Article

Global primary energy use associated with production, consumption and international trade

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  • Zhongnan University of Economics and Law
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Abstract

Presented in this study is a comprehensive analysis for energy use of different economic entities in global supply chains, including the exploiter, producer, consumer, intermediate trader and final trader. The systems input-output analysis method is adopted to trace the direct and indirect energy use associated with both intermediate production and final consumption activities in the economic system. In the world economy, 15% of the energy use embodied in trade turns out to be induced by final consumption, and 85% is attributed to intermediate production. Different trading patterns for different economies are identified with the separation between energy trade for intermediate production and that for final consumption. For Japan with a production-oriented trading pattern, intermediate trade should be a top priority in local trade structure adjustment, while final trade needs more attention for the government in the United States as the country is in a consumption-oriented trade pattern. This analysis aims to provide an in-depth insight into energy sustainability, as well as a sound scientific reference for policy making at the regional, national and global scale.

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... Of particular note is a series of papers led by G.Q. Chen and X.F. Wu that attempt to trace embodied energy flows through international trade from their sources to their sinks [6,11,12]. Chen et al. (2018) used the framework adopted by these authors and then employed network analysis metrics to evaluate energy security [8]. In these papers, embodied energy is estimated as the sum of direct and indirect energy inputs. ...
... We then multiply these fractions with E to build the domestic component of energy flows into the five remaining sectors. 11 For the international trade component, we use BACI data to divide the imports of each energy type into 26 sectors. We assume that countries use their imported energy proportionally to the ways they use their domestically-produced energy. ...
... Households (24), Others (25), Re-export and Re-import (26) 11 We do not use this method to scale other the other 21 sectors because we aim to minimize assumptions regarding the energy system. We use actual data when actual energy flow data are available. ...
Article
National energy security depends on a stable network of international trade in not only primary energy (e.g., crude oil and natural gas) and secondary energy (electricity), but also embodied energy. The latter consists of both direct energy used to directly produce a final good (e.g., crude oil used to make synthetic rubber), and indirect energy incorporated in intermediate goods and services used to make a final product (e.g., coal used to smelt iron into steel that goes into the frames of cars). While studies have analyzed international trade in embodied energy, the global flow of the indirect component of this energy has not been explicitly examined. Here we develop and apply a new hybrid input-output database of energy flows within and among the world's largest 136 economies so as to compare and contrast energy security metrics of indirect energy against direct energy. We find that 23% of the world's embodied energy network is comprised of trade linkages in indirect energy between primary energy producing countries and other countries with which they do not have direct trade ties. We also find that the global economy is 90% more dependent on imports of indirect energy than direct energy and, unsurprisingly, that countries generally have many more trading partners in indirect energy than they do in direct energy. These differences in energy security metrics are assessed at the global, sectoral, and national levels over the years 2000-2015. The differences point to critical intermediary country nodes in the global trade network of indirect energy, principally the United States, China, and Russia.
... For example, steel used in producing cars is an intermediate good, whereas cars bought by consumers are final goods. As a result of international specialization, more than 80% of international trade is represented by intermediate goods and services [25], and embodiment studies on intermediate trade have increasingly raised concerns in recent years. For instance, carbon emissions embodied in intermediate trade were found to be 2.3-fold larger than those in final trade at the global scale [26]. ...
... Generally, the intermediate trade volume of embodied energy in the BRI area continued to grow during this period (from 4.13 × 10 19 J in 2000 to 7.89 × 10 19 J in 2015), and the same trend can be found for final trade, which increased from 4.94 × 10 18 J to 1.27 × 10 19 J. The BRI's intermediate trade of embodied energy was about 7.29-fold larger than final trade on average, which is slightly higher than the ratio (5.67-fold) at the global scale [25]. ...
... Compared with intermediate exports, the proportion of final embodied energy exports from light industry is more pronounced (22.63% in 2015). For the service industry, its embodied energy exports account for about 7% of total energy exports, with transportation being the largest contributor (about 38%), followed by education, health, and other services (about 14%), indicating these are highly interconnected industries in the BRI economies [25]. In terms of embodied energy imports, six kinds of final use were considered. ...
Article
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As an important part of trade in the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) area, significant research attention has been devoted to direct energy transfer, whereas studies on energy embodied in non-energy products have largely been neglected. To present an overview of energy trade for the BRI members, this study combined multi-regional input-output (MRIO) analysis with complex network analysis to model energy use flows within the BRI’s intermediate and final trade network during 2000–2015. Results showed that intermediate energy trade volume is about 7.29-fold larger than that of final trade. Russia and Mainland China were found to be the main net exporter and net importer in intermediate energy trade, respectively, but in final energy trade their roles are reversed. In intermediate energy trade, resource exploitation and heavy industry are the leading intermediate exporter and importer respectively, whereas household consumption is the largest importer (accounting for about three-fifths of the total) in final energy trade. Based on the complex network analysis, the BRI countries were found to trade widely in the final network while cooperating deeply in the intermediate network, with obvious small-world features. Mainland China and Russia were identified as key economies in both intermediate and final trade networks. In addition, quadratic assignment procedure (QAP) analysis was adopted to explore the determinants of the BRI energy trade from 2000 to 2015. It was found that geographic distance, land adjacency, and culture and language have a consistently significant impact on intermediate trade. Closer geographic distance, being adjacent to land, a higher level of economic development, and a larger size of population can promote final trade. This study aimed to supplement existing studies on direct energy trade and provides implications for understanding the sustainable energy development in the BRI area.
... By giving full attention to the indirect energy usage related to primary and intermediate inputs in the supply chains, a positive accounting framework for energy use is developed in this study based on the one proposed in previous works Wu and Chen, 2017). A detailed comparison of these two models is described in SI-A (supporting information), together with the schematic diagrams illustrated and the basic mechanisms explained. ...
... In this section we compared the results of this work with those obtained in existing studies. Previous efforts seeking to explore energy use of the world economy based on global multi-region input-output analysis are directed full attention (Gasim, 2015;Lan et al., 2016;Simas et al., 2015;Wu and Chen, 2017;Wu et al., 2019b). In the work by Simas et al. (2015) as well as that by Wu and Chen (2017), the result shows that Russia is the biggest exporter and the United States is the biggest importer of energy use, which is consistent with that in this study. ...
... Previous efforts seeking to explore energy use of the world economy based on global multi-region input-output analysis are directed full attention (Gasim, 2015;Lan et al., 2016;Simas et al., 2015;Wu and Chen, 2017;Wu et al., 2019b). In the work by Simas et al. (2015) as well as that by Wu and Chen (2017), the result shows that Russia is the biggest exporter and the United States is the biggest importer of energy use, which is consistent with that in this study. However, in the work by Gasim (2015), it was found that China comes as the leading net exporter of energy use while Russia comes the second, differing from the results in this study. ...
Article
As an extension of our previous work (Wu et al., 2019b), this study uses a positive accounting manner to track the circulation of energy use via interregional trade, by taking a full account of indirect energy usage related with primary inputs as well as intermediate inputs. The aggregate amount of interregional shift of energy use is about six times larger than that recorded in the preceding work, revealing the robust flows of energy use associated with intermediate products traded across global supply chains. The United States is a crucial sink of energy use in the world, serving the leading net importer of energy use in final trade and the second biggest net importer in intermediate trade. Around 60% of the energy use initiated by its final consumption stems from other regions. For Mainland China as the third largest net importer of energy use in intermediate trade and the leading net exporter in final trade, around 60% of local primary energy exploitation sinks into final consumption abroad. For sustainable economic growth and efficient energy management, countries are recommended to be further integrated in the international supply chains by accurately pinpointing their roles in the trading market of energy use.
... Accuracy analyses have also been performed with the structural decomposition analysis of global energy footprints (Lan et al., 2016), using the Eora dataset for 189 countries. Recent research has been carried out trying to detect not only the final consumption activities in the economic system but also the intermediate production of industries separately (Wu and Chen, 2017). Owen et al. (2017) have made a footprint analysis for the UK, detecting the difficulties when aggregating the TPES data for each of the five currently most used databases for the calculation of the TPEF. ...
... Furthermore, although global energy reduction has been deemed necessary to maintain the sustainable use of resources (McGlade and Ekins, 2015), Kaltenegger et al. (2017) detected that global energy consumption increased by 29.4% from 1995 to 2009, and may increase by 52.9% from 1995 to 2030. Wu and Chen (2017) found that overall, the energy use embodied in international trade has reached 90% of global energy use, in which energy induced by final product trade is around 20%, while the rest is induced by intermediate trade consumption. Furthermore, Wood et al. (2018) found that the energy consumption displaced through trade rose from 20 to 29% during the 1995 to 2011 period. ...
... It has been revealed that such local ignorance leads to a global undesirable outcome (Peters and Hertwich 2008). If countries aim to achieve the energy conservation through controlling the direct energy consumption, they incline to do this by transferring energy-intensive industries to other regions and meanwhile importing from abroad the finished goods or energyintensive intermediate goods (Chen et al. 2018;Wiedmann and Lenzen 2018;Wu and Chen 2017). Ultimately such local favorable actions lead to a global unfavorable outcome in terms of worldwide energy reduction and carbon mitigation (Guo et al. 2021). ...
... With more global MRIO data and energy use data available and increasing importance of worldwide energy conservation, embodied energy flow research at the global scale has become a hot topic in recent years. At the global level, Chen and Chen (2013) presents a network simulation of the global embodied energy flows in 2007, Cortes-Borda et al. (2015) explores the solar energy embodied in the international trade of goods and services, Shi et al. (2017) and Sun (2018) study the evolutionary features of global embodied energy flow network through the combination of multi-regional input-output (MRIO) analysis and complex network analysis, Wu and Chen et al. (2017) Islam et al. (2019) investigates the impact of tariff reduction on the carbon emissions embodied in the imports of G20 economies. Including population, economic development, coal consumption, distance, and environmental regulations into a gravity model, Wang et al. (2019) assesses the factors affecting the SO 2 emissions embodied in the domestic trade of China. ...
Article
Full-text available
Against the backdrop of current global collaboration on mitigating carbon emissions, how to reduce the energy uses in the Belt and Road Initiative area becomes an urgent and big challenge facing the global community. Using the Eora input-output database, this paper accounts the embodied energy trade between Belt and Road countries in 2015, followed by an investigation of the factors influencing the embodied energy trade through a panel gravity model. Global value chain participation and position are two newly considered factors in analyzing the determinants of embodied energy flow. We find that the main bilateral embodied flow paths are from South Korea to China, China to South Korea, Singapore to China, Ukraine to Russia, and Malaysia to Singapore. Five percent embodied energy flow paths account for 80% of the total bilateral embodied energy flow volume between Belt and Road countries. The gravity model results indicate that gross domestic product (GDP) per capita, population, global value chain participation are the key drivers of bilateral embodied energy trade, while the industrial share of GDP and global value chain position are negatively related to the trade. Energy intensity plays a crucial role in reducing the bilateral embodied energy flow. These results are useful in the policymaking of sustainable development for the Belt and Road Initiative.
... Zhang et al., 2017b). Therefore, it is highly probable that a product, which is manufactured in one country using energy that is either domestically exploited or imported from other nations, is exported to another country for reprocessing, and then re-exported for final use in a third country (Wu and Chen, 2017b). In this regard, following the demand-pull principle, a final-demand-based accounting method, which was firstly proposed by Leontief (1970), has been in recent years widely extended into a multi-region input-output (MRIO) model to deal with the shift of resources use along with the sliced-up global supply chain (Arto et al., 2016a;Behrens et al., 2007;Chen et al., 2018;Chen and Han, 2015;Su and Ang, 2017;Wiedmann et al., 2015;. ...
... Su and Ang (2017) used the input-output framework to study the relations between energy use and GDP from two different viewpoints in terms of the final demand perspective and production perspective. Similarly, Wu and Chen (2017b) compared the energy use of the world nations as recorded by final-demand-based energy use and productionbased energy use. Generally speaking, the final-demand-based MRIO accounting is fully implicative for global collaboration towards sustainability of energy use, such as energy-efficient technology transfer from developing countries to developed countries. ...
Article
Globalization has integrated nations into a world economy. Based on the world input-output database (WIOD), this paper explored the energy use of the world economy under a household-consumption-based MRIO (multi-region input-output) accounting scheme. Pertaining to normative economics, the household-consumption-based MRIO accounting scheme corresponds to the value judgement of household consumption being the ultimate driver of the economy, which complements existing accounting methods based on different viewpoints. The energy use associated with the internationally traded products is calculated to be around one-fifth of the global total energy consumption. For China as the largest exporter and also the biggest deficit economy in terms of energy use, its trade imbalance is nearly the summation of that of the United States, the United Kingdom, Japan and Germany. Energy self-sufficiency rates by supply and by demand are respectively proposed. While the United States economy as the largest importer maintains the majority of the energy welfare denoted by the onsite energy use at home, China exports large quantities of energy use abroad. For economies like Germany, South Korea and Taiwan, they could be regarded as hubs that export a considerable amount of energy use abroad and absorb massive energy use from outside simultaneously. For sustainable use of energy resources, economies are suggested to carefully identify their roles in the global trading network of energy use.
... In this context, many scholars have conducted extensive research on the embodied energy in international trade (Al-Abri, 2014;Dietzenbacher et al., 2012). It also analyzed the embodied energy under different trade scales, such as global trade network Dietzenbacher et al., 2012;Wu and Chen, 2017), regional trade (Behmiri and Manso, 2013), one country's foreign trade (Zhang et al., 2015), trade between two countries (Yang et al., 2014) and city's foreign trade (Chen et al., 2001;Kahrl and Roland-Holst, 2008). Among them, the research on one country's foreign trade, especially the embodied energy consumption of developing countries in international trade, was relatively concentrated. ...
Article
It is generally thought that the country with net exports in goods is also a net exporter of energy embodied in goods. In this work, we report a paradox phenomenon, which shows that Germany was a net goods exporter but also a net importer of embodied oil. Based on the multi-region input-output model and structural decomposition analysis, this paper comprehensively analyzed the changing trend and main driving factors of oil footprints in German trade. The results showed that Germany's embodied oil exports increased by 35.06% with the expansion of trade scale, and Germany's net imports of embodied oil fell by 45.49% during the study period. Although the focus of embodied oil transfer in trade was EU countries, the embodied oil trade volume between Germany and developing countries, especially China, grew rapidly. From sectoral level, heavy manufacturing and transport industry dominated more than 70% of the Germany's embodied oil trade. The decomposition analysis showed that the scale effect of final demand was the main factor that contributed to the growth of oil footprints in Germany's international trade, which offset the inhibition of oil consumption intensity. The effect of production structure played an important role in the embodied oil trade, and the low-oil-intensive industrial structure was the main reason why Germany was a net importer of embodied oil.
... Although some studies have shown the framework of FBA, few studies have explored the emissions flow balance between PBA and FBA, which can be considered as embodied emissions flows in the globalized production systems. These emission flows are helpful for tracing the sources of FBA emissions (Wu and Chen, 2017). ...
Article
Production system-related air pollution emissions are dominant components in global emission reduction targets and in realizing relevant sustainable development goals (SDGs). To better understand the air pollution emissions induced by globalized production systems through a life cycle perspective, environmental extended multiregional input-output (EE-MRIO) analysis was applied to calculate the primary product-based emissions and the final product-based emissions embodied in the global production systems. Combined with two types of linkage analysis, named the hypothetical extraction method (HEM) and the emissions pure backward linkage (EPBL), emissions were analysed at three scopes at the sector level from macro sector linkage perspectives. An illustrative analysis was presented based on the global EXIOBASE MRIO database and primary PM2.5 emissions from 1995 to 2011. The results show that from 1995 to 2011, the primary PM2.5 emissions in the global production systems increased by 35%. In 2011, China's production system generated the highest primary product-based and final product-based primary PM2.5 emissions, which accounted for 30.7% and 29.6% of the global total, respectively. The emission flows balance between primary product-based emissions and final product-based emissions revealed that most developing countries are sources of emissions and that developed countries are sinks of emissions in production systems. An approximately U-shaped relationship was found in the primary PM2.5 emissions embodied in final products, while the opposite relationship was found embodied in primary products. Meanwhile, sector-specific protocols for controlling the high indirect emissions sectors can make the supply chain cleaner. Our findings further indicated that focusing more on industries can help relevant emissions control policymaking processes.
... However, in a globalized world, final consumptions in one country often cause production and energy consumption elsewhere . Considering the interaction of energy consumption and international trade, consumption-based accounting has been proposed to adjust the production-based accounting by adding the energy consumption associated with the production of imports and removing the associated with the production of exports (Malik et al., 2018;Wiedmann and Lenzen, 2018;Wu and Chen, 2017). In this framework, Leontief demand-driven Input-Output (IO) models have been used to help integrate energy consumption and economic activities (Lan et al., 2016). ...
Article
Reducing fossil fuel consumption is a top priority option for climate change mitigation, which requires collaborations of partners along the supply chain, such as energy suppliers, energy consumers and final consumers of goods and services. A comprehensive analysis of fossil fuel consumption is useful for policymakers to reduce demand but still absent. This study explores the national contribution to global energy consumption from different perspectives in the global supply chain and is designed to complement current energy reduction policies. For the developed countries, energy consumptions are stable from 2000 to 2014, while that of emerging countries almost doubled (e.g., China and India). Most of the developing countries are producers whose production-based and final production-based energy consumptions are higher than their consumption-based ones, except India after the global financial crisis. In contrast, the developed countries are consumers, whose consumption-based energy consumptions are higher. At the sectoral level, the service sector is the largest contributor to consumption- and income-based energy consumption. The analysis in this study can create opportunities for all the parties alongside the supply chain in reducing fossil fuel consumption.
... It decides the quality of our lives and is one of the foremost imperative driving powers of economic advancement (Mukherjee, 2009). Energy is crucial to financial advance and social improvement (Wua, 2017). Energy utilization around the world has multiplied, contributing essentially to exceptional financial development and enhancement over the last 35 years (BP, 2016). ...
Article
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The aim of this paper is to affect the global energy politics on international trade. Energy is crucial to financial advance and social improvement and energy utilization around the world has multiplied, contributing essentially to exceptional financial development. Data for this study were obtained from existing literatures on international trade of energy politics. The methodology heavily relied on existing previous literatures on the subject being dealt with. The findings indicate that international trade affects energy for many factors, including energy demand and consumption, distribution of natural resources and energy price. Further, politics of energy can affect international trade by government policy such as protectionism or trade barriers which are tariff and non-tariff like quotas and subsidies as well as currency control or currency exchange rate of a country. Keywords: Energy politics, international trade, multilateral exchange, protectionism, energy price. JEL Classifications: P48, Q42 DOI: https://doi.org/10.32479/ijeep.9809
... Household consumption has gradually become a major director of energy consumption and related carbon emissions alongside socioeconomic development . Investigations on energy consumption, as well as energy-related carbon emissions under the IeO framework in connection with household consumption have aroused wide interest (Wu and Chen, 2017b;Wu et al., 2019b). Wu et al. (2019c), Zhang et al. (2017) and Zhou and Gu (2020) all examined the energy consumption and CO 2 emissions caused by household consumption using the IeO method, as well as the influencing factors of the indirect effects in China. ...
Article
Household consumption as one of the final demands is indirectly stimulating industrial production and industrial energy consumption (IEC). How household consumption drives IEC and how will household consumption-driven IEC evolve in the future especially under accelerating urbanization remains to be explored in depth. In this study, through identifying changes in the quantity and structure of household consumption in the input-output (I-O) framework, we examine the indirect IEC driven by urban and rural household consumption in China’s 8 groups of industries (27 sectors) in 2005, 2010, 2015 and 2017. Then integrating energy balance, material balance and value balance within the socioeconomic activities, we develop a dynamic simulation model to forecast household consumption-driven IEC from 2018 to 2030. It is found that total urban consumption-driven IEC increased substantially during 2005-2017 (599.8 to 1028.2 Mtce), also with an increasing proportion in total household consumption-driven IEC (74.5% to 80.4%). Along with increasing residential disposal income, urban consumption-driven IEC is estimated to double in 2030. Heavy industry (Manufacture of Chemicals, Smelting and Pressing of Metals are prominent) maintains the leading contributor, followed by Services industry (Transport, Storage and Post is prominent). The gap between urban and rural consumption-driven IEC will continue widening accompanying urbanization. This study links urbanization with IEC via household consumption and introduces I-O simulation modeling into the prediction of consumption-based IEC. The findings of this study can provide insights into sounder management of IEC that combines household and industrial development in the context of urbanization.
... China was the largest energy outflow country with 3.26 Â 10 7 TJ, while the U.S. was the largest energy inflow country, importing 2.50 Â 10 7 TJ. Similarly, a recent study by Wu and Chen [26] calculated and discussed worldwide energy consumption in 2013 based on both the production and consumption principles. Another study by Chen et al. [27] analyzed the structure of embodied energy flow networks at the global, regional and national levels. ...
Article
The energy embodied in international trade is transferred globally through trade links. The understanding of the energy flows embodied in international trade and what drives the variations in embodied energy use is of great significance for achieving the global goal of saving energy and reducing energy-related emissions. Thus, this research, in its first stage, calculated the energy use embodied in international trade of 39 countries from 1995 to 2011 by building a multiregional input-output model and described the spatial transfer patterns of energy flows using geo-visualization techniques. In the second stage, this paper applied the Logarithmic Mean Divisia Index (LMDI) approach to identify the driving factors of embodied energy use. The findings are as follows. (1) The aggregated embodied energy use of these 39 countries significantly increased during the sample period. (2) Regarding the flows of embodied energy use, these 39 countries can be classified into 3 groups, namely, energy-rich countries with net outflows (Group 1), developed countries (Group 2) and developing countries with net inflows (Group 3). (3) From the decomposition results of the LMDI method, both energy intensity and economic output are the main driving factors that affect embodied energy outflow and inflow changes in international trade. The improvement of energy intensity is the main contributor to reducing the increase in energy use embodied in international trade. Moreover, increases in embodied energy use are attributed to the growth of imports and exports, economic output, and population. On the other hand, upgrading industrial systems and optimizing industrial structure can contribute to reducing embodied energy use growth. Accordingly, policy recommendations are given. International trade plays a crucial role in assigning different shares of responsibility for energy-related emissions reduction. To formulate effective and efficient environmental policies, embodied energy use should be considered. Moreover, solutions to alleviate environmental pollution are improved energy use and extensive use of clean energy.
... In recent years, with respect to the context of global action to tackle climate change, "China's climate threat theory" is also on the rise. However, regarding the studies on embodied energy, the fact that China is a net exporter of energy contradicts this "threat theory" to some extent in terms of energy use (Tang et al., 2012;Cui et al., 2015;Wu and Chen, 2017;Jiang et al., 2020;Wang and Ge, 2020). Many empirical analyses on carbon emission embodied in China's export also suggested that the scale of carbon emission embodied in China's foreign trade is very large (Shui and Harriss, 2006;Weber et al., 2008;Lin and Sun, 2010;Su and Ang, 2013). ...
Article
Full-text available
Energy issues are closely related to the development of human society and economy. Embodied energy is the total direct and indirect energy consumption required for the production of goods and services. In the context of the intensifying development of economic globalization and prosperity of international trade, embodied energy is considered as a better indicator to comprehensively reflect the nature of a country’s energy use than the direct energy use. The development of trade in value added (TiVA) accounting and global value chain theory has brought new ideas to embodied energy research. This study applies TiVA accounting to the study of embodied energy and establishes a complete framework to decompose the sources, destinations, and transfer routes of embodied energy in a country’s exports, and comprehensively depicts the embodied energy flows in China’s exports at the country and sector levels as an instance. The results show that China exports large amounts of embodied domestic energy use, and export is an important factor for the rapid growth of China’s energy and emissions. At the country level, the United States and EU28 are traditional major importers of China, and developing countries, such as Brazil, India, and Indonesia, are emerging markets. China’s embodied energy flows to different importers vary in terms of trade patterns, flow routes, and the embodied domestic energy intensities. At the sector level, the light industry and the services create more benefits, whereas manufacturing, such as chemicals and metal products, consumes more energy, and there is a mismatch between the main sectors that create economic benefits from exports and the main sectors that consume energy for exports. These results indicate that embodied energy of China’s exports has a great impact on global energy consumption and carbon emission, and the optimizing of China’s export embodied energy structure is conducive to global energy conservation and emission reduction. This article strongly suggests the importance of the global value chain decomposition framework in embodied energy research.
... Specifically, large-scale manufacturing is not suitable in modern metropolises due to several factors (i.e., space constraints, high rent, and congested transport networks). Cities with insufficient energy resources can rely on external energy directly by importing energy as a type of commodity or indirectly by importing energy-intensive commodities Wu and Chen, 2017). In terms of environmental costs, urban economies, especially large metropolises, are often inclined to import finished products to avoid the pollution associated with energy extraction and combustion processes at a local scale (Li et al., 2016b). ...
Article
Previous studies presenting city energy-use profiles generally disregard indirect energy use across global supply chains. Moreover, the distinct energy-use patterns of China's megacities remain unclear due to various urban functions and development strategies associated with urbanization. Therefore, a multi-scale single-region input-output model is devised to depict energy-use patterns in two representative Chinese megacities—Beijing and Shanghai. This model highlights the distinct upstream sources of city energy use, elucidating regional-international connections. The distinct evolutionary features of the two cities' energy-use structures are presented from a consumption-based perspective. The results show that the growth of Beijing and Shanghai depend heavily on embodied energy resources from other domestic or foreign regions. Further, as Beijing is the country's political center, a considerable amount of its energy use is attributed to government activities. In contrast, 6.05% of the energy consumption in Shanghai, China's financial center, depends on foreign energy sources, whereas the corresponding value in Beijing is only 4.2%. In terms of time-series evolutionary features, the growth rate of Beijing's energy use is notably lower than that of Shanghai due to different development modes during 2002–2012. Comparing these two typical cities' energy-use profiles highlights the urgent need for globally-oriented inclusive governance, and energy conservation policies based on distinct city functions and development plans.
... It has been revealed that such local ignorance leads to a global undesirable outcome (Peters and Hertwich 2008). If countries aim to achieve the energy conservation through controlling the direct energy consumption, they incline to do this by transferring energy-intensive industries to other regions and meanwhile importing from abroad the finished goods or energyintensive intermediate goods (Chen et al. 2018;Wiedmann and Lenzen 2018;Wu and Chen 2017). Ultimately such local favorable actions lead to a global unfavorable outcome in terms of worldwide energy reduction and carbon mitigation (Guo et al. 2021). ...
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Energy is a basic factor input embodied in the production of goods and services. The rapid growth of trade between Belt and Road countries calls for the study of bilateral embodied energy trade between them. Using the Eora input-output database in 2015, this paper accounts the embodied energy trade between Belt and Road countries, followed by an investigation of the factors influencing the embodied energy trade through a gravity model, which is different from the conventional decomposition analysis. We find that the main bilateral embodied flow paths are from South Korea to China, China to South Korea, Singapore to China, Ukraine to Russia, and Malaysia to Singapore. 5% embodied energy flow paths account for 80% of the total bilateral embodied energy flow volume between Belt and Road countries. The gravity model results indicate that GDP per capita and population are the key drivers of bilateral embodied energy trade, while the industrial share of GDP is negatively related to the trade. Energy intensity, especially that of importing countries, plays a crucial role in reducing the bilateral embodied energy flow. These results are useful in the policymaking of sustainable development for the Belt and Road Initiative.
... To identify an economy's system-wide dependence on natural gas, the notion of embodied energy can be employed, which is defined as the total energy (direct plus indirect energy use) required to produce and sustain a certain good or service (Chapman, 1974;Costanza, 1980). The concept has been widely applied to investigate embodied energy use at urban scale (Chen et al., 2017b;Li et al., 2014), sub-national scale (Chen et al., 2017c;Gao et al., 2018;Zhang et al., 2015), national scale (Lenzen, 1998;Zhang et al., 2017) and global scale (Gasim, 2015;Kan et al., 2019a;Wu and Chen, 2017). It has been also extended to evaluate individual energy source, such as embodied oil use (Tang et al., 2012;, embodied coal use Xia et al., 2017) and embodied nuclear energy use (Cort� es-Borda et al., 2015), as well as many other elements like carbon emissions (Su and Ang, 2015;, methane emissions Zhang et al., 2016) and PM emissions (Meng et al., 2016). ...
Article
As an extension of our previous study on natural gas use in world economy ( Kan et al, Energy Policy 124 (2019) 215-225), this paper explores policy implications based on a time series analysis uncovering the evolution of natural gas use embodied in global supply chains during 2000-2011. Due to increasing gas supply from gas-rich regions to gas-scarce regions and outsourcing of energy-intensive industries, trade imbalance in terms of gas use is intensifying globally, corresponding to strengthening gas resource allocation and environmental stress shift. Regarding trade patterns by intermediate and final goods, leading importers and exporters play distinct roles in global supply chains. And global trade relations are diversified over time, with more suppliers and recipients joining the international trade. Based on the New Policies Scenario provided by IEA, a long term forecast of embodied gas use illustrates need to prepare for a world with changing energy mix, with respect to growing availability of low-cost natural gas and robust demand growth coming from emerging economies, especially China, who is struggling to fight against air pollution through coal-to-gas switch. Potential room to expand natural gas utilization is also targeted, and the expansion requires coordination of all the agents in global supply chains.
... First of all, international trade is the prerequisite for the survival of international logistics, and it is also the basis for solving the obstacles of transnational supply chain, so global procurement and international trade must be considered in logistics operation [57]. At the same time, trade opening has also been proved to have a major impact on environmental pollution and energy consumption [58][59][60]. Secondly, urbanization will increase the growth rate of energy consumption, and its impact on carbon emissions has been empirically tested in developing countries [61,62]. ...
Article
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The purpose of this study is to test the relationship among green logistics, environmental degradation, and energy demand. The system generalized method of moment (system GMM) is used to study the data of Asian countries and four subregions in Asia. The estimation results show that logistics operation consumes nonrenewable energy such as fossil fuels, which has a negative impact on environmental sustainability and energy demand. The service quality and capability (LPITC) in the logistics performance index has a significant contribution to reducing carbon dioxide emissions. The logistics infrastructure (LPIIN) has significantly reduced the energy consumption in Asia, while the customs (LPIC) has significantly increased the energy demand. Other indicators of LPI also have a significant impact on the environment and energy in different subregions of Asia. Industrialization and urbanization both increase carbon emissions in Asia, while trade opening reduces carbon emissions. At the same time, these three variables have a positive impact on reducing energy consumption. The results show that logistics performance is significantly related to environmental degradation and energy, and renewable energy and green supply chain management can reduce the harmful effects of logistics activities on environment and energy. Therefore, Asian countries should give priority to environmental sustainability in supply chain management and encourage the application of green practices in logistics.
... A great deal of literature has investigated the energy or greenhouse gas emissions embodied in final demand, which can be classified into two groups: One group's focus is on a single country or region (Lam et al., 2019;Sun et al., 2018;Cui et al., 2015;Chen and Zhang, 2010;Chung et al., 2009;Liu et al., 2009;Liang et al., 2007;Munksgaard and Pedersen, 2001). The other group's focus is worldwide (Jiang et al., 2020;Chen et al., 2018;Wu and Chen, 2017;Chen and Chen, 2013). These studies reveal the energy or greenhouse gas emissions embodied in final demand during a specific period. ...
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Most countries of the world have put forward the goal of striving for carbon neutrality. The goal is hard to achieve by only relying on supply side solutions for the world. Most countries should pay more attention to the potential of energy conservation and emission reduction in the field of final demand. We construct an empirical analytic framework to investigate energy demand characteristics as economic growth from the perspective of final demand, and the results show a U-shaped curve relationship between the ratio of energy embodied in consumption to energy embodied in investment (REECEEI) and real gross domestic product per capita. The REECEEIs of major developing and developed countries are very different. Compare to the average baseline curve scenario, there is a notable conservation potential of energy embodied in final demand for major developing and developed countries. In climate negotiation, the demand for energy embodied in investment of developing countries should be guaranteed because it is the foundation of their economic development. To conserve energy and reduce emissions in the field of final demand, developing countries should focus on the field of energy embodied in investment, while developed countries should focus on the field of energy embodied in consumption.
... The electricity market is one of the most important in modern economies, and one with growing significance. This significance is much greater than its share in GDP would suggest [1,2]. Similar to many others, e.g., the market of energy raw materials, agricultural products, or metals, its functioning is closely linked to the functioning of the economy as a whole. ...
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Electricity markets are characterised by high sensitivity to variations in supply and demand conditions. However, they also exhibit a number of specific characteristics, including large daily, weekly, and seasonal price fluctuations. The aim of this article is to assess the impact of fluctuations in the industry’s output on wholesale electricity prices. Results were compared for the Nord Pool markets, with a high share of renewable energy supply, and the HUPX markets, where fossil fuel and/or nuclear energy supply dominates. The results obtained generally indicate the positive impact of changes in the industry’s output on wholesale electricity prices. This impact was stronger in the HUPX markets and for periods in daily and weekly cycles with higher energy demands. The results indicate that the sensitivity of electricity prices to fluctuations in the industry’s output is lower in markets with a higher share of renewable energy, especially for periods with higher energy demands.
... Historically, international trade has played an important role in economic development by providing a mechanism for the efficient allocation of resources, especially labor and capital (Peters & Hertwich, 2008;Wood et al., 2018). As final demand of consumers and international trade played an increasingly critical role in resources and emissions (Wu & Chen, 2017;Zhang et al., 2016), a large number of studies attributed the resources and emissions from producers to the final demand based on the consumption-based accounting method (Ali, 2017;Jiang & Guan, 2017;Peters, 2008). Due to internalization and specialization (Chen & Han, 2015a, 2015b, developed regions outsourced their emissions to other regions through international trade Oita et al., 2016;Wu et al., 2021), resulting in substantial changes in the final allocation of GHG emissions (Hanaka et al., 2017;Peters et al., 2011;Skelton, 2013). ...
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Reducing CH4 and N2O emissions plays an essential role in tackling global warming. Most previous studies focused on the direct CH4 and N2O emissions of an economy, while ignoring the CH4 and N2O emissions induced by household consumption in the final consumption of an economy. This study analyzed household CH4 and N2O footprints of the major economies and identified the decoupling and inequality of household CH4 and N2O emissions based on the multi‐regional input‐output analysis and structural path analysis from 1995 to 2014. Results demonstrated that global household CH4 and N2O emissions increased by 8.4% in 2014 compared to 1995. Developing economies such as China, Brazil, India, and Indonesia witnessed a rapid growth of household CH4 and N2O emissions, but the opposite could be observed in developed economies such as Germany, Japan, the UK, and the US. A large amount of CH4 and N2O emissions related to household consumption were transferred from developed economies to developing economies. In terms of the relationship between economic development and household CH4 and N2O emissions, the US, the UK, and Japan showed a strong decoupling status in 2014, while China and Indonesia showed a weak decoupling status. Meanwhile, the household emission inequality in developing economies was higher than that in developed economies. By exploring the relationship between economy and household CH4 and N2O emissions, it is helpful to assist developed and developing economies to adopt household CH4 and N2O emission reduction policies in line with their economic development stages.
... Previous studies using SRIO and MRIO models contributed to understanding consumption-based resource uses and related environmental emissions [18]. However, the ecological impacts across multi-scale systems were mostly neglected in previous studies [19]. ...
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Urban energy requirements not only involve energy supplies within self-boundaries, but also impose huge demands via domestic and global supply chains. By constructing a multi-scale input-output model, this study depicts embodied energy uses of China's four megacities including urban, national, and global scales. The total embodied energy requirements of Beijing, Tianjin, Shanghai, and Chongqing are 8576.61, 6309.56, 11448.19, and 6941.43 PJ, respectively. Shanghai has the highest embodied energy use per capita of 464.24 GJ, followed by Tianjin of 447.49 GJ, Beijing of 390.91 GJ, and Chongqing of 220.78 GJ. Fixed capital formation as the leading final demand category accounts for above 70% of total energy requirements in Chongqing, while Urban household consumption in Shanghai accounts for nearly 40% of its energy requirements. More than 20% of energy requirements in Beijing are imported from foreign economies, while about 10% of embodied energy uses in Shanghai export to other countries, mainly due to their location advantages and economic openness. Through depicting energy requirements of urban economies, this study is essential to recognize visible and embodied energy uses along multi-scale supply chains by addressing cross-boundary potentials of energy saving at urban, national, and global scales.
... Within IOA, MRIO models estimate the energy use and GHG emissions occurring along global supply chain (Chen et al., 2018(Chen et al., , 2019(Chen et al., , 2020Chen, 2011, 2013;Chen and Wu, 2017;Gyamfi et al., 2021;Shepard and Pratson, 2020;Wu et al., 2019aWu et al., ,b, 2020Wu and Chen, 2017;Zhang et al., 2019;Zhao and Liu, 2020). In a context of increasing inter-dependencies of countries, it is essential to take into account that a growing share of the total energy use of a country is composed of the energy use induced by goods and services produced abroad. ...
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Energy use is the major source of greenhouse gas emissions. The aim of this paper is to examine total domestic and foreign energy use across industries in Brazil over the period 1995-2015. We found that total energy use experienced an annual average growth rate close to 3%. In 2015 only three industries accounted for 37% of total energy use in Brazil: Transport, Food & Beverages, and Electricity, Gas, and Water. In these industries the share of the energy used and produced domestically was higher than the average (85.6%, 84.5% and 94.5% of the total, respectively). In contrast, other industries were increasingly reliant on foreign energy. Thus, the share of domestic use of energy produced abroad was higher than 20% in Textiles and Wearing Apparel, Electrical and Machinery, Transport Equipment and Construction. This fact extends the problem of energy-related emissions mitigation from the national to the global level.
... The development of the population's well-being entails the consumption of large amounts of resources [1]. In addition, this development leads to the generation of enormous amounts of waste. ...
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The construction sector is one of the most demanding sectors of raw materials in existence today. As a consequence, the extraction of these materials has a significant impact on the environment. At the same time, mining activities produce a series of wastes, in some cases with polluting elements, which must be treated to avoid pollution. Therefore, the use of mining waste for the conformation of new construction materials is an important environmental advantage, even more so when such waste is prevented from producing polluting leachates. Therefore, in this research, geopolymers are developed with mine tailings from the Linares lead mines, chemically activated with potassium hydroxide. For this purpose, different percentages of the alkaline activator were tested and the physical and mechanical properties of the conformed materials were evaluated. The analysis of the different conformed geopolymers determined the optimum percentage of potassium hydroxide for conforming the geopolymer with the best mechanical and physical properties. In addition, the concentration in the leachate of potentially contaminating chemical elements in the mining waste was estimated to be lower than those regulated by the regulations. Consequently, this research shows the development of a sustainable material for construction with mining waste and reduction of the environmental impact of traditional products.
... Sustainable energy production is an important parameter that is necessary for the advancement of humanity [1][2][3]. However, the continues rise in global population over the years is becoming a major problem affecting the availability and efficiency of energy and fuels [4][5][6][7]. Statistical evidences have shown that the global human population had risen from <1 billion in the last 200 years to >7 billion today [8][9][10]. There are some indications that the growth rate was dependent to country and region. ...
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Statistical evidences have recently shown both global energy demand and the production/consumption of plastic materials increases regularly. Valorization of the latter materials into gasoline and diesel fuels is therefore an important approach in the perspective of energy and environmental sustainability. Although many high-temperature based catalytic reactions were considered feasible, their low-temperature counterparts would be more effective in terms on energy efficiency, catalyst sustainability, economic parameters and optimal fuel properties. In this direction, the mini review discussed recently published works on catalyst development towards low temperature plastics degradation. Catalysts based on pure/modified natural and synthetic zeolites, Ir-based complex, Palladium (Pd), Platinum (Pt), Ruthenium (Ru), and oxides, chlorides, etc. are being strategically developed, modified and applied under variable conditions. The paper therefore carefully discussed the progress achieved and highlighted prospective research directions.
... The control of energy brought in the Industrial Revolution by providing the strength and vitality required for sustained activity. Today, the amount of energy consumed is regarded as an indicator of development (Sadorsky, 2009;Wu and Chen, 2017). Increased energy demand is directly related to increased industrialization, rapid urbanization, and economic activity (Bilgili et al., 2016). ...
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Pakistan is a developing country with a rapidly growing population. It is currently facing serious economic and energy challenges. Pakistan's energy demand is increasing by the day, and it now stands at 84 MTOE. Currently, the use of fossil fuels dominates Pakistan's energy sector. Conversely, indigenous fossil fuel resources are rapidly depleting and will be unable to meet rising energy demands in the future. Therefore, to withstand its energy needs, the country will need to explore alternative energy production methods. Biomass is one of the alternatives that has enormous potential to help Pakistan combat its growing energy crisis. In this review, we first present an overview of bioenergy, biomass resources, and biomass conversion technologies. We then discuss in detail the current state of the energy mix of Pakistan. Subsequently, we show that annual production of about 121 MT of agricultural residues, 427 MT of animal manure, and 7.5 MT of MSW in Pakistan offer a variety of bioenergy options ranging from biofuels to bio-electricity production. Overall, these biomass resources in Pakistan have the potential to generate 20,709 MW of bio-electricity and 12,615 million m³ of biogas annually in Pakistan. Though these resources hold promising potential for bioenergy production in the country, however, there are some critical challenges that need to be considered, and some of which are extremely difficult to overcome for a developing country like Pakistan. This work is expected to provide a useful basis for biomass management and utilization in Pakistan to harvest eco-friendly and sustainable green energy locally.
... A great deal of the applications in the modern industry is composed of electromechanical systems or kinematic chains that generally involve electrical rotating machinery. In fact, it has been reported by the International Energy Agency (IEA) that electric motors demand more than half of the global electricity [1,2]; additionally, it has been estimated that such electrical demand may grow approximately 2.1% per year. On the other side, it is expected that electric motors used in the industry will represent more than 30% of the total growth until 2040 [2,3]. ...
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Bearings are the elements that allow the rotatory movement in induction motors, and the fault occurrence in these elements is due to excessive working conditions. In induction motors, electrical erosion remains the most common phenomenon that damages bearings, leading to incipient faults that gradually increase to irreparable damages. Thus, condition monitoring strategies capable of assessing bearing fault severities are mandatory to overcome this critical issue. The contribution of this work lies in the proposal of a condition monitoring strategy that is focused on the analysis and identification of different fault severities of the outer race bearing fault in an induction motor. The proposed approach is supported by fusion information of different physical magnitudes and the use of Machine Learning and Artificial Intelligence. An important aspect of this proposal is the calculation of a hybrid-set of statistical features that are obtained to characterize vibration and stator current signals by its processing through domain analysis, i.e., time-domain and frequency-domain; also, the fusion of information of both signals by means of the Linear Discriminant Analysis is important due to the most discriminative and meaningful information is retained resulting in a high-performance condition characterization. Besides, a Neural Network-based classifier allows validating the effectiveness of fusion information from different physical magnitudes to face the diagnosis of multiple fault severities that appear in the bearing outer race. The method is validated under an experimental data set that includes information related to a healthy condition and five different severities that appear in the outer race of bearings.
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The United States is the world's largest oil user, and its changes in oil consumption affect the participating countries in the world oil market. With the process of trade liberation rapidly deepening, better understanding the oil consumption requires to investigate oil footprint. However, the existing U.S. oil consumption researches have been almost monopolized by production-based oil consumption within sovereign geographical boundary. To fill the research gap, trajectory of evolution and key driving factors of oil footprints in the United States, the global biggest oil user, are investigated and analyzed by combining multi-regional input-output model with structural decomposition analysis (MRIO-SDA). The results show that the consumption-based oil footprint has been higher than the production-based, and the gap between the two has increased by 2.68 times in 1995–2011. Meanwhile, the embodied oil import dominates the US consumption-based oil footprints, and its proportion has increased by 10.46% in 1995–2011. The US embodied oil imports are mainly from China, Russia, Canada, and South Korea and dominated by manufacturing sector. The final demand scale is the main reason for the increase of US oil footprint. And the import effect of intermediate products from other economies is a major factor in promoting the increase in embodied oil imports. But this is mainly offset by technique effect. Therefore, the best policy to reduce US oil footprints is to further improve oil efficiency in the US and its major traders.
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This study aims to quantify global CH4 and N2O footprints in 2012 in terms of 181 economies and 20 world regions based on the official national emission accounts from the UNFCCC database and the global multi-region input-output accounts from the EORA database. Global total CH4 and N2O emissions increased by 15.0% in 2012 compared to 1990, mainly driven by increasing demands of agricultural and energy products. Mainland China, Western Europe, the USA, Southeast Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa were identified as the largest five CH4 footprint contributors (55.6% of the global total), while Mainland China, the USA, Western Europe, Brazil and Sub-Saharan Africa as the largest N2O footprint contributors (59.2% of the global total). In most developed economies, the CH4 and N2O footprints were much higher than their emissions on the production side, but opposite picture is observed in emerging economies. 36.4% and 24.8% of the global CH4 and N2O emissions in 2012 were associated with international trade, respectively. Substantial energy-related CH4 and agricultural CH4 and N2O emissions were transferred from developed countries to developing countries. Several nations within Kyoto targets have reduced their CH4 and N2O emissions significantly between 1990 and 2012, but the generally-believed success is challenged when viewing from the consumption side. Mainland China, Southeast Asia, Sub-Saharan Africa, Brazil, Middle East and India witnessed prominent increase of CH4 and N2O footprints in the same period. The structure and spatial patterns of global CH4 and N2O footprints shed light on the role of consumption-side actions and international cooperation for future non-CO2 GHG emission reduction.
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By differentiating intermediate trade from final trade, this paper combines typical statistics for the world economy in 2012 to explore the transfer of embodied carbon emissions via the global supply chain and the related trade imbalance. The emission transfer embodied in interregional trade is in magnitude around 40% of global direct carbon emissions. The global intermediate trade volume of embodied carbon emissions is estimated to be 2.3 times as much as the final trade volume. While Mainland China obtains a considerable economic trade surplus, its carbon trade deficit is about twice the carbon trade surplus of the United States. Mainland China's final trade deficit is around 1.2 times as much as its intermediate trade deficit of embodied carbon emissions. EU27, the United States, ASEAN and Japan serve as the major contributors to China's intermediate and final trade deficits. For the United States, its intermediate carbon trade surplus is almost equal to its final trade surplus. The United States gains a carbon surplus with most of its trading partners in both intermediate and final trades. A future scenario analysis in terms of carbon emission projection is conducted. While the direct and embodied carbon emissions of the United States and Japan are estimated to change slightly from 2012 to 2040, India's carbon emissions are projected to experience a twofold increase during the period. In the long term, though with ups and downs, the economic globalization will be inevitably moving forward, leading to a highly sliced-up global supply chain and increasingly delicate regional specialization as well as frequent intermediate trade between regions. It is suggested that nations and regions should follow this trend and adapt themselves to the global value chain by carefully assessing their roles in intermediate and final trades in terms of both currency and embodied carbon emissions.
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Currently, studies on global industrial carbon emissions focus more on emissions from finished products. However, the emissions resulting from intermediate products are significantly increasing every year. This study analyzes the intermediate carbon emission transfer effort of 140 countries/regions in the global production network based on data from the Global Trade Analysis Project database. Since China is the largest emitter of carbon dioxide in the world, we further analyze China's carbon transfer from the regional and sectoral perspectives. To this end, we use the structural decomposition analysis method to divide the factors influencing China's emission transfer into five parts: emission intensity, export per capita, export structure, population, and production structure. The results show that the net inflow of emissions in China results from the trade process between China and developed regions, including regions in North America and Western Europe, particularly in the sectors of mechanical and electronic equipment and chemical, rubber, and plastic products. Further, the main destinations of China's emission outflow are Latin America, South Asia, and Sub-Saharan Africa, particularly in the mineral, oil, and oilseed sectors. Moreover, emission intensity plays a crucial role in emission reduction, and production structure reversals negatively affect the growth of embodied emission. Finally, our analysis suggests that China should optimize its trade structure and promote low-carbon-emission technology.
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Abstract As part of the climate policy to meet the 2 °C target, actions in all economic sectors, including agriculture, are required to mitigate global greenhouse gas emissions. While there has been an ever‐increasing focus on agricultural greenhouse gas (AGHG) emissions, limited attention has been paid to their economic drivers in the globalized world economy and related mitigation potentials. This paper makes a first attempt to trace AGHG emissions via global trade networks using a multiregional input‐output model and a complex network model. Over one third of global AGHG emissions in 2012 can be linked with products traded internationally, of which intermediate trade and final trade contribute 64.2% and 35.8%, respectively. Japan, the United States, Germany, the United Kingdom, and Hong Kong are the world's five largest net importers of embodied emissions, while Ethiopia, Australia, Pakistan, India, and Argentina are the five largest net exporters. Some hunger‐afflicted developing countries in Asia and Africa are important embodied emission exporters, due to their large‐scale exports of agricultural products. Trade‐related virtual AGHG emission transfers shape a highly heterogenous network, due to the coexistence of numerous peripheral economies and a few highly connected hub economies. The network clustering structure is revealed by the regional integration of several trading communities, while hub economies are collectors and distributors in the global trade network, with important implications for emission mitigation. Achieving AGHG emission reduction calls for a combination of supply‐ and demand‐side policies covering the global trade network.
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Input-output analysis is one of the central methodological pillars of industrial ecology. However, the literature that discusses different structures of environmental extensions (EEs), i.e. the scope of physical flows and their attribution to sectors in the monetary input-output table (MIOT), remains fragmented. This paper investigates the conceptual and empirical implications of applying two different but frequently used designs of environmental extensions, using the case of energy accounting, where one represents energy supply while the other energy use in the economy. We derive both extensions from an official energy supply-use dataset and apply them to the same single-region input-output (SRIO) model of Austria, thereby isolating the effect that stems from the decision for the extension design. We also crosscheck the SRIO results with energy footprints from the global multi-regional input-output (GMRIO) dataset EXIOBASE. Our results show that the ranking of footprints of final demand categories (e.g., household and export) is sensitive to the extension design and that product-level results can vary by several orders of magnitude. The GMRIO-based comparison further reveals that for a few countries the supply-extension result can be twice the size of the use-extension footprint (e.g. Australia and Norway). We propose a graph approach to provide a generalized framework to disclosing the design of EEs. We discuss the conceptual differences between the two extension designs by applying analogies to hybrid life-cycle assessment and conclude that our findings are relevant for monitoring of energy efficiency and emission reduction targets and corporate footprint accounting.
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As the typical characteristic of globalization, large-scale agglomeration of headquarters in urban economies exerts extensive cross-border trade links, and inevitably generates energy use outside their boundary. Therefore, studies about urban economies' energy use profiles should pay special attention to the tremendous energy transfers embodied in their trade connections along the whole supply chain. In this regard, a three-scale input-output model which distinguishes local, domestic and foreign activities is devised to reflect cross border embodied energy perspective for urban economies, with an intensive case study for Beijing during 2002–2012. The results show that domestic imports dominate Beijing's total embodied energy use, while local energy exploitation accounts for less than one-tenths of the final use. Regarding to energy use embodied in trade, headquarter effect contributes significantly to the rapid growth of embodied energy inflows and outflows. Embodied energy transfers induced by headquarter effect almost doubled in the case period. Different industries show distinct embodied energy redistribution evolution characteristics. Moreover, the complete source-to-sink budget is constructed, implying that coal use still dominates Beijing's total embodied energy inputs. Analysis in this study highlights the importance to consider the impacts of headquarter effect on Beijing's embodied energy use and redistribution pattern, pointing the potential room for policy implications aimed to realize collective and inclusive governance of global energy supply chain.
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China, the world’s largest exporter of goods, burns nearly half of coal worldwide. Moreover, the main fuel source of global carbon emissions is still coal. Therefore, controlling China’s coal consumption is critical to global emissions reductions. Existing production-based accounting principles emphasize on the direct coal use within the geographic territory, while ignoring indirect use driven by external demand in worldwide trading. Through measuring mainland China’s external-demand coal consumption with multi-regional input-output model and decomposing key factors with structure decomposition analysis, this work is aimed to systematically investigate how external demand affects the direct and indirect coal consumption in mainland China. The results show that mainland China is still a net exporter of embodied coal, which means that coal consumption of its own country to meet external demand is much higher than that used abroad to meet final domestic demand. Furthermore, in mainland China’s external-demand consumption, intermediate goods exports account for a large proportion. As for sectoral details, “petroleum, chemical and non-metallic mineral products”, “electricity, gas and water” and “metal products” are top three export departments; as for regional details, the United States, Japan, Hong Kong and Germany are major demanders. Among the composition of external-demand consumption, “household final consumption” consumes the most mainland China’s embodied coal, followed by “gross fixed capital formation”. The decomposition results indicate that the flourishing global intermediate goods trade and the large-scale transfer of external demand to mainland China have become the main impetus to promote the growth of mainland China’s external-demand embodied coal consumption, while the decline in mainland China’s coal use intensity has effectively suppressed this growth. Controlling external-demand coal consumption provides a new perspective for China to control the total amount of coal consumption. This work also provides a reference of the research framework to investigate coal consumption in export-oriented developing economies.
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The increasing fragmentation of global supply chains has led to a new phase of international trade with intermediate products comprising a remarkable share. For China as the biggest energy consumer and trading nation, its energy use related to the trade of intermediate products has not yet been fully understood. To fill the gap, this study develops the concept of embodied energy resources to establish an all‐inclusive energy trade budget for China, from exploitation to intermediate production and to final consumption. By combining the input‐output analysis and structural decomposition analysis, the evolution and drivers of energy resources embodied in China's intermediate and final trade are systematically explored for the period 1995–2018. We find that energy resources embodied in China's intermediate trade grew faster than those in final trade. Mining stood out in intermediate trade, while Transport and Service were prominent in final trade. The Global North played a key role in China's trade for final consumption, whereas the Global South had a close relationship with China in production‐driven intermediate trade. Energy efficiency gains made more obvious contributions to saving energy resources embodied in intermediate trade, while production structure changes posed more evident impacts on energy resources embodied in final trade. Taking full account of trade heterogeneity, this study highlights the importance to distinguish intermediate trade from final trade, especially when the former accounted for around 80% of energy use embodied in China's international trade.
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International trade has important impacts on a country’s energy consumption. This paper first uses the time-series (2005-2015) extended input-output database to study China’s embodied energy and intensity in both normal and processing exports. Structural decomposition analysis (SDA) is then applied to analyze the driving forces behind the embodiment changes. The empirical results show that China’s energy embodied in both normal and processing exports first increased in 2005-2008, dropped in 2009 due to the global financial crisis, and then rose again after 2009, and finally dropped in 2014-2015. The embodied energy in trade as a percentage of total energy consumption in China was relatively stable before and after the global financial crisis, at around 28% over the 2005-2008 period, and 22% over the 2009-2015 period. The contribution of the aggregate embodied intensity (AEI) of exports to China’s aggregate energy intensity dropped from 30% in 2005 to 21% in 2015. Among China’s trading partners, the United States, Japan and Korea together accounted for around half of China’s embodied energy and AEI in exports in 2005, but their shares dropped to only one third in 2015. Energy efficiency improvement played the key role in reducing the embodied energy and intensity in China’s exports. Similar analysis can be applied to other regions and indicators.
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Land resources do not flow directly but can be allocated as “embodied land” in goods and services during economic globalization. The term “embodied arable land” can help link local land allocation strategies to the global and national supply chains and trade activities, and suggest new lens in optimizing arable land allocation. China is facing a serious arable land shortage, especially in municipal administrative areas. Based on the nested input-output analysis (Nested IOA), this work takes Shanghai as an example, exploring the allocation of direct and embodied arable land of an urban economy within the process of economic globalization. The amount of embodied arable land associated with Shanghai economy is 6.09 Mha, broken down into local arable land use (0.20 Mha), domestic inflows (3.20 Mha) and foreign inflows (2.69 Mha). This area supports local final demand (4.32 Mha), domestic outflows (1.24 Mha) and foreign outflows (0.53 Mha). Land-related imbalances emerge in the study, namely the economy’s demand versus the city’s size, the arable land demand versus supply, and embodied arable land inflows versus outflows. Regarding the role of the urban economy in allocation of global arable land under economic globalization, on the one hand, Shanghai has intensively involved with a large amount of embodied foreign arable land resources, and has been heavy dependent on foreign embodied arable land; On the other hand, there is still large potential for Shanghai to take the opportunity of economic globalization for an optimal allocation of direct and embodied arable land. Policy suggestions on taking the opportunity of economic globalization for an optimal allocation of direct and embodied arable land are put forward.
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Crude oil is one of the most widely used energy sources and the most important commodities in the global economy. To illustrate the gap between crude oil trade and consumption, this study calculated the internal intensity of global crude oil tele-connection, compared the differences of topological structures, and tested the energy risks between the direct oil trade network and embodied oil transfer network. Based on the results, evident differences were identified between the direct trade network and embodied transfer network. The direct trade network had less relational links but a higher internal intensity level, while the embodied oil transfer network had more relational links but a lower internal intensity level. For the regional components, the crude-oil-rich and highly industrialized countries/regions occupied the core circle in the direct oil trade network, whereas the highly industrialized countries/regions occupied the core position in the embodied oil transfer network. When tested, node countries in the core circle of the trade network were less sensitive under deliberate attack, but the direct oil trade network was easier to collapse than the embodied transfer network. With the comparisons between direct trade and embodied transfers, this work provides a more systematic perspective on the tele-connected crude oil networks.
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With the expansion of economic globalization and the growth of international trade, the pulling effect of household consumption to global anthropogenic CH4 emissions related to production activities is becoming increasingly evident. This paper adopts a new perspective from the household-consumption side to investigate the CH4 emissions of major economies in 2014 and compares it with the scenario under the final-demand-based perspective by combing the world input-output database and the latest emission data from the UNFCCC and EDGAR v5.0 database. Budgets of CH4 emissions for 43 economies are established and trade connections & balances among major economies are explored. Results show that consumption-driven economies are allocated more CH4 emissions in the household-consumption-based accounting (HCBA) framework compared to the final-demand-based accounting (FDBA) framework. The total trade-related transfer of CH4 emissions is shown to sum up to 19% and 27% of the global total under the HCBA and FDBA frameworks, respectively. The household-consumption-based CH4 emissions of China, India, Indonesia and Mexico are much lower than their final-demand-based CH4 emissions, while the converse is true for the United States, Russia, Japan, the United Kingdom and Germany. The new accounting framework provides a new view to understand trade-related CH4 emissions of major economies and to identify the role of household consumption in global supply chains, offering important implications for greenhouse gas emission mitigation.
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As an emerging coal chemical industry, explorations on the feasibility and benefits of coal-to-liquid (CTL) have attracted the attention of researchers. However, there is no specialized research discussing occupational health damage in this field, which is our concern. To fill this gap and compare three conventional liquefaction routes from health damage, three demonstration projects in China are discussed. Using life cycle assessment (LCA), technical routes of CTL are divided into several substages at first, then a health-based assessment model is established to estimate and monetize the health burden of various harmful factors, which could help to grasp production stages with greater pollution, and provide reference for stakeholders to select the best technical option with economic indicator. Results show that the “willingness to pay” (WTP) for the three routes, i.e., indirect liquefaction (ICL), direct liquefaction (DCL), and coal-oil coprocessing (COCP), was CNY 1.27E+11, 4.76E+10, and 7.29E+09, respectively. Severe health damage in this industry is mainly due to toxic and harmful gases, namely, SO2 and NO2, with the percentage of 97%, and they are mostly produced during coal mining and processing. Finally, some practical suggestions are proposed aiming to attract the attraction of enterprises and governments for further implementation in CTL industry.
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The number of input-output assessments focused on energy has grown considerably in the last years. Many of these assessments combine data from multi-regional input-output (MRIO) databases with energy extensions that completely or partially depict the different stages through which energy products are supplied or used in the economy. The improper use of some energy extensions can lead to double accounting of some energy flows, but the frequency with which this happens and the potential impact on the results are unknown. Based on a literature review, we estimate that around a quarter of the MRIO-based energy assessments reviewed incurred into double accounting. Using the EXIOBASE MRIO database, we also analyse the effects of double accounting in the absolute values and rankings of different countries’ and products’ energy footprints. Building on the insights provided by our analysis, we offer a set of key recommendations to MRIO users to avoid the double accounting problem in the future. Likewise, we conclude that the harmonisation of the energy data across MRIO databases led by experts could simplify the choices of the data users until the provision of official energy extensions by statistical offices becomes a widespread practice.
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This chapter presents pillar one, an ecological prosperity, which provides the framework and boundary for all other pillars, establishing an explicitly defined space for an ecological and just prosperity into the future. Pillar one is based on empirically established ‘hard’ boundaries, based on a strong sustainability understanding of ecological stewardship and the human rights framing provided by the SDGs. In this chapter, we present our interpretation of Raworth’s Doughnut Economy for the Anthropocene, whereby the doughnut is reframed not as a space within which we should operate in accordance with ecological and social boundaries, but rather, as a space within which we must operate. Consequently, this is a finite space which needs urgent recognition in policy terms, and ongoing and long-term preservation, protection and regeneration.KeywordsEcological prosperityStrong sustainabilityEcological stewardshipSDGsDoughnut Economy
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Previous assessments for the sustainability of global supply chains have mostly focused on the single environmental aspect, that is, the accounting of pollutant leakage. Considering that the impact of supply chain on sustainability is transnational and multi-dimensional, this study proposes a supply chain green-degree assessment method based on multi-regional input-output model (MRIO) and data envelopment analysis (DEA). The proposed method integrates economic and environmental factors embodied in the supply chains into a green-degree indicator, while taking into account the constraints of energy consumption structure. Based on this method, we account for the renewable and non-renewable energy consumption embodied in global supply chains and measure the supply chains green-degree. The results show that 27% of renewable energy is consumed in the cross-border production of goods and services, and the participation of renewable energy in global supply chains is increasing. The green-degree of the current global supply chains is quite low, with an average score of only 0.45. The outsourcing of production and processing activities has made developed economies' supply chains “less clean”, and their green-degree has dropped by 5.3% during the research period, while the emerging developing economies’ have become cleaner, and their green-degree has increased by 10.5%.
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El desarrollo sostenible es un tema cada vez más discutido en el mundo. La preocupación ambiental traducida en el cambio climático es uno de los motivos por los cuales dicha cuestión está adquiriendo cada vez mayor relevancia. Delante de esa preocupación, la transición energética surge como la principal responsable para solucionar, o al menos frenar esa situación, considerando que el sector energético es el mayor responsable de las emisiones de gases de efecto invernadero (GEI). De esta manera, considerando la relación entre medio ambiente, economía y sociedad, la propuesta del desarrollo sostenible parece ser más que necesaria para lograr una relación de equilibrio entre estos principales agentes, satisfaciendo las necesidades actuales sin comprometer a la de las generaciones futuras. En esta línea, los principales órganos mundiales han implementado medidas que convergen hacia esta búsqueda, y aunque se haya notado un avance, el mundo está muy lejos de alcanzar la situación ideal. En el que respecta a la energía y la transición energética, el acuerdo de París es el principal acuerdo a nivel global legalmente vinculante sobre el cambio climático, en el que los países se comprometen a reducir sus emisiones de GEI, basándose principalmente en estimular el uso responsable y de fuentes renovables de energía. Pero ese proceso de transición hacia las energías limpias ha resultado ser difícil, igual que la cantidad de energía utilizada, que sigue creciendo cada vez más. Es por todo esto, que en esta tesis se pretende analizar el uso energético total y los factores económicos y sociales que lo explican. Primero, estimando el uso total de energía en los sistemas productivos a través de la aplicación de un modelo input-output; y segundo, evaluando los factores determinantes del consumo de energía renovable considerando aspectos económicos y sociales, por medio de la aplicación de un modelo de panel de datos. Para llevar a cabo el objetivo antes mencionado, esta tesis se divide en dos partes. La primera parte titulada “Marcos conceptual, normativo y metodológico en torno al desarrollo sostenible y la energía” está formada por tres capítulos de contenido teóricoconceptual y la propuesta metodológica central. En el Capítulo 1 “Desarrollo sostenible y el papel de la energía” se presenta la evolución sobre la formación del concepto de desarrollo sostenible, desde la diferenciación entre crecimiento económico y desarrollo, pasando por conceptos intermedios anteriores al mismo, como ecosocioeconomía y ecodesarrollo hasta llegar a su definición, expuesto por primera vez en el Informe de Brundtland (1987). Además, se explican varios conceptos asociados a la energía a lo largo de la historia. En el Capítulo 2 “Marco normativo del sistema energético en la Unión Europea y Brasil” se presenta una contextualización del sistema energético mundial y su regulación, para entonces, presentar la posición de la Unión Europea y Brasil, los territorios utilizados como objeto de estudio en los trabajos de la tesis. El Capítulo 3 “Marco metodológico”, como el propio título indica, presenta la propuesta metodológica central de la tesis, que está basada en el modelo input-output de demanda propuesto por Leontief (1936). Por ello, se presentan la formación del método y sus antecedentes, hasta llegar a los avances del modelo multirregional input-output (MRIO), aplicado en los trabajos de la tesis. La segunda parte “Evidencias y análisis empíricos”, reúne los tres trabajos desarrollados para logar los objetivos propuestos en tres capítulos diferentes. El Capítulo 4 “Domestic versus foreign energy use: An analysis for four European countries”, es un estudio que analiza y compara el uso energético total de cuatro países europeos (España, Hungría, Italia y República Checa), que poseen contextualización y estructuración distintas del sector energético. Para ello, se considera la estructura productiva de estos países y las relaciones intersectoriales por medio del modelo MRIO, que permite distinguir el uso de energía doméstica y extranjera en los cuatro países estudiados, analizar sus modelos de uso energético y también su intensidad energética. El Capítulo 5 “Domestic versus foreign origin of total energy use: An analysis for Brazil”, por su parte, recoge un estudio de caso sobre Brasil, donde se analiza el patrón de uso energético del país considerando el entorno mundial a través del modelo MRIO. Así, se presentan tanto el origen y usos, directo e indirecto, de energía doméstica y extranjera, como los sectores más intensivos en energía en el país. El Capítulo 6 “Determinantes del consumo de energía renovables en la Unión Europea: Un análisis entre UE-15 y los 13 nuevos países”, para complementar los estudios anteriores, hace un análisis de los factores determinantes del consumo de energía renovable, considerando factores económicos y sociales, para verificar cuales son los principales contribuyentes (o no) de la transición energética dentro de los países de la Unión Europea. Finalmente, la tesis expone las principales conclusiones obtenidas mediante los distintos análisis realizados, a modo de responder las preguntas planteadas y alcanzar los objetivos propuestos.
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The allocation of carbon emission reduction responsibility is severe issue in China for these years. In case to find a fairer and more effective way to divided the responsibility to each region of China, this paper examines embodied carbon emissions (ECEs) transfers in China's inter-regional trade by applying value-added extended decomposition model. This study allows policymakers to trace CO2 emissions at regional levels and provides three key findings. Firstly, using novel data on the physical consumption of energy by region, we observe a strong and robust negative association between the regional direct CO2 emission coefficient and the regional economic development level. Secondly, employing the latest inter-regional input-output table of China to calculate ECEs and uncover transfer characteristics via inter-regional trade, results show that central region, eastern region and northern region are the three highest ECEs regions. Thirdly, ECEs in value-added trade are generally transferred from inland China to coastal areas of China. Northeast region, north coastal region, central region and northwest region are net ECEs outflow regions, the rest regions are net ECEs inflow regions.
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