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Abstract

Mushrooms are considered as potential source of many essential nutrients and therapeutic bioactive compounds. Agaricus bisporus belongs to Basidiomycetes family and the most important commercially cultivated mushroom in the world. The rich nutrients like carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, fibers, minerals, and vitamins present this mushroom as famous healthy food. Moreover, because of the presence of some active ingredients, such as polysaccharides, lipopolysaccharides, essential amino acids, peptides, glycoproteins, nucleosides, triterpenoids, lectins, fatty acids and their derivatives, these mushrooms have been reported to have antimicrobial, anticancer, antidiabetic, antihypercholesterolemic, antihypertensive, hepatoprotective and antioxidant activities. This study is focused on reviewing the recent studies published in the medical and nutritional properties of Agaricus bisporus. Investigations on the mushroom have accelerated during the last ten years so that only reports published after 2006 have been considered.
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THE NUTRITIONAL AND MEDICAL BENEFITS OF AGARICUS BISPORUS : A REVIEW
Funda Atila1, Mustafa Nadhim Owaid2,3*,Mohammad Ali Shariati4,5,6
Address(es):
1 Ahi Evran University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Horticulture, 40200 Kırşehir-Turkey.
2 Department of Heet Education, General Directorate of Education in Anbar, Ministry of Education, Hit, Anbar 31007, Iraq.
3 Department of Ecology, College of Applied Sciences, University of Anbar, Hit, Anbar 31007, Iraq.
4 Research Department, LLC, Science and Education, Russia.
5 Senior Researcher, Department of Scientific affairs, Kurks State Agricultural Academy, Kurks, Russia.
6 Researcher, All-Russian Research Institute of Phytopathology of the Federal Agency of Scientific Organizations of Russia, Moscow, Russia. Tel: +7(495)597-42-28.
*Corresponding author: mustafanowaid@gmail.com
ABSTRACT
Keywords: Agaricus bisporus; button mushroom; nutritional value; medicinal importance; bioactive ingredients
INTRODUCTION
Mushrooms have been recognized as important food items since the ancient times
because of their nutritional values and therapeutic properties. In ancient China,
people believed that the mushroom establishes human body and health, preserves
the youth for as long as possible, it was using as food and medicine (Safwat and
Al Kholi, 2006). The Greek regarded mushrooms as providing strength for
warriors in battles (Daba et al., 2008), while the Egyptians believed that they
were a gift from the god Osiris (Maihara et al., 2012). The Romans regarded
edible mushrooms as the Food of the Gods, and they even had mushrooms on the
food list which was served only on festive occasions (Rahi and Malik, 2016).
The Mayans used psycho-active mushrooms mainly for religious rites and some
regions still retain these traditions (Matsushima et al., 2009).
Auricularia auricularia was the first artificially cultivated mushroom in the
world. It was cultivated in 600, followed by other mushrooms like Flammulina
velutipes (A.D. 800), Lentinula edodes (A.D. 1000). The great development in
the mushroom cultivation came from France when Agaricus bisporus was
cultivated for the first time in1600s and Pleurotus spp. in USA in 1900s (Chang,
2008). To nowaday, only about thirty five mushrooms species have been
cultivated commercially, and about twenty ones are currently on an industrial
scale. (Muhammad and Suleiman, 2015). The global production of cultivated
edible mushrooms was 495.127 metric tons in 1961. From 1961 to 2016,
mushroom production increased to 10.378.163 metric tons (FAO, 2016).
Although Agaricus bisporus (white button mushroom) still retains the highest
overall world production, although the percent of total global production of
Agaricus sp. has decreased. Today China is leading in global mushroom
production. China produces approximately 73 percent of world mushroom
production in 2014. The second highest mushroom producing country is Italy,
followed by USA (FAO, 2016).
In recent years, interest in mushrooms has become increasingly apparent in all
over the world due to their nutritional and medical properties. High contents in
proteins and polysaccharides associated with low content of fat, which profile is
characterized by a higher concentration of mono and polyunsaturated fatty acids
than in saturated fatty acids, being also interesting sources of phenolic
compounds as well as of some micro and macronutrients (Rodrigues et al.,
2015). The nutritional attributes of edible mushrooms and the health benefiting
effects of the bioactive compounds they contain, make mushrooms a health food
(Pereira et al., 2012). Many researchers from different regions of the world
confirmed the medicinal importance and nutritional quality of A. bisporus. In
this review study, we have summarized the recent findings regarding many
aspects of the nutritional and medicinal importance of Agaricus bisporus.
Nutritional importance of A. bisporus
Proximate Compositions
Mushrooms contain a high moisture percentage depending on harvest, growth,
culinary and storage conditions (Guillamón et al., 2010). Reis et al. (2012)
described moisture (9192 g/100 g), ash (0.91 g/100 g) and energy (2931
kcal/100 g) in Agaricus bisporus samples. Ahlavat et al. (2016) analyzed the
fruitbodies of A. bisporus for its proximate composition and they found that
Agaricus bisporus fruitbody is rich in protein (29.14%), carbohydrate (51.05%),
fat (1.56%) compared to Pleurotus eous, Volvariella volvacea and Lentinula
edodes. Tsai et. al. (2007), it has been found that the content of the fruits from the
carbohydrate 48.9-38.3%, fibers 23.3-17.7% and ash 11.00-7.77% fat 3.92-2.53%
in dry A. bisporus fruitbodies.
Protein and Amino acid content
Mushrooms are considered as a good source of protein. Correa et al. (2016)
suggested that mushrooms are ranked below animal meats, but well above most
other foods, including milk, which is an animal product, concerning the amount
of crude protein. Growing substrates (Gothwal et al., 2012), the stage of
development and pre and post-harvest conditions (Guillamon et al., 2010) can
influence the chemical composition and the nutritional value of the cultivated
mushrooms. So nutritional composition data of mushrooms published by
different authors working with even the same species are variable. The protein
content of A. bisporus presented by Sadiq et al. (2008) with 11.01 %, by
Muszynska et al., (2011) with 25%, by Mohiuddin et al. (2015) with 17.7%
24.7% and by Ahlavat et al. (2016) with %29.14 in different growing substrates.
The amino acid composition of mushroom proteins is comparable to animal
protein, which is of particular importance to counterbalance a high consumption
Mushrooms are considered as potential source of many essential nutrients and therapeutic bioactive compounds. Agaricus bisporus
belongs to Basidiomycetes family and the most important commercially cultivated mushroom in the world. The rich nutrients like
carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, fibers, minerals, and vitamins present this mushroom as famous healthy food. Moreover, because of the
presence of some active ingredients, such as polysaccharides, lipopolysaccharides, essential amino acids, peptides, glycoproteins,
nucleosides, triterpenoids, lectins, fatty acids and their derivatives, these mushrooms have been reported to have antimicrobial,
anticancer, antidiabetic, antihypercholesterolemic, antihypertensive, hepatoprotective and antioxidant activities. This study is focused on
reviewing the recent studies published in the medical and nutritional properties of Agaricus bisporus. Investigations on the mushroom
have accelerated during the last ten years so that only reports published after 2006 have been considered.
doi: 10.15414/jmbfs.2017/18.7.3.281-286
J Microbiol Biotech Food Sci / Atila et al. 2017/18 : 7 (3) 281-286
282
of protein animal food sources, especially in developed countries (Guillamon et
al., 2010). Kakon et al. (2012) reported that mushroom proteins contain all nine
essential amino acids required by humans, enabling their use as a substitute for a
meat diet. The amino acids found in A. bisporus in the highest amounts are
alanine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, arginine, leucine, lysine, phenylalanine,
serine, proline, tyrosine and threonine (Muszyńska et al., 2013). Moreover,
Muslat et al. (2014) reported that A. bisporus contains the essential amino acids
useful as a food for the human health including cystine and methionine and
threonine and valine and isoleucine and leucine and lysine and tyrosine and
phenylalanine.
Carbohydrate and Fiber
Mushroom carbohydrates are not a major source of energy for humans.
Digestible carbohydrates include mannitol and glucose, usually present in very
small amounts (less than 1% DW) and glycogen (510% DW) while non-
digestible carbohydrates include oligosaccharides such as trehalose and non-
starch polysaccharides (NSPs) such as chitin, β-glucans and mannans, which are
the major portion of mushroom carbohydrates (Cheung et al., 2010). Reis et al.
(2012) reported that mannitol and trehalose were abundant sugars in the studied
cultivated edible mushrooms, mannitol predominated in A. bisporus (white and
brown mushrooms). Dietary fiber includes components of fungal cell walls such
as chitin (Maftoun et al., 2015), hemi-celluloses, mannans and beta glucans play
a key role in some healthy properties of mushrooms (Cheung, 2009). Nitschiske
et al. (2011) determined that chitin content of A. bisporus was 9.60 g/100 g DM.
Cherno et al. (2013) reported that A. bisporus contains 2 times more chitin than
P. ostreatus. Similirly, Vetter (2007) determined that A. bisporus had higher
chitin level than had P. ostreatus, L. edodes.
Mineral content
Mushrooms are known to be an excellent accumulator of minerals from the
environment in which they grow. Owaid (2015) reported that A. bisporus a good
source of K, Fe, Zn, Cu, Na, Se, nM dCa oC . The main constituents in mushroom
fruiting bodies are potassium and phosphorus and are usually followed by Ca,
Mg, Na and Fe, Zn (Guillamon et al., 2010; Falandysz and Borovička, 2013).
Mohiuddin et al. (2015) Agaricus bisporus fruitbodies from different locations
of Bangladesh, were analysed for their minaral content profile . The mineral
content of samples ranged from 0.541.58% for potassium and 37.2–61.9 μg/g
for sodium, 143.6–396 μg/g for ferrum, 54.6–163.4 μg g-1 for copper, 36.658.0
μg/g for zinc, 56.2–91.1 μg/g for manganes. Caglarirmak (2009) determinated
that zinc (8.17.0 mg/kg), ferrum (7.47.9 mg/kg), phosphore (7.47.9 mg/kg),
magnessium (88.076.3 mg/kg), potassium (213.3238.8 mg/kg), sodium (2652
2500 mg/kg) and calcium (534.2554.8 mg/kg) contents, while Ahlavat et al.
(2016) they found that sodium (500.8 mg/kg), potassium (4.21%) and selenium
(1.34 mg/kg) of A. bisporus fruitbodies.
Selenium is an essential micronutrient for humans and animals (Lu and
Holmgren, 2009). Turto et al. (2010) reported that most wild growing and farm
edible mushroom species including A. bisporus are poor selenium sources with a
concentration of less than 1 µg/g (dried weight). On the other hand, Maseko et
al. (2013) suggested that the Se concentration in A. bisporus cultivated in growth
compost irrigated with sodium selenite solution can be increased. They
determined that selenium contents of mushroom proteins increased from 13.8 to
60.1 and from 14.1 to 137 µg/g in caps and stalks by irrigated with sodium
selenite solution. Maseko et al. (2014) investigated the effect of dietary
supplementation with Se-enriched A. bisporus on cytosolic glutathione
peroxidase-1 (GPx-1), gastrointestinal specific glutathione peroxidase-2 (GPx-2),
thioredoxin reductase-1 (TrxR-1) and selenoprotein P (SeP) mRNA expression
and GPx-1 enzyme activity in rat colon and they reported that the activity of
colonic GPx-1 in rats provide evidence for its potential anti-cancer use.
Vitamins
Some authors have considered mushrooms as a good source of vitamins. It was
reported that the most abundant vitamin in Agaricus is niacin, followed by
riboflavin. Other vitamins include vitamin B1, vitamin B3, L-ascorbic acid and
α-tocopherol (Bernas & Jaworska, 2016). Çağlaırmak, (2009) also reported
that brown A. bisporus (portobello mushroom) is a good source of folic acid
(0.090.08 mg/ kg), riboflavin(0.270.29 mg/kg), niacin (3.62.9 mg/kg), and
thiamin (0.0850.09 mg/kg), while not rich in vitamin C content. On the other
hand, Furlany and Godoy (2008) determined that the mean level of vitamin B1 for
fresh A. bisporus was 0.03 mg/100 g while vitamin B2 for the A. bisporus
mushroom was 0.25 mg/100 g. They reported that although Vitamin B2 contents
in A. bisporus, Lentinula edodes and Pleurotus spp. with exception of mushroom
in conserve, are higher than the levels present in many vegetables, mushrooms
could not be considered as significant sources of B1 and B2 vitamins, since their
contribution in terms of these vitamins to the diet is not significant although they
may contribute to the sums of these nutrients in the diet.
Mushrooms are a natural source of vitamin D. Ahlavat et al. (2016) determined
that vitamin D content of A. bisporus is 984 IU/g. It is found in larger quantities
in wild mushrooms compared to cultivated mushrooms (Simon et al., 2011). The
absence of vitamin D in cultivated Agaricus bisporus could be due to cultivation
in dark (Reis et al., 2012). Roberts et. al. (2008) reported treating ultraviolet
toward fruiting bodies of A. bisporus in recommended dosages by Processed
Foods Research Unit (PFRU). They discovered that it will lead to the
accumulation of significant quantities of vitamin D2 in the treated fruiting bodies.
This is important for the health of bones.
Ergosterol is a biological precursor to vitamin D2 and is a component
of fungal cell membranes. The ergosterol contents of A. bisporus (white), A.
bisporus (brown), A. bisporus (Portabella), varied in the ranges 39.556.7
mg/100 g f.w (Teichmann et al., 2007). Shao et al. (2010) isolated ergosterol in
both white and brown A. bisporus mushrooms and they reported that the
ergosterol content of brown and white button mushrooms correlated with their
antioxidant activities.
Fatty acids
Agaricus bisporus is low in fat content, but they contain some essential fatty
acids such as linoleic acid. Barros et al. (2008) reported that wild Agaricus spp.
contained a lower value of monounsaturated fatty acids but also a higher content
of polyunsaturated fatty acids than the commercial species, due to the higher
contribution of linoleic acid. Total amounts of fatty acids ranged from 180 to
5818 mg/kg dry matter in the A. bisporus strains tested and almost 90% of the
fatty acids in A. bisporus is linoleic acid on average (Baars et al., 2016). Sadiq et
al. (2008) reported that fatty acids detected in A. bisporus were: linoleic, caprylic,
palmitic, stearic, oleic, eicosanoic and erucic acids and linoleic acid was
dominant fatty acid in A. bisporus that accounts for 44.19 % of total fatty acid
identified. Ozturk et al. (2011) find that linoleic (61.8267.29%) and palmitic
(12.67 14.71%) acids were dominant fatty acids in A. bisporus among the 13
fatty acids detected in the oils. The fatty acid contents of A. bisporus are reported
also mainly linoleic and palmitic and stearic acids by Shao et al., (2010).
Linoleic acid is essential for human health and has many beneficial effects on
human health. They reduce atherosclerosis by interesting with HDL in the blood
(Sadiq et al., 2008). Hossain et al. (2007) determined that the concentration of
linoleic acid in A. bisporus was 20- and 5-folds more than those in the
Ganoderma lucidum and Pleurotus ostreatus, respectively.
Soluble sugar and volatile compounds
Flavor and taste represent the most important quality attribute contributing to the
widespread consumption of cultivated mushrooms. The taste of mushroom is the
umami or palatable tastes or the perception of satisfaction, which is an overall
food flavor sensation induced or enhanced by monosodium glutamate (MSG).
The contents of MSG-like (aspartic and glutamic acids) and sweet components
(alanine, glycine, and threonine) total soluble sugars and polyols were
considerately higher in edible mushrooms and might be sufficient to suppress and
cover the bitter taste arising from the contents of bitter components. The content
of monosodium glutamate-like components is in the range from 10.6 mg/g to
13.5 mg/g and similar to those of sweet components (11.414.3 mg/g) but lower
than those of bitter components (19.726.9 mg/g) (Tsai et al., 2007).
For A. bisporus mannitol was the most abundant sugar (Baars et al., 2016). Tsai
et al. (2007) also reported that mannitol was the major soluble sugar in fresh A.
bisporus fruitbodies while glucose was the second highest and its contents were
in the range of 17.628.1 mg/g in different mature stages. Moreover, they
suggested that the high amount of sugars and polyols, especially mannitol, would
give rise to a sweet perception, and not to the typical mushroom taste.
Taste in mushrooms is linked both to volatile and non-volatile compounds. The
terpenes, lactones, amino acids, and carbohydrates of their composition
determine a range of precious aromas and flavor properties to their fruiting body
and mycelial biomass (Smiderle et al., 2012). Taşkın et al. (2013) identified
totally 28 aroma compounds of A. bisporus. In this study, alcohols were detected
to be the major compounds and 1-octen-3-ol was found to be the major alcohol.
Medicinal importance of A. bisporus
There is an increasing interest in extracting bioactive ingredients from
mushrooms for developing functional foods. A. bisporus have a very good history
of using in many traditional therapies. The use of A. bisporus extracts and/or its
bioactive compounds as antioxidant, anti-cancer and anti-inflammation is
increasing in the world against many human diseases such as coronary heart
diseases, diabetes mellitus, bacterial and fungal infections, disorders of the
human immune system and cancers (Dhamodharan and Mirunalini, 2010).
Although there have been relatively few direct intervention trials of mushroom
consumption in humans, those that have been completed to date indicate that
mushrooms and their extracts are generally well-tolerated with few, if any, side
effects.(Volman et al., 2010).
Antioxidant (Ghahremani-Majd and Dashti, 2015) and anti-diabetic (Mao et
al., 2013) antibacterial properties (Ndungutse et al., 2015) of A. bisporus were
reported some studies (Öztürk et al., (2011) A. bisporus extracts can be
potentially applied in Alzheimer’s disease treatment reported that due to their
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acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase inhibiting activity. Mohamed
(2012) determined that a total 174 significant metabolites in ethanolic extracts of
Agaricus bisporus samples by using GC/MS method between <1 to 83% (w/w)
classified into twelve categories. These metabolites had numerous medicinal
activities such as anti-cancer, anti-cardiovascular diseases, anti-hypercholesterol,
antimicrobial, hepatoprotective, human health supporting and immune enhancer.
The main medical properties of A. bisporus were presented in the following
section.
Anticancer
Cancer is one of the deadliest diseases in the world. Recently, purified some
natural active component from mushrooms such as polysaccharides exhibited the
significant anti-cancer activity toward various cancer cell lines. Basidiomycota is
known to present medicinal characteristics, which are being attributed to its
glucan and other polysaccharide. The polysaccharides generally belong to the
beta-glucan family of compounds and appear to exert their anti-tumorigenic
effects via enhancement of cellular immunity.
A. bisporus contains bioactive compounds that have been shown to exhibit
immunomodulating and anticancer properties. The Canadian Cancer Society
recommends consumption of A. bisporus mushroom because of its effectiveness
against human diseases. Zhang et al. (2014) reported that brown A. bisporus
polysaccharide possessed strong immunostimulatory and antitumor bioactivity in
vivo and in vitro.
A. bisporus contain three main polysaccharides α- glucan, β-glucan and
galactomannan (Smiderie et al., 2011) and galactomannan is main polysaccharide
by 55.8% (Smiederie et al., 2013). Ren et al., (2012) reported that the most
common glucans extracted from A. bisporus are (1→3), (1→6)-d-glucans.
Consumption of fruit juice enriched with α-glucans from A. bisporus (5 g
glucans/day) lipopolysaccharide induced tumor necrosis factor (TNFα)
production by 69%. No effects on interleukin (IL)-1b and IL-6 and decreased
production of IL-12 and IL-10 was observed (in vivo) (Volman et al., 2010). On
the other hand, A. bisporus does not present very high β-glucan content (812
g/100 g dm). Low beta-glucan content in Agaricus bisporus is also reported by
McCleary and Draga (2016).
A. bisporus has got potential health benefits for improving mucosal immunity.
The dietary intake of A. bisporus significantly accelerates secretory
immunoglobulin A secretion (Jeong et al., 2012). A. bisporus fruiting bodies
extracts express an immunostimulating effect on activated human peripheral
blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and induce synthesis of interferon gamma
(IFN-γ) (Kozarski et al., 2011). Extracts from A. bisporus have been shown to
inhibit cell proliferation of HL-60 leukemia cells and other leukemia human cell
lines via the induction of apoptosis. (Jagadish et al., 2009). Novaes et al. (2011)
reported that arginine present in the A. bisporus fruitbodies delays tumor growth
and metastasis and should be used as dietary supplements for patients with
cancer. Kanaya et al. (2011) reported that A. bisporus would suppress aromatase
to decrease the risk of breast cancer.
Moreover, A. bisporus contained the high amount of lovastatin (Chen et al.,
2012). Yang et al. (2016) demonstrated that lovastatin exerts anti-cancer effects
in the triple-negative breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231.
Palomares et al. (2011) reported that phytochemicals extracted from Agaricus
bisporus suppress aromatase activity, inhibit breast cancer (BC) cell proliferation,
and decrease mammary tumor formation in vivo. They suggested that anti-
aromatase phytochemicals are present in plasma with daily consumption of 100-
130g whole WBM, but not at high enough concentrations to significantly reduce
estrogen levels from baseline in 12 weeks. Moreover, Chen et al. (2006) reported
that the major active compounds in A. bisporus are unsaturated fatty acids such as
linoleic acid, linolenic acid, and CLA which have been shown to inhibit
aromatase activity. Roupas et al. (2012) also reported that an inhibition of
aromatase activity and subsequent reduction of estrogen using extracts of
mushroom that provide a physiologically suitable mechanism for influents on
estrogen receptor positive tumors.
Although Hong et al. (2008) reported that daily intake and average of
consumption frequency of mushroom were inversely associated with breast
cancer risk, and a strong inverse association was found in post-menopausal
women. Shin et al. (2010) suggested that a decreased risk of breast cancer from
mushroom consumption by pre-menopausal women.
Antihyperlipidemic
Hyperlipidemia, represented by increased levels of triglycerides or cholesterol, is
a dominant risk factor that contributes to the progression and development of
subsequent cardiovascular disease and atherosclerosis, which is one of the most
serious diseases in humans (Esmaillzadeh and Azatbakth, 2008). Phytosterols
derive reduce cholesterol absorption, thereby having the capacity to lower plasma
cholesterol and LDL cholesterol (Lin et al., 2009). The identified sterols in A.
bisporus are ergosta-7,22-dienol, ergosta-5,7-dienol, and ergosta-7- enol
(fungisterol) (Teichmann et al., 2007).
Lovastatin is a statin drug, used for lowering cholesterol (hypolipidemic agent) in
those with hypercholesterolemia to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease (Xu
et al., 2013). Yang et al. (2016) demonstrated that lovastatin exerts anti-cancer
effects in the triple-negative breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231. Chen et al.
(2012) reported that Agaricus bisporus contained the 565.4 mg/kg of lovastatin
and suggested also that white button mushroom A. bisporus reduce the
cholesterol level in serum and/or liver. Jeong et al. (2010) examined the
hypothesis that intake of the fruiting bodies of A. bisporus regulates antiglycemic
and anticholesterolemic responses in rats fed a hypercholesterolemic diet (14%
fat and 0.5% cholesterol) and rats with type 2 diabetes induced by injection of
streptozotocin (STZ) (50 mg/kg body weight) and they reported that A.bisporus
mushroom had both possesses antiglycemic and antihypercholesterolemic effects
in rats. Moreover, it has a positive influence on lipid metabolism and liver
function.
Antidiabetic
A. bisporus contains high levels of dietary fibers and antioxidants including
vitamin C, D, and B12; folates and polyphenols that may provide beneficial
effects on cardiovascular and diabetic diseases (Jeong et al., 2010). Calvo et al.
(2016) reported that A. bisporus contain a variety of compounds with potential
anti-inflammatory and antioxidant health benefits that can occur with frequent
consumption over time in adults predisposed to type 2 diabetes. Yamet al.
(2010) reported that the oral application of high doses of A. bisporus extract may
result in decreased severity of streptozotocin-induced diabetes in rat. The
streptozotocin induced diabetic male Sprague-Dawley rats fed the A. bisporus
powder (200 mg/kg of body weight) for three weeks had significantly reduced
triglyceride (TG) and plasma glucose concentrations to 39.1% and 24.7%
respectively, liver enzyme activities, aspartate aminotransferase and alanine
aminotransferase to 15.7% and 11.7% respectively, and liver weight gain (Jeong
et al., 2010). Volman et al. (2010) investigated the effects of alpha-glucans from
A. bisporus. They reported that consumption of alpha-glucans of A. bisporus
mushroom lowered producing lipopolysaccharide-induced TNFa by 69%
compared to the control group, whereas no effect on IL-1b and IL-6 was
observed.
Calvo et al. (2016) reported that A. bisporus contain a variety of compounds with
potential anti-inflammatory and antioxidant health benefits that can occur with
frequent consumption over time in adults predisposed to type 2 diabetes. Kanaya
et al. (2011) suggested that Agaricus bisporus intake may be a viable dietary
choice to prevent liver steatosis, which is an early reversible stage of
nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in postmenopausal women.
Antioxidant
Total phenolics and antioxidant properties of A. bisporus have been reported by
many authors (Ramirez-Anguiano et al., 2007; Savoie et al., 2008; Barros et
al., 2008). A. bisporus mushrooms, especially portabellas (brown A. bisporus),
had higher antioxidant capacity relative to Lentinula edodes, Pleurotus ostreatus,
Pleurotus eryngii and Grifola frondosa. Liu et al. (2013) determined the main
phenolic compounds in ethanolic extract of A. bisporus like gallic acid,
protocatechuic acid, catechin, caffeic acid, ferulic acid and myricetin and
suggested that the ethanolic extract of this mushroom had potent antioxidant
effect, and could be explored as a novel natural antioxidant. Oms-Oliu et al.
(2010) reported that phenolic content of fresh-cut A. bisporus mushrooms was
100.78100.32 mg/100 g fw. Ergothioneine content ranged from 0.21-045 mg/g
dw with white A. bisporus and brown A. bisporus (portobello) (Dubost et al.,
2007)
Phenolic compounds have been reported as the major antioxidant components in
mushrooms (Barros et al., 2008). A close relationship between antioxidant
activity and phenolic contents and suggested that phenolic compounds could be
the foremost contributors to the antioxidant activity of edible macrofungi (Kim,
2008; Guo et al., 2012). Contrastly, Palacios et al. (2011) reported that A.
bisporus presents the high contents of phenolics, although this species has got a
low antioxidant activity.
Chitosan NPs of A. bisporus had antioxidant effects. All potential antioxidant
properties reflect on positive anticancer effect (Dhamodharan and Mirunalini,
2012). Neyrinck et al. (2009) fungal chitosan decreases feed efficiency, fat mass,
adipocytokine secretion and ectopic fat deposition in the liver and the muscle. In
this way it counteracts some inflammatory disorders and metabolic alterations
occurring in diet-induced obese mice.
Tocopherols (TCP) are fat-soluble antioxidants but also seem to have many other
functions in the body. Many of them have vitamin E activity. Reis et al. (2012)
determined α-tocopherol (0.23 µg/100 g fw and 0.28 µg/100 g fw), β-tocopherol
(0.85 µg/100 g fw and 0.71 µg/100 g fw), γ- tocopherol (1.51 µg/100 g fw and
7.63 µg/100 g fw) and δ-tocopherol (2.60 µg/100 g fw and 2.54 µg/100 g fw) in
fruit bodies of white A. bisporus and brown A. bisporus, respectively.
Seratonin is a biochemical compound that has got antioxidant ability (Sarikaya
and Gulcin, 2013). Antioxidant actions of seratonin and its ability to prevent the
progress of Alzheimer’s disease were also referred by Quchi et al. (2009).
Muszynska et al. (2011) reported that the content of seratonin in the extracts of
A. bisporus was high (5.21 mg/100 g dw).
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Antimicrobial
Some previous studies suggested that the extracts of A. bisporus prepared with
methyl alcohol revealed antimicrobial activities against some bacteria, yeasts,
and dermatophytes (Akyuz et al., 2010; Abah and Abah, 2010). Microbial
inhibition of A. bisporus extracts has been reported also by Ndungutse et al.
(2015). They suggested the potential use of the stipes of A. bisporus as natural
antimicrobials. Tehrani et al., (2012) determined that aqueous total protein
extracts of the cultivated A. bisporus possess significant antibacterial activity,
particularly against S. aureus and Methicillin-Resistant S. aureus.
Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are one of the most commonly used metallic
nanoparticles, which possess potent antibacterial and antifungal characteristics, as
shown in Figure 1. Agaricus bisporus is considered an important factor for
biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) (Owaid et al., 2017). Owaid and
Ibraheem, (2017) reported that A. bisporus had the second level (about 11%)
after oyster mushroom Pleurotus sp. in synthesis important nanoparticles.
Sudhakar et al. (2014) synthesized the AgNPs using the A. bisporus extract.
They suggested that AgNPs may have an important advantage over conventional
antibiotics in that it kills pathogenic microbes and no organism has ever been
reported to readily develop resistance to it. Ul-Haq et al. (2015) characterized the
biosynthesized AgNPs by UV-Visible spectroscopy, FT-IR, and TEM. They
determined that the AgNPs from the mushroom A. bisporus have shown a higher
zone of inhibition against Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains
than Helvella lacunosa, Ganoderma appalanatum, Pleurotus florida and Fomes
fomenterieus. Ul-Haq et al. (2015) researched that the synergistic effect of A.
bisporus-AgNPs with Gentamicin and Ceftriaxone antibiotics and they
determineted an inhibition zone of 26 mm and 25 mm respectively. Also, an-
tibacterial activity of the synthesized A. bisporus-AgNPs was investigated by
Mirunalini et al. (2012) against Gram-positive bacteria like Staphylococcus
aureus and by (Dhanasekaran et al., 2013) against S. typhi, Proteus sp.
Enterobacter sp. and Klebsiella sp.
Figure 1 Biosynthesis silver nanoparticles using mushroom Agaricus bisporus
CONCLUSION
A bisporus may provide significant support against malnutrition due to high
nutritional values especially in developing and undeveloped countries.
Consumption of A. bisporus is not useful in case of nourishment, but also
existing the medicinal benefit of mushroom, especially as anticancer, anti-
cardiovascular disease, antidiabetes, antioxidant, and antimicrobial. In the last
decades, edible mushroom has been used as a source of treatment or health food
supplements increasingly. Most of the investigations have shown that
nutraceutical therapy is a promising source of new therapeutics against many life-
threatening diseases. Although bioactive molecules isolated from A. bisporus
may represent an important advance for their characterization as a source of
drugs, more clinical data are needed for the determination of medicinal benefits
of A. bisporus.
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... As a result, its nutritional value largely depends on the compost's chemical composition (Gothwal et al., 2012). As a matter of fact, the chemical composition data of cultivated A. bisporus mushrooms published by different authors working with even the same species are variable (Atila et al., 2017). Observed differences, as extracted from early reports, may to some extent be explained by the analytical methods being used to determine the various mushroom components, or by other uncontrollable factors including the composition of the compost, mushroom strain, flush of mushroom culture, developmental/maturity stage of fruit body at harvest, what part of the mushroom is analyzed (cap or stipe), and mushroom size. ...
... A. bisporus contains all essential amino acids useful for human health, including methionine, threonine, valine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, tyrosine, and phenylalanine (Atila et al., 2017), as well as the non-essential amino acid cysteine, derived from methionine. Distinctively, amino acid composition in mushroom protein is more similar to animal protein than to vegetable protein, making them the ideal complement for vegetarian diets and a substitute for a meat diet (Muşzyńska et al., 2013b;Ramos, 2015). ...
... Flavor and taste represent the most important quality attributes of cultivated mushrooms (Atila et al., 2017). Mushrooms give umami or palatable tastes or the perception of satisfaction, which is an overall food flavor sensation linked to volatile and non-volatile compounds (Smiderle et al., 2013). ...
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... Due to the presence of bioactive compounds, they are used as antibacterial, antifungal, and antiviral agents since hundreds of years. In the last decade, there was tremendous progress in human medicines, but infectious diseases are still a threat to public health in developing countries (Canli et al. 2019;Atila et al. 2021). About 300,000 natural products had been identified, of which 19,869 natural products are from the fungi kingdom (Chassagne et al. 2019;Mussagy et al. 2019). ...
... Due to the presence of bioactive compounds, they are used as antibacterial, antifungal, and antiviral agents since hundreds of years. In the last decade, there was tremendous progress in human medicines, but infectious diseases are still a threat to public health in developing countries (Canli et al. 2019;Atila et al. 2021). About 300,000 natural products had been identified, of which 19,869 natural products are from the fungi kingdom (Chassagne et al. 2019;Mussagy et al. 2019). ...
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... Mushrooms usually contain low carbohydrates therefore are suitable for obese people diet purpose. (Atila et al., 2017) reported that good quality carbohydrates and fatty acids are found in mushrooms these have anticancer, antimicrobial and antihypertensive activities. (Sultana and Qureshi 2007) also found similar results while working on mushrooms of Pakistan, they have reported that these are used as perfect diet for heart and cardiovascular system because their fatty fractions contains unsaturated fatty acids such as linoleic acid. ...
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Three edible wild mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus, Agaricus bitorqui and Agaricus compestris) belonging to genus Agaricus, class Agaricomycetes were collected during 2017-18 from Mastung district of Balochistan, Pakistan. These species were analyzed for their nutritional contents. The results showed that high concentration of protein was found in all three species but maximum protein was recorded from A. bisporus. Whereas very low amount of carbohydrates, fat and fiber was recorded from all species. Besides this, mineral composition of all species under investigation were also determined. The mushrooms have high macro and mineral content. Maximum K, high Ca, and Mg were recorded while Zn, Cd, Cr, and Ni were in negligible amounts. It was concluded that being rich in proteins and low in carbohydrates, these mushrooms can serve as high nutritional diet for human beings.
... This mushroom has been reported to have antimicrobial, anticancer, antidiabetic, antihypercholesterolemic, antihypertensive, hepatoprotective and antioxidant activities. 33 Agaricus bisporus contains bioactive compounds that have been shown to exhibit immunomodulating and anticancer properties. The Canadian Cancer Society recommends consumption of Agaricus bisporus mushroom because of its effectiveness against human diseases. ...
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... Mushrooms are reservoirs of a variety of primary and secondary metabolites that are responsible for their nutritional and medicinal properties, including their anticancer, antidiabetic, antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and immunostimulatory effects. [1][2][3][4] Many mushrooms with promising health properties are available on the market in the form of dietary supplements. 5,6 Mushrooms are known to possess various mineral elements and vitamins. ...
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... Mushrooms that grow on compost are those that feed on manure, or decomposed agricultural waste. Agaricus bisporus (Button mushrooms) is one that is grown in a slightly unique way, it needs bacteria to decompose cellulose in order for the mycelium to feed on the substrate (Funda et al., 2017). Farmers first prepare a compost by mixing manure and straw which is left to rot for about 3 weeks (Sangeesta, 2021). ...
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Among several thousand macrofungi species on the planet, only several are industrially cultivated worldwide. Medicinal and edible mushrooms represent two most important groups of macrofungi. Mushrooms are used in the human diet for centuries, due to their high nutritional value. They are well known as valuable source of proteins, and are widely used as a meat substitute. Additionally, the differences in amino acids composition of proteins between different mushrooms contributes to the unique flavour of mushrooms and mushroom-derived products. The presence of components such as polysaccharides, polysaccharopeptides, proteoglucans, vitamins, polyphenols and others, which are responsible for their bioactive properties, classifies a number of mushrooms as medicinal. This chapter gives the overview of mushrooms’ chemical composition, the effect of their application on different processes of beverages production and the impact on sensorial characteristics or bioactivity of mushroom beverages. When applied in fermentation process, mushrooms influence the metabolism of microorganisms involved. Through the enzymatic activity they act on the elimination of antinutritional components or have a contribution to the production of high ethanol concentrations in beverages, as well as influence on unique flavour development. Production of mushroom beverages is an opportunity for mushrooms and beverages producers to create an innovative and sensory pleasant product that will satisfy consumers needs for improving the quality of life trough good nutrition and beneficial effects on human health. The significance of functional beverages consumption lies in their potential to reduce health-care expenses through the strategy of public health protection. To date, mushrooms were applied in various types of beverages on a laboratory scale, influencing their production, quality and bioactivity. The fact that the global production of edible and medicinal mushrooms and their economic value is constantly increasing, can be used to develop industrial scale systems for mushroom beverages that will increase the market value of these products, as well.
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Four edible mushroom species (Pleurotus ostreatus, Agaricus bisporus, Volvariella volvacea, Ganoderma lucidum) from different locations of Bangladesh, were analysed for their protein and metal content profile (K, Na, Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn, Cr, Pb, As and Cd). Trace metals were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometer, Na and K by flame emission spectrophotometer and protein by micro Kjeldhal method. All element concentrations were determined on a dry weight basis. The protein content of mushrooms varied from 13.8%–34.3% and the metal content of samples ranged from 0.54–2.25% for K and 12.6–81.6, 69.5–626.2, 39.2–163.4, 30.1–75.5, 52.9–104.5, 0.20–0.30, 0.13–0.59 μg g-1 for Na, Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn, Cd, Pb, respectively. Arsenic and cadmium concentrations were below the detection limit of the method used. The detection limits of the method for As and Cd are 0.01 μg g-1 for each element. In general, K and Fe content were higher than other metals in all mushroom species. The levels of Cu and Zn in some mushroom samples were found to be higher than legal limits.
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This review distinguishes myco-nanotechnology using metallic nanoparticles (meta-NPs) synthesized from edible mushroom matter. Green chemistry approaches were attempted to myco-synthesize meta-NPs (viz., Ag-NP, Au-NP, Se-NP, CdS-NP, Fe-NP, Pa-NP, and ZnS-NP) via different routes using edible mushrooms and have been tested toward 79% biomedical and 21% industrial applications. Biomaterials were used as biofactors to form metallic NPs. In mushroom science, mycomaterials of mushrooms were used at different percentages to mycosynthesize in an ecofriendly/green way; mycomaterials such as crude extracts of basidocarp (53%), mycelial extract or free cell filtrate (28%), in crude form or in purified form such as polysaccharides at different percentages; 9% (especially glucan), proteins/enzymes (7%) and polysaccharides protein complex (3%) as new research lines. Generally, in this field of mushroom nanoparticles about 84% of mycosynthesized NPs using mushrooms are placed outside the fungal cell (extracellular) and 16% are intracellular in the mushroom hyphae. The knowledge of the performance and influence of meta-NPs in edible mushrooms has developed in the last 10 years. Generally, while
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Fresh mushrooms have been known as a functional food, especially as a good source of vitamins from B-group. The work determined the effect of pre-treatment (blanching, vacuum soaking), method of freezing (air-blast and cryogenic), temperature (−20 °C, −30 °C) and period (0, 6, 12 months) of frozen storage on the vitamins profile in white A. bisporus. Niacin and riboflavin were the most abundant vitamins in all mushroom products (154–362 mg; 1.57–5.06 mg/100 g dm, respectively). The greatest influence on the vitamins profile was pre-treatment. The highest levels of vitamin B3 and L-ascorbic acid were found in blanched mushrooms, vitamin B6 in vacuum soaked, α-tocopherol and vitamin B1 in unblanched. The greatest losses occurred between the 6th and 12th month of storage, and therefore mushrooms should not be stored for longer than 6 months. After storage the greatest losses were found in vitamin B1, L-ascorbic acid and α-tocopherol. A. bisporus mushrooms contain small amounts of L-ascorbic acid and α-tocopherol, therefore the level of vitamin B1 may be regarded as a quality indicator. The freezing method affected only vitamin B3, with levels higher after cryogenic than air-blast freezing. The storage temperature generally had no effect on vitamin levels.