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Comparison of time under tension, repetition maximum and electromyographic activity in bench press exercise in different speeds execution

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Salarolli LCW, Barros RMB, Silva JB, Carvalho ILS, Vale RGS, Nunes RAM, Castro JBP, Lima VP. Comparison of time under tension, repetition maximum and electromyographic activity in bench press exercise in different speeds execution. Gazzetta Medica Italiana Archivio per le Scienze Mediche. 2018; 177(11): 637-644. [In Press]. BACKGROUND: The aim of this study is to compare the time under tension (TUT), repetition maximum and electromyographic activity (EMG) during the execution of bench press exercise in the Smith machine with maximum execution speed and controlled cadence. METHODS: The study included ten men trained in resistance exercise (age: 23.5 ± 2.96 years; stature: 179.3 ± 6.28 cm; body mass: 84.71 ± 8.15 kg). The experimental procedure performed by the individuals happened in two non-consecutive days. They performed the 1RM test and, subsequently, they performed the bench press exercise in the Smith machine at 80% of 1RM at maximum speed. After 48 hours, they performed the exercise proposed with controlled cadence (2x2). A metronome controlled the rhythmic speed. The pace moving was set up in 2 seconds for each phase (concentric and eccentric). RESULTS: The t-test for paired samples showed a significant difference for the number of repetition maximum between protocols. However, there was no significant difference in pectoral, deltoid and triceps activation by comparing the two speeds. In addition, no significant difference was found in TUT when comparing both protocols. CONCLUSIONS: It can be concluded that a higher number of repetitions performed during the maximum speed protocol did not interfere in the muscle activation pattern when the TUT were similar. This way, performing the paced protocol may be an efficient strategy for conducting training with fewer repetitions.
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     

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     
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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
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           
  
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
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  

t





Cite this article as:      
et al. 


Key words: 





PROOF
MINERVA MEDICA
PROFF ID.indd 1 10/09/10 14:28
 
 

       
      

Materials and methods
Sample

     
      

      
      





       
      


    

    


     

Procedures
One-repetitiOn maximum (1rm) lOad de-
terminatiOn
      
    

       




     
    
      



     
     






     
     
      
 





   
 
      

 
      

      




     
       
    
  





 
  
       
       



      
       
PROOF
MINERVA MEDICA
PROFF ID.indd 1 10/09/10 14:28
 
 
       
       
     


      

    

     
      
     


       
       
    

     
  

    

  
et al.


 
 

  

      
    
    

experimental prOtOcOl
    



     
      

  
   
     
     
      






  



 


      


 



executiOn pattern Of the bench press ex-
ercise




      


       
       




   




electrOmyOgraphic activity
     
   
PROOF
MINERVA MEDICA
PROFF ID.indd 1 10/09/10 14:28
 
 
   t   


Results
    

     
     
    
        

      
      
    

 
      
     


Discussion
 




 
   

      

 
     






        
       



       
  
     
 

Statistical analysis



      


table i.Time under tension (TUT) and repetition maximum (RM) between the protocols of maximum
speed (MS) and cadenced speed (Cad).
 
   
    
    


table ii.Percentage values of normalized root mean square (RMS) at maximum speed (MS) and cadenced speed
(Cad).
   
        
       


PROOF
MINERVA MEDICA
PROFF ID.indd 1 10/09/10 14:28
 
 
 
     
     



 et al.     
     
     

    


      
        
   
    
         
       
      
     
 



    

    





 




        


      


    



   


et al.
   et al.
et al.
    et al. 

      
 
    
    
    
     
 



     



      

      
      

       
 et al.      
     
      
       
      




  
 


et al.

   



   

        
PROOF
MINERVA MEDICA
PROFF ID.indd 1 10/09/10 14:28
 
 






     

     
       






    

    
      

      
     
 
      




      
      
       





   
      
 
     

et al.

    


 



 et al.    
   








     

 
     





     
       

      

 et al.    
     
     
  
  
     
       


      
       


  

      


 
      

  
 
PROOF
MINERVA MEDICA
PROFF ID.indd 1 10/09/10 14:28
 
 

      
    

References
        

   

       
       

        

        



        
   
       
       
      

        
et al.
 
         

        
     et al. 
      
       
       
       

         

       


         

  

  
       
   
 

        
   



       
  
        
        

  
    


  

 


 


     
     
  


Limitations of the study
  
      
      
      
      


Conclusions

       
      
      

  
 


       
  


      




   





PROOF
MINERVA MEDICA
PROFF ID.indd 1 10/09/10 14:28
 
 
 
       

   

     

        


        
 

        
  
     

   
et al.
     

   

 
       

   
      

 
 

    
      

 

   


     





      


        
 



  

   


   




        
     

      
       

    
   et al.   
 
 
   

         
       


 
     
  
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
 
   
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Conicts of interest.— 
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
PROOF
MINERVA MEDICA
PROFF ID.indd 1 10/09/10 14:28
Article
This study aimed to analyze the time under tension (TUT) behavior in the bench press exercise performance in recreationally trained individuals. A systematic review was performed based on the PRISMA recommendations and registered on PROSPERO (CRD42022301830). MEDLINE (PubMed), Scopus, SPORTDiscus, and Lilacs (BVS) databases were consulted with the terms (resistance training [Title/Abstract]) OR (strength training [Title/Abstract]) AND (time under tension [Title/Abstract]). Cohort studies that analyzed the TUT in the bench press exercise in individuals with experience in resistance training were included. We used the Critical Appraisal Skills Program tool to analyze the methodological quality of the included studies. Thirteen studies met the inclusion criteria. The total number of participants was 215 individuals (179 men and 36 women). TUT was analyzed from the manipulation of each study variable. The behavior of the TUT in the bench press exercise varies according to the training protocol and method used. The TUT and the number of repetitions can vary to quantify the training volume.
Chapter
This chapter presents the effects of Oxidative Stress (OS) in skeletal muscle during high-intense resistance training (HIRT). To this end, the following topics will be discussed: high-intense resistance training, Oxidative stress, effects of high-intensity resistance training in skeletal muscle, definition of oxidative stress and reactive oxygen species (ROS), antioxidant defense system, and some final considerations. HIRT results in oxidative damage to macromolecules in blood and skeletal muscle. During HIRT, the metabolic rate in active skeletal muscle increases more than 100 times when compared to the levels at rest. The associated increase in oxygen consumption raises the ROS-s rate in skeletal muscle that have an impact on reducing muscle strength production. ROS produced during exercise leads to increased expression of endogenous antioxidants. These antioxidant molecules have the function of preventing the negative effects of ROS on the muscles, neutralizing free radicals. Also, ROS seems to be involved in the adaptation induced by the exercise of the muscle phenotype.
Article
Full-text available
Study aim: To determine and compare the time under tension (TUT) required to perform 8, 10 and 12 repetition maximum (RM) loads in the bench press exercise. Material and methods: Twenty men (24.17 ± 4.69 years) were selected intentionally and properly. We included in the study physically active individuals, with a weekly frequency of physical activity of at least two days for six months, and excluded individuals with injury or pain that could interfere with the correct execution of the exercise and individuals with positive PAR-Q. The 10-RM test consisted in performing ten consecutive repetitions with maximum overload and the highest speed in bench press exercise on the Smith machine. After 48 h, 10-RM sets were performed with the load obtained in the 10-RM load testing. The TUT in 10-RM was verified through kinematics using the timing technique of the Kinovea software. Results: The RM loads and TUT obtained during the retest session showed normal distribution between subjects. However, no significant differences were found between the loads 8, 10 and 12-RM within and between subjects (p < 0.05). The veri-fied TUT showed a difference from 8 to 10-RM and from 8 to 12-RM, but no significant difference was found between TUT protocols for 10 and 12-RM (p < 0.05). Conclusion: The study results enable evaluation of TUT in bench press exercise on the Smith machine for the study sample, allowing, for this group, the prediction and control of training intensity through the TUT.
Article
Full-text available
Study aim: To determine and compare the time under tension (TUT) required to perform 8, 10 and 12 repetition maximum (RM) loads in the bench press exercise. Material and methods: Twenty men (24.17 ± 4.69 years) were selected intentionally and properly. We included in the study physically active individuals, with a weekly frequency of physical activity of at least two days for six months, and excluded individuals with injury or pain that could interfere with the correct execution of the exercise and individuals with positive PAR-Q. The 10-RM test consisted in performing ten consecutive repetitions with maximum overload and the highest speed in bench press exercise on the Smith machine. After 48 h, 10-RM sets were performed with the load obtained in the 10-RM load testing. The TUT in 10-RM was verified through kinematics using the timing technique of the Kinovea software. Results: The RM loads and TUT obtained during the retest session showed normal distribution between subjects. However, no significant differences were found between the loads 8, 10 and 12-RM within and between subjects (p < 0.05). The verified TUT showed a difference from 8 to 10-RM and from 8 to 12-RM, but no significant difference was found between TUT protocols for 10 and 12-RM (p < 0.05). Conclusion: The study results enable evaluation of TUT in bench press exercise on the Smith machine for the study sample, allowing, for this group, the prediction and control of training intensity through the TUT.
Article
Full-text available
Objective: The purpose of this study was to compare the electromyographic (EMG) activity of trunk muscles during stability exercises from Pilates method. Method: Participants were 10 healthy undergraduate students (20.9 ± 2.4 years, 162.7 ± 6.7 cm in height; 61.7 ± 6.4 kg body weight and 13.2 ± 5.2 % body fat) with previous Pilates experience. The Pilates exercises: superman (SU), swimming (SW), breaststroke (BS), hip extension (HE) and quadruped arm and lower extremity lift (QA) were performed using maximum isometric effort. The EMG signal of multifidus (MD), dorsal longissimus (DL) and iliocostalis (IC) were recorded. The normalization of the EMG signal was performed using maximum voluntary contraction (% MVC). In statistics treatment, were applied the Shapiro-Wilk test followed by one-way ANOVA and Bonferroni post hoc (p < 0.05). Results: The exercises SU, SW, BS, and HE showed higher levels of muscle activation (> 40 % MVC) for DL and IC, however, during the QA was observed a significant reduction on muscle activation for all monitored muscles compared to other exercises. Conclusion: Therefore, the above exercises can be performed looking for improve the trunk muscle activation and spine stability, as well as the results found in the current study can be a reference to select exercises during training programs for low back muscles.
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of protocols equalized by the time under tension (TUT), but composed of different repetition durations and repetitions numbers, on muscle activation and blood lactate concentration. Twenty-two males with previous experience in resistance training performed two training protocols (A and B) with the Smith machine bench press exercise, both with 3 sets, 3 minutes rest, and 60% of one repetition maximum (1RM). Protocol A consisted of 6 repetitions with a 6s repetition duration for each repetition, while in Protocol B the subjects performed 12 repetitions with a 3s repetition duration for each repetition. Muscular activation was measured in the anterior deltoid, pectoralis major, and triceps brachii muscles while performing the two protocols and the normalized root mean square of the electromyographic signal (EMGRMS) was calculated for each set. Blood lactate concentrations were measured during and up to 12 minutes after the completion of each protocol. The results showed that the EMGRMS of all muscles increased during the sets and was higher in Protocol B when compared to Protocol A. Likewise, blood lactate concentrations also increased throughout the sets and was higher in Protocol B both during and after the completion of each training session. The data obtained in this study show that training protocols conducted with the same TUT, but with different configurations, produce distinct neuromuscular and metabolic responses, so that, performing higher repetition numbers with shorter repetition durations might be a more appropriate strategy to increase muscle activation and blood lactate concentration.
Article
Full-text available
Maximizing the hypertrophic response to resistance training (RT) is thought to be best achieved by proper manipulation of exercise program variables including exercise selection, exercise order, length of rest intervals, intensity of maximal load, and training volume. An often overlooked variable that also may impact muscle growth is repetition duration. Duration amounts to the sum total of the concentric, eccentric, and isometric components of a repetition, and is predicated on the tempo at which the repetition is performed. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to determine whether alterations in repetition duration can amplify the hypertrophic response to RT. Studies were deemed eligible for inclusion if they met the following criteria: (1) were an experimental trial published in an English-language refereed journal; (2) directly compared different training tempos in dynamic exercise using both concentric and eccentric repetitions; (3) measured morphologic changes via biopsy, imaging, and/or densitometry; (4) had a minimum duration of 6 weeks; (5) carried out training to muscle failure, defined as the inability to complete another concentric repetition while maintaining proper form; and (6) used human subjects who did not have a chronic disease or injury. A total of eight studies were identified that investigated repetition duration in accordance with the criteria outlined. Results indicate that hypertrophic outcomes are similar when training with repetition durations ranging from 0.5 to 8 s. From a practical standpoint it would seem that a fairly wide range of repetition durations can be employed if the primary goal is to maximize muscle growth. Findings suggest that training at volitionally very slow durations (>10s per repetition) is inferior from a hypertrophy standpoint, although a lack of controlled studies on the topic makes it difficult to draw definitive conclusions.
Article
Full-text available
It is scanty in the literature studies who investigated chronic effects in different rest intervals in resistance exercise (RE). The aim of the present study was to verify the influence of two different rest intervals between sets to distinct muscular groups, over eight weeks on RE training. Participated 12 men in this study, being six in each group (26.4±5.1 years; 181.3±6.2 cm; 85.9±7.6 kg). The 10RM test was made in two days (test and retest) and was in the following order: bench press (BP), leg-press 45º (LP) and biceps curl (BC). The first group trained with 1 min rest interval, and the other one with 3 min rest interval between sets. The total training consisted in three sessions per week, realized in alterned days (24 sessions). The subjects did three sets of each exercise in the respective intervals, and only after three sets in the same exercise, they go on in the next exercise. The exercise order was: BP, LP, BC, hack machine, lat pull down, abdominals and triceps pull down. A one-way ANOVA was used and a Tukey post hoc test was performed where indicated (p<0.05) to verify the interval rest effects on the three measures. No significant differences between the 10RM loads were observed when compared the different rest intervals. We conclude that independent of rest interval, no significant differences were observed in 10RM loads in RE during eight weeks. To clarify the rest intervals influence on strength training, we suggest new future studies with samples in different levels of physical fitness and training in longer durations.
Article
Full-text available
Purpose The aim of this study was to compare the effect of resistance exercise with three different methods on integrated electromyography (IEMG) and metabolic responses in recreational athletes. Methods Twenty four males (mean 23.59±0.87 years) were randomly assigned to three experimental groups. Participants performed knee extension exercises: Slow (SL: 3-3, 3s for each concentric and eccentric action with 50% of 1 RM), Normal (NH: 1-1, 1 s for each concentric and eccentric action 80% of 1 RM) and Traditional (TH: 2-4, 2s for concentric and 4s for eccentric action with 80% of 1 RM). Plasma lactate, glucose and triglyceride concentration and IEMG was measured before and immediately after performing four sets of resistance exercise. Results Each method significantly decreased IEMG (P<0.05), but there was no significant difference between groups. Lactate was increased following TH and NH more than SL method (P<0.05). Each method significantly increased plasma glucose (P<0.05). Work considering time under tension (workTUT) was higher (P<0.05) during TH method than the other methods and during SL it was higher than NH method (P<0.05). Volume load was higher (P<0.05) during NH than the other two methods and during TH it was higher than SL method (P<0.05). Conclusion These results indicate that exercise intensity during the resistance exercise is important for the enhancement of lactate responses, but the slow resistance exercise method could induce acute neuromuscular response as much as high intensity methods. It seems that this method will be advantageous for those who want to increase acute neuromuscular changes with low exercise intensity and volume.
Article
Full-text available
Diversos métodos de treinamento de força (MTF) foram desenvolvidos com o propósito de manipular os estímulos fisiológicos e obter melhores resultados com o treinamento. O propósito do presente estudo foi comparar as respostas metabólicas e mecânicas entre sete diferentes MTF descritos na literatura. Os MTF foram comparados com relação ao lactato sanguíneo, tempo sob tensão (TST) e sobrecarga total (TST x carga) em jovens treinados do sexo masculino. Os MTF testados foram 10RM, superlento, isométrico funcional, oclusão vascular adaptada, 6RM, repetições forçadas e séries descendentes. Todos os MTF produziram elevações significativas no lactato sanguíneo, sem diferenças entre eles. O método de séries descendentes produziu maior tempo sob tensão e sobrecarga total em comparação com os outros MTF testados.
Book
We finally solved our copyright problems to make this book available in a eVersion that you can download! This is the same as the 3rd edition in print but the copyright reverted to me and I have posted it on the Shirley Ryan AbilityLab to download for a nominal $20 (US Dollars) that goes to the AbilityLab. Enjoy! https://www.sralab.org/academy/bookstore/skeletal-muscle-structure-function-and-plasticity
Article
Muscle force production occurs within an environment of tissues that exhibit spring-like behavior, and this elasticity is a critical determinant of muscle performance during locomotion. Muscle force and power output both depend on the speed of contraction, as described by the isotonic force-velocity curve. By influencing the speed of contractile elements, elastic structures can have a profound effect on muscle force, power and work. In very rapid movements, elastic mechanisms can amplify muscle power by storing the work of muscle contraction slowly and releasing it rapidly. When energy must be dissipated rapidly, such as in landing from a jump, energy stored rapidly in elastic elements can be released more slowly to stretch muscle contractile elements, reducing the power input to muscle and possibly protecting it from damage. Elastic mechanisms identified so far rely primarily on in-series tendons, but many structures within muscles exhibit springlike properties. Actomyosin cross-bridges, actin and myosin filaments, titin, and the connective tissue scaffolding of the extracellular matrix all have the potential to store and recover elastic energy during muscle contraction. The potential contribution of these elements can be assessed from their stiffness and estimates of the strain they undergo during muscle function. Such calculations provide boundaries for the possible roles these springs might play in locomotion, and may help to direct future studies of the uses of elastic elements in muscle.