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Mushrooms are considered as potential source of many essential nutrients and therapeutic bioactive compounds. Agaricus bisporus belongs to Basidiomycetes family and the most important commercially cultivated mushroom in the world. The rich nutrients like carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, fibers, minerals, and vitamins present this mushroom as famous healthy food. Moreover, because of the presence of some active ingredients, such as polysaccharides, lipopolysaccharides, essential amino acids, peptides, glycoproteins, nucleosides, triterpenoids, lectins, fatty acids and their derivatives, these mushrooms have been reported to have antimicrobial, anticancer, antidiabetic, antihypercholesterolemic, antihypertensive, hepatoprotective and antioxidant activities. This study is focused on reviewing the recent studies published in the medical and nutritional properties of Agaricus bisporus. Investigations on the mushroom have accelerated during the last ten years so that only reports published after 2006 have been considered.
Funda Atila1, Mustafa Nadhim Owaid2,3*,Mohammad Ali Shariati4,5,6
1 Ahi Evran University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Horticulture, 40200 Kırşehir-Turkey.
2 Department of Heet Education, General Directorate of Education in Anbar, Ministry of Education, Hit, Anbar 31007, Iraq.
3 Department of Ecology, College of Applied Sciences, University of Anbar, Hit, Anbar 31007, Iraq.
4 Research Department, LLC, Science and Education, Russia.
5 Senior Researcher, Department of Scientific affairs, Kurks State Agricultural Academy, Kurks, Russia.
6 Researcher, All-Russian Research Institute of Phytopathology of the Federal Agency of Scientific Organizations of Russia, Moscow, Russia. Tel: +7(495)597-42-28.
*Corresponding author:
Keywords: Agaricus bisporus; button mushroom; nutritional value; medicinal importance; bioactive ingredients
Mushrooms have been recognized as important food items since the ancient times
because of their nutritional values and therapeutic properties. In ancient China,
people believed that the mushroom establishes human body and health, preserves
the youth for as long as possible, it was using as food and medicine (Safwat and
Al Kholi, 2006). The Greek regarded mushrooms as providing strength for
warriors in battles (Daba et al., 2008), while the Egyptians believed that they
were a gift from the god Osiris (Maihara et al., 2012). The Romans regarded
edible mushrooms as the Food of the Gods, and they even had mushrooms on the
food list which was served only on festive occasions (Rahi and Malik, 2016).
The Mayans used psycho-active mushrooms mainly for religious rites and some
regions still retain these traditions (Matsushima et al., 2009).
Auricularia auricularia was the first artificially cultivated mushroom in the
world. It was cultivated in 600, followed by other mushrooms like Flammulina
velutipes (A.D. 800), Lentinula edodes (A.D. 1000). The great development in
the mushroom cultivation came from France when Agaricus bisporus was
cultivated for the first time in1600s and Pleurotus spp. in USA in 1900s (Chang,
2008). To nowaday, only about thirty five mushrooms species have been
cultivated commercially, and about twenty ones are currently on an industrial
scale. (Muhammad and Suleiman, 2015). The global production of cultivated
edible mushrooms was 495.127 metric tons in 1961. From 1961 to 2016,
mushroom production increased to 10.378.163 metric tons (FAO, 2016).
Although Agaricus bisporus (white button mushroom) still retains the highest
overall world production, although the percent of total global production of
Agaricus sp. has decreased. Today China is leading in global mushroom
production. China produces approximately 73 percent of world mushroom
production in 2014. The second highest mushroom producing country is Italy,
followed by USA (FAO, 2016).
In recent years, interest in mushrooms has become increasingly apparent in all
over the world due to their nutritional and medical properties. High contents in
proteins and polysaccharides associated with low content of fat, which profile is
characterized by a higher concentration of mono and polyunsaturated fatty acids
than in saturated fatty acids, being also interesting sources of phenolic
compounds as well as of some micro and macronutrients (Rodrigues et al.,
2015). The nutritional attributes of edible mushrooms and the health benefiting
effects of the bioactive compounds they contain, make mushrooms a health food
(Pereira et al., 2012). Many researchers from different regions of the world
confirmed the medicinal importance and nutritional quality of A. bisporus. In
this review study, we have summarized the recent findings regarding many
aspects of the nutritional and medicinal importance of Agaricus bisporus.
Nutritional importance of A. bisporus
Proximate Compositions
Mushrooms contain a high moisture percentage depending on harvest, growth,
culinary and storage conditions (Guillamón et al., 2010). Reis et al. (2012)
described moisture (9192 g/100 g), ash (0.91 g/100 g) and energy (2931
kcal/100 g) in Agaricus bisporus samples. Ahlavat et al. (2016) analyzed the
fruitbodies of A. bisporus for its proximate composition and they found that
Agaricus bisporus fruitbody is rich in protein (29.14%), carbohydrate (51.05%),
fat (1.56%) compared to Pleurotus eous, Volvariella volvacea and Lentinula
edodes. Tsai et. al. (2007), it has been found that the content of the fruits from the
carbohydrate 48.9-38.3%, fibers 23.3-17.7% and ash 11.00-7.77% fat 3.92-2.53%
in dry A. bisporus fruitbodies.
Protein and Amino acid content
Mushrooms are considered as a good source of protein. Correa et al. (2016)
suggested that mushrooms are ranked below animal meats, but well above most
other foods, including milk, which is an animal product, concerning the amount
of crude protein. Growing substrates (Gothwal et al., 2012), the stage of
development and pre and post-harvest conditions (Guillamon et al., 2010) can
influence the chemical composition and the nutritional value of the cultivated
mushrooms. So nutritional composition data of mushrooms published by
different authors working with even the same species are variable. The protein
content of A. bisporus presented by Sadiq et al. (2008) with 11.01 %, by
Muszynska et al., (2011) with 25%, by Mohiuddin et al. (2015) with 17.7%
24.7% and by Ahlavat et al. (2016) with %29.14 in different growing substrates.
The amino acid composition of mushroom proteins is comparable to animal
protein, which is of particular importance to counterbalance a high consumption
Mushrooms are considered as potential source of many essential nutrients and therapeutic bioactive compounds. Agaricus bisporus
belongs to Basidiomycetes family and the most important commercially cultivated mushroom in the world. The rich nutrients like
carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, fibers, minerals, and vitamins present this mushroom as famous healthy food. Moreover, because of the
presence of some active ingredients, such as polysaccharides, lipopolysaccharides, essential amino acids, peptides, glycoproteins,
nucleosides, triterpenoids, lectins, fatty acids and their derivatives, these mushrooms have been reported to have antimicrobial,
anticancer, antidiabetic, antihypercholesterolemic, antihypertensive, hepatoprotective and antioxidant activities. This study is focused on
reviewing the recent studies published in the medical and nutritional properties of Agaricus bisporus. Investigations on the mushroom
have accelerated during the last ten years so that only reports published after 2006 have been considered.
doi: 10.15414/jmbfs.2017/
J Microbiol Biotech Food Sci / Atila et al. 2017/18 : 7 (3) 281-286
of protein animal food sources, especially in developed countries (Guillamon et
al., 2010). Kakon et al. (2012) reported that mushroom proteins contain all nine
essential amino acids required by humans, enabling their use as a substitute for a
meat diet. The amino acids found in A. bisporus in the highest amounts are
alanine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, arginine, leucine, lysine, phenylalanine,
serine, proline, tyrosine and threonine (Muszyńska et al., 2013). Moreover,
Muslat et al. (2014) reported that A. bisporus contains the essential amino acids
useful as a food for the human health including cystine and methionine and
threonine and valine and isoleucine and leucine and lysine and tyrosine and
Carbohydrate and Fiber
Mushroom carbohydrates are not a major source of energy for humans.
Digestible carbohydrates include mannitol and glucose, usually present in very
small amounts (less than 1% DW) and glycogen (510% DW) while non-
digestible carbohydrates include oligosaccharides such as trehalose and non-
starch polysaccharides (NSPs) such as chitin, β-glucans and mannans, which are
the major portion of mushroom carbohydrates (Cheung et al., 2010). Reis et al.
(2012) reported that mannitol and trehalose were abundant sugars in the studied
cultivated edible mushrooms, mannitol predominated in A. bisporus (white and
brown mushrooms). Dietary fiber includes components of fungal cell walls such
as chitin (Maftoun et al., 2015), hemi-celluloses, mannans and beta glucans play
a key role in some healthy properties of mushrooms (Cheung, 2009). Nitschiske
et al. (2011) determined that chitin content of A. bisporus was 9.60 g/100 g DM.
Cherno et al. (2013) reported that A. bisporus contains 2 times more chitin than
P. ostreatus. Similirly, Vetter (2007) determined that A. bisporus had higher
chitin level than had P. ostreatus, L. edodes.
Mineral content
Mushrooms are known to be an excellent accumulator of minerals from the
environment in which they grow. Owaid (2015) reported that A. bisporus a good
source of K, Fe, Zn, Cu, Na, Se, nM dCa oC . The main constituents in mushroom
fruiting bodies are potassium and phosphorus and are usually followed by Ca,
Mg, Na and Fe, Zn (Guillamon et al., 2010; Falandysz and Borovička, 2013).
Mohiuddin et al. (2015) Agaricus bisporus fruitbodies from different locations
of Bangladesh, were analysed for their minaral content profile . The mineral
content of samples ranged from 0.541.58% for potassium and 37.2–61.9 μg/g
for sodium, 143.6–396 μg/g for ferrum, 54.6–163.4 μg g-1 for copper, 36.658.0
μg/g for zinc, 56.2–91.1 μg/g for manganes. Caglarirmak (2009) determinated
that zinc (8.17.0 mg/kg), ferrum (7.47.9 mg/kg), phosphore (7.47.9 mg/kg),
magnessium (88.076.3 mg/kg), potassium (213.3238.8 mg/kg), sodium (2652
2500 mg/kg) and calcium (534.2554.8 mg/kg) contents, while Ahlavat et al.
(2016) they found that sodium (500.8 mg/kg), potassium (4.21%) and selenium
(1.34 mg/kg) of A. bisporus fruitbodies.
Selenium is an essential micronutrient for humans and animals (Lu and
Holmgren, 2009). Turto et al. (2010) reported that most wild growing and farm
edible mushroom species including A. bisporus are poor selenium sources with a
concentration of less than 1 µg/g (dried weight). On the other hand, Maseko et
al. (2013) suggested that the Se concentration in A. bisporus cultivated in growth
compost irrigated with sodium selenite solution can be increased. They
determined that selenium contents of mushroom proteins increased from 13.8 to
60.1 and from 14.1 to 137 µg/g in caps and stalks by irrigated with sodium
selenite solution. Maseko et al. (2014) investigated the effect of dietary
supplementation with Se-enriched A. bisporus on cytosolic glutathione
peroxidase-1 (GPx-1), gastrointestinal specific glutathione peroxidase-2 (GPx-2),
thioredoxin reductase-1 (TrxR-1) and selenoprotein P (SeP) mRNA expression
and GPx-1 enzyme activity in rat colon and they reported that the activity of
colonic GPx-1 in rats provide evidence for its potential anti-cancer use.
Some authors have considered mushrooms as a good source of vitamins. It was
reported that the most abundant vitamin in Agaricus is niacin, followed by
riboflavin. Other vitamins include vitamin B1, vitamin B3, L-ascorbic acid and
α-tocopherol (Bernas & Jaworska, 2016). Çağlaırmak, (2009) also reported
that brown A. bisporus (portobello mushroom) is a good source of folic acid
(0.090.08 mg/ kg), riboflavin(0.270.29 mg/kg), niacin (3.62.9 mg/kg), and
thiamin (0.0850.09 mg/kg), while not rich in vitamin C content. On the other
hand, Furlany and Godoy (2008) determined that the mean level of vitamin B1 for
fresh A. bisporus was 0.03 mg/100 g while vitamin B2 for the A. bisporus
mushroom was 0.25 mg/100 g. They reported that although Vitamin B2 contents
in A. bisporus, Lentinula edodes and Pleurotus spp. with exception of mushroom
in conserve, are higher than the levels present in many vegetables, mushrooms
could not be considered as significant sources of B1 and B2 vitamins, since their
contribution in terms of these vitamins to the diet is not significant although they
may contribute to the sums of these nutrients in the diet.
Mushrooms are a natural source of vitamin D. Ahlavat et al. (2016) determined
that vitamin D content of A. bisporus is 984 IU/g. It is found in larger quantities
in wild mushrooms compared to cultivated mushrooms (Simon et al., 2011). The
absence of vitamin D in cultivated Agaricus bisporus could be due to cultivation
in dark (Reis et al., 2012). Roberts et. al. (2008) reported treating ultraviolet
toward fruiting bodies of A. bisporus in recommended dosages by Processed
Foods Research Unit (PFRU). They discovered that it will lead to the
accumulation of significant quantities of vitamin D2 in the treated fruiting bodies.
This is important for the health of bones.
Ergosterol is a biological precursor to vitamin D2 and is a component
of fungal cell membranes. The ergosterol contents of A. bisporus (white), A.
bisporus (brown), A. bisporus (Portabella), varied in the ranges 39.556.7
mg/100 g f.w (Teichmann et al., 2007). Shao et al. (2010) isolated ergosterol in
both white and brown A. bisporus mushrooms and they reported that the
ergosterol content of brown and white button mushrooms correlated with their
antioxidant activities.
Fatty acids
Agaricus bisporus is low in fat content, but they contain some essential fatty
acids such as linoleic acid. Barros et al. (2008) reported that wild Agaricus spp.
contained a lower value of monounsaturated fatty acids but also a higher content
of polyunsaturated fatty acids than the commercial species, due to the higher
contribution of linoleic acid. Total amounts of fatty acids ranged from 180 to
5818 mg/kg dry matter in the A. bisporus strains tested and almost 90% of the
fatty acids in A. bisporus is linoleic acid on average (Baars et al., 2016). Sadiq et
al. (2008) reported that fatty acids detected in A. bisporus were: linoleic, caprylic,
palmitic, stearic, oleic, eicosanoic and erucic acids and linoleic acid was
dominant fatty acid in A. bisporus that accounts for 44.19 % of total fatty acid
identified. Ozturk et al. (2011) find that linoleic (61.8267.29%) and palmitic
(12.67 14.71%) acids were dominant fatty acids in A. bisporus among the 13
fatty acids detected in the oils. The fatty acid contents of A. bisporus are reported
also mainly linoleic and palmitic and stearic acids by Shao et al., (2010).
Linoleic acid is essential for human health and has many beneficial effects on
human health. They reduce atherosclerosis by interesting with HDL in the blood
(Sadiq et al., 2008). Hossain et al. (2007) determined that the concentration of
linoleic acid in A. bisporus was 20- and 5-folds more than those in the
Ganoderma lucidum and Pleurotus ostreatus, respectively.
Soluble sugar and volatile compounds
Flavor and taste represent the most important quality attribute contributing to the
widespread consumption of cultivated mushrooms. The taste of mushroom is the
umami or palatable tastes or the perception of satisfaction, which is an overall
food flavor sensation induced or enhanced by monosodium glutamate (MSG).
The contents of MSG-like (aspartic and glutamic acids) and sweet components
(alanine, glycine, and threonine) total soluble sugars and polyols were
considerately higher in edible mushrooms and might be sufficient to suppress and
cover the bitter taste arising from the contents of bitter components. The content
of monosodium glutamate-like components is in the range from 10.6 mg/g to
13.5 mg/g and similar to those of sweet components (11.414.3 mg/g) but lower
than those of bitter components (19.726.9 mg/g) (Tsai et al., 2007).
For A. bisporus mannitol was the most abundant sugar (Baars et al., 2016). Tsai
et al. (2007) also reported that mannitol was the major soluble sugar in fresh A.
bisporus fruitbodies while glucose was the second highest and its contents were
in the range of 17.628.1 mg/g in different mature stages. Moreover, they
suggested that the high amount of sugars and polyols, especially mannitol, would
give rise to a sweet perception, and not to the typical mushroom taste.
Taste in mushrooms is linked both to volatile and non-volatile compounds. The
terpenes, lactones, amino acids, and carbohydrates of their composition
determine a range of precious aromas and flavor properties to their fruiting body
and mycelial biomass (Smiderle et al., 2012). Taşkın et al. (2013) identified
totally 28 aroma compounds of A. bisporus. In this study, alcohols were detected
to be the major compounds and 1-octen-3-ol was found to be the major alcohol.
Medicinal importance of A. bisporus
There is an increasing interest in extracting bioactive ingredients from
mushrooms for developing functional foods. A. bisporus have a very good history
of using in many traditional therapies. The use of A. bisporus extracts and/or its
bioactive compounds as antioxidant, anti-cancer and anti-inflammation is
increasing in the world against many human diseases such as coronary heart
diseases, diabetes mellitus, bacterial and fungal infections, disorders of the
human immune system and cancers (Dhamodharan and Mirunalini, 2010).
Although there have been relatively few direct intervention trials of mushroom
consumption in humans, those that have been completed to date indicate that
mushrooms and their extracts are generally well-tolerated with few, if any, side
effects.(Volman et al., 2010).
Antioxidant (Ghahremani-Majd and Dashti, 2015) and anti-diabetic (Mao et
al., 2013) antibacterial properties (Ndungutse et al., 2015) of A. bisporus were
reported some studies (Öztürk et al., (2011) A. bisporus extracts can be
potentially applied in Alzheimer’s disease treatment reported that due to their
J Microbiol Biotech Food Sci / Atila et al. 2017/18 : 7 (3) 281-286
acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase inhibiting activity. Mohamed
(2012) determined that a total 174 significant metabolites in ethanolic extracts of
Agaricus bisporus samples by using GC/MS method between <1 to 83% (w/w)
classified into twelve categories. These metabolites had numerous medicinal
activities such as anti-cancer, anti-cardiovascular diseases, anti-hypercholesterol,
antimicrobial, hepatoprotective, human health supporting and immune enhancer.
The main medical properties of A. bisporus were presented in the following
Cancer is one of the deadliest diseases in the world. Recently, purified some
natural active component from mushrooms such as polysaccharides exhibited the
significant anti-cancer activity toward various cancer cell lines. Basidiomycota is
known to present medicinal characteristics, which are being attributed to its
glucan and other polysaccharide. The polysaccharides generally belong to the
beta-glucan family of compounds and appear to exert their anti-tumorigenic
effects via enhancement of cellular immunity.
A. bisporus contains bioactive compounds that have been shown to exhibit
immunomodulating and anticancer properties. The Canadian Cancer Society
recommends consumption of A. bisporus mushroom because of its effectiveness
against human diseases. Zhang et al. (2014) reported that brown A. bisporus
polysaccharide possessed strong immunostimulatory and antitumor bioactivity in
vivo and in vitro.
A. bisporus contain three main polysaccharides α- glucan, β-glucan and
galactomannan (Smiderie et al., 2011) and galactomannan is main polysaccharide
by 55.8% (Smiederie et al., 2013). Ren et al., (2012) reported that the most
common glucans extracted from A. bisporus are (1→3), (1→6)-d-glucans.
Consumption of fruit juice enriched with α-glucans from A. bisporus (5 g
glucans/day) lipopolysaccharide induced tumor necrosis factor (TNFα)
production by 69%. No effects on interleukin (IL)-1b and IL-6 and decreased
production of IL-12 and IL-10 was observed (in vivo) (Volman et al., 2010). On
the other hand, A. bisporus does not present very high β-glucan content (812
g/100 g dm). Low beta-glucan content in Agaricus bisporus is also reported by
McCleary and Draga (2016).
A. bisporus has got potential health benefits for improving mucosal immunity.
The dietary intake of A. bisporus significantly accelerates secretory
immunoglobulin A secretion (Jeong et al., 2012). A. bisporus fruiting bodies
extracts express an immunostimulating effect on activated human peripheral
blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and induce synthesis of interferon gamma
(IFN-γ) (Kozarski et al., 2011). Extracts from A. bisporus have been shown to
inhibit cell proliferation of HL-60 leukemia cells and other leukemia human cell
lines via the induction of apoptosis. (Jagadish et al., 2009). Novaes et al. (2011)
reported that arginine present in the A. bisporus fruitbodies delays tumor growth
and metastasis and should be used as dietary supplements for patients with
cancer. Kanaya et al. (2011) reported that A. bisporus would suppress aromatase
to decrease the risk of breast cancer.
Moreover, A. bisporus contained the high amount of lovastatin (Chen et al.,
2012). Yang et al. (2016) demonstrated that lovastatin exerts anti-cancer effects
in the triple-negative breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231.
Palomares et al. (2011) reported that phytochemicals extracted from Agaricus
bisporus suppress aromatase activity, inhibit breast cancer (BC) cell proliferation,
and decrease mammary tumor formation in vivo. They suggested that anti-
aromatase phytochemicals are present in plasma with daily consumption of 100-
130g whole WBM, but not at high enough concentrations to significantly reduce
estrogen levels from baseline in 12 weeks. Moreover, Chen et al. (2006) reported
that the major active compounds in A. bisporus are unsaturated fatty acids such as
linoleic acid, linolenic acid, and CLA which have been shown to inhibit
aromatase activity. Roupas et al. (2012) also reported that an inhibition of
aromatase activity and subsequent reduction of estrogen using extracts of
mushroom that provide a physiologically suitable mechanism for influents on
estrogen receptor positive tumors.
Although Hong et al. (2008) reported that daily intake and average of
consumption frequency of mushroom were inversely associated with breast
cancer risk, and a strong inverse association was found in post-menopausal
women. Shin et al. (2010) suggested that a decreased risk of breast cancer from
mushroom consumption by pre-menopausal women.
Hyperlipidemia, represented by increased levels of triglycerides or cholesterol, is
a dominant risk factor that contributes to the progression and development of
subsequent cardiovascular disease and atherosclerosis, which is one of the most
serious diseases in humans (Esmaillzadeh and Azatbakth, 2008). Phytosterols
derive reduce cholesterol absorption, thereby having the capacity to lower plasma
cholesterol and LDL cholesterol (Lin et al., 2009). The identified sterols in A.
bisporus are ergosta-7,22-dienol, ergosta-5,7-dienol, and ergosta-7- enol
(fungisterol) (Teichmann et al., 2007).
Lovastatin is a statin drug, used for lowering cholesterol (hypolipidemic agent) in
those with hypercholesterolemia to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease (Xu
et al., 2013). Yang et al. (2016) demonstrated that lovastatin exerts anti-cancer
effects in the triple-negative breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231. Chen et al.
(2012) reported that Agaricus bisporus contained the 565.4 mg/kg of lovastatin
and suggested also that white button mushroom A. bisporus reduce the
cholesterol level in serum and/or liver. Jeong et al. (2010) examined the
hypothesis that intake of the fruiting bodies of A. bisporus regulates antiglycemic
and anticholesterolemic responses in rats fed a hypercholesterolemic diet (14%
fat and 0.5% cholesterol) and rats with type 2 diabetes induced by injection of
streptozotocin (STZ) (50 mg/kg body weight) and they reported that A.bisporus
mushroom had both possesses antiglycemic and antihypercholesterolemic effects
in rats. Moreover, it has a positive influence on lipid metabolism and liver
A. bisporus contains high levels of dietary fibers and antioxidants including
vitamin C, D, and B12; folates and polyphenols that may provide beneficial
effects on cardiovascular and diabetic diseases (Jeong et al., 2010). Calvo et al.
(2016) reported that A. bisporus contain a variety of compounds with potential
anti-inflammatory and antioxidant health benefits that can occur with frequent
consumption over time in adults predisposed to type 2 diabetes. Yamet al.
(2010) reported that the oral application of high doses of A. bisporus extract may
result in decreased severity of streptozotocin-induced diabetes in rat. The
streptozotocin induced diabetic male Sprague-Dawley rats fed the A. bisporus
powder (200 mg/kg of body weight) for three weeks had significantly reduced
triglyceride (TG) and plasma glucose concentrations to 39.1% and 24.7%
respectively, liver enzyme activities, aspartate aminotransferase and alanine
aminotransferase to 15.7% and 11.7% respectively, and liver weight gain (Jeong
et al., 2010). Volman et al. (2010) investigated the effects of alpha-glucans from
A. bisporus. They reported that consumption of alpha-glucans of A. bisporus
mushroom lowered producing lipopolysaccharide-induced TNFa by 69%
compared to the control group, whereas no effect on IL-1b and IL-6 was
Calvo et al. (2016) reported that A. bisporus contain a variety of compounds with
potential anti-inflammatory and antioxidant health benefits that can occur with
frequent consumption over time in adults predisposed to type 2 diabetes. Kanaya
et al. (2011) suggested that Agaricus bisporus intake may be a viable dietary
choice to prevent liver steatosis, which is an early reversible stage of
nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in postmenopausal women.
Total phenolics and antioxidant properties of A. bisporus have been reported by
many authors (Ramirez-Anguiano et al., 2007; Savoie et al., 2008; Barros et
al., 2008). A. bisporus mushrooms, especially portabellas (brown A. bisporus),
had higher antioxidant capacity relative to Lentinula edodes, Pleurotus ostreatus,
Pleurotus eryngii and Grifola frondosa. Liu et al. (2013) determined the main
phenolic compounds in ethanolic extract of A. bisporus like gallic acid,
protocatechuic acid, catechin, caffeic acid, ferulic acid and myricetin and
suggested that the ethanolic extract of this mushroom had potent antioxidant
effect, and could be explored as a novel natural antioxidant. Oms-Oliu et al.
(2010) reported that phenolic content of fresh-cut A. bisporus mushrooms was
100.78100.32 mg/100 g fw. Ergothioneine content ranged from 0.21-045 mg/g
dw with white A. bisporus and brown A. bisporus (portobello) (Dubost et al.,
Phenolic compounds have been reported as the major antioxidant components in
mushrooms (Barros et al., 2008). A close relationship between antioxidant
activity and phenolic contents and suggested that phenolic compounds could be
the foremost contributors to the antioxidant activity of edible macrofungi (Kim,
2008; Guo et al., 2012). Contrastly, Palacios et al. (2011) reported that A.
bisporus presents the high contents of phenolics, although this species has got a
low antioxidant activity.
Chitosan NPs of A. bisporus had antioxidant effects. All potential antioxidant
properties reflect on positive anticancer effect (Dhamodharan and Mirunalini,
2012). Neyrinck et al. (2009) fungal chitosan decreases feed efficiency, fat mass,
adipocytokine secretion and ectopic fat deposition in the liver and the muscle. In
this way it counteracts some inflammatory disorders and metabolic alterations
occurring in diet-induced obese mice.
Tocopherols (TCP) are fat-soluble antioxidants but also seem to have many other
functions in the body. Many of them have vitamin E activity. Reis et al. (2012)
determined α-tocopherol (0.23 µg/100 g fw and 0.28 µg/100 g fw), β-tocopherol
(0.85 µg/100 g fw and 0.71 µg/100 g fw), γ- tocopherol (1.51 µg/100 g fw and
7.63 µg/100 g fw) and δ-tocopherol (2.60 µg/100 g fw and 2.54 µg/100 g fw) in
fruit bodies of white A. bisporus and brown A. bisporus, respectively.
Seratonin is a biochemical compound that has got antioxidant ability (Sarikaya
and Gulcin, 2013). Antioxidant actions of seratonin and its ability to prevent the
progress of Alzheimer’s disease were also referred by Quchi et al. (2009).
Muszynska et al. (2011) reported that the content of seratonin in the extracts of
A. bisporus was high (5.21 mg/100 g dw).
J Microbiol Biotech Food Sci / Atila et al. 2017/18 : 7 (3) 281-286
Some previous studies suggested that the extracts of A. bisporus prepared with
methyl alcohol revealed antimicrobial activities against some bacteria, yeasts,
and dermatophytes (Akyuz et al., 2010; Abah and Abah, 2010). Microbial
inhibition of A. bisporus extracts has been reported also by Ndungutse et al.
(2015). They suggested the potential use of the stipes of A. bisporus as natural
antimicrobials. Tehrani et al., (2012) determined that aqueous total protein
extracts of the cultivated A. bisporus possess significant antibacterial activity,
particularly against S. aureus and Methicillin-Resistant S. aureus.
Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are one of the most commonly used metallic
nanoparticles, which possess potent antibacterial and antifungal characteristics, as
shown in Figure 1. Agaricus bisporus is considered an important factor for
biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) (Owaid et al., 2017). Owaid and
Ibraheem, (2017) reported that A. bisporus had the second level (about 11%)
after oyster mushroom Pleurotus sp. in synthesis important nanoparticles.
Sudhakar et al. (2014) synthesized the AgNPs using the A. bisporus extract.
They suggested that AgNPs may have an important advantage over conventional
antibiotics in that it kills pathogenic microbes and no organism has ever been
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Enterobacter sp. and Klebsiella sp.
Figure 1 Biosynthesis silver nanoparticles using mushroom Agaricus bisporus
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... As a result, its nutritional value largely depends on the compost's chemical composition (Gothwal et al., 2012). As a matter of fact, the chemical composition data of cultivated A. bisporus mushrooms published by different authors working with even the same species are variable (Atila et al., 2017). Observed differences, as extracted from early reports, may to some extent be explained by the analytical methods being used to determine the various mushroom components, or by other uncontrollable factors including the composition of the compost, mushroom strain, flush of mushroom culture, developmental/maturity stage of fruit body at harvest, what part of the mushroom is analyzed (cap or stipe), and mushroom size. ...
... A. bisporus contains all essential amino acids useful for human health, including methionine, threonine, valine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, tyrosine, and phenylalanine (Atila et al., 2017), as well as the non-essential amino acid cysteine, derived from methionine. Distinctively, amino acid composition in mushroom protein is more similar to animal protein than to vegetable protein, making them the ideal complement for vegetarian diets and a substitute for a meat diet (Muşzyńska et al., 2013b;Ramos, 2015). ...
... Flavor and taste represent the most important quality attributes of cultivated mushrooms (Atila et al., 2017). Mushrooms give umami or palatable tastes or the perception of satisfaction, which is an overall food flavor sensation linked to volatile and non-volatile compounds (Smiderle et al., 2013). ...
Most mushroom farming has been carried out using classical farming practices, giving one of the main reasons for low mushroom yield; in traditional mushroom farms routine practices are more labor intensive. Moreover, controlling insects, pests, and diseases is much more challenging and needs more vigilance. However, adapting innovative agricultural techniques can improve overall efficiency and productivity at a mushroom farm. One of the most advanced technologies is the application of the Internet of Things (IoT), which provides remote access to daily farm operations, and insect and pest control to the farmers. This sensor-based technique can be used to monitor crucial environmental factors including humidity, light, moisture, and temperature at a mushroom farm. The long-term benefits of semi- or fully automated farms result in high productivity, less labor, and reduced cost of production. Aside from the surrounding environmental conditions, controlling biotic stresses is also a challenging task at a mushroom farm. These may include insect pests, fungi, bacteria, nematodes, and some viral diseases. The use of synthetic chemical products at a mushroom farm can be hazardous to mushroom cultivation; thus, integrated pest management (IPM) and use of modern molecular approaches to confer natural resistance to biotic stresses can be effective control measures.
... Due to the presence of bioactive compounds, they are used as antibacterial, antifungal, and antiviral agents since hundreds of years. In the last decade, there was tremendous progress in human medicines, but infectious diseases are still a threat to public health in developing countries (Canli et al. 2019;Atila et al. 2021). About 300,000 natural products had been identified, of which 19,869 natural products are from the fungi kingdom (Chassagne et al. 2019;Mussagy et al. 2019). ...
... Due to the presence of bioactive compounds, they are used as antibacterial, antifungal, and antiviral agents since hundreds of years. In the last decade, there was tremendous progress in human medicines, but infectious diseases are still a threat to public health in developing countries (Canli et al. 2019;Atila et al. 2021). About 300,000 natural products had been identified, of which 19,869 natural products are from the fungi kingdom (Chassagne et al. 2019;Mussagy et al. 2019). ...
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Antimicrobial resistance is an alarming problem, especially due to emergence of methicillin-resistance Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). World Health Organization (WHO) has already listed MRSA as a top priority pathogen for the development of novel antibacterial agents. Presently, different therapeutic approaches against bacterial infections are in practice which includes targeting bacterial virulence factors, bacteriophage therapy, and manipulation of the microbiome. Natural products have been efficiently used for centuries to combat bacterial infections. Morchella is a natural fungal product which has been reported to possess broad-spectrum biological activities against bacterial infections. Hence, this study was aimed to evaluate the antibacterial efficacy of two macro-fungi against S. aureus, MRSA, and Streptococcus pyogenes (S. pyogenes). The antibacterial potential of both fungal extracts (Morchella esculenta and Morchella conica) was evaluated using disk diffusion and standard broth microdilution methods. The chemical compounds of both fungi were investigated using ultra-performance liquid chromatography mass spectroscopy (UPLC–MS) analysis. All fungal extracts inhibited growth of tested bacteria with inhibitory zone ranging from 10.66 ± 0.3 to 21.00 ± 1.5 mm. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of tested bacterial growth ranged from 03.33 to 16.0 mg/ml. It was noteworthy that Morchella extracts prevented S. aureus growth in a bactericidal manner with minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) of 8–16 mg/ml. The extracts were also more effective against MRSA than currently available antibiotics. In conclusion, the growth inhibition of tested bacteria by fungal extracts revealed their potential as antibacterial agents and their compounds may be used as drug candidates.
... Mushrooms usually contain low carbohydrates therefore are suitable for obese people diet purpose. (Atila et al., 2017) reported that good quality carbohydrates and fatty acids are found in mushrooms these have anticancer, antimicrobial and antihypertensive activities. (Sultana and Qureshi 2007) also found similar results while working on mushrooms of Pakistan, they have reported that these are used as perfect diet for heart and cardiovascular system because their fatty fractions contains unsaturated fatty acids such as linoleic acid. ...
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Three edible wild mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus, Agaricus bitorqui and Agaricus compestris) belonging to genus Agaricus, class Agaricomycetes were collected during 2017-18 from Mastung district of Balochistan, Pakistan. These species were analyzed for their nutritional contents. The results showed that high concentration of protein was found in all three species but maximum protein was recorded from A. bisporus. Whereas very low amount of carbohydrates, fat and fiber was recorded from all species. Besides this, mineral composition of all species under investigation were also determined. The mushrooms have high macro and mineral content. Maximum K, high Ca, and Mg were recorded while Zn, Cd, Cr, and Ni were in negligible amounts. It was concluded that being rich in proteins and low in carbohydrates, these mushrooms can serve as high nutritional diet for human beings.
... This mushroom has been reported to have antimicrobial, anticancer, antidiabetic, antihypercholesterolemic, antihypertensive, hepatoprotective and antioxidant activities. 33 Agaricus bisporus contains bioactive compounds that have been shown to exhibit immunomodulating and anticancer properties. The Canadian Cancer Society recommends consumption of Agaricus bisporus mushroom because of its effectiveness against human diseases. ...
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Mushrooms are the epigeous fruiting bodies of terrestrial fungi and as they lack cellulose and chlorophyll, they have a different lifestyle to other nonmotile life, such as plants. Mushrooms have been documented for centuries as use as food and medicine as they are generous sources of nutrients and biologically active compounds that have various applications in agriculture, food, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, food related industries, and others. Research on various metabolic activities of medicinal mushrooms have been performed both in vitro and in vivo studies. Over the past two decades, medicinal mushrooms industry have developed greatly and today offers thousands of products to the markets. This paper describes the current status of some important world medicinal mushrooms, products, and provides suggestions for further research.
... Mushrooms are reservoirs of a variety of primary and secondary metabolites that are responsible for their nutritional and medicinal properties, including their anticancer, antidiabetic, antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and immunostimulatory effects. [1][2][3][4] Many mushrooms with promising health properties are available on the market in the form of dietary supplements. 5,6 Mushrooms are known to possess various mineral elements and vitamins. ...
Mushrooms are rich in various nutrients and secondary metabolites. In this study, the contents of macroelements, trace elements and some non-essential elements of wild basidiocarps of Fuscoporia torulosa, Inonotus pachyphloeus, Phellinus allardii, Ph. fastuosus, Ph. gilvus and Ph. sanfordii (Hymenochaetaceae) mushrooms collected from India were determined with wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. The contents of vitamins A, C, D2 and E (α-tocopherol) were analyzed with high performance liquid chromatography and titration methods. Ph. gilvus contained the highest number (21) and contents of most of the elements. The mushrooms were rich in microelements; Ca (80–2610), Cl (39.63–240), K (246.7–2620), Mg (96.6–500), Na(9.56–56),P (39.5–126.7)and S (69.37–170) mg/Kg dw. Many trace elements (Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, Si, V and Zn) and some non-essential elements(Al, Ba, Br, Rb, Sr, Ti and Zr)were also detected in the tested mushroom species. There was a significant (p<0.05) correlation (r>0.9) between Al and Fe, and Cu and Ti pairs. Correlation data provides indication of interrelations between any two elements. Among vitamins, vitamin C (9.32 mg/100g dw) and vitamin D2 (1.55 mg/100g dw) were found in highest amount in F. torulosa while the lowest contents were present in Ph. fastuosus and Ph. allardii respectively.Vitamin A and E were found below the quantification limits. The studied mushrooms contain macroelements, trace elements, some non-essential elements, and vitamins. The results will be beneficial in deciding the amount of these mushrooms in nutraceutical and drug formulations.
... Mushrooms that grow on compost are those that feed on manure, or decomposed agricultural waste. Agaricus bisporus (Button mushrooms) is one that is grown in a slightly unique way, it needs bacteria to decompose cellulose in order for the mycelium to feed on the substrate (Funda et al., 2017). Farmers first prepare a compost by mixing manure and straw which is left to rot for about 3 weeks (Sangeesta, 2021). ...
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Different Mushrooms species prefer different substrates as growth medium. For example, medicinal mushrooms such as Shiitake, pearl and yellow oysters grow better on straws and gourmet. Reishi and Maitake grow better on sawdust and logs, whereas Agaricus mushrooms are grown on manure with the likes of button mushrooms, portobella mushrooms. As a result, mushrooms have gained interest around the world, not only because mushroom are easily cultivated using locally available agricultural waste, but also because mushrooms contribute to employment and reduce food scarcity, while meeting nutritional and health demands. In Namibia, mushroom cultivation is not well exploited due to various factors such as unfavourable climatic conditions and suitable mushroom strains. Different encroacher bushes and other related crop residues can be studied to establish the variation of mushroom nutrition and therapeutic properties as a result of mushrooms growing on different substrates. Therefore, the utilization of encroacher bushes locally could also contribute towards rangeland restoration and creating economic opportunities. This review aims at investigating the importance of mushrooms production at local levels using alternative materials as substrates in comparison to other countries as case studies.
Over the past few years, mushrooms have been extensively explored in the field of pharmaceutical and food science, and researchers are heading toward the search for vital components with a higher safety margin and multitarget applications. Moreover, among all age group populations, mushroom consumption has increased immensely owing to their great nutritional aspects, desirable organoleptic properties, and aroma. In addition, mushrooms continue to generate much attention chiefly in their consumption as food, as a cure for different ailments, as well as a vital commodity globally, owing to their dietary, antioxidant, and therapeutic values. Mushrooms are considered one of the important and suitable diets for patients having multiple types of diseases. Additionally, due to potential immunomodulatory effects, quality protein, and low fat, and cholesterol content, mushrooms are used as an important ingredient for food formulation. Therefore, this review article provides detailed information on Calocybe indica as they are the third most important commercially grown mushroom following button and oyster mushrooms. This review brings tangible evidence that milky white mushrooms are a great source of natural components and antioxidants with potential application in pharmaceuticals and in treating and managing different diseases. Several food applications of milky white mushrooms have also been discussed and reviewed.
Among several thousand macrofungi species on the planet, only several are industrially cultivated worldwide. Medicinal and edible mushrooms represent two most important groups of macrofungi. Mushrooms are used in the human diet for centuries, due to their high nutritional value. They are well known as valuable source of proteins, and are widely used as a meat substitute. Additionally, the differences in amino acids composition of proteins between different mushrooms contributes to the unique flavour of mushrooms and mushroom-derived products. The presence of components such as polysaccharides, polysaccharopeptides, proteoglucans, vitamins, polyphenols and others, which are responsible for their bioactive properties, classifies a number of mushrooms as medicinal. This chapter gives the overview of mushrooms’ chemical composition, the effect of their application on different processes of beverages production and the impact on sensorial characteristics or bioactivity of mushroom beverages. When applied in fermentation process, mushrooms influence the metabolism of microorganisms involved. Through the enzymatic activity they act on the elimination of antinutritional components or have a contribution to the production of high ethanol concentrations in beverages, as well as influence on unique flavour development. Production of mushroom beverages is an opportunity for mushrooms and beverages producers to create an innovative and sensory pleasant product that will satisfy consumers needs for improving the quality of life trough good nutrition and beneficial effects on human health. The significance of functional beverages consumption lies in their potential to reduce health-care expenses through the strategy of public health protection. To date, mushrooms were applied in various types of beverages on a laboratory scale, influencing their production, quality and bioactivity. The fact that the global production of edible and medicinal mushrooms and their economic value is constantly increasing, can be used to develop industrial scale systems for mushroom beverages that will increase the market value of these products, as well.
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Background : Mushrooms include a wide variety of bioactive compounds that have been linked to therapeutic and nutritional benefits, making them a potential source of new medications and functional foods. Objective : This study reviewed the inhibitory effects of mushrooms on the inflammation process through the modulation of the pro-inflammatory mediators and associated signaling pathways. Methods : A literature search in PubMed and Google Scholar was conducted for the relevant original research and review articles on the anti-inflammatory effects of mushrooms. Related articles published in English were selected, studied and discussed. Results : As revealed by the selected articles, bioactive molecules which include peptides, polysaccharides, terpenes, sterols, fatty acids, and phenols have been extracted from the powder, concentrate, and different solvent extracts of edible mushrooms. These bioactive molecules have shown significant efficacy in inhibiting the major pro-inflammatory biomarkers and associated pathways in in vivo and in vitro settings. Conclusion : This review demonstrated that mushrooms significantly inhibit the production of pro-inflammatory mediators and can be developed for clinical use as anti-inflammatory agents. Further research is required to establish the comparative efficacy between mushrooms and NSAID especially in the in-vivo inhibitory activity against the production of cyclooxygenase and pro-inflammatory cytokines.
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White button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus), Higher Basidiomycota, is a very important nutritional and medicinal species which is used for recycling agrowastes including wheat straw, reed plant wastes, waste paper, oat straw, waste tea leaves, some water plants and others. A. bisporus has many usages in human dietary and pharmaceutical fields due to its composition of essential amino acids, fatty acids, carbohydrates, low calories, crude fibers, trace elements and vitamins. Recently synthesized nanoparticles from A. bisporus were used to treat cancer, viral, bacterial and fungal diseases. The goal of this review is to highlight recent data about recycling wastes for Agaricus production and applications of A. bisporus as a reducing agent in the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles. Organically produced foods are currently highly desirable, but it can also be used for ecofriendly biosynthesis of nanoparticles.
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The fruit bodies of four mushroom varieties viz., Agaricus bisporus, Pleurotus eous, Volvariella volvacea and Lentinula edodes were analysed for their proximate composition. V. volvacea with 38.10% was richest in protein, followed by A. bisporus, P. eous and L. edodes. A. biporus was found to contain higher levels of fat, vitamin D, sodium, potassium and selenium compared to other three mushrooms. However, it had relatively low potassium: sodium ratio. P. eous was rich in iron and zinc and it was nearly two folds higher than other mushrooms. L. edodes was found to contain lowest level of both potassium and sodium but potassium: sodium ratio was highest in this mushroom along with manganese. Ultraviolet-C (254 nm) exposure of the fruiting bodies of A. bisporus and V. volvacea for different durations revealed nearly 2-4 folds enhancement in vitamin-D content in these two mushrooms. Exposure time of 15 and 45 min was found optimum for enhancement in vitamin D content in strain DMR- 3 and Horst U3 strain of A. bisporus, respectively, while it was 30 min for V. volvacea.
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Adults with metabolic syndrome from different race/ethnicities are often predisposed to developing type 2 diabetes (T2D); however, growing evidence suggests that healthy diets and lifestyle choices can significantly slow or prevent progression to T2D. This poorly understood relationship to healthy dietary patterns and prevention of T2D motivated us to conduct a retrospective analysis to determine the potential impact of a minor dietary lifestyle change (daily mushroom consumption) on known T2D risk factors in racially diverse adults with confirmed features of the metabolic syndrome. Retrospectively, we studied 37 subjects who had participated in a dietary intervention focused on vitamin D bioavailability from white button mushrooms (WBM). All 37 had previously completed a 16-week study where they consumed 100 g of WBM daily and were then followed-up for one month during which no mushrooms were consumed. We analyzed differences in serum risk factors from baseline to 16-week, and from baseline to one-month follow-up. Measurement of serum diabetic risk factors included inflammatory and oxidative stress markers and the antioxidant component naturally rich in mushrooms, ergothioneine. Significant beneficial health effects were observed at 16-week with the doubling of ergothioneine from baseline, increases in the antioxidant marker ORAC (oxygen radical absorption capacity) and anti-inflammatory hormone, adiponectin and significant decreases in serum oxidative stress inducing factors, carboxymethyllysine (CML) and methylglyoxal (MG), but no change in the lipid oxidative stress marker 8-isoprostane, leptin or measures of insulin resistance or glucose metabolism. We conclude that WBM contain a variety of compounds with potential anti-inflammatory and antioxidant health benefits that can occur with frequent consumption over time in adults predisposed to T2D. Well-controlled studies are needed to confirm these findings and identify the specific mushroom components beneficial to health.
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A robust and reliable method has been developed for the measurement of β-glucan in mushroom and mycelial products. Total glucan (plus free glucose and glucose from sucrose) was measured using controlled acid hydrolysis with H2SO4 and the glucose released specifically was measured using glucose oxidase/peroxidase reagent. α-Glucan (starch/glycogen) plus free glucose and glucose from sucrose were specifically measured after hydrolysis of starch/glycogen to glucose with glucoamylase and sucrose to glucose plus fructose with invertase and the glucose specifically measured with GOPOD reagent. β-Glucan was determined by the difference. Several acid and enzyme-based methods for the hydrolysis of the β-glucan were compared, and the best option was the method using H2SO4. For most samples, similar β-glucan values were obtained with both the optimized HCl and H2SO4 procedures. However, in the case of certain samples, specifically Ganoderma lucidum and Poria cocus, the H2SO4 procedure resulted in significantly higher values. Hydrolysis with 2 N trifluoroacetic acid at 120°C was found to be much less effective than either of the other two acids evaluated. Assays based totally on enzymatic hydrolysis, in general, yielded much lower values than those obtained with the H2SO4 procedure.
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Mushroom, a nutrient-dense versatile food can share some of the benefits of fruits and vegetable and complement almost any everyday meal. Mushroom cultivation also requires low technology, low investment and can be grown in very little space. Due to culinary, nutritional and health benefits, the mushroom market is expected to grow as “a food, a tonic and a medicine”. In the study food value of mushroom was found comparatively higher than that of other vegetables, fruits, meat and fish. This discussion suggests that the potentiality of mushroom cultivation could be a possible offer to alternate food and develop the life style of the people. DOI: J. Dhaka National Med. Coll. Hos. 2012; 18 (01): 58-62
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There are At least 12000 species of fungi that can be considered as mushrooms with at least 2000 species showing various degrees of edibility. To date, only about 35 mushrooms species have been cultivated commercially, and about 20 are currently on an industrial scale. The majority of these cultivated species are both edible and posses certain medicinal properties [6]. Mushrooms are in prime focus in the food industry for their multi-functional benefits. They are gaining popularity owing to their high nutritional values and are gradually approaching a “super food” status. Mushrooms are a rich source of proteins and have very low or zero fat and cholesterol, and hence are widely accepted in most of the regions of the world. Increase in the consumption of processed food across the world is one of the major driving factors of the mushroom market. Being a promising and profitable business, mushroom cultivation is widely adopted by growers. Factors such as R&D and innovations to enhance the acceptability and continuous improving technologies to increase mushroom shelf-life are also projected to drive the mushroom market in the next five years. Technological developments in the mushroom industry in general have witnessed increasing production capacities, innovations in cultivation technologies, improvements to final mushroom goods, and utilization of mushrooms' natural qualities for environmental benefits, mainly due to contributions from developing countries such as China, India, and Vietnam. However, there is always the need to maintain current trends and to continue to seek out new opportunities. The challenge is to recognize opportunities such as increasing consumption capabilities with the increase in world population and to take advantage of this by promoting the consumption of mushrooms. Those countries, in which mushroom cultivation is not yet well established, will find difficulty to cope with the new competitive circumstances generated by globalisation. Some insights into biotechnological development of mushroom production in the world are reviewed in this paper.
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Four edible mushroom species (Pleurotus ostreatus, Agaricus bisporus, Volvariella volvacea, Ganoderma lucidum) from different locations of Bangladesh, were analysed for their protein and metal content profile (K, Na, Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn, Cr, Pb, As and Cd). Trace metals were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometer, Na and K by flame emission spectrophotometer and protein by micro Kjeldhal method. All element concentrations were determined on a dry weight basis. The protein content of mushrooms varied from 13.8%–34.3% and the metal content of samples ranged from 0.54–2.25% for K and 12.6–81.6, 69.5–626.2, 39.2–163.4, 30.1–75.5, 52.9–104.5, 0.20–0.30, 0.13–0.59 μg g-1 for Na, Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn, Cd, Pb, respectively. Arsenic and cadmium concentrations were below the detection limit of the method used. The detection limits of the method for As and Cd are 0.01 μg g-1 for each element. In general, K and Fe content were higher than other metals in all mushroom species. The levels of Cu and Zn in some mushroom samples were found to be higher than legal limits.
This review distinguishes myco-nanotechnology using metallic nanoparticles (meta-NPs) synthesized from edible mushroom matter. Green chemistry approaches were attempted to myco-synthesize meta-NPs (viz., Ag-NP, Au-NP, Se-NP, CdS-NP, Fe-NP, Pa-NP, and ZnS-NP) via different routes using edible mushrooms and have been tested toward 79% biomedical and 21% industrial applications. Biomaterials were used as biofactors to form metallic NPs. In mushroom science, mycomaterials of mushrooms were used at different percentages to mycosynthesize in an ecofriendly/green way; mycomaterials such as crude extracts of basidocarp (53%), mycelial extract or free cell filtrate (28%), in crude form or in purified form such as polysaccharides at different percentages; 9% (especially glucan), proteins/enzymes (7%) and polysaccharides protein complex (3%) as new research lines. Generally, in this field of mushroom nanoparticles about 84% of mycosynthesized NPs using mushrooms are placed outside the fungal cell (extracellular) and 16% are intracellular in the mushroom hyphae. The knowledge of the performance and influence of meta-NPs in edible mushrooms has developed in the last 10 years. Generally, while
Fresh mushrooms have been known as a functional food, especially as a good source of vitamins from B-group. The work determined the effect of pre-treatment (blanching, vacuum soaking), method of freezing (air-blast and cryogenic), temperature (−20 °C, −30 °C) and period (0, 6, 12 months) of frozen storage on the vitamins profile in white A. bisporus. Niacin and riboflavin were the most abundant vitamins in all mushroom products (154–362 mg; 1.57–5.06 mg/100 g dm, respectively). The greatest influence on the vitamins profile was pre-treatment. The highest levels of vitamin B3 and L-ascorbic acid were found in blanched mushrooms, vitamin B6 in vacuum soaked, α-tocopherol and vitamin B1 in unblanched. The greatest losses occurred between the 6th and 12th month of storage, and therefore mushrooms should not be stored for longer than 6 months. After storage the greatest losses were found in vitamin B1, L-ascorbic acid and α-tocopherol. A. bisporus mushrooms contain small amounts of L-ascorbic acid and α-tocopherol, therefore the level of vitamin B1 may be regarded as a quality indicator. The freezing method affected only vitamin B3, with levels higher after cryogenic than air-blast freezing. The storage temperature generally had no effect on vitamin levels.