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The Cultural Biography of Landscape As An Interdisciplinary Tool For Landscape Planning At Banjarmasin City, South Kalimantan Province, Indonesia

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During the twentieth century concepts of the cultural landscape have been developed that have led to the inclusion of the cultural dimension in landscape studies. The implication of this in landscape planning and management is that planners should not only comprehend the physical dimension of a landscape, but also its social and mental dimensions. In the case of Indonesia the cultural dimension of spatial planning has been overlooked so far in planning theory and practices. More attention has been spent on economic, political and physical aspects despite the fact that Indonesia is extremely rich in tropical ecosystems, cultural landscapes and ethnicities. Banjarmasin city which is well known as ‘Kota Seribu Sungai’ or the Thousands Rivers city, has a unique landscape character and has played an important role in Indonesian history. Positioned in a tidal swamp area at the mouth of a river, its location has greatly influenced the past development of the Banjarmasin landscape and its local culture. Previous studies of Banjarmasin city indicated that the preceding urban development did not consider the historical and cultural facts of its waterways. As a result, it has caused hydrological problems and the rivers and canals are merely perceived as drainage. The objective of this paper is to answer the main question: “How can cultural values act as a driving force for future landscape planning, public participation and heritage management in Banjarmasin city?” An interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary approach, in which the study of the biography of a landscape, the participatory planning and landscape design have been combined, is applied in the research method of the PhD project presented here. Currently, the research is in its early stages and explores the landscape biography of Banjarmasin. This paper covers the research framework and methods where interdisciplinary approach and action research have been applied. Keywords: landscape biography, landscape planning, landscape history, public participation
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437
The Cultural Biography of Landscape as an Interdisciplinary Tool for
Landscape Planning at Banjarmasin City, South Kalimantan Province,
Indonesia
Vera D Damayanti¹ & Theo Spek2
¹ PhD Student, University of Groningen, Centre for Landscape Studies; postal address: PO Box 716, NL-9700 AS
Groningen, The Netherlands; email: v.d.damayanti@rug.nl
2 Professor of Landscape History, University of Groningen, Centre for Landscape Studies; postal address: PO Box
716, NL-9700 AS, Groningen, The Netherlands; email: theo.spek@rug.nl
Abstract
During the twentieth century concepts of cultural landscape have been developed that have led to the
inclusion of the cultural dimension in landscape studies. The implication of this in landscape planning and
management is that planners should not only comprehend the physical dimension of a landscape, but also
its social and mental dimensions.
In the case of Indonesia the cultural dimension of spatial planning has been overlooked so far in planning
theory and practices. More attention has been spent on economic, political and physical aspects despite
the fact that Indonesia is extremely rich in tropical ecosystems, cultural landscapes and ethnicities.
Banjarmasin city which is well known as ‘Kota Seribu Sungai’ or the Thousands Rivers city, has a unique
landscape character and has played an important role in Indonesian history. Positioned in a tidal swamp
area at the mouth of a river, its location has greatly influenced the past development of the Banjarmasin
landscape and its local culture. Previous studies of Banjarmasin city indicated that the preceding urban
development did not consider the historical and cultural facts of its waterways. As a result it has caused
hydrological problems and the rivers and canals are merely perceived as drainage.
The objective of this paper is to answer the main question: “How can cultural values act as a driving force
for future landscape planning, public participation and heritage management in Banjarmasin city?” An
interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary approach, in which the study of the biography of landscape, the
participatory planning and landscape design have been combined, is applied in the research method of the
PhD project presented here. Currently the research is in its early stages and explores the landscape
biography of Banjarmasin. This paper covers the research framework and methods where interdisciplinary
approach and action research have been applied.
Keywords: landscape biography, landscape planning, landscape history, public participation
INTRODUCTION
Background
Cultural landscapes and their sustainable development have gained growing attention during the
twentieth century when urbanization and globalization have undergone rapid growth. The
situation caused a large impact on landscape changes that threatened environments and local
identities. Furthermore, these phenomena have influenced the understanding of landscape
which is not merely about physical landscapes and land use, but also conveys the cultural values
of its inhabitants.
Paper presented in The 52nd World Congress of the International Federation of Landscape Architects, St
Petersburg Russia, 10-12 June 2015. The paper is peer-reviewed and published in the conference’s Proceeding
(on page 437-444) by the Peter the Great Saint-Petersburg State Polytechnic University Publishing House. Full
proceeding can be accessed at https://www.scribd.com/doc/270375967/52nd-IFLA-Word-Congress-2015-
Proceedings
438
The implication of the concept in landscape planning and management is that planners should not
only comprehend the physical dimension of a landscape, but also its social and mental dimensions:
landscape as it is or was perceived, managed and used by people throughout history (Jacob, 2006).
In reality the cultural dimension of spatial planning is less taken into account in planning theory
and practices. Nevertheless, research in order to develop a conceptual framework for cultural
landscapes, as well as the development of methods to apply this knowledge into landscape
planning and management are carried on continuously (Marcucci, 2000; Von Haaren, 2002).
Regarding the exploration of the cultural dimension integration in landscape planning and heritage
management, a PhD research will be developed in the years 2014-2017. Using Banjarmasin city
as a case study, the research is conducted to answer the main question: “How can cultural values
act as a driving force for future landscape planning, public participation and heritage management
in Banjarmasin city?” Currently the research is in its early stages and explores the landscape
biography of Banjarmasin. This paper will cover the research framework and methods where
interdisciplinary approach and action research have been applied.
The study area: Banjarmasin city
The research area is in Banjarmasin city, the capital city of South Kalimantan province, Indonesia,
which is populated by 656.778 inhabitants. The big rivers, such as Mahakam, Kapuas and Barito
rivers; and the tropical rainforest are the main natural landscape features of Kalimantan Island.
Banjarmasin city is situated in the most southern part of the island, approximately 50 km from the
mouth of the Barito River [Appendix 1]. The city has hundreds of rivers, creeks, and canals, and
is well known as ‘Kota Seribu Sungai’ or the Thousands Rivers city.
The Banjarmasin landscape is shaped by the interaction of humans and riverine environment over
many centuries. This interaction has largely influenced the cultural traditions and historic
character of the city. In the past, the Banjarmasin Sultanate had a significant political impact in
the island and indeed it was affected by the court’s strategic location in the intersection of the
Barito and Kuin Rivers. Thus, the port of Sultanate played an important role as the centre of
pepper trading during the Dutch East Indies (Sulandjari, 1991). Furthermore, up to present the
locals has used rivers and canals to support their lives such as for transportation, economic
activities, and even for bathing and washing [Appendix 2].
Banjarmasin today involves important demographic and economic growth, marked by rapid
urbanization and industrialization which have triggered the landscape change profoundly. Rivers
and canals have been degraded, many of them were removed for settlement and urban
infrastructure development. These activities has changed the city character from a river-based
towards a land-based city (Subiyakto, 2004). In the socio-cultural dimension, there is a perception
shift of local people from-river-to-land-based culture that probably has been fostered by migrants.
These phenomena have not only caused hydrological problems such as urban sanitation and
floods, but also threatened the cultural heritage of Banjarmasin.
THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
The development of a theoretical framework and methodology for this research is supported by
several concepts. The concepts emerged from different fields of study, i.e. history, geography,
social, landscape and planning sciences. Their interplay has created an interdisciplinary approach
of the research project.
439
The cultural landscape
The cultural landscape concept emphasizes that landscape is shaped by the interactions between
humans and their environment over time. In this context, landscape contains tangible and
intangible elements which represent the relation of humans and environment. To explore this
relation, the Cultural Values Model of Stephenson (2008) will be applied. In this model, humans
value the landscape based on three components: forms, processes, and relationships.
Another significant aspect of this concept is the temporal dimension of landscape. Today’s
landscape is the result of humans-environment interaction in the past. It implies that present
interaction will influence the future landscape for the next generation. Therefore, landscape is
similar to a cultural product in which the authorship is changing through time. In other words
landscape is heritage which has been passed by one generation to another. This perception not
only underlays the development of the biography of landscape, but also the paradigm shift in
planning and managing landscape as a heritage.
The biography of landscape
The concept of biography of landscape for the landscape history study was first proposed by the
American geographer Marwyn Samuels. He argued that people as ‘authors’ have a main role in
shaping a landscape over time. Their own perceptions of space and place or landscape of
impression” influences the way to manage the landscape through organizing physical elements
which resulting a “landscape of expression” (Samuels, 1979 in Kolen and Witte, 2007). In this
context, landscape reflects the culture of its inhabitants and culture shapes landscape; the change
of one side will influence another (Stephenson, 2008). This preposition indicates that landscapes
change continuously in time and space.
In the Netherlands, the landscape biography approach is based on the term of ‘biography’ which
is derived from anthropology. It has been adopted to describe the long history of landscape evolution
that passed by one generation to another, and therefore experiences modifications and shifts in social
context through time (Kolen and Witte, 2007). In this approach landscape is seen as material culture
as well as immaterial perception and signification, so that the landscape biography integrates the
history of physical landscape transformation in association with the social meanings attached to the
landscape. The application of biography of landscape approach for an action research in Drenthe Aa
Northern Netherland has successfully laid a foundation for interdisciplinary landscape research,
participatory landscape planning and integrated landscape management (Elerie and Spek, 2010).
Landscape Planning
Landscape planning is an imperative tool “to regulate the relationship between man and
environment in landscape” towards a more sustainable landscape (Von Haaren, 2002). This
practice attempts to accommodate the interests of society on landscape by focusing on multi-
functional use on the one hand, and protect the landscape environmentally on the other. In this
research, the practice is seen from two viewpoints. Firstly, landscape planning is considered as a
cultural product which contributes to the landscape change (Marcucci, 2000), therefore, it
becomes important subject to be explored in the landscape biography. Secondly, landscape
planning is an activity with a long-term perspective to solve prevailing problem in order to create
a better landscape. Within a planning activity, the application of landscape history or biography
of landscape will: (1) enhance inventory because it provides comprehensive information within
historical framework, (2) assist planner to identify problem more precisely, and (3) facilitates plan
production in analysis and creating solutions (Marcucci, 2000).
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Public participation
Public participation is defined as a method to integrate scientific and local knowledge by involving
inhabitants and stakeholders at early stages of planning processes (Elerie and Spek, 2010).
Involving people in planning, policy making, and implementation is important because these
people are in fact the authors of landscapes. Therefore, their inputs could be very beneficial for
the landscape planning and management and their sustainability. To do so, it is significant to
understand locals’ perception on the landscape problem, because it is assumed that their perception
could be unlike those of other stakeholders and planners, thus, potential to cause future conflicts.
A tri-partite model’ will be applied to analyse the different perceptions among stakeholders. This
model is based on the work of the German philosopher Jürgen Habermas. It explains that people
may see a landscape as three different ontological dimensions, called matterscape i.e. landscape
as physical reality, powerscape i.e. landscape as a social reality and construction, and
mindscape’ i.e. landscape as a personal inner reality (Jacobs, 2006). These dimensions need to
be identified in order to avoid the misinterpretation of prevailing problem which might be
perceived differently by stakeholders, e.g. inhabitants, scholars, and authorities, so that the final
solution will be effective and acceptable by all parties.
RESEARCH DESIGN
Research Framework
Figure 1 illustrates a framework to integrate the cultural biography of landscape in landscape
planning. The diagram shows that landscape is transformed from landscape a to n as a result of
the interaction between the physical environment and humans or culture over time. Indeed, the
landscape also might be changed because of the natural forces. However, humans are considered
as the main cause in the landscape change.
Internal and external factors that could be driven by political, economy, social, or technology
potentially affect humans perception and relation with the physical environment. Consequently,
the landscape setting was altered based on their new impression of the landscape, which lead to
the landscape transformation. The cultural biography of landscape attempts to depict the
transformation of the physical landscape related to the phenomena which occurred in the community
within a certain period. This information is useful as a source of historical facts in landscape planning
and heritage in which to improve issues identification and to influence the plan making (Marcucci 2000).
Figure 1. Diagram of research framework which shows the integration of biography of landscape and
landscape planning
HUMANS
cultural
value on
landscape
PAST
PRESENT
Better
FUTURE
landscape
Participatory
landscape
planning &
heritage
management
Biography of landscape
External-
internal
factor
LANDSCAPE
a
LANDSCAPE
n
LANDSCAPE
?
HUMANS
(culture)
HUMANS
cultural
value on
landscape
HUMANS
cultural
value on
landscape
Historical Process
Landscape transformation from
a to b to c to d…..to n
HUMANS
cultural
value on
landscape
LANDSCAPE
b
External-
internal
factor
External-
internal
factor
External-
internal
factor
Cultural Values Model
441
Public participation in the planning process is widely promoted because it determines the
successful outcome of the plan. The involvement of people and their perceptions in this research
project will probably provide a better insight of humans-environment interaction and actual
landscape problems. Public participation is established in the biography of landscape production
where community gives information of how they value landscape which is approached by the
Cultural Values Model. Furthermore, in the landscape planning, public participation is conducted
by incorporate community’s perception and opinion related to landscape problem and their needs.
Their perception is analysed using the tri-partite approach.
Geographical and chronological framework
The study area of this research is Banjarmasin city. However, because the historical fact shows
the territory of Banjarmasin Sultanate in a certain period reached east and centre Kalimantan
region, the study will occasionally go beyond the present city borderline. For the landscape
planning and heritage management theme, a specific case study will be selected within the city
based on specific criteria such as its location referred to the river, the historical value, and the built
environment intensity.
In order to summarize complex data sets into a well-ordered time framework, the biography of
landscape initially is constructed in a sequence according to the political history period in
Indonesia. The reconstruction starts with the natural landscape of Banjarmasin prior to the
establishment of the Sultanate, followed by the Sultanate period (1526-1860), the Dutch VOC
administration (1860-1919), the Dutch colonial government and Japan occupation (1919-1949),
the old and new order (1949-1998), and the last is the reformation era up to present (1998-2014).
Simultaneously, keystone processes will be identified to derive the historical timeline of landscape
change of Banjarmasin city. Keystone processes is defined as “processes which existed in a
landscape and significantly will result a new course of the landscape; it includes
geomorphological processes, climate change, colonization, patterns and growth of organisms,
local disturbance of ecosystems, and cultural processes” (Marcucci, 2000, p. 72). The biography
will not only contain a description of physical patterns and processes, but will also relate to the
discourse that is connected to these patterns and processes.
Methods
Data collecting and analysis applies qualitative research methods. The historical data to support
the landscape biography of Banjarmasin includes historical maps, history of environmental
condition, social, politic and economy of Banjarmasin, and town plans. Those data are collected
from various sources such as research monographs and articles, archives, reports and historical
atlases. Field observations and interviews with experts and resource persons are also conducted
to verify the historical facts and to explore the discourse of town development. Indepth interviews,
focus group discussion, and participatory mapping are undertaken to obtain cultural values on
Banjarmasin landscape. The entire collected data is analyzed qualitatively and spatially.
The next stage of the research is to apply the landscape biography in a participatory landscape
planning of selected area which is illustrated diagrammatically in [Figure 2]. A combination of
active interview with the community and focus group discussion (FGD) with stakeholders are
applied to gain a rich data about landscape perception and aspiration of the selected site,
particularly in connection with the cultural values of landscape and the environmental issues. The
environmental problem is analyzed using the tri-partite model and linked to the cultural values of
landscape. Based on the analysis, several alternatives of conceptual landscape plan produced and
proposed in a workshop with stakeholder to select the best one. The selected alternative becomes
442
the landscape vision of the site which subsequently underlays the landscape development plan.
Furthermore, the concept will also be used to elaborate methods and strategies to involve people
and increase their awareness in the management of landscape heritage of the selected site.
Figure 2. The diagram of participatory landscape planning process in this research
IMPLICATION
This research provides a framework to apply the biography of landscape into the planning process
in an interdisciplinary way. The theoretical framework and methods of data collection and analysis
in this research are derived from the history, geography, social, landscape and planning sciences.
Knowledge exchange among stakeholders through in-depth interviews and focus group
discussions in the making of biography of landscape and landscape planning process demonstrate
not only participatory approach but also interdisciplinary knowledge between stakeholders.
Regarding the participatory approach in landscape planning, several points need to be concerned.
The approach will probably influence the time-schedule of the planning process compared to top-
down planning approaches and the duration will increase if the planning covers larger areas
because more number of community members and stakeholder need to be involved. However,
involving community in the activity is advantageous in several ways: first, it helps planner to
identify the actual problems and community’s needs; second, it is useful as a source to define
place-identity which generated by the community, and finally the plan implementation gain
supports from the community and will least to less public protests. Another advantage of this
method is that it inspires planners not only to produce a plan, but also to be a moderator of a
participatory planning process. They can bridge knowledge and perception among stakeholders
and profit from their inputs to produce a widely supported plan that will cause less protests and
time-consuming jurisdiction procedures.
Collecting
data
Analysis
Synthesis
Concept
Plan
Secondary
data,
observation,
FGD
stakeholder
Biography of
landscape,
existing
condition,
problem
identification
Descriptive
using tri-
partite; spatial
analysis
Main problem,
maps of
analysis
Studio activity;
engage local
professionals
Alternative
concepts
Workshop to
select one
alternative
Landscape
vision
Studio activity,
engage local
professionals
Site plan,
illustrations,
heritage
management
plan
METHOD
OUTPUT
PHASE
443
REFERENCES
ELERIE, H. and SPEK, T. (2010) The Cultural Biography of Landscape As A Tool For Action Research
In The Drentsche Aa National Landscape (Northern Netherlands). In: Bloemers, J.H.F., H. Kars, A. Van
der Valk and M. Wijnen (eds.). The Cultural Landscape Heritage Paradox. Protection and Development
of the Dutch Archaeological-historical Landscape and its European Dimension. The Netherlands:
Amsterdam University Press.
JACOBS, M. (2006) The Production of Mindscapes: A Comprehensive Theory of Landscape Experience.
The Netherlands: Wageningen University.
KOLEN, J., and WITTE, M. (2006) A Biographical Approach To Regions, And Its Value For Spatial
Planning. In: De Boer, I., Carsjens, G.J., and Van der Valk, A (eds.). Multiple Landscape. Merging Past
and Present in Landscape Planning. The Netherlands: ISOMUL.
MARCUCCI, D.J. (2000) Landscape History As A Planning Tool. Landscape and Urban Planning. 49
(1-2), p. 6781.
STEPHENSON, J. (2008) The Cultural Values Model: An integrated approach to values in landscapes.
Landscape and Urban Planning. 84 (2), p. 127139.
SUBIYAKTO, B. (2004) Infrastruktur Pelayaran Sungai Kota Banjarmasin Tahun 1900-1970.
Surabaya: Universitas Airlangga.
SULANDJARI (1991) Politik Perdagangan Lada di Kesultanan Banjarmasin (1747-1787). Master
Thesis. Jakarta: Universitas Indonesia.
VON HAAREN, C. (2002) Landscape Planning Facing The Challenge of The Development of Cultural
Landscapes. Landscape and Urban Planning 60 (2), 7380.
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Appendix 1. Location of Banjarmasin city
Appendix 2. Banjarmasin riverscape: a. the Muara Kuin floating market; b. locals’ activities; c. canal for
transportation in traditional kampong; d. a market in the riverbank; e. a modern commercial area, f. Sultanate
graveyard and mosque in a historical quarter
EAST
KALIMANTAN
CENTRAL
KALIMANTAN
WEST
KALIMANTAN
SOUTH
KALIMANTAN
INDONESIA
KALIMANTAN
BANJARMASIN
0 1 2 3 5 Km
Source: BAPPEDA Banjarmasin
a
b
c
f
e
d
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KOLEN, J., and WITTE, M. (2006) A Biographical Approach To Regions, And Its Value For Spatial Planning. In: De Boer, I., Carsjens, G.J., and Van der Valk, A (eds.). Multiple Landscape. Merging Past and Present in Landscape Planning. The Netherlands: ISOMUL.