sta and guests about saving resources.
Managing all waste (i.e. sewage, rubbish, etc.) eectively; recycling.
Avoiding use of environmentally-unfriendly products.
Planting of indigenous vegetation.
Considering impact of driving o-road, etc.
Environmental
Socio-cultural
Ongoing engagement and open dialogue with all stakeholders*.
Ensure consideration of development plans in relation to respecting community access, land rights and sites
of cultural importance.
Assess potential opportunities for integrating local cultures and cultural activities into the tourism product in
a respectful way.
Provide capacity building for community members and institutions related to tourism, business, etc.
Manage community expectations through realistic goal setting and benet-sharing plans.
Engage local communities as to how they can be involved in the tourism product, if they would like to be.
Ongoing engagement and open dialogue with all stakeholders*.
Manage community expectations through realistic goal setting and benet-sharing plans.
Respecting social and cultural way of life of host community.
Providing capacity building for community members and institutions related to tourism, business, etc.
Promoting local cuisine.
Promoting local businesses to support tourism (e.g. crafts, village tours, etc.)
Preserving integrity of cultural resources.
Providing ongoing capacity building for community members and institutions related to tourism, business, etc.
Encourage bidders to incorporate environmental awareness programmes for local people (particularly
children)
Socio-cultural
*For a full list of stakeholders and their role in tourism concessions see Spenceley (2014): p18
61 Spenceley, A., Nevill, H., Coelho, C. F., and Souto, M. (2016). An introduction to tourism concessioning: 14 Characteristics of successful programs, World
Bank Group). pp 11
62 Adapted from Casimiro & Spenceley. (2012). Op. cit.
31
31
GENERATING SUSTAINABLE REVENUES FOR CONSERVATION AND DEVELOPMENT
Sustainability criteria and standards
There are several internationally recognized sets of criteria,
standards, indicators and certications for sustainable
tourism. Some of the tools that can be used by protected
area authorities are listed below:
The Global Sustainable Tourism Council (GSTC) has
two sets of criteria, one for hotels and tour operators,
and the other for destinations (such as protected areas).
Accounting for numerous guidelines and standards
available globally, they address socio-economic, cultural,
and environmental impacts, as well as sustainable
management.
The International Organization for Standardization
(ISO) ISO18065:2015 is a voluntary standard
establishing requirements for tourism services in
protected areas while bearing in mind the area’s
conservation objectives.
World Tourism Organisation (UNWTO) indicators
for sustainable development in tourism destinations
describe the process to develop destination-specic
indicators and includes example applications in
ecotourism destinations.
Tools that can be used by operational tourism
concessionaires to improve sustainability include:
Certication: Once operational, tourism businesses
can apply to be independently certied as sustainable.
The GSTC recognizes standards of certication bodies
that are aligned with their criteria, and therefore credible
processes.
Integrated Reporting: Integrated reporting assists
with thinking holistically and ensuring sustainability.
Combining nancial reporting with sustainability
reporting allows companies to assess total impact and
from there to assess risks, promote good practices and
correct bad practices. Tourism concession contracts
can stipulate reporting requirements to ensure that
concessionaires integrate sustainability into their
business and reporting. Tools for integrated reporting
include the Global Reporting Initiative.
Box 14: Sustainability inclusions of the South African National Parks concession programme63
A major objective of the concessions program was to apply SANParks environmental regulations, and the economic
empowerment of historically disadvantaged individuals and groups.
Empowerment bids: 20% of the points used to rate bids were allocated to empowerment plans. These in turn were
weighted in relation to:
Shareholding by historically disadvantaged individuals or groups (40%)
Training and armative action in employment (20%)
Business and economic opportunities for local communities (40%)
Environmental bids: Quantied monitoring targets were required for a number of environmental issues, including:
road length, number of beds, water consumption (350 litres per person, per day, was specied), waste water
production, waste production, game drives and sightings (i.e. the minimum approach distance), and monitoring.
Each concessionaire was required to employ an environmental control ocer during construction and operation.
63 Spenceley, A. (2004) Responsible nature-based tourism planning in South Africa and the commercialization of Kruger National Park, in Diamantis, D. (ed)
Ecotourism: management and assessment, Thomson Learning, London, pp267-280
32
3. PROCESSES FOR
CONCESSIONING AND
PARTNERSHIPS
3.1. Overall process
Figure 2 outlines the stages and characteristics of tourism
concessioning in protected areas. This section provides
general guidance and case study examples on the processes
involved, but recognises that concessioning processes vary
between countries, and in relation to specic legislation.
3.2. Scoping
Goal of this phase: The scoping phase establishes whether
tourism partnerships and concessions are the right approach
for a particular protected area or not, and allows the protected
area authority to develop a strategic plan as a basis.
Outcome of this phase: This phase should lead to the
development of a strategic plan.
Motivation
Describe the reasons that the protected area authority
has for partnerships and concessioning, including the
objectives and targets for the specic protected area. These
may be based on the authority’s policies and strategies, as
well as on specic particular needs at the local level (e.g.
to raise nance for infrastructure, generate regular income
for conservation management, transfer responsibility for
tourism operations to the private sector, provide jobs and
other benets to local communities, marketing, etc.). Also
identify if policies include specic targets expected to be met
by concessioning (e.g. numbers of jobs; additional revenue
needed for conservation management), so that realistic
expectations can be established. The motivation and targets
can be identied through discussion with protected area
ocials, relevant ministerial sta, and also a review of key
policy and strategy documents.
Previous experience
Establish whether the protected area has existing tourism
concession agreements, leases, licences, or permits, and if so,
how the new concessions will complement these. This can be
Procurement preparation
Transaction management
Negotiation and contracting
KEY CHARACTERISTICS
OUTPUT
Concession contract
PROCUREMENT,
NEGOTIATION AND
CONTRACTING
KEY CHARACTERISTICS
OUTPUT
Protected area and site identication
Legal assessment
Stakeholder engagement
Design of concession opportunity
Viability and market assessment
Setting fees
Commercial viability for investors
Value-for-money for authorities
High-level business plan
DESIGN AND
FEASIBILITY
KEY CHARACTERISTICS
OUTPUT
Motivation
Previous experience
Attractiveness to investors
Legal framework
Political will and nancial support
Potential risks or barriers
Strategic plan
SCOPING
Figure 2: Generic stages and characteristics of
concessioning
33
33
GENERATING SUSTAINABLE REVENUES FOR CONSERVATION AND DEVELOPMENT
done through discussions with protected area ocials and
also site visits. Also take note of the type of procurement
process that was followed (e.g. tender, auction, direct
award), the type of concession vehicle used (e.g. private
sector, joint-venture, community-owned) and the areas of
success and diculty that arose. In particular, consider how
sustainability elements were previously integrated (or not),
and whether or not the revenue owed back into conservation.
If the protected area already has tourism concessions or
partnerships in place, the authority will already have some
human resource capacity in place to design, procure, and
manage these. In some instances, there will be an established
team with good skills and experience, while in others, it
will be necessary to supplement existing capacity through
training or hiring additional personnel to ll any gaps (e.g.
a transaction advisor). Skills needed in the concessioning
team will include protected area management and zoning,
tourism business skills, nance and budgeting, stakeholder
consultation, and also legal expertise. Discuss with existing
personnel the existing skills and gaps (see section 5).
Attractiveness to investors
Make a general assessment of how attractive the protected
area might be to investors, to establish whether there is
likely to be a market demand for concessions. Tourism
investors will consider the underlying conditions of a
protected area before they choose to invest in a natural
area. They will consider its accessibility by road or air, the
level of basic infrastructure (e.g. internal roads, power,
water, and communications). Critically, they will also
consider the aesthetic attractiveness of a site, in terms of
its areas of natural and cultural interest to tourists, their
unique selling propositions, and how it would link to (and
add value to, or compete with) existing destinations. For
natural protected areas in Africa for example, investors will
often consider wildlife, landscape, in contrast to existing
pollution, degradation or health concerns. Investors will
also consider the riskiness of a prospect. For example, they
would consider political instability (regionally, nationally
and locally), potential threats (e.g. prospecting for oil or
mining), and the reputability of the concessioning agency,
based on the success (or failure) of previous investments.
Where there are high levels of interest, the authority
may already have received unsolicited bids for tourism
development. Discussions with a few existing and potential
tourism investors can be used to establish the level of
interest at this stage (see section 2.4). If there is no interest
at all, then embarking on a concessions and partnerships
program may be redundant, as it may not result in any
viable bids.
Legal framework
An ocially adopted protected area management plan should
be in place. This should include overarching environmental
and spatial context (i.e. zoning), conservation objectives and
commercial options and targets for the protected area.64 The
plan will indicate the level of legal protection that the area
has, and this will have implications for the extent to which
tourism is a priority or not (see Figure 3). Information on
key stakeholders (such as local communities) that could
either be beneciaries of concessioning, and/or who need
to be consulted during the process will also be described.
Figure 3: Management objectives of IUCN categories of protected areas in relation to tourism
64 See Lee, T. and Middleton, J. (2008) Guidelines for management planning of protected areas, Best Practice Protected Area Guidelines Series no. 10,
Accessible from https://www.iucn.org/content/guidelines-management-planning-protected-areas
Strict Nature
Reserve
Tourism prohibited
National Park
Tourism is primary
objective
National
Monument
Tourism is primary
objective
Habitat/Species
Management Area
Tourism is
potentially
applicable
Protected
Landscape/
Seascape
Tourism is primary
objective
Managed Resource
Protected Area
Tourism is
potentially
applicable
Wilderness Area
Tourism objectiveis
secondary
1a II
1b
III IV VIV
Source: Spenceley et al, 2016: Fig 1; p6
34
Laws and regulations should provide for private investment
in protected areas, including the ability to grant secure
land tenure to them. If the concessioning is to allow “...park
agencies to engage in partnerships with the tourism industry to
contribute nancially and technically to protected areas through
tools such as concessions, public-private partnerships.”,65 then
ideally the legal framework should also permit protected
area authorities to re-invest tourism revenues into
conservation. A small review of relevant policies and laws
can be made at this stage to conrm that a framework of
a management plan and investment laws and regulations
are in place, and that there are no major gaps or areas of
conict between them.
Political will and nancial support
Establish whether there is political support for partnerships
and concessioning in protected areas – both at a ministerial
level and at the authority’s level. If they are to succeed,
a pre-requisite is that directors of the authority that has
the mandate for concessioning should be champions for
concessioning. The political environment needs to be
suitable to conduct a transparent, ecient and eective
process, which leads to a good contract being signed. By
contrast, if there is weak governance, excessive red tape,
and political interference or corruption seems likely, then
investors may not be interested. A general impression of
political will can be formed through key interviews with
government ocials, private sector, donors and NGOs.
Some protected area authorities in southern Africa self-
nance their concession processes, but in others donor
support has been mobilized (see section 2.4.4). Explore
how the authority proposes to nance the proposed
concessioning process, or if resources still need to be
identied.
Box 15: Example of scoping for protected area concessions in Mozambique
In October 2013 the International Finance Corporation produced a scoping report for the Ministry of Tourism and
the World Bank, called the ‘Assessment of readiness of Mozambique’s conservation areas for Tourism Investment’. The
30-page report included background on previous donor programmes to support tourism investment and concessions;
the conservation area network; legal framework and institutional structures; private sector investment in conservation
areas (including structures to do so, and constraints); an assessment of conservation areas to consider for private
sector investment and their attractiveness; an assessment of private sector ‘appetite’ for investment in Mozambique;
and conclusions and recommendations.66
Creating a strategic plan
The scoping phase should conclude with the production of a Strategic Plan for concessioning, which provides the context
for the process. This document summarizes the ndings of the phase, and also species additional information that will be
needed during the subsequent design and feasibility phase.
65 Convention on Biological Diversity Decision XII/11 on Biodiversity and Tourism Development (paragraph 1(d))
66 International Finance Corporation (2013) Assessment of readiness of Mozambique’s conservation areas for Tourism Investment: Mozambique Tourism
Scoping Final Report, 11 October 2013
35
35
GENERATING SUSTAINABLE REVENUES FOR CONSERVATION AND DEVELOPMENT
3.3. Design and feasibility
Goal of this phase: This phase builds on the scoping phase to establish what the tourism concessioning programme
will look like, including available sites, tourism products to promote, potential markets and the most favourable type of
concession model to use (see section 2.2 and 2.3).
Outcome of this phase: This phase should lead to the development of a high-level business plan for the concessioning
programme.
Protected area and site identication
Establish criteria for selecting concession sites that relate to the relative attractiveness and underlying conditions. These
can include the location and features (e.g. access, existing infrastructure, and existing tourism), the size of the area, natural
and cultural features, environmental sensitivity to tourism, social issues (e.g. local communities), land ownership, and
institutional issues (e.g. capacity of the protected area administration to support concessionaires). Use the criteria during
site visits to rate and describe the categories, compare options, and apply the criteria to identify the most viable sites.
Legal assessment
A legal assessment is needed to establish whether the conditions are viable for tourism concessions, at national and protected
area level, and whether the investment climate is conducive to tourism concessions. Such an assessment can be undertaken
by a lawyer, or someone in the authority with a solid understanding of the law at national and protected area level.
Table 7: Legal assessment characteristics68
National level Protected area and concession level
Establish whether there is an existing legal framework for tourism
concessions (e.g. like the Public Finance Management Act in South Africa,
which requires use of the National Treasury’s Public Private Partnership
Toolkit).
Establish whether there is stable land tenure, laws relating to pricing and
transfer of land to the private sector, and applicable licences and permits.
(These are needed for investor to secure nance.)
• Identify commitments that would be binding on the relevant ministry and
the protected area authority, and the roles and responsibilities of dierent
institutions.
Ensure that there is permission to construct infrastructure for
commercial activities, such as accommodation, restaurants, and retail outlets.
Review regulations that may aect the project’s attractiveness to investors,
including tax liabilities, labour arrangements, and legislation relating to
foreign exchange, importation, competition, the tourism sector, building
codes, and the environment (e.g. Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA)
processes).
Identify any gaps and/or legal reforms required.
Identify the authority
responsible for the concession
site, that would authorize
the concession process and
agreement
Describe the legal procedure
for land applications and
approvals.
Identify any existing rights or
licenses issued to the sites and
adjacent areas.
• Identify spatial plans for the
protected area, as part of its
management plan, that regulate
where and how much tourism
can be established.
Compile a map of existing
rights or licences.
67 IFC (2012) Facilitating large-scale tourism resorts in Mozambique: The tourism investment generation approach, Accessible from https://www.
wbginvestmentclimate.org/uploads/CoastalResortsStudy.pdf, pp15
68 Adapted from Spenceley, A. (2014) op. cit.
Table 6: Example of weighting comparison of concession sites67
Sub Category Weighting Site 1 Site 2 Site 3 Site 4
Percentage Percentage Percentage Percentage
Infrastructure 68 70% 65% 65% 77%
Site Characteristics 110 55% 80% 80% 97%
Developmental viability 131 44% 82% 75% 97%
Tourism 99 69% 45% 44% 87%
Environmental 55 47% 67% 47% 65%
Land 67 60% 93% 100% 91%
Institutional 61 69% 73% 70% 68%
TOTAL 666 59% 71% 68% 85%
36
69 Walton A. Gomei M. and Di Carlo G. (2013) Stakeholder engagement: Participatory Approaches for the Planning and Development of Marine Protected
Areas. World Wide Fund for Nature and NOAA— National Marine Sanctuary Program, accessible from http://awsassets.panda.org/downloads/stakeholder_
engagement.pdf
70 Adapted from http://tourisminvest.org/_manual/manual_workstream_stakeholder-mgt.html
71 IFC. (2007). Op. cit.
72 Spenceley (2014). Op. cit.
73 Spenceley (2014). Op. cit.
Stakeholder engagement
A strategy should be identied for stakeholder engagement,
to ensure that stakeholders are engaged at every stage of
the concessioning process, and that their perspectives,
knowledge, and support are incorporated.69 Initially, the
relevant stakeholders and beneciaries should be
identied and mapped. They may include institutions and
representatives from government, protected area authorities,
private sector, locally aected communities, existing civil
society groups, the academic community, and also the
development community. Then for each stakeholder, decide
what level of stakeholder engagement is appropriate
(i.e. inform, consult, involve, collaborate, or empower) and
mechanisms to engage and communicate eectively. Then
begin to sensitize the stakeholders about the process and
progress made so far through meetings, site visits and the
media.70 Good practices include ensuring that stakeholder
expectations are managed; notifying them of updates to
the process; and responding to their comments.71 Where
community members are involved, determine whether
they need technical or other assistance to participate in the
process (either in consultation processes, or in preparation
to engage eectively in investments).
Design of the concession opportunity
Concession model: Using the decision tree in section 2.3,
establish the concession model (or mixture of models) that
will be oered (i.e. management agreements, lease, permit,
concession), its duration, and clarify who will own the
assets. Establish the type of partner sought for concessions,
for example:
Pure private sector or NGO
Joint-venture partnership, with community and private
shareholdings
Public-private partnership, with a government
partnership with the private sector / NGO / community
• Community-owned
The type of partner will have numerous implications
including who takes the risk for a concession’s capital
investment (i.e. government, private sector, NGO or a
host community), and also the extent of development
benets for local and host communities. These are not
mutually exclusive though, and a concessions programme
can encourage dierent types of partnership for dierent
concession sites in a protected area.
Tourism product type: Select the type of tourism product
and activities that will be oered from those described in
section 2.1. These should be compatible with the protected
area management plan. Indicate whether they will require
capital investment.
Duration: The concession duration to be oered should
be based on the level of risk that the investor is likely to be
taking (e.g. longer concessions should be oered for higher
capital investments, as with accommodation). Sometimes,
concessionaires who perform well can be given preferential
option on a further concession term.
Viability and market assessment
A situational analysis of tourism should be undertaken
through a review of literature and consultation with
identied stakeholders within authorities and the private
sector. This should include a supply and demand assessment
that establishes a baseline72:
Demand: Collate information on national and
destination statistics on numbers of arrivals, source
markets, demographics, length of stay, expenditure,
occupancies, type of accommodation used, destinations
visited, activities undertaken, trends, and development
objectives of the authority.
Supply: Review information on existing and competing
accommodation (including number, type, capacity,
quality, rates), tour operations/guides, restaurants,
transport, information and planned new tourism
products, attractions, and competing destinations and
products.
Reach out to potential investors who may be experienced
and interested in new sustainable tourism investments in
protected areas. Consider using scouting tours to other
protected areas, meetings at local and international trade
fairs, and individual meetings to engage with them. Establish
a database of existing and potential investors (including
private sector, NGOs and communities), and then discuss
the proposed concession sites with them. Ascertain whether
the proposed protected areas, sites and product types are of
interest to them; competing sites and destinations; whether
they would be likely to apply for a concession; what they
would invest; whether the levels of infrastructure are
appropriate; land anticipated challenges and risks.73
37
37
GENERATING SUSTAINABLE REVENUES FOR CONSERVATION AND DEVELOPMENT
Setting fees
Setting a concession fee is about nding a balance between
the amount the partner will gain from using the protected
area (a public asset), and the amount the authority earns
in return. The fee setting process should be transparent,
fair and consistent. It is also important to remember
that revenue is not the most important factor in protected
area concessions, and other factors such as public access,
size and exclusivity of the area, equity, conservation and
community benets are also important. It should be
explained to the concessionaire that concession fees are
essentially a business expense (i.e. rental for a property,
land use, etc.) Fee options include74.
Supply-driven fees are where authorities propose
reserve value/minimum fee, and oer this to the market
through a competitive bidding process (e.g. tender or
auction).
Market-driven fees come from unsolicited applications,
where a proposed fee is oered to the authority. This
can be accepted, or negotiated, and then agreed.
Revenue-based fee formulas set fees as a percentage
of gross revenue generated by the concessionaire. In
Southern Africa, rates are often between 6% and 10%
of turnover for safari lodges in high-value protected
areas, combined with a minimum payment of 50% of
the concession’s anticipated fee. However, checking
these types of fees requires strong inspection and
auditing rights of an authority, and a careful denition
of revenue. Per bed-night fees can also be used as a
proxy for a revenue-based fee.
Per-unit fees are used where authorities wish to charge
a xed fee per unit of use, such as a set fee per hectare per
year. These are easier to administer by an authority, but
need to be set on realistic valuations of the opportunity
(e.g. fees considered too high have discouraged some
investors in some sites).
Fixed-fees can be used for small concessions, when the
expected income is likely to be low, or revenues will be
dicult to police.
Combinations are also possible, where xed fees are
combined with revenue-based fees, etc.
If an authority wishes to establish a minimum concession
fee, it can review historical fees and industry standards, and
use investment analysis to determine likely protability. The
development of an acceptable internal rate of return (IRR)
that will cover risks and costs associated with concession
management in the PA is also important.75 It is important to
remember that the tourist operator must be able to make a
prot for the operation to be viable.
Commercial viability for investors
Calculate whether the tourism concession is likely to be
commercially viable, by developing a simple cash ow
projection for a hypothetical concessionaire, and with a
realistic minimum concession fee. This projection will
help to avoid unrealistic expectations and, if relevant, set a
realistic minimum concession fee. More guidance for this
kind of forecast can be found in the South African PPP
Manual.76 Some of the dierences for investors inside, and
outside protected areas, are outlined in Table 8.
74 Thompson et al. (2014) Chapter 6
75 Thompson et al. (2014) Chapter 6
76 http://www.ppp.gov.za/Legal%20Aspects/PPP%20Manual/Main%20
Intro+Contents.pdf
77 Castis, T. (2017). PPP Program, iSimangaliso Wetland Park, Presentation
at the ‘Tourism partnerships and concessions in protected areas’ meeting, St
Lucia, South Africa, 30 May – 2 June 2017
38
Issue Tourism accommodation outside
protected areas Tourism accommodation in a protected area
Capital
growth
Investor is able to sell the property
at a value that generally exceeds the
initial investment.
No capital growth. The facility automatically reverts to the state
without compensation for the improvements eected by the
investor. At best, the outgoing concessionaire may recoup part of
the value of any movables taken over by the new operator.
Collateral
for debt
nancing
Property can serve as collateral
for debt nance, even in the case
where the investment is on leasehold
property.
Collateral for debt nancing is limited to the investor’s rights
under the concession agreement, which in nancial terms, are
very limited. The investor would have to encumber other assets
to secure nance. This is obviously unattractive to investors, given
that the concessionaire bears a much higher risk.
Risk
Investor assumes the full operational
risk, including the risk of bankruptcy.
However the investor may sell the
project at any time to mitigate losses
or avert bankruptcy. If further capital
has to be injected into the project,
it may be recovered through future
prots and/or capital appreciation.
The investor assumes the full operational risk, including the
risk of bankruptcy. It has no option but to continue to operate
the project irrespective of the losses being and its prospects of
recovery. If further capital has to be injected into the project, it
may never be recouped since the life of the project is nite and
there is no capital appreciation.
Capital
expenditure
and
operating
costs
Not impacted by environmental and
related factors typical of protected
areas.
Appreciably higher in response to environmental strictures. (e.g.
construction costs are higher because building takes place in
remote and/or inaccessible areas; waste must be removed from the
PA; specialised plant must be installed to deal with sewage; etc)
Target
market
Access to a variety of markets
(leisure, business, etc), enabling it to
diversify its business risk
Reliant exclusively on the leisure market, which is notoriously
ckle and subject to vagaries beyond the investor’s control. In
many cases, due to the environmental strictures the projects are
small resulting in high rack rates to ensure their viability. This
is the more vulnerable segment of the tourism market during
recessionary cycles
Table 8: Considerations for investors for tourism investments outside and within protected areas77
39
39
GENERATING SUSTAINABLE REVENUES FOR CONSERVATION AND DEVELOPMENT
Costs to institution
Concession phase
Scoping Design and
feasibility Procurement Concession
management
Project ocer and sta PPPP
Consultants or transaction advisor PPP
Expression of interest P
Stakeholder engagement P P
Supporting infrastructure/upgrades P P
Advertising P
Conservation management obligations P
Monitoring and evaluation processes P
Table 9: Typical institutional costs of tourism concessions to protected area authorities80
78 Detailed guidance for this kind of forecast can be found in the South African PPP Manual
79 http://www.ppp.gov.za/Legal%20Aspects/PPP%20Manual/Main%20Intro+Contents.pdf
80 Adapted from South African Public Private Partnership Manual: National Treasury PPP Practice notes issued in terms of the Public Finance Management
Act: Module 1: pp34
81 Spenceley. (2014) Op. cit. and Legovini, A. (2010) Development Impact Evaluation Initiative: A World Bank-Wide Strategic Approach
to Enhance Developmental Eectiveness, World Bank, Accessible from http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTDEVIMPEVAINI/Resourc-
es/3998199-1286546178578/7465778-1291306572028/Legovini_dime_paper_ext.pdf
Value-for-money for authorities
Establish whether the concessioning will provide value-for-
money for the government and protected area authority.
Compare the likely revenue that will be generated for
conservation, job creation, infrastructure investment from
concessioning with alternative options (e.g. in-sourcing)
or doing nothing.78 Importantly, consider these revenues
in light of associated costs of the procurement process and
managing a concession agreement.79
High-level business plan for the concessioning process
This plan should conclude the design and feasibility
stages, and will clearly describe important elements of the
concessioning (see Box 16).
3.4. Procurement, negotiation and
contracting
Goal of this phase: This phase implements the high-
level business plan, and includes the preparation for
the procurement (including the strategy and package,
promotional materials and bidding documents) and then
the transaction process itself.
Outcome of this phase: This phase should result in the
signing of an agreed concession contract between the
protected area authority and an investor.
Procurement preparation
The authority should develop an overall plan and the
materials that will be used during the procurement process.
These include:
Description of the concession package oered to
investors. This includes elements of the high-level
business plan (see Box 16), and also the project schedule
(i.e. procurement process, concession duration, exit).
Agreement on the plan for the procurement strategy
to be used (e.g. open-tender, auction) (see Table 10).
Box 16: Contents of a high-level business plan
for concessioning81
Goals and objectives of concessioning
Products and services to be developed,
ensuring that they are compatible with the
environmental and social sensitivity of the
destination
The concession model (i.e. management,
lease, Build-Operate-Transfer etc.), with
roles and responsibilities of the authority
and concessionaire, and relevant institutional
arrangements.
The business model (e.g. private sector, joint-
venture, community-owned enterprise).
Industry and market analysis, including supply
and international, regional and domestic
demand; as well as competitor and risk
analyses.
Development impact, in terms of revenue
generated, jobs created, investment mobilised,
natural resources protected, skills development
and local economic development.
Sustainability plan, including direct and
indirect socio-economic and cultural
linkages with local communities, biodiversity
conservation and environmental management.
Project schedule, including any phased
approach to releasing opportunities, the
life cycle of each concession, including
procurement process, duration and exit.
Marketing plan, including product, price,
promotion, and place, and roles of dierent
agencies.
Financial plan and projections, including best,
average and worst-case scenarios.
Critical risks and assumptions (i.e. nancial,
political, environmental, social, reputational,
market), and a mitigation plan.
Monitoring and evaluation of the concession.
40
“Revenue is not the most important
factor in protected area concessions, and
other factors such as public access, equity,
conservation and community benefts are
also relevant.
41
41
GENERATING SUSTAINABLE REVENUES FOR CONSERVATION AND DEVELOPMENT
Table 10: Pros and cons of dierent transaction strategies84
Pros Cons
Tender
• Most transparent process.
• Market-based system for selecting the best
proposal.
• Stimulates most investor interest.
• Best candidate can be selected based on
multiple criteria.
• Background checks can be done.
• Competitive process makes it less attractive to
some
investors because it reduces the chances of success.
• Can be costly, lengthy and complicated.
• Risk of attracting bidders with little or no
experience.
• Proposal evaluations typically done in secret.
Auction
• Very transparent.
• Competitive
• Quick and easy.
• Stimulates investor interest
• Background checks can be done.
• Not possible to negotiate other benets (e.g. local
benets; jobs; contribution to conservation).
• Dicult to conduct background checks.
Unsolicited
bid
• Greater exibility.
• Investor already interested.
• No marketing and promotion required.
• Useful if there is a lack of private sector
interest.
• Interest can be tested through a tender or
auction.
• Ad hoc, and reactive to bids that are provided.
• Risk of choosing an unsuitable investor, and not
getting the best deal, is potentially greater.
Direct
negotiation
• Relatively simple, quick, and direct.
• Preferred by high-ranked investors.
• Greater exibility.
• No marketing and promotion required.
• Not competitive.
• Open to external criticism about transparency,
favouritism and corruption.
• Risk of choosing an unsuitable investor, and not
getting the best deal, or no deal if the negotiation
fails.
• A plan for reaching out to investors, which may include
specic launch events, participation in international
trade fairs, individual meetings with targeted operators,
newspaper and magazine advertisements, social media.82
Production of promotional materials. In addition to
glossy, attractive yers and brochures to entice investors,
these also include factsheets including basic parameters
(e.g. location, size of site). Promotional materials
may include press releases for the media, posters and
banners for trade fairs, websites and investment portals.
Technical manuals can also be produced for interested
investors, with data such as land costs and acquisition
procedures; construction permit costs and procedures,
licenses required, labour costs and regulations (e.g. for
expatriate), incentives; utility costs; relevant policies and
laws; sustainability priorities.83
Development of bidding documents and a physical
or virtual ‘room’ to securely store data. Bidding
documents would include a tender manual (i.e. rules and
procedures), adverts (e.g. for Expressions of Interest, if
the authority wants to understand the level of demand),
prequalication and screening checklist, request for
proposals (RfP) with non-disclosure agreements and a
screening checklist; and a draft contract.
• Agreement on the bid evaluation committee, the
evaluation criteria that they will use, and the roles of
its members. The committee should sign condentiality
agreements, and recuse themselves if they have a conict
of interest.
It is critical that the process is formally agreed by the
authority (and potentially at ministerial level). This is to
ensure integrity and transparency in the process, and to
avoid the repercussions of any political interference in the
process or favouritism that may arise.
82 Spenceley. (2014) op. cit.
83 Whyte, R., Perrottet, J., Di Fiori, V., and Neville, H. (2013) Global
Investment Promotion Best Practices: Winning tourism investment, World
Bank, Available from https://www.wbginvestmentclimate.org/advisory-ser-
vices/investment-generation/investment-policy-and-promotion/gipb/up-
load/Tourism-GIPB-report.pdf, pp7
84 Adapted from Investment Climate Advisory Services. (2012) Facilitating
Large-Scale tourism resorts in Mozambique: The tourism investment gen-
eration approach, World Bank Group, and Government of Zambia (2016)
Guidelines and checklist in designing public private partnership (PPP)
projects for wildlife conservation
42
85 Adapted from Spenceley, (2014) Op. cit..
Unsolicited bids can made more transparent and competitive through an additional process, outlined in Figure 4.
Figure 4: Process to make unsolicited bids competitive85
Approving unsolicited bids
The authority gives a preliminary response
as to whether the project is of interest, and
may request additional legal, nancial and
environmental studies to be done by the
investor at their own cost. If the concept
is accepted, then the investor receives
formal recognition of the concept and their
preliminary proposal.
Detailed proposal developed with:
a) the investors ability to develop and
operate the project;
b) a technical feasibility study;
c) estimated project cost and nancing plan;
d) an income and expenditure plan;
e) justication of the need for the project;
and
f) environmental or social impact studies. A
bid bond may be requested at this time
if a guarantee of the seriousness of the
investor is required.
Detailed proposal reviewed and negotiated
between the proponent and authority.
Tendering unsolicited proposals
Option 1: Bonus system: A formal
competitive bidding process takes place, but
the original proponent receives a bonus, such
as an additional number of points on the score
of their proposal (i.e. up to 10%). The size
of the bonus is publicly announced, as is the
estimated reimbursable costs for the proposal
development.
Option 2: Swiss challenge: A public tender
process is announced. The original proponent
may be requested to provide a bid bond
equivalent to that required from potential
challengers. If a competitor submits a better
oer (nancially and technically), then the
original proponent may have a period to
match it (e.g. 30 days). If they cannot match
the challenging oer, then the challenger is
awarded the concession.
Option 3: Best and nal oer system:
Invitations for proposals are publically
announced. Bids are received, evaluated
and ranked – including from the original
proponent. The two best bids are selected for a
second round, including the proposal from the
original proponent. Best and nal oers are
requested from the short-listed bidders. If the
winning bidder is not the original proponent,
the winner is required to reimburse their
project development costs.
STAGE 1 STAGE 2
43
43
GENERATING SUSTAINABLE REVENUES FOR CONSERVATION AND DEVELOPMENT
Stilted Island
CRUSSE
ISLAND
Community Fishing
Port and Market
Ponta
Mangaca
PLANTACAO
NAMADE
To Nacala
INDIAN OCEAN
Mozambique
Channel
Exclusive Chalets
Boutique Mainland Hotels
Max. 5-10 unit
Exclusive
Residential
Clusters Boutique ±40
Room Hotel
Day Visitor
Restaurant and
Beach Area
5+ Star ±100
Room Hotel
±30 Stilted Chalets
To Jamali
Entrance
Mangrove
Forest
Unique attraction opportunities
Private Residential Units
Island-Style Development
Figure 5: Example of a conceptual design for a coastal tourism concession opportunity in Mozambique86
86 IFC. (2007) Mozambique Tourism Anchor Investment Program: Anchor
Sites Assessment nal report, MITUR / FUTUR/ IFC
87 Investment Climate Advisory Services. (2012) Facilitating Large-Scale
tourism resorts in Mozambique: The tourism investment generation
approach, World Bank Group
88 Personal communication, Anabela Rodrigues, NNR, January 2012
44
Above: Exhibition stand for a concessions program in
Mozambique87
Box 17: Bid security system Niassa National
Reserve, Mozambique88
Proposals received were held by an independent
third party: Ernst and Young. They kept the tender
documents securely, and a room was made available
in their oces to review the proposals, and for
evaluations to be done.
45
45
GENERATING SUSTAINABLE REVENUES FOR CONSERVATION AND DEVELOPMENT
46
Negotiation and contracting
With some transaction strategies, there is very little
negotiation involved and a contract is simply signed after
a winner is announced (e.g. auctions, tenders where a
bidder submits a signed contract). In other strategies, the
negotiation can be a lengthy and complex processes (e.g.
with direct negotiations), or only completed once the
bidder has fullled necessarily conditions (e.g. obtained
nance). A transaction advisor or experienced negotiator
can be contracted to facilitate discussions.
A PA authority may have a commercial close and a nancial
close of the deal. The commercial close is when the
concession agreement is signed by the PA authority and
the concessionaire. The concessionaire typically has a xed
period of time to conclude the nancial arrangements
with lenders and investors, once the time has lapsed,
the PA authority would then have the option to cancel
the concession agreement with the preferred bidder and
start discussions with the reserve bidder. This is done
to ensure that the PA authority is not bound to a bidder
that is ultimately unable to nance the project. Financial
close may also include conclusion of a direct agreement
between lenders and the PA authority to reect the security
arrangements lenders may have over the project assets and
will also govern lender step-in rights.89
Characteristics of a good deal include that they are
aordable and benecial to both parties; value for money
(nancial and development impacts); include acceptable
risk transfer; adequate technical capacity of the investor
(including operations, working with communities, existing
client base, and promotional capability); and the promotion
of sustainable tourism.90
89 Pers. Com. Carla Faustino Coelho, International Finance Corporation,
email June 2017
90 Adapted from National Treasury (2005) op. cit. and Varghese, G. (2008)
Public private partnerships in South African National Parks, in Spenceley, A.
(ed) Responsible tourism: critical issues for conservation and development,
Earthscan, pp77.
Finding investors committed to the investment and
sustainability
Pre-qualication stages can be used to collect information
on investors’ previous experience and successes with
conservation and development impacts. For example,
they can be asked within an Expression of Interest to
share information on whether other enterprises have been
certied by independent third parties as sustainable, or have
won international awards for their eorts. References can
be requested for representatives of other protected area
authorities where they have worked, to check their track
record.
Providing investors with access to information gathered
during the feasibility stage (e.g. the market analysis,
development impact, legal analysis etc.), and the
opportunity to undertake a comprehensive due diligence, to
appraise the business opportunity (e.g. its assets, liabilities
and commercial potential). Ideally they will be provided
with opportunities to visit the site and speak with relevant
stakeholders to improve their ability to make a commercially
viable and realistic proposal.
The bidding documents can also be designed to encourage
investors to propose how they will provide benets for
conservation and also for local communities through
equity, employment and procurement. These proposals are
reviewed in conjunction with a nancial bid. For successful
bidders, their environmental and empowerment proposal
targets can be integrated into a contractual agreement and
can be monitored.
Transaction management
The protected area authority oers the concessions to the
market, reviews proposals, and after negotiating with the
preferred bidder, signs a concession agreement with the
partner. The process uses the materials developed, and
proceeds with the following steps.
47
47
GENERATING SUSTAINABLE REVENUES FOR CONSERVATION AND DEVELOPMENT
Transaction step Description
Transaction strategy
Tender
Auction
Unsolicited/ direct
negotiation
Advertise opportunity
Place adverts in appropriate highly credible national and international
newspapers, government gazettes and trade journals. Send adverts
directly to investors identied during previous steps, and distribute
information at international and regional trade fairs.
✓ ✓
Pre-qualify parties with
an Expression of Interest
(EoI) in relation to key
criteria (e.g. nancial
strength, technical and
business experience,
sustainability credentials)
EoIs should be received, logged, and secured according to the
procedures required in the bidding documents. On an appointed
day and time, the EoIs should then be produced for inspection and
evaluation by the evaluation committee, according to the specied
procedure, and on a pass/fail basis.92 Inform companies of the outcome
of the pre-qualication process.
Issue Request for
Proposals (RfP) with
draft agreement,
non-disclosure agreement
and description of
information needed from
bidder
The RfP is made available to the bidders who passed a pre-
qualication stage. Sometimes, a payment is requested from the
bidders before they receive the RfP, which is used to help prepare
bidding documents for them.
Due diligence by bidders
(site visits, bidder
conference)
Access to the data ‘room’: To review detailed technical, legal, and
nancial information on the concession.
Site visits: Opportunity should be provided for each pre-qualied
company to visit the concession sites, and discuss the opportunity
with fully briefed protected area sta, local authorities, and relevant
stakeholders. It is useful to use an independent practitioner to facilitate
site visits, meetings, and gather information on any investor concerns.
Bidder question and answer: The types of questions from investors
may be related to background technical information or on the project
design, and also on the transaction structure, the legal framework, and
allocation of risks. This process may take place by phone, email, or a
bidders’ conference. All bidders must be treated equally, and so all
responses should be shared with all of the pre-qualied bidders.
✓ ✓
Receive bids
Bids should be received, logged, and secured according to the
procedures required in the bidding documents. Bids may be requested
in one envelope, two (i.e. technical and nancial bids separated) or
three (i.e. an additional ‘empowerment’ bid).
✓ ✓ ✓
Review bids (nancial,
environmental and social
development bids) and
select preferred bidder
On an appointed day and time, the bids should be produced for
inspection and evaluation according to the specied procedure by the
evaluation committee. The investors should not be present during the
technical evaluation but may attend the opening of the nancial bid.
There should be an ocial transcript or minutes of the proceedings of
the evaluations.93
The winner is selected on the basis of the weighted technical/nancial
score or the best nancial oer if the technical evaluation was pass/
fail as per the RfP rules.94 At the end of the bid evaluation process,
the authority communicates with all bidders. The winner is invited to
nalize the contract and other project agreements.95 The second placed
bidder may be held in reserve for a grace period, in case agreement
cannot be nalised with the preferred bidder.
Negotiate with preferred
bidder
Some processes may have some negotiation at this stage, while in
other cases the bidder will have submitted a signed contract with
their bid. Where there is negotiation, an experienced negotiator or
transaction advisor can be useful at this stage, and there should be a
climate of trust and cooperation.96
✓ ✓
Agree management plan
and sign contract.
A transaction is considered nalized after the contract is signed
between the contracting authority and the winning bidder. An agreed
management plan should also form part of this concession agreement.97
✓ ✓ ✓
Table 11. Transaction steps91
48
91 Adapted from Spenceley ,(2014). Op. cit.
92 IFC. (2007) op. cit. pp38
93 IFC. (2007) Op. cit. pp38
94 IFC. (2007) Op. cit. pp38
95 IFC. (2007) Op. cit. pp38
96 National Treasury. (2005) pp59 & example on p62
97 IFC, (2007) Op. cit. pp39
98 Adapted from Thompson et al. (2014). Op. cit. pp172 and Government of Zambia (2016). Op. cit.
99 IFC (2007). Op. cit. pp135
4. CONTRACT MANAGEMENT
4.1. Partnership management
The contract between an outside body and a protected area enables the tourism enterprise to operate. There are a series of
important issues that must be considered within the contract and within contract implementation (see Table 12).
Some of the good stakeholder engagement processes that are useful to address during the construction and operation
of new tourism facilities are outlined in Box 19. It can be dicult to manage long-term contracts as protected area sta
often change. Succession planning and transfer of skills and knowledge (see section 5) are, therefore, important for
continuity and sustainability.
Construction: Operation:
Identify stakeholders most likely to be aected by
construction.
Notify local stakeholders of construction activities and
changes to schedules.
Get community liaison sta on the ground quickly.
Aim for rapid response times in resolving grievances.
Report to stakeholders on progress of environmental
and social management programmes.
Choose concessionaires with the capacity to engage
eectively with stakeholders.
Manage risks to stakeholder relations from
concessionaires.
Manage the transition from construction to operations.
Periodically review and update your stakeholder
information.
Continue to disclose, consult, and report to
stakeholders as needed.
Ensure integration of ongoing stakeholder
commitments into operations management systems.
Communicate emergency preparedness and response
plans on a regular basis.
Keep the grievance mechanism operational.
Consider establishing a participatory or third-party
monitoring programme.
Box 19: Good practices in stakeholder engagement during construction and operation99
Box 18: Elements of a typical concession contract98
Nature and scope of the concession rights (e.g.
geographical area, works, services, level of
exclusivity)
Precedent conditions for entry into force
Duration of contract
Nature of property interests of parties in the
concession assets (e.g. right to use an area or
infrastructure)
Maintenance of concession assets (road maintenance,
access, etc.)
Fees payable (including, process for adjustments and
reviews)
Performance guarantees (e.g. service levels,
occupancies)
Monitoring, evaluation, with Key Performance
Indicators and template contract compliance
checklist
Insurance policies
Limitations of liability and indemnication of the
protected area authority
Force Majeure (i.e. damage or destruction due to
forces beyond the control of parties)
Environmental impacts during construction,
operation and commissioning
Right to assign concession rights to third parties
Restrictions/conditions on transfer of the concession
Restrictions/conditions on related party transactions
(e.g. if the concessionaire is part of a larger group)
Socio-economic contributions (e.g. local equity,
employment, procurement, social projects)
Change in the law
Breach and cancellation processes
Dispute settlement provisions
Circumstances that a third party or the protected
area authority could take over the operation (e.g.
temporarily if there is a serious failure)
Taxation and other scal matters
49
49
GENERATING SUSTAINABLE REVENUES FOR CONSERVATION AND DEVELOPMENT
Issue Challenge/example Options to mitigate
Capital
investment in
facilities
Most protected area managers want short term contracts
so as to maximize the protected area exibility. However,
most concessionaires want long-term contracts in
order to maximize business development and return on
investment.
Concessionaires are loath to put money into protected
area-owned facilities in the last years of a contract.
They prefer to transfer this maintenance liability to the
protected area, in the expectation that the protected area
must repair the facilities after the contract is over.
A balance of those two tensions often results in
contracts of 10 years or longer. Higher levels of
investment can give longer periods of the contract.
Give concessionaires a special dispensation for
capital maintenance and improvement.s The
concessionaire keeps detailed records of all capital
costs.
Require that the concessionaire undertake routine
maintenance and prove that this has been done.
Responsibilities
of concessionaire
for general
protected area
management
Concessionaires argue for a narrow interpretation of their
responsibilities within the contract. They wish to avoid
involvement in activities that are beyond their specic
focus.
Income from the contract given to the protected area
should be sucient to cover a range of protected
area management activities.
Concessionaire
sta members Concessionaire sta members are hired to provide a
specic service, such as selling products in a store or
renting equipment. They may have weak understanding
of protected area policy.
Inappropriate activities by sta such as illegal harvesting,
or provision of incorrect information.
Housing for sta.
Low wages, encouraging illegal activities (e.g. theft).
Protected area policy training for concessionaires
and their sta members.
Clear guidelines combined with monitoring and
evaluation and enforcement.
Construction and maintenance of specic facilities
for this purpose, or transportation of sta to and
from the concession site.
Proposals stipulate wages to be paid, and reviews
ensure that these are fair, living wages.
Poor service
delivery Poor service delivery can be identied when visitors
report that services are below acceptable standards
(e.g. incorrect information, unacceptable or dangerous
situations, and rude sta).
Processes to identify and remedy such problems are
detailed in the contract.
Legal liability All users of a service, facility, or product have an
expectation that they will not be harmed or injured. The
direct service provider has legal liability and can be held
accountable by the courts. However, those who provide
the contract or the licence also have some legal liability,
and also may be held responsible.
Liability insurance should be in place for both the
concessionaire and the protected area authority
Pricing policy Concessionaires may provide services that vary from
consumer products to personal guiding. The contract policies on pricing need to be outlined
Search, rescue
and medical
services
One of the most contentious aspects of such services
is the provision for recovering costs for search, rescue
and medical services. For those who defy the rules, such
as going o designated tracks into dangerous areas, it
is reasonable to demand that those people pay the full
costs. However, it can be very hard to collect such fees.
And there have been cases were lost and injured tourists
avoided rescuers because of a fear of the nancial costs
that they might incur.
All protected areas require some level of search and
rescue services. The provision of these services can
use a range of administrative options, including
specially trained protected area sta, specialized
volunteers, other government agencies such as police
or the military or local community medical and
re services. The provision of such services must
be planned for and provided through contractual
arrangements.
Transfer of
contracts to third
parties
Contracts must stipulate whether the concessionaire can
transfer the responsibilities to another concessionaire.
It is best if the protected area management has the
ability to monitor and control all such transfers. The
new concessionaire must have the ability to full all
the contract stipulations that were used to choose the
successful bidder.
The protected area authority must inform any new
concessionaire of all the responsibilities required of
the initial concessionaire.
Relationship
management Successful partnership relationships are between people,
and so individual attitudes are an important part of
building of trust between contracted parties.
All parties need to approach the project with a
collaborative attitude. Using externally facilitated
team-building workshops, open communication, and
good lines of communication contribute to this.100
Political
interference Challenges include bottlenecks in decisions/approving
development plans, political interference in the process
(i.e. pressure to accept one bid over another), concession
fees going to central government coers rather to
conservation and visitor mitigation, and interference in
tourism operations by communities
Transparency is very helpful in avoiding many
problems. Ensuring that the procurement process
has been agreed by government at a high ministerial
level also provides security for the process. However,
much outsourcing law requires the contracts to be
kept secret, creating a challenge for avoiding secret
deals. Appropriate benet-sharing plans should be
in place from the beginning.
Table 12: Potential challenges with contracts, and options to address them
100 CRISL Ltd (2013) Lesotho Tourism Public Private Partnership Contract Management Consulting, pp26
50
51
51
GENERATING SUSTAINABLE REVENUES FOR CONSERVATION AND DEVELOPMENT
52
4.2. Contract monitoring and
enforcement
All contracts must be monitored and enforced by the
protected area for compliance. Since many contracts are
long and complex, the monitoring must, by necessity,
be equally complex. The cost and diculty of contract
compliance monitoring must be realistically understood
by protected area management. All contracts must be
continually monitored to ensure compliance. It is important
that protected area management assign sucient levels of
qualied stang to undertake monitoring. Protected area
management can develop a compliance checklist, which
includes indicators related to the contract terms, including
sustainability and nancial indicators.
There are three aspects of contact monitoring:
1) reports and complaints about concessionaires;
2) reports submitted by the concessionaire to the protected
area, usually annually; and,
3) direct monitoring by protected area sta. Internet
travel sites often provide a ranking and comments
about tourist programmes and facilities, which can be a
valuable source of information.
Non-compliance with contract stipulations must be dealt
with through the procedures outlined in the contract. Non-
compliance typically results in a report outlining the non-
compliance and the measures needed to correct deciencies.
After a warning, if non-compliance continues the protected
area can resort to nancial penalties, and later to the
cancellation of the contract. This can be applied to all areas
of the contract, such as late fee payments or environmental
considerations like water use and waste management.
Typical problems with long-term contracts include:
1) nancial stress due to lower-than expected tourism
revenues;
2) concessionaire losing key sta members;
3) nancial problems within concessionaire administration;
4) underreporting of tourism volumes or revenues and;
5) unsustainable tourism practices. It is very dicult for
protected area sta to ensure that concessionaires
accurately report tourism volumes and revenues. There
is often a nancial incentive for concessionaires to
underreport when there is a per unit charge, such as
a per bed night nancial return to the protected area.
It is often valuable for the protected area to develop
an independent method of measurement of tourism
volumes, such as PA sta monitoring trac ows in
and out of a lodge, and independent audits of revenues
owing through a contract.
Many concessionaires are not open to ongoing monitoring
of their operations, giving a concern that the concessionaires
are not honestly reporting their business activities. There is
a suspicion of two sets of books, one for the concessionaire
and one for the protected area ocials. A positive way to do
this is through independent auditing of all concessionaire
nancial activities and reports.
Protected area managers sometimes nd that prospective
concessionaires involve themselves in political lobbying to
obtain contracts and then to avoid contract compliance.
This sees concessionaires going to politicians directly
to gain relief from standard procurement rules and
compliance rules. In some countries (e.g. United States)
the concessionaires became so politically powerful they
were able to inuence governments to create laws and
policies that were supportive of those concessionaires.
The best remedy for this is full transparency and public
accountability in all stages of the contract; something often
very dicult to do.
Box 20: Case study from China: government
equity in partnerships
China has developed a magnicent system of
protected areas, national parks and wildlife refuges.
As with many countries the private sector is used
to develop and operate the tourism facilities and
programmes. Long-term contracts are used, up
to 50 years, due to high capital requirements.
Unusually, the government has taken an equity
position in some of these companies. This
ensures government access to decision-making
and nancial records. This action solves the age-
old problem of government and protected area
managers being able to monitor the nancial
activities of concessionaires.
Box 21: Political lobbying by concessionaires
Massive companies that operate tourism
concessions in United States National Parks were
able to lobby for new sections in the national law
that ensured their ongoing operations without
eective competition. This was done by the
inclusion of the compensable interest in protected
area concession law. Concessionaires retain
nancial interest in capital improvements, so that
any new concessionaire must pay the previous
operator for such improvements. The cost of these
improvements is not depreciated over time, as is
done for most business capital costs. This peculiar
‘Leasehold Surrender’ procedure reduces bidding
competition.
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GENERATING SUSTAINABLE REVENUES FOR CONSERVATION AND DEVELOPMENT
Probably the most serious outcome of a failed concessionaire
is bankruptcy. This means the immediate termination of
a contract and serious disruption of a service. The legal
outcomes of bankruptcy can be expensive, in time and
money for the protected area. Protected areas should have
contingency plans in place to deal with such situations,
such as other parties ready to step in quickly to maintain
the product or service.
When a serious issue of non-compliance with the contract
is detected, decisions must be made as to the protected area
management response. Most contracts contain stipulations
that outline the steps to be taken in the case of non-
compliance; these must be followed. Where applicable,
appropriate penalties for non-compliance also need to be
established and documented. In all cases, involvement of the
protected area’s legal department must be utilized. Court
actions may result and be expensive. This expense might
lead to poor compliance enforcement, thereby nullifying
the needs and management issues included in the contract.
4.3. Renegotiating and terminating
agreements
All contracts terminate at the end date stipulated in the
contract, to cancel with a specied notice period, or through
cancellation due to non-performance. A key issue concerns
the policies for contract renewal. Some protected area
agencies nd it useful to oer existing concessionaires a
contract renewal, in the absence of a new tender process, if
the ongoing monitoring found no major contract violations
during the previous term of contract. This policy can be
very useful for the protected area authority in avoiding
costly tendering processes and the uncertainty of operating
with a new concessionaire. However, it has been criticised in
not ensuring public certainty of transparency in operations.
Key issues concerning contract terminations include
such issues as:
1) clean-up of facilities and grounds used by the
concessionaire;
2) operations up to the exact date of termination;
3) issues concerning the termination of contract sta;
4) nal payments under the contract; and,
5) operating environment remaining for a new
concessionaire.
Non-compliance with contract stipulations can result in
a cascade of actions, starting with warnings, then nes,
followed by termination. The most dicult situation
involves termination of a contact before the end date, due
to non-compliance with some aspect of the contract. Such
termination must be carefully documented using the legal
procedures underpinning contract law and contract terms.
Under this scenario the protected area managers must be
capable of ensuring that the service provided continues to
exist after the termination.
Contract terminations can result in legal situations that
result in termination of services, non-use of public facilities,
and deterioration in public facilities (see case study of
SANParks and Glacier Park Lodge in Box 22). The long-
term implications of a failed contracting procedure can be
large.
Box 22: Contract termination: SANParks101 and
Glacier National Park102
South African National Parks (SANParks): If the
concession is terminated through the concessionaire’s
fault, the concessionaire is removed from the site, at no
cost to SANParks. However, the nancial institutions
that nanced the physical developments have the right
to appoint a new concessionaire, provided that that
concessionaire is acceptable to SANParks. This provision
is necessary to enable the physical developments to
secure nancing. Ultimately, the concession can be
terminated for persistent or serious breaches, including
empowerment commitments, and the rules for this are
clearly set out including nancial settlement.
Glacier National Park, Canada: Glacier Park Lodge
operated a hotel, two restaurants, and auto service station
near the TransCanada Highway in Glacier National
Park in Canada. This location is in an area of very high
tourist volumes and excellent natural resources in the
Rocky Mountains. In 2008 the facility concessionaire
sold the business to another concessionaire. In 2012
Parks Canada declined to renew the lease on the land
and buildings, causing the new owners to shut down
the business. Multiple law suits have resulted involving
the initial owners, the new owners, and Parks Canada.
Very little information exists on the situation due to
the ongoing court cases. Nevertheless, the major facility
is now empty, derelict, and declining rapidly. There
are calls to have the entire facility removed, including
cleaning up a brown eld site involving pollution from
gasoline and oils. This case study outlines the high
risk for all parties involved in contracting out and
leasing public property to private concessionaires. With
failure of the business, the protected area authorities
ultimately must assume capital costs, including those
of reclamation.
101 Fearnhead, P. (2004). Commercial Tourism Concessions: a means of generating income for South African National Parks. Vth World Parks Congress: Sustainable
Finance Stream, September 2003, Durban, South Africa.
102 Corday, C. (2016) Lawsuits leave lodge in Glacier National Park derelict, CBC News, Posted 29 July, 2016, 2.00 am pt, Accessed on 12 April 2017 from
http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/british-columbia/glacier-park-lodge-derelict-1.3677278
54
5. PROTECTED AREA
CONCESSION CAPACITY
The increasing complexity of tourism concessions requires
qualied, well-trained sta, with the protected area
authority needing sucient capacity and skills to manage
and coordinate various processes related to concessions
(see section 3 and 4). This section covers the capacity
requirements of protected area authorities for each part of
the process.
It is important to start by assessing skills and knowledge
of protected area sta by doing a capacity and skills
needs assessment to determine capacity shortages and
requirements. Undertaking an assessment of potential
partners available in an area also helps to facilitate eective
capacity building and reduce duplication of functions, skills
or resources: why reinvent the wheel?103 Sta stability is
important to maximize on capacity building investments.
Succession planning and plans to transfer skills
should be included in human resource plans as retaining
institutional memory and established relationships with all
stakeholders is important. It is important to remember that
successful capacity building takes time.
In order to ensure that protected area sta capacity
building is equitable and sustainable it should include the
following:104
The development of clear and transparent selection
criteria for capacity building in order to avoid conict
within and between communities and protected area
sta;
• Selection processes and assessments should be
transparent;
Nepotism, cronyism and favouritism in any form should
be avoided to ensure equitable, empowering capacity
building;
It needs to be accompanied by strengthened and clear
roles, responsibilities and concrete opportunities;
There should be detailed growth paths for protected
area sta or community members to provide them with
goals, and to avoid frustration of trained employees with
no growth opportunities; and,
It is important to establish goals for building capacity
and the measurement of results in order to ensure
progress and growth;
• Use locally appropriate capacity building methods
which are tailored to each specic situation, e.g.
appropriate language; and,
Monitor and evaluate the capacity-building during the
process to assess learnings and progress.
One of the most important areas in which to build capacity
is in the understanding of the tourism business so that
protected area sta can engage equitably with tourism
businesses. A diversity of skills in dierent areas of the
tourism concession process is required, with the most
valuable being project and contract management, legal,
analytical, nancial, tourism management, business, market
evaluation, environmental, socio-economic, infrastructure,
problem solving, negotiation, monitoring and evaluation,
reporting and communication105 (see Table 13).
103 Leung et al (in press). Op. cit.
104 Adapted from Borrini-Feyerabend, G., Kothari, A. and Oviedo, G. (2004).
Indigenous and Local Communities and Protected Areas: Towards Equity
and Enhanced Conservation. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.
xviii + 111pp: p76.
105 Adapted from Spenceley, (2014). Op. cit.
106 Snyman, S. (2013). High-end ecotourism and rural communities in
southern Africa: A socio-economic analysis. PhD dissertation, School of
Economics, University of Cape Town.
107 Adapted from Spenceley. (2014). Op. cit.
108 see http://www.gstcouncil.org/en/sustainable-tourism-training/upcoming.
html
Box 23: Example of setting goals for capacity
building
The original tripartite agreement between South
African National Parks, the Makuleke Community
and Wilderness Safaris for Pafuri Camp in the
Kruger National Park, South Africa set goals
for building community capacity in biodiversity
conservation management and tourism business
skills. The intention being to provide the
community with skills to manage the tourism
operation and related conservation themselves in
the future.106
There should be a focus on on-going skills training and
development in all of the areas described above. This can
take many forms, including107:
Formal training with tuition focusing specically on
dierent aspects of tourism concessions;
Practical mentorship training, including on-the-
job training, job shadowing and mentoring by tourism
concession sta or technical experts with capacity and
skills;
Exchange visits, visiting other protected areas to learn
from their successes and challenges, to share ideas and
discuss issues related to tourism concessions;
Technical experts/consultants with specic technical
skills in areas where capacity is needed can be bought in
to guide and mentor sta;
Partnership support through joint venture and other
partnership models learning-by-doing, mentoring,
on-the-job training and capacity building done in
conjunction with the private sector and other partners;
and
Online forums and resources. There are a number of
online courses108, webinars, etc. available that oer skills
training and development. – Joining a forum such as the
IUCN WCPA Tourism and Protected Areas Specialist
(TAPAS) Group and associated Working Groups allows
for important global networking and sharing of skills,
knowledge and resources.
The attendees at the iSimangaliso conference pointed out
that there is a major deciency in formal training in PA
tourism management for current PA sta.
55
55
GENERATING SUSTAINABLE REVENUES FOR CONSERVATION AND DEVELOPMENT
56
Table 13: Typical protected area authority sta capacity and skills for tourism concession and partnerships
Required capacity, knowledge and skills
Concession phase
Scoping Design and
feasibility
Procurement,
negotiation &
contracting
Concession
management
Understanding tourism business (e.g. circuits,
promotion, revenues & costs, demand studies,
diversifying tourism products, implications of
conservation policies)109
✓ ✓
Protected area management planning (e.g.
zoning, concession size, level of exclusivity) ✓ ✓
Business planning (e.g. cash ows, value for
money evaluation) ✓ ✓
Financial planning / management ✓ ✓
Understanding of transaction costs to
concessionaires ✓ ✓
Land use planning (e.g. access, zoning) ✓ ✓
Conservation management ✓ ✓
Sustainability (economic, social,
environmental) ✓ ✓
Environmental and cultural knowledge ✓ ✓
Environmental Impact Assessment ✓ ✓
Stakeholder engagement ✓ ✓
Induction and training support for protected
area sta involved in concessioning ✓ ✓
Negotiation skills ✓ ✓
Advertising and marketing skills
Legal knowledge and skills ✓ ✓
Analytical (evaluation of proposals; monitoring
and evaluation) ✓ ✓
Market evaluation (tourist and operator needs) ✓ ✓
Risk assessment ✓ ✓
Infrastructure support and maintenance
(e.g. roads)
Communication skills ✓ ✓
Protected area and organisational policy ✓ ✓
Conict management ✓ ✓
Relationship management ✓ ✓
Project and concession management
Support services
Monitoring and reporting (environmental,
socio-economic, data analysis)
109 e.g. culling game, live-game capture, poaching, etc.
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GENERATING SUSTAINABLE REVENUES FOR CONSERVATION AND DEVELOPMENT
6. LINKS AND RESOURCES
Name of resource
Relevant content
Weblink / citation
Sources of
nance
Legal
framework
Integrating
sustainability
Concessioning
process
Contract
management
Capacity
Tourism concessions
in protected natural
areas: Guidelines for
managers. PPPPPP
Thompson, A., Massyn, P. J., Pendry, J., Pastorelli, J. (2014)
Tourism concessions in protected natural areas: Guidelines for
managers. United Nations Development Program
www.undp.org/content/undp/en/home/librarypage/
environment-energy/ecosystems_and_biodiversity/tourism-
concessions-in-protected-natural-areas.html
An introduction to
tourism concessioning:
14 Characteristics of
successful programs PPPPP
Spenceley, A., Nevill, H., Coelho, C. F., and Souto, M. (2016)
An introduction to tourism concessioning: 14 Characteristics of
successful programs, World Bank Group
documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/459431467995814879/
An-introduction-to-tourism-concessioning-14-characteristics-
of-successful-programs
Tourism concession
guidelines for
Transfrontier
conservation areas in
SADC
PPPPP
Spenceley, A. (2014) Tourism concession guidelines for
Transfrontier conservation areas in SADC, Report to GIZ / SADC
www.tfcaportal.org/content/Tourism-Concession-Guidelines-
SADC-TFCAs
How to apply for
nancing Pwww.ifc.org/wps/wcm/connect/corp_ext_content/ifc_
external_corporate_site/solutions/how-to-apply-for-nancing
UNDP’s Enterprise
Challenge Fund Pwww.undp.org/content/sdnance/en/home/solutions/
enterprise-challenge-fund.html
The World Bank
Group’s Getting
Financed: 9 tips for
community joint
ventures in tourism
P
openknowledge.worldbank.org/handle/10986/21698
We recommend that readers use the wealth of broader
literature on tourism concessions and partnerships to
supplement these guidelines. Throughout these guidelines
a series of references and weblinks have been provided in
the footnotes. Additional weblinks are provided here to a
number of useful reports.
Table 14: International resource guide
Table 15: Specic resources on concession and partnership transaction processes
Phase Other resources
Scoping • UNDP: Chapter 3: Planning for concessions
• GIZ: Step 1: Scoping
• WBG: Chapter 1: Put conservation rst, and accept that some areas are not suitable for tourism
• PPP toolkit: Module 1: PPP inception and pre-feasibility
Design and
feasibility
• UNDP : Chapter 3: Planning for concessions; Chapter 6: Doing the deal – fees and contracts
• GIZ: Step 2: Design and feasibility
WBG: Chapter 1: Put conservation rst, and accept that some areas are not suitable for tourism; Chapter 6:
Develop stakeholder awareness and strong engagement; Chapter 7: Ensure concessioning is supported by a sound
concessions framework; Chapter 9: Select the appropriate concession model
• PPP toolkit: Module 2 & 3: Feasibility study and procurement phases for small and large cap tourism PPPs
Procurement,
negotiation and
contracting
• UNDP : Chapter 5: Awarding business opportunities
GIZ: Step 3: Procurement strategy (including selection of a transaction strategy; development of transaction
materials; concession agreement; data room; evaluation committee). Step 4: Transaction management (including
procurement process and win-win deals)
• WBG: Chapter 10: Employ transparent and clear procurement procedures; Chapter 11: Have equitable contracts
• PPP toolkit: Module 2 & 3: Feasibility study and procurement phases for small and large cap tourism PPPs
Capacity building • UNDP: Chapter 9: Table 9.2. Competency levels for concession sta;
• UNDP: Appendix 9.1 Training Self Assessment Tool for Concession Sta
58
Table 16: Other links
Country-specic concession tools
Lesotho Tourism Public Private
Partnership Contract Management
Consulting: Contract management
Manual and resources: Volume I and
Volume II – Contract management
training manual
Volume 1: drive.google.com/open?id=0B84cIS4TjiiddlhfSWlpdDZKSjQ
Volume 2: drive.google.com/open?id=0B84cIS4TjiidWGtIX1phaUdMdWM
Malawi, Tourism concession
guidelines, 2001 drive.google.com/open?id=0B84cIS4TjiidTWJIRHM3V25oSTQ
Mozambique, Tourism concessions
in protected areas in Mozambique:
Manual for operators and
concessionaires
anna.spenceley.co.uk/les/Files%20Sept%202012/SPEED-Reports-2012-
005ConcessionsOperatorManual.pdf
Namibia tourism and wildlife
concessions policy drive.google.com/open?id=0B84cIS4Tjiida1dDakNzMFlwUWc
PPP Toolkit –South Africa Public
Private Partnership Manual: National
Treasury PPP Practice notes issued
in terms of the Public Finance
Management Act
www.ppp.gov.za/Pages/Governance.aspx?RootFolder=%2fLegal%20As-
pects%2fPPP%20Toolkit%20for%20Tourism&FolderCTID=&View=%7b-
33F91A9E%2d68FB%2d40CC%2dB511%2d45D91A7CC95B%7d
Rwanda protected areas concessions
management policy drive.google.com/open?id=0B84cIS4TjiidNWlWcF9mZ0loMk0
Swaziland Public Private Partnership
policy drive.google.com/open?id=0B84cIS4TjiidMDVic0h1VHhUWlE
Tanzania National Parks,
Development/action/lease procedures drive.google.com/open?id=0B84cIS4TjiidRWNNSk5Cb0hVZ2c
Funding sources for community concessions
African Wildlife Foundation www.awf.org
African Safari Foundation www.asl-foundation.org
Ford Foundation www.fordfoundation.org
Sustainability criteria and standards
Global Sustainable Tourism Council
(GSTC) www.gstcouncil.org/en/gstc-criteria-hotels-tour-operators-destinations/
sustainable-tourism-gstc-criteria.html
International Organization for
Standardization www.iso.org/standard/61250.html
World Tourism Organization
(UNWTO) indicators www.e-unwto.org/doi/book/10.18111/9789284407262
GSTC Certication www.gstcouncil.org/en/gstc-criteria-hotels-tour-operators-destinations/
gstc-recognized-standards/gstc-recognized-standards-for-hotels.html
Global Reporting Initiative www.globalreporting.org/Pages/default.aspx
59
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GENERATING SUSTAINABLE REVENUES FOR CONSERVATION AND DEVELOPMENT
... Почти в каждой стране есть свое определение того, что является концессией. Обычно под концессией понимается «право использовать землю или другое имущество для определенной цели, предоставленное правительством, компанией или другим контролирующим органом, включая коммерческую деятельность и/или участок земли» [7]. Согласно российскому законодательству, спецификой концессии является то, что собственность на имущество, передаваемое концессионеру на определенный срок и на определенных условиях, принадлежит концеденту, а после окончания срока действия концессионного соглашения оно ему возвращается [4]. ...