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Abstract

The medicinal benefits of Plantago major have been acknowledged around the world for hundreds of years. This plant contains a number of effective chemical constituents including flavonoids, alkaloids, terpenoids, phenolic acid derivatives, iridoid glycosides, fatty acids, polysaccharides and vitamins which contribute to its exerting specific therapeutic effects. Correspondingly, studies have found that Plantago major is effective as a wound healer, as well as an antiulcerative, antidiabetic, antidiarrhoeal, anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, antibacterial, and antiviral agent. It also combats fatigue and cancer, is an antioxidant and a free radical scavenger. This paper provides a review of the medicinal benefits and chemical constituents of Plantago major published in journals from year 1937 to 2015 which are available from PubMed, ScienceDirect and Google Scholar.

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... This suggests the need of preventing those side effects to ensure the treatment is successful, such as administering hepatoprotective compounds. Plantago major is herbal plant with antioxidant and hepatoprotective properties [6][7][8][9], rich in phenol and flavonoid compounds which function as antioxidants [6]. Phenol compounds like acetonide [8] and flavonoids like luteolin [10,11], apigenin [12,13], baicalein [14,15], and hispidulin [16] have antioxidant and hepatoprotective properties, thereby protecting against free radical damage [8,17]. ...
... This suggests the need of preventing those side effects to ensure the treatment is successful, such as administering hepatoprotective compounds. Plantago major is herbal plant with antioxidant and hepatoprotective properties [6][7][8][9], rich in phenol and flavonoid compounds which function as antioxidants [6]. Phenol compounds like acetonide [8] and flavonoids like luteolin [10,11], apigenin [12,13], baicalein [14,15], and hispidulin [16] have antioxidant and hepatoprotective properties, thereby protecting against free radical damage [8,17]. ...
... The administration of extracts PM1 and PM2 showed hepatoprotection effects, as evidenced by the inhibition of elevated levels of SGPT, MDA, and a lower percentage of portal inflammation than the negative controls (Figures 1 and 2). This is in line with the hypothesis that Plantago major contains bioactive phenolic substances including acetonide and flavonoid substances like luteolin, apigenin, baicalein, and hispidulin, which have antioxidant and hepatoprotective properties [6]. Several other researchers who used other herbals with those bioactive properties also reported hepatoprotective effects. ...
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Tuberculosis (TB) is an ancient human disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis which affects the lungs, making pulmonary disease the most common presentation. Herbal medicine began to be developed as hepatoprotection. The hepatoprotection effects of Plantago major extract on serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT), liver tissue Malondialdehyde (MDA), and histopathological changes were evaluated in rifampicin and isoniazid-induced hepatitis rats. Thirty male Wistar rats were divided into 6 groups: Group I received 1 % PGA, with hepatitis induced in the remaining groups by rifampicin and isoniazid 50 mg/kg BW/day, group II was only given rifampicin and isoniazid, group III was given curcuma 10.8 mg/kg BW/day and groups IV (PM1), V (PM2), and VI (PM3) were given Plantago major extract at a dose of 20.3, 40.5, and 81 mg/kg BW/day, respectively. The rats were treated for 28 days. Administration of Plantago major extract (20.3 and 40.5 mg/kg BW/day) inhibited the elevation of serum SGPT and MDA levels, with less portal inflammation than the negative control group. The rats treated with the higher dose of 81 mg/kg BW/day had serum SGPT, MDA, and percentage portal inflammation equivalent to the negative control group. The Plantago major extract at a dose of 20.3 and 40.5 mg/kg BW can inhibit the elevated serum SGPT. Plantago major extract exerts dose-dependent hepatoprotection effects in a rifampicin-isoniazid induced hepatitis rat model by reducing elevated levels of SGPT, liver tissue MDA, as well as the percentage of portal inflammation. HIGHLIGHTS To the knowledge of the authors, there has been no comprehensive work dedicated to antituberculosis drugs The administration of Plantago major extract showed hepatoprotector effects, as evidenced by the inhibition of elevated levels of SGPT, MDA, and a lower percentage of portal inflammation than the negative controls Plantago major extract can be used as herbal medicine that can be juxtaposed with the main drug in TB patients GRAPHICAL ABSTRACT
... Quercetin is a plentiful polyphenolic flavonoid that has a number of health-promoting properties, including strong vasodilators, cancer-preventative properties, anti-inflammatory properties, and advantages for asthma, among many others [55]. Additionally, luteolin and apigenin can lessen the occurrence of mouth sores and provide modest symptom relief as well as limit the viability of leukemic cells, colon and ovarian carcinoma cells, and, in particular, human breast cancer cells [56]. Moreover, kaempferol and avicularin are nontoxic and have potent antioxidant, hepatoprotective, antidiabetic, and anti-inflammatory properties [57]. ...
... erties, anti-inflammatory properties, and advantages for asthma, among many others [55]. Additionally, luteolin and apigenin can lessen the occurrence of mouth sores and provide modest symptom relief as well as limit the viability of leukemic cells, colon and ovarian carcinoma cells, and, in particular, human breast cancer cells [56]. Moreover, kaempferol and avicularin are nontoxic and have potent antioxidant, hepatoprotective, antidiabetic, and anti-inflammatory properties [57]. ...
... Halawani [23] found that P. vulgaris was highly susceptible to all of the TR flower extracts. In contrast, Adom et al. [56] found that the aqueous extract of P. major has no antimicrobial activity. Thus, pharmaceutical studies are required to separate, purify, and identify the phytochemical compounds in the ethanolic, methanolic, and water extracts of TR flowers and SDW. ...
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The objective of the current study was to examine the chemical composition and biological functions of the various Taif’s rose (TR) organs and floral solid distillation wastes (SDW). Additionally, it assessed the SDW’s potential use in animal feed and potential health applications. For chemical and biological analyses, the plant stems, leaves, and flowers as well as the SDW of TR were gathered from four farms in the Al-Shafa highland region of Taif, Saudi Arabia. The highest levels of cardiac glycosides, flavonoids, and phenolics were found in the flowers (7.66 mg securiaside g􀀀1, 16.33 mg GAE g􀀀1, and 10.90 mg RUE g􀀀1, respectively), while the highest carbohydrate and alkaloid contents were found in the TR leaves (2.09% and 9.43 mg AE g􀀀1, respectively) with no significant differences from the SDW. Quercetin, apigenin, and rutin flavonoids, as well as isocorydine and boldine alkaloids, were found in larger concentrations in the flowers and floral SDW than in the leaves and stems. The various TR flower extracts were effective against Gram-negative and -positive bacteria but had no effect on fungal strains, but the SDW’s methanol extract was only effective against fungi. The plant stem had the highest N, K, and Mg contents (138, 174, and 96.12 mg kg􀀀1, respectively), while the leaves had the highest P and Ca values (6.58 and 173.93 mg kg􀀀1, respectively). The leaves had the highest contents of total carbohydrates and acid detergent fibre (59.85 and 3.93%, respectively), while the stems had the highest total protein and acid detergent fibre (8.66 and 24.17%, respectively), and the SDW had the highest fats and crude fiber (0.57 and 36.52%, respectively). The highest amounts of digestible crude protein, gross energy, and total dissolved nutrients (TDN) (4.52% and 412.61 Mcal kg􀀀1) were found in the plant stem and flowers, respectively. The results of the current experiment showed that the TDN contents of the various organs and the SDW of TR are suitable for mature dry gestating beef cows. It was determined that, in addition to the SDW’s potential usage as an ingredient in animal feed, various plant parts and TR’s SDW can be utilized for a variety of medical reasons.
... In this regard, Plantago major is a perennial plant that belongs to the Plantaginaceae family. is plant is native to most of Europe and northern and central Asia [10,11]. In traditional medicine, this plant has been extensively used in a number of diseases related to ophthalmology, reproduction, pulmonology, gastrointestinal system, otorhinolaryngology, and dermatology [12]. ...
... In recent years, researchers have found several bioactive compounds and mechanisms that are responsible for the wide range of medical benefits of this plant. Flavonoid compounds that are isolated from the whole plant contain antidiabetic, antidiarrheal, anti-inflammatory, and wound-healing capacity [11]. Polyphenols and polysaccharides are as well responsible for their healing effects. ...
... Polyphenols and polysaccharides are as well responsible for their healing effects. Phenols and flavonoids are also antioxidative agents of P.major that contribute to wound healing by protecting the cells from destruction by inflammatory agents [11]. In animal studies, the P. major crude extract likely speeded up healing activity and regeneration of the epidermis layer [13,14]. ...
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Background: Great plantain (Plantago major L. or P.major) is a medicinal plant that is available all around the world. The whole plant has several bioactive compounds including terpenoids, flavonoids, phenolic compounds, alkaloids, fatty acids, iridoid glycosides, polysaccharides, and vitamins. Scientific studies have recognized several medical benefits like wound healing, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antiulcerative, and antioxidative agents. The wound-healing capacity of this plant has been investigated under in vivo and ex vivo conditions. In the current study, we aim to compare the therapeutic effect of the P.major extract with 1% sulfadiazine on the healing of second-degree burn wounds. Method: Second-degree burn victims were included in our study. The investigation and control group, respectively, received P. major ointment 10% and silver sulfadiazine ointment 1%. The bacterial culture from the wound site was taken on days 3, 7, 10, 13, and last day of hospitalization. Patients' subjective complaints were obtained through the visual analog scale (VAS). All patients were treated and evaluated in the hospital. Result: Among the 15 patients, 11 were male, and the mean age was 33.3 years. The average complete healing duration was 11.73 vs. 13 days in the P. major and control group, respectively (P=0.166). On the third day, infection control was similar between the two groups, and on the seventh day, all bacterial cultures were negative. Although there was a significant reduction in pain scores during the recovery time, no significant differences in pain reduction were noted between the two groups (P=0.849). Conclusion: We showed that P.major ointment is a safe and suitable herbal compound in the treatment of second-degree burn wounds that not only has wound-healing properties but also is an analgesic and antimicrobial compound.
... Plantain (Plantago lanceolata) has been used since ancient times in traditional medicine, either as such or in the form of tinctures, decoctions, or infusions. At the base of the medicinal properties are the active principles [1][2][3][4][5], with antioxidant, and antitumor properties [6][7][8][9] as polysaccharides [10][11][12], polyphenols [3,5,8] alkaloids, terpenoids (ursolic acid, oleanolic acid), caffeic acid derivatives (plantamajoside, acteoside or verbascoside), iridoid glycosides (aucubin, catalpol), fatty acids (palmitic acid, linolenic acid, linoleic acid, myristic acid), vitamins [1][2][3], macroelements and microelements [13]. Analytical studies performed on the essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation from the leaves of Plantain showed that it contains a wide range of organic compounds, with fatty acids representing about 41% of the oils fraction [2]. ...
... Plantain (Plantago lanceolata) has been used since ancient times in traditional medicine, either as such or in the form of tinctures, decoctions, or infusions. At the base of the medicinal properties are the active principles [1][2][3][4][5], with antioxidant, and antitumor properties [6][7][8][9] as polysaccharides [10][11][12], polyphenols [3,5,8] alkaloids, terpenoids (ursolic acid, oleanolic acid), caffeic acid derivatives (plantamajoside, acteoside or verbascoside), iridoid glycosides (aucubin, catalpol), fatty acids (palmitic acid, linolenic acid, linoleic acid, myristic acid), vitamins [1][2][3], macroelements and microelements [13]. Analytical studies performed on the essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation from the leaves of Plantain showed that it contains a wide range of organic compounds, with fatty acids representing about 41% of the oils fraction [2]. ...
... The most prominent flavonoid derivates are luteolin 7-O-glucoside, hispidulin 7-O-glucuronide, luteolin 7-O-diglucoside, apigenin 7-O-glucoside, nepetin 7-O-glucoside, luteolin 6-hydroxy 4 -methoxy 7-galactoside, and homoplantaginin, baicalein, hispidulin, plantaginin, and scutallarein [9]. Studies also evidenced the presence of alkaloid compounds, for example, indicain and plantagonin [1]. The terpenoid compounds isolated from the leaves and leaf wax of Plantago sp. were loliolid, ursolic acid, oleanolic acid, and sitosterol acid 18 β-glycyrrhetinic. ...
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In this study, three types of extracts isolated from leaves of Plantain (Plantago lanceolata) were tested for their chemical content and biological activities. The three bioproducts are combinations of polysaccharides and polyphenols (flavonoids and iridoidic compounds), and they were tested for antioxidant, antifungal, antitumor, and prebiotic activity (particularly for polysaccharides fraction). Briefly, the iridoid-enriched fraction has revealed a pro-oxidant activity, while the flavonoid-enriched fraction had a high antioxidant potency; the polysaccharide fraction also indicated a pro-oxidant activity, explained by the co-presence of iridoid glycosides. All three bioproducts demonstrated moderate antifungal effects against Aspergillus sp., Penicillium sp., and dermatophytes, too. Studies in vitro proved inhibitory activity of the three fractions on the leukemic tumor cell line THP-1, the main mechanism being apoptosis stimulation, while the polysaccharide fraction indicated a clear prebiotic activity, in the concentration range between 1 and 1000 µg/mL, evaluated as higher than that of the reference products used, inulin and dextrose, respectively.
... Moreover, quercetin has been reported to be effective against viruses such as herpes simplex type I, para-influenza type Ш, respiratory syncytial virus, and cardiovirus (Kumar et al., 2017). Additionally, quercetin, luteolin, and apigenin inhibit the viability of leukemic cells, ovarian carcinoma cells, colon cancer cells, and human breast cancer cells (Oto et al., 2011;Adom et al., 2017) and reduce the occurrence of mouth sores and induce mild symptomatic relief (Sharma & Gupta, 2010;Oto et al., 2011;Adom et al., 2017). ...
... Moreover, quercetin has been reported to be effective against viruses such as herpes simplex type I, para-influenza type Ш, respiratory syncytial virus, and cardiovirus (Kumar et al., 2017). Additionally, quercetin, luteolin, and apigenin inhibit the viability of leukemic cells, ovarian carcinoma cells, colon cancer cells, and human breast cancer cells (Oto et al., 2011;Adom et al., 2017) and reduce the occurrence of mouth sores and induce mild symptomatic relief (Sharma & Gupta, 2010;Oto et al., 2011;Adom et al., 2017). ...
... Notably, the methanolic extracts showed stronger antimicrobial activity than the ethanolic extracts, which is consistent with the findings reported by Samuelsen et al. (2000), Hoj et al. (2001), Sharifa et al. (2008), and Adom et al. (2017). Abd Razik et al. (2012) reported noticeable antibacterial activity of the methanolic extract of P. major leaves, whereas Samuelsen (2000) observed low antimicrobial activity against S. aureus, which is methicillin resistant. ...
... Moreover, quercetin has been reported to be effective against viruses such as herpes simplex type I, para-influenza type Ш, respiratory syncytial virus, and cardiovirus (Kumar et al., 2017). Additionally, quercetin, luteolin, and apigenin inhibit the viability of leukemic cells, ovarian carcinoma cells, colon cancer cells, and human breast cancer cells (Oto et al., 2011;Adom et al., 2017) and reduce the occurrence of mouth sores and induce mild symptomatic relief (Sharma & Gupta, 2010;Oto et al., 2011;Adom et al., 2017). ...
... Moreover, quercetin has been reported to be effective against viruses such as herpes simplex type I, para-influenza type Ш, respiratory syncytial virus, and cardiovirus (Kumar et al., 2017). Additionally, quercetin, luteolin, and apigenin inhibit the viability of leukemic cells, ovarian carcinoma cells, colon cancer cells, and human breast cancer cells (Oto et al., 2011;Adom et al., 2017) and reduce the occurrence of mouth sores and induce mild symptomatic relief (Sharma & Gupta, 2010;Oto et al., 2011;Adom et al., 2017). ...
... Notably, the methanolic extracts showed stronger antimicrobial activity than the ethanolic extracts, which is consistent with the findings reported by Samuelsen et al. (2000), Hoj et al. (2001), Sharifa et al. (2008), and Adom et al. (2017). Abd Razik et al. (2012) reported noticeable antibacterial activity of the methanolic extract of P. major leaves, whereas Samuelsen (2000) observed low antimicrobial activity against S. aureus, which is methicillin resistant. ...
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Plantago major has been used to treat a variety of diseases since ancient times. The current study aimed at assessing seasonal and habitat variations in secondary metabolites production and antimicrobial activity of p. major leave extracts. Eight habitats were selected for sampling plants during four seasons. The phytochemical screening of the ethanolic and chloroform extracts of P. major in the different habitats during different seasons showed the presence of cardiac glycosides, flavonoids and phenolic compounds. Highest cardiac glycoside and total flavonoid contents were recorded in urban and cultivated crops during winter, while the highest total phenolics was in fallow lands during summer. The separated and identified phenolic compounds using HPLC were ellagic acid, catechol, resorcinol, gallic acid and phloroglucinol, while separated and identified flavonoid compounds were: apigenin, luteolin, chrysoeriol, rutin, quercetin, kaempferol and avicularin. Methanolic extract of plants from canal bank habitat has highest effect against P. aeruginosa, followed by that of plants from orchard extract against S. aureus compared to water and ethanolic extracts. The study concluded that Plantago major contains phenolic and flavonoids which have medical uses. In addition to methanolic extract which has the highest antimicrobial activity differed with different habitats. Therefore the present study confirms the previous studies and indicated that the phytochemicals and the antimicrobial activity of the different extracts of the plant differed with difference in the ecological factors (habitat and seasons). The phytochemical/s have antimicrobial activity must be extracted, separated, purified, identified and tested as a pure or mixed
... Plantago major, also known as broadleaf plantain, is an edible plant, whose young leaves and immature peduncles are used as a vegetable, cooked or in salads [2]. Besides, it is one of the traditionally used medicinal plants, having increased application in the pharmaceutical industry [3]. Although the P. major is a native European plant, for many centuries it has been widespread all over the world. ...
... The notable advantage of plantain utilization is the fact that all parts of P. major plant contain a variety of bioactive compounds, including flavonoids, alkaloids, terpenoids, phenolic compounds (caffeic acid derivatives), iridoid glycosides, fatty acids, polysaccharides, and vitamins [3,6,13]. Generally, recent studies confirmed a variety of bioactive properties of P. major, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and wound healing activities [14]. ...
... The flavonoids are a predominant class of phenolic compounds found in P. major plant, while the dominant presence among flavonoids has been ascribed earlier to flavones, luteolin, and apigenin [3,15]. In the study of Makhmudov et al. [35], rutin, luteolin, isorhamnetin, and quercetin, have been also found in P. major leaves, as well as gallic acid. ...
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Purpose Herbal residues from the production and processing of medicinal plants are usually discarded as waste material. Plantago major is an edible plant, traditionally used for medicinal purposes, having wide application in the pharmaceutical and cosmetics industry, usually in the form of liquid extracts and tinctures. In this work, extracts of P. major leaves waste remaining after industrial tincture production and dried leaves used initially for tincture production were investigated and compared. Methods The chemical composition was obtained by FTIR analysis, whereas polyphenolic profile was assessed by HPLC. Antioxidant activity, sun protection factor (SPF), cytotoxic activity against colon carcinoma (HCT116) and melanoma (Hs294T) human cell lines as well as antistaphylococcal activity against S. aureus ATCC strains and one clinical isolate were also evaluated. Results FTIR analysis revealed wider chemical diversity in waste samples than in initial plant material. Among detected phenolics, chlorogenic acid, luteolin, and rutin were the most abundant in all extracts, whereas luteolin was even higher in the waste. Waste extracts had a significantly lower sun protection factor (SPF) when compared to initial dried leaves. On the contrary, cytotoxic activity of waste extracts against tested human cell lines were more efficient when compared to initial dried leaves, which can be attributed to the higher luteolin content in tincture residues. Both waste and initial dried leaves extracts exhibited antibacterial activity against all tested S. aureus strains at higher tested concentrations. Conclusion P. major waste remaining after industrial tincture production represents high-value material with great valorization potential. Graphic abstract
... This capacity stems from its function as the endosperm of the P. ovata seed, where it acts to hold on water and keep the seed from drying out. 15 Seeds include a variety of bases, carbohydrates, sterols and protein. Psyllium seeds have more than 30% hydrocolloidal polysaccharide (mucilage) in the external seed coat, as well as fixed oils, tannins, aucubin glycosides (iridoid), sugars, sterols and proteins, which can be used to complement diet and as a medication to cure human ailments. ...
... Psyllium seeds have more than 30% hydrocolloidal polysaccharide (mucilage) in the external seed coat, as well as fixed oils, tannins, aucubin glycosides (iridoid), sugars, sterols and proteins, which can be used to complement diet and as a medication to cure human ailments. 15 It is mostly made up of xylose, arabinose and galacturonic acid, with rhamnose and galactose thrown in for good measure. 9 Psyllium husk includes 6.83% protein, 0.94% ash and 84.98% total carbs. ...
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The plantation, evolvement, phytochemical, pharmaceutical and pharmacological properties of Plantago ovata have been reviewed to reconnoiter the plant’s diverse properties. P. ovata belonging to the family Plantaginaceae is a perennial plant native to the Mediterranean area, particularly Southern Europe, North Africa and West Asia. It has a variety of medicinal and pharmacological effects as it is frequently employed in a variety of medications for its medicinal features such as mucilage, super-disintegrant, gelling agent and suspending agent as well as pharmacological effects such as anti-diarrheal, anti-constipation, wound curer, hypocholesterolemic and hypoglycemia. That’s why, P. ovata may be utilized to make a variety of medicinal products as well as a safe and effective ethnobotanical cure for different health problems. A number of market preparations of Ispaghula are also available in the local market of Bangladesh. Information regarding diversified properties of P. ovata collected from different electronic databases (PubMed, Springer link, MDPI link, ResearchGate, Google, Google Scholar and Science Direct) have been summarized here to support the researchers to retrieve information about P. ovata. Dhaka Univ. J. Pharm. Sci. 21(2): 231-243, 2022 (December)
... For a long time, P. major has been distributed globally and used in society to cure a variety of diseases and to promote human health. It has been reported to be an antioxidant, a wound healer, antidiarrhea, antidiabetic, antibacterial, antiviral, and anti-inflammatory agent (1,2). ...
... Bioassay-guided separation of a dichloromethane extract performed by Ringbom et al. resulted in the isolation of several fatty acids including linoleic acid, R-linolenic acid, myristic acid, and palmitic acid (4). Several studies also reported the metabolites from P. major including phenolic compounds, iridoid glycosides, polysaccharides, vitamins, flavonoids, terpenoids, alkaloids, and ursolic acid (2,5). ...
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Background and purpose: Plantago major has been applied as a herbal remedy for centuries. However, studies on anti-inflammatory activities and their chemical ingredients are limited. The objective of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory properties of P. major in three animal models and its phytochemical contents. Experimental approach: Dichloromethane extract (DCM) of P. major was fractionated with n-hexane to yield the soluble (SHF) and insoluble (IHF) fractions. The anti-inflammatory activities of DCM, SHF, and IHF were evaluated using rat’s paw edema induced by carrageenan, thioglycolate-induced leukocyte emigration in the mice, and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) induced by complete Freund’s adjuvants in rats. The chemical constituents were analyzed using a high-resolution mass spectrometer (HRMS). Findings / Results: The DCM, SHF, and IHF inhibited paw edema in the rats and reduced the leukocyte migration in the mice. At dose 560 mg/kg, the percentage of inhibitory was 47.33%, 55.51%, and 46.61% for the DCM, IHF, and SHF, respectively. In the RA animal model, IHF at 280 and 560 mg/kg reduced osteoclast formation and COX-2 expression compared to diclofenac. Some compounds namely oleic acid, linoleic acid, palmitic acid, and oleamide identified in the DCM, IHF, and SHF may be responsible for these activities. Conclusion and implications: This study showed that P. major has several in-vivo anti-inflammatory activities.
... A tanchagem é uma planta medicinal importante que contém uma variedade de compostos bioativos, incluindo flavonóides, alcalóides, terpenóides, compostos fenólicos, ácidos graxos, polissacarídeos e vitaminas (ADOM et al., 2017;SAMUELSEN, 2000). Devido as bioatividades atribuída a esses constituintes, essa espécie é utilizada na medicina popular no tratamento de diversas doenças como: inflamações dérmicas, bucofaringeanas, gastrintestinais, das vias urinárias, vias respiratórias, além do uso em tratamento de câncer (ADOM et al., 2017;SAMUELSEN, 2000;MATOS, 2002). ...
... A tanchagem é uma planta medicinal importante que contém uma variedade de compostos bioativos, incluindo flavonóides, alcalóides, terpenóides, compostos fenólicos, ácidos graxos, polissacarídeos e vitaminas (ADOM et al., 2017;SAMUELSEN, 2000). Devido as bioatividades atribuída a esses constituintes, essa espécie é utilizada na medicina popular no tratamento de diversas doenças como: inflamações dérmicas, bucofaringeanas, gastrintestinais, das vias urinárias, vias respiratórias, além do uso em tratamento de câncer (ADOM et al., 2017;SAMUELSEN, 2000;MATOS, 2002). ...
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O sucesso do estabelecimento de uma muda é determinado predominantemente pelos fatores fisiológicos e constituição bioquímica das sementes e da qualidade do substrato utilizado no desenvolvimento da plântula. O objetivo foi avaliar a produção de mudas de tanchagem (Plantago major L.) sob diferentes substratos em sistema orgânico. O experimento foi conduzido na área experimental da horta da Universidade Federal do Acre, em Rio Branco, Acre. As sementes de tanchagem (Plantago Major L.) foram coletadas no município de Rio Branco, AC. Utilizou-se o delineamento inteiramente casualisado, com cinco tratamentos (T1= substrato comercial (tratamento controle); T2= composto orgânico + casca de coco (1:1 v/v); T3= composto orgânico + esterco avícola + bagaço de cana-de-açúcar (1:1:1 v/v); T4= composto orgânico + esterco avícola + caroço de acerola (1:1:1 v/v); T5= composto orgânico + caroço de acerola + bagaço de cana-de-açúcar (1:1:1 v/v) e quatro repetições. Aos 45 dias após a semeadura utilizou-se 15 plantas de cada repetição para avaliar as seguintes variáveis: altura da planta (AP), comprimento da raiz (CR), diâmetro do colmo (DC), número de folha (NF), massa fresca (MFPA) e seca (MSPA) da parte aérea, massa fresca (MFRA) e seca (MSRA) da raiz. Os dados obtidos foram submetidos às análises de pressuposições de homogeneidade de Bartlett e homocedasticidade de Shapiro-Wilk. Após atendidas as pressuposições, foram realizadas as análises de variância pelo teste F (p<0,05) e as médias comparadas pelo teste Tukey (p<0,05). Os substratos à base de composto orgânico com casca de coco e o composto orgânico com caroço de acerola + bagaço de cana-de-açúcar proporcionam mudas de qualidade. A mistura de produtos alternativos á base de composto orgânico, casca de coco, caroço de acerola e bagaço de cana-de-açúcar compõem um bom substrato para o desenvolvimento de mudas de tanchagem.
... The skin is the largest organ of the body and is the first line defense against injury (1). Skin injuries adversely affect patient survival that cause needs for healthcare wants. ...
... table(1). This results indicate incidence of significant difference at P≤ 0.05 along the periods of study in control group that showed increased in wound contraction rate with time of study as recorded (6.75 ±0.20 d) at 3rd day PT, and ...
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Objective: The experimental study was performed to assessment the influence of topical application of 10% of plantago lanceolata leaves extract (PLLE) in enhancement of contaminated excisional wound in 20 adult local breed rabbits. Methodology: Twenty adult local breed male rabbits were used in this experimental study. After animals anesthetized then twenty surgical excisional wound in diameter (2cm) were created on thoracic region (1wound\side). Rabbits were divided into control group in which wounds on right side were treated by irrigation with normal saline once \daily. Whereas, in treated group wounds on left side treated by topical application of 10% PLLE ointment (once\day). All wounds were dressing. The healing process was evaluated through macroscopic examination, wound contraction rate (WCR) and histopathological examination. Result: The presence study confirm there were significantly different at (P≤0.05) were registered between control and treated group along the time of study in which PMLE play accelerating role since it used.
... Given their special bio-adhesion properties, the best pharmacological effects are expected by the combination of secondary metabolites with polysaccharides fraction, plantain mucilages being some of the most effective natural remedies in healing wounds, particularly at the level of gastro-intestinal mucosa; healing effects are explained exactly through polysaccharides bio-adhesive properties, more precisely by their ability to bind to the glycosyde chains in the mucin structure, leading to the strengthening of the protective mucopolysaccharide layer along the digestive system [19]. Based on the multiple benefits of the soluble polysaccharides (fibers) in humans [20,21], the products derived from seeds and seed chaff from plantain are placed in the category of food-medicines [22][23][24][25][26]. Thus, they are currently used as active ingredients for special diets, and dietary and food supplements too, being attributed to a plethora of digestive benefits: e.g., constipation and diarrhea benefits, healing gastric and intestinal mucosa damages, managing inflammatory bowel diseases, food intolerance, and disbiosis. ...
... Based on the multiple benefits of the soluble polysaccharides (fibers) in humans [20,21], the products derived from seeds and seed chaff from plantain are placed in the category of food-medicines [22][23][24][25][26]. Thus, they are currently used as active ingredients for special diets, and dietary and food supplements too, being attributed to a plethora of digestive benefits: e.g., constipation and diarrhea benefits, healing gastric and intestinal mucosa damages, managing inflammatory bowel diseases, food intolerance, and disbiosis. Extended digestive benefits of seed and chaff plantain-derived products are also explained by mucilages ability of extracting water from medium, therefore they collect water, toxins, bacteria, and many other compounds in the feces, explaining all, constipation and diarrhea benefits and usefulness, detoxifying activity [23][24][25][26], cholesterol, glucose, fatty acids and bile caption activity as well [27][28][29][30]. ...
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In this study, six laser radiation (488 nm/40 mW, 514 nm/15 mW, 532 nm/20 mW, 552 nm/15 mW, 660 nm/ 75 mW, and at 785 nm/70 mW) were tested on the aqueous extracts of leaves of Plantago lanceolata L. to compare extraction efficacy and antioxidant and cell viability effects in vitro. Briefly, in comparison with the control extract, laser extracts at 488, 514, 532, and 552 nm revealed small acquisitions of total extractible compounds in samples (up to 6.52%; laser extracts at 488 and 532 nm also revealed minerals and micro-elements increases (up to 6.49%); the most prominent results were obtained upon Fe (up to 38%, 488 nm), Cr (up to 307%, 660 nm), and Zn (up to 465%, 532 nm). Laser extracts at 488, 514, 552, and 785 nm proved more intense antioxidant capacity than the control sample, while laser extract at 660 nm indicated clear pro-oxidant effects. Caco-2 cells study indicated stimulatory activity for the extracts at 488 nm, no effects at 532 nm, and the decrease of the cell viability in the case of extracts at 660 nm respectively. Further studies are necessary to understand the pro-oxidant effects observed in the case of extracts exposed to laser radiation at 660 nm.
... The benefits of Plantago major L. (after this called P. major) as folk medicines have been acknowledged globally for years. This plant has several bioactive compounds, including alkaloids, fatty acids, flavonoids, terpenoids, phenolic acid derivatives, vitamins, etc., which contribute to its specific therapeutic effects [1,2,3]. Leaf of P. major (called as "Daun Sendok" in Indonesia) has been widely known for its efficacy on wound healing empirically [4,5,6] among many other efficacies [1,7]. ...
... This plant has several bioactive compounds, including alkaloids, fatty acids, flavonoids, terpenoids, phenolic acid derivatives, vitamins, etc., which contribute to its specific therapeutic effects [1,2,3]. Leaf of P. major (called as "Daun Sendok" in Indonesia) has been widely known for its efficacy on wound healing empirically [4,5,6] among many other efficacies [1,7]. The plants, which are usually considered weeds on a daily basis, also have antibacterial [8] and antioxidant activities [9]. ...
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Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) utilizing plant extracts has been widely optimized these days because of its eco-friendly, simple, and cost-effective manner. This present study was performed to evaluate the scale-up trial on synthesis parameter and centrifugation duration of Plantago major L. leaf ethanolic extract in the green synthesis of Ag NPs. Leaf extract concentration of 0.25%, 70 o C of temperature, 60 min of synthesis time, and 30 min of centrifugation time were concluded as the optimized scale-up condition of green synthesis. The scale-up trial resulted in spherical silver nanoparticles with an average size of 12.2±5.11 nm, proven from various spectroscopic (UV-Vis, EDS, FTIR), microscopic observations (SEM, FE-TEM), and other observations (SAED, DLS, XRD). The synthesized Ag NPs exhibit good antibacterial activity against several tested bacteria at 20 μg mL-1 of dosage. This study offers a nine times higher yield of the synthesized Ag NPs (107.2±6.82 mg) at about the same time as a smaller scale of green synthesis. Sufficient nanoparticles will provide flexibility to carry out its characterization efficiently and further bioactivity test and formulation experiments, such as in cosmetics, medical ointments, and other pharmaceutical products. GRAPHICAL ABSTRACT
... P. major is a ubiquitous species in many parts of the world, and can even be cited as one of the most commonly used medicinal species. It is indeed a major component of numerous pharmacopeias, especially for wound healing, skin diseases, infections or disorders (burns, bruises, cuts …) among other uses (Adom et al., 2017;Gonçalves and Romano, 2016;Mazzei et al., 2020;Moerman, 2007;Samuelsen, 2000). B. orellana on its part is native from South America, and more specifically from the Amazon region, where its seeds are notably renowned in cases of bruises and wounds, and more generally for wound healing objectives (Odonne et al., 2011;Vilar et al., 2014). ...
... With marked antileishmanial activities in the intracellular amastigotes model, and remarkable pro-inflammatory effects notably in the case of P. major extract, these two species indeed exhibited a similar and original profile in our assay, alongside with low cytotoxicity, pleading in favor of a safe use of the extract. These data are globally consistent with previously published information (Adom et al., 2017;Braga et al., 2007;Chariandy et al., 1999;Gomez-Flores et al., 2000;Hussan et al., 2015;Monzote et al., 2014;Samuelsen, 2000;Ulbricht et al., 2012;Vilar et al., 2014), even if some disparities could be observed concerning antimicrobial and wound healing properties, possibly due to differences in chemical composition of the extracts (Grozdanova et al., 2020;Kartini et al., 2021;Mazzei et al., 2020). To our knowledge, this is notably the first report of an antileishmanial activity for a P. major leaves extract, even if the use of this species was specified for the treatment of L. brasiliensis ulcers in Brazil (França et al., 1996). ...
Article
Ethnopharmacological relevance Leishmaniasis are widely distributed among tropical and subtropical countries, and remains a crucial health issue in Amazonia. Indigenous groups across Amazonia have developed abundant knowledge about medicinal plants related to this pathology. Aim of the study We intent to explore the weight of different pharmacological activities driving taxa selection for medicinal use in Amazonian communities. Our hypothesis is that specific activity against Leishmania parasites is only one factor along other (anti-inflammatory, wound healing, immunomodulating, antimicrobial) activities. Materials and methods The twelve most widespread plant species used against leishmaniasis in Amazonia, according to their cultural and biogeographical importance determined through a wide bibliographical survey (475 use reports), were selected for this study. Plant extracts were prepared to mimic their traditional preparations. Antiparasitic activity was evaluated against promastigotes of reference and clinical New-World strains of Leishmania (L. guyanensis, L. braziliensis and L. amazonensis) and L. amazonensis intracellular amastigotes. We concurrently assessed the extracts immunomodulatory properties on PHA-stimulated human PBMCs and RAW264.7 cells, and on L. guyanensis antigens-stimulated PBMCs obtained from Leishmania-infected patients, as well as antifungal activity and wound healing properties (human keratinocyte migration assay) of the selected extracts. The cytotoxicity of the extracts against various cell lines (HFF1, THP-1, HepG2, PBMCs, RAW264.7 and HaCaT cells) was also considered. The biological activity pattern of the extracts was represented through PCA analysis, and a correlation matrix was calculated. Results Spondias mombin L. bark and Anacardium occidentale L. stem and leaves extracts displayed high anti-promatigotes activity, with IC50 ≤ 32 μg/mL against L. guyanensis promastigotes for S. mombin and IC50 of 67 and 47 μg/mL against L. braziliensis and L. guyanensis promastigotes, respectively, for A. occidentale. In addition to the antiparasitic effect, antifungal activity measured against C. albicans and T. rubrum (MIC in the 16–64 μg/mL range) was observed. However, in the case of Leishmania amastigotes, the most active species were Bixa orellana L. (seeds), Chelonantus alatus (Aubl.) Pulle (leaves), Jacaranda copaia (Aubl.) D. Don. (leaves) and Plantago major L. (leaves) with IC50 < 20 μg/mL and infection rates of 14–25% compared to the control. Concerning immunomodulatory activity, P. major and B. orellana were highlighted as the most potent species for the wider range of cytokines in all tested conditions despite overall contrasting results depending on the model. Most of the species led to moderate to low cytotoxic extracts except for C. alatus, which exhibited strong cytotoxic activity in almost all models. None of the tested extracts displayed wound healing properties. Conclusions We highlighted pharmacologically active extracts either on the parasite or on associated pathophysiological aspects, thus supporting the hypothesis that antiparasitic activities are not the only biological factor useful for antileishmanial evaluation. This result should however be supplemented by in vivo studies, and attracts once again the attention on the importance of the choice of biological models for an ethnophamacologically consistent study. Moreover, plant cultural importance, ecological status and availability were discussed in relation with biological results, thus contributing to link ethnobotany, medical anthropology and biology. Free access until March 31, 2022: https://authors.elsevier.com/c/1eZ6M1M9M1TDdr
... Infections and parasitosis Sulfur-containing phytoconstituents and flavonoids with antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal, antiprotozoal, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities [39] Plantago major 84.60% 13 13 Skin and subcutaneous tissues Polysaccharides responsible of wound healing effects [40] Gentiana punctata 82.80% 22 29 Digestive system Polyphenol such as flavones and their glycosides with gastroprotective activity [41] Plantago media 78.40% 24 37 Skin and subcutaneous tissues ...
... On the contrary, Plantago spp. were widely used being rich in polysaccharides and flavonoids with anti-inflammatory effects for treatment of wounds and other skin problems [40]. Some species were also indicated to treat infections and parasitosis such as Allium sativum and Tanacetum vulgare. A. sativum with sulfur-containing phytoconstituents and flavonoids showed antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal, antiprotozoal, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties [39], whereas T. vulgare, rich in β-thujone, was responsible for the anthelmintic activity [33]. ...
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Most of traditional knowledge about plants and their uses is fast disappearing because of socio-economic and land use changes. This trend is also occurring in bio-cultural refugia, such as mountain areas. New data on Traditional Ethnobotanical Knowledge (TEK) of Italian alpine regions were collected relating to three valleys (Cogne, Valsavarenche, Rhêmes) of the Gran Paradiso National Park. Extensive dialogues and semi-structured interviews with 68 native informants (30 men, 38 women; mean age 70) were carried out between 2017 and 2019. A total of 3918 reports were collected, concerning 217 taxa (including 10 mushrooms, 1 lichen) mainly used for medicinal (42%) and food (33%) purposes. Minor uses were related to liquor making (7%), domestic (7%), veterinary (5%), forage (4%), cosmetic (1%) and other (2%). Medicinal plants were used to treat 14 ailment categories, of which the most important were respiratory (22%), digestive (19%), skin (13%), musculoskeletal (10%) and genitourinary (10%) diseases. Data were also evaluated by quantitative ethnobotanical indexes. The results show a rich and alive traditional knowledge concerning plants uses in the Gran Paradiso National Park. Plants resources may provide new opportunities from the scientific point of view, for the valorization of local products for health community and for sustainable land management.
... P. major is a ubiquitous species in many parts of the world, and can even be cited as one of the most commonly used medicinal species. It is indeed a major component of numerous pharmacopeias, especially for wound healing, skin diseases, infections or disorders (burns, bruises, cuts …) among other uses (Adom et al., 2017;Gonçalves and Romano, 2016;Mazzei et al., 2020;Moerman, 2007;Samuelsen, 2000). B. orellana on its part is native from South America, and more specifically from the Amazon region, where its seeds are notably renowned in cases of bruises and wounds, and more generally for wound healing objectives (Odonne et al., 2011;Vilar et al., 2014). ...
... With marked antileishmanial activities in the intracellular amastigotes model, and remarkable pro-inflammatory effects notably in the case of P. major extract, these two species indeed exhibited a similar and original profile in our assay, alongside with low cytotoxicity, pleading in favor of a safe use of the extract. These data are globally consistent with previously published information (Adom et al., 2017;Braga et al., 2007;Chariandy et al., 1999;Gomez-Flores et al., 2000;Hussan et al., 2015;Monzote et al., 2014;Samuelsen, 2000;Ulbricht et al., 2012;Vilar et al., 2014), even if some disparities could be observed concerning antimicrobial and wound healing properties, possibly due to differences in chemical composition of the extracts (Grozdanova et al., 2020;Kartini et al., 2021;Mazzei et al., 2020). To our knowledge, this is notably the first report of an antileishmanial activity for a P. major leaves extract, even if the use of this species was specified for the treatment of L. brasiliensis ulcers in Brazil (França et al., 1996). ...
Article
Ethnopharmacological relevance: Leishmaniasis are widely distributed among tropical and subtropical countries, and remains a crucial health issue in Amazonia. Indigenous groups across Amazonia have developed abundant knowledge about medicinal plants related to this pathology. Aim of the study: We intent to explore the weight of different pharmacological activities driving taxa selection for medicinal use in Amazonian communities. Our hypothesis is that specific activity against Leishmania parasites is only one factor along other (anti-inflammatory, wound healing, immunomodulating, antimicrobial) activities. Materials and methods: The twelve most widespread plant species used against leishmaniasis in Amazonia, according to their cultural and biogeographical importance determined through a wide bibliographical survey (475 use reports), were selected for this study. Plant extracts were prepared to mimic their traditional preparations. Antiparasitic activity was evaluated against promastigotes of reference and clinical New-World strains of Leishmania (L. guyanensis, L. braziliensis and L. amazonensis) and L. amazonensis intracellular amastigotes. We concurrently assessed the extracts immunomodulatory properties on PHA-stimulated human PBMCs and RAW264.7 cells, and on L. guyanensis antigens-stimulated PBMCs obtained from Leishmania-infected patients, as well as antifungal activity and wound healing properties (human keratinocyte migration assay) of the selected extracts. The cytotoxicity of the extracts against various cell lines (HFF1, THP-1, HepG2, PBMCs, RAW264.7 and HaCaT cells) was also considered. The biological activity pattern of the extracts was represented through PCA analysis, and a correlation matrix was calculated. Results: Spondias mombin L. bark and Anacardium occidentale L. stem and leaves extracts displayed high anti-promatigotes activity, with IC50 ≤ 32 µg/mL against L. guyanensis promastigotes for S. mombin and IC50 of 67 and 47 µg/mL against L. braziliensis and L. guyanensis promastigotes, respectively, for A. occidentale. In addition to the antiparasitic effect, antifungal activity measured against C. albicans and T. rubrum (MIC in the 16 - 64 µg/mL range) was observed. However, in the case of Leishmania amastigotes, the most active species were Bixa orellana L. (seeds), Chelonantus alatus (Aubl.) Pulle (leaves), Jacaranda copaia (Aubl.) D. Don. (leaves) and Plantago major L. (leaves) with CI50 < 20 µg/mL and infection rates of 14 - 25% compared to the control. Concerning immunomodulatory activity, P. major and B. orellana were highlighted as the most potent species for the wider range of cytokines in all tested conditions despite overall contrasting results depending on the model. Most of the species led to moderate to low cytotoxic extracts except for C. alatus, which exhibited strong cytotoxic activity in almost all models. None of the tested extracts displayed wound healing properties. Conclusions: We highlighted pharmacologically active extracts either on the parasite or on associated pathophysiological aspects, thus supporting the hypothesis that antiparasitic activities are not the only biological factor useful for antileishmanial evaluation. This result should however be supplemented by in vivo studies, and attracts once again the attention on the importance of the choice of biological models for an ethnophamacologically consistent study. Moreover, plant cultural importance, ecological status and availability were discussed in relation with biological results, thus contributing to link ethnobotany, medical anthropology and biology.
... P. major is effective as an antioxidant, 3 wound healer, 4,5 anti-diabetic, 6 anti-diarrhoeal, 7 anti-inflammatory, 8,9 anti-bacterial and anti-viral agent. 10,11 Characteristics of P. major reflect various plant components. The species produces a variety of bioactive compounds, including flavonoids, alkaloids, terpenoids, phenolic compounds (caffeic acid derivatives), iridoid glycosides, fatty acids, polysaccharides and vitamins. ...
... The species produces a variety of bioactive compounds, including flavonoids, alkaloids, terpenoids, phenolic compounds (caffeic acid derivatives), iridoid glycosides, fatty acids, polysaccharides and vitamins. 10,12 These compounds are found in nearly all parts of the plant -seeds, leaves, flowers and roots. Chemical analyses of leaves showed the presence of aucubine, a glycoside, which is reported to be a powerful antitoxin. ...
Article
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Background and aim Plantago major has long been used for medical purposes in Indonesia. However, reports on the anti-arthritic activities of P. major are limited. Experimental procedure The anti-arthritic properties of an n-hexane-insoluble fraction of dichloromethane extracts of P. major (IPM) were evaluated using Complete Freund's Adjuvant (CFA)-induced arthritis induced in female Wistar rat by CFA. Diclofenac was used as a positive control. The volume of paw oedema, white blood cell count, lymphocytes, neutrophils, expression of TNF-α and Interleukin-6 and the histopathological features of the joint tissues were assessed to characterise IPM activity. Results The IPM extract at doses of 280 and 420 mg/kg BW and diclofenac inhibited paw oedema by 15.70 %, 15.94 % and 19.71 % respectively. IPM also reduced the incidence of arthritis and arthritic index. Unlike untreated rats, animals treated with IPM showed a significant decrease in the number of neutrophils and decreased expression of TNF-α and Interleukin-6. Histopathological examination showed a reduction in the number of inflammatory cells and hyperplasia of the synovium after IPM treatment. Conclusion This study showed that P. major displays anti-rheumatoid arthritis activity.
... The benefits of Plantago major L. (hereinafter called P. major) as folk medicines have been acknowledged globally for years. This plant has several bioactive compounds including alkaloids, fatty acids, flavonoids, terpenoids, phenolic acid derivatives, vitamins, etc., which contribute to its specific therapeutic effects (Adom et al., 2017;Yernazarova et al., 2019;Zubair et al., 2019). Leaf of P. major (called as "Daun Sendok" in Indonesia) has been widely known for its efficacy on wound healing empirically (Amini et al., 2010;Gonçalves and Romano, 2016;Kartini et al., 2018) among many other efficacies (Adom et al., 2017;Nazarizadeh et al., 2013). ...
... This plant has several bioactive compounds including alkaloids, fatty acids, flavonoids, terpenoids, phenolic acid derivatives, vitamins, etc., which contribute to its specific therapeutic effects (Adom et al., 2017;Yernazarova et al., 2019;Zubair et al., 2019). Leaf of P. major (called as "Daun Sendok" in Indonesia) has been widely known for its efficacy on wound healing empirically (Amini et al., 2010;Gonçalves and Romano, 2016;Kartini et al., 2018) among many other efficacies (Adom et al., 2017;Nazarizadeh et al., 2013). The plants, which are usually considered weeds on a daily basis, also have antibacterial and antioxidant activities (Kartini et al., 2019). ...
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Full-text available
Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) utilizing plant extracts has been widely optimized these days because of its eco-friendly, simple, and cost-effective manner. This present study was performed to evaluate the scale-up trial on synthesis parameter and centrifugation duration of Plantago major L. leaf ethanolic extract in the green synthesis of Ag NPs. Leaf extract concentration of 0.25%, 70 °C of temperature, 60 min of synthesis time, and 30 min of centrifugation time were concluded as the optimized scale-up condition of green synthesis. The scale-up trial resulted in spherical silver nanoparticles with an average size 12.2±5.11 nm, proven from various spectroscopic (UV–Vis, EDS, FTIR), microscopic observations (SEM, FE-TEM), and other observations (SAED, DLS, XRD). The synthesized Ag NPs also exhibit promising antibacterial activity against several tested bacteria at 20 μg mL⁻¹ of dosage. This study offers nine times higher yield of the synthesized Ag NPs (107.2±6.82 mg) at about the same making time of smaller scale of green synthesis. Sufficient nanoparticles will provide flexibility to carry out its characterization in an efficient manner and further bioactivity test and/or formulation experiments, such as in cosmetics, medical ointments, and other pharmaceutical products.
... Anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial, antiparasitic, antioxidant, anticancer, analgesic, anti-diabetic, anti-anxiety, gastroprotective effect, antibacterial [118] Curcumin Antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, bactericidal wound contraction, anticancer, antiasthma, skin health promotion, jaundice, antidiabetic [119] Eucalyptus Antioxidant, antibacterial, neuroprotective anti-ischemic, anti-hypertensive, antiviral [120][121][122][123] Jojoba Antioxidant, antiviral, antimicrobial, hepatoprotective, antiglycemial, analgesic anti-inflammatory, transdermal drug delivery [124] Plantago major Wound healing, antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antiviral, antioxidant, anti-ulcer [125] Pine Antimicrobial, antioxidant, cardiovascular, neuroprotective, anti-inflammatory, anticancer [126] Green tea Antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, angiogenesis stimulation, immunomodulation, anticancer, antidiabetic, hypoglycemic [127] Punicagranatum Antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial, antimicrobial, anti-cancer, wound healing, gastrointestinal diseases protection [128] Inula Antioxidant, antihyperglycemic, antimicrobial, anticancer, anti-inflammatory [129] ...
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The skin serves as the body’s first line of defense, guarding against mechanical, chemical, and thermal damage to the interior organs. It includes a highly developed immune response that serves as a barrier against pathogenic infections. Wound healing is a dynamic process underpinned by numerous cellular activities, including homeostasis, inflammation, proliferation, and remodeling, that require proper harmonious integration to effectively repair the damaged tissue. Following cutaneous damage, microorganisms can quickly enter the tissues beneath the skin, which can result in chronic wounds and fatal infections. Natural phytomedicines that possess considerable pharmacological properties have been widely and effectively employed forwound treatment and infection prevention. Since ancient times, phytotherapy has been able to efficiently treat cutaneous wounds, reduce the onset of infections, and minimize the usage of antibiotics that cause critical antibiotic resistance. There are a remarkable number of wound-healing botanicals that have been widely used in the Northern Hemisphere, including Achiella millefolium, Aloe vera, Althaea officinalis, Calendula officinalis, Matricaria chamomilla, Curcuma longa, Eucalyptus, Jojoba, plantain, pine, green tea, pomegranate, and Inula. This review addresses the most often used medicinal plants from the Northern Hemisphere that facilitate the treatment of wounds, and also suggests viable natural alternatives that can be used in the field of wound care.
... Plantaginaceae (p.) plant is type of medical plant that widely used, it has about 260 species; they were found in temperate regions and in tropical zones; and the most famous species are P. major, P. ovate, P. media, P. lanceolata, P. indica, and P. asiatica they have been developed as medicines for thousands of years due to they possess considerable bioactivity and contain beneficial phytochemicals (12)(13)(14)(15). Medicinal benefits of the seeds and leaves of Plantaginaceae plant may be related to various bioactive compounds, such as flavonoids, alkaloids, terpenoids, phenolic compounds, iridoid glycosides, fatty acids, polysaccharides, and vitamins (16,17). There were reported to have analgesic, antiinflammatory, antioxidant, immunomodulatory, antifungal, anticancer effects (16). ...
Article
The current study was performed to estimate the influence of topical application of 10% of Plantago major leaves extract (PMLE) on a healing process of contaminated excisional wound in local breed rabbits. Twenty adult local breed male rabbits were used. After the animals have generally anesthetized, two 2×2 cm full thickness wounds were created in thoracic region on right and left side (1wound/side) for each animal. Wounds on right side of animal were treated by topical irrigation with normal saline/daily, this consider as control (group A). While, left side wounds were treated by topical application of 10% PMLE ointment (once/day) that consider as treated (group B) dressing was used after each treatment for both groups. Wound healing was evaluated through macroscopic examination, wound contraction rate (WCR) assessment and histopathological examination. Results of macroscopic examination confirmed that PMLE has a role in acceleration healing when compared to control group. These outcomes were parallel with WCR results in which reflect the mean rate of wound contraction on days 7th, 14th, and 21st ‎in PMLE-treated group was ‎significantly higher (P
... It consists of biologically potent compounds like alkaloids, polysaccharides, flavonoids, iridoid glycosides, lipids, caffeic acid derivatives, terpenoids, and organic acids (Samuelsen, 2000) (Fig. 1). These compounds can be found in almost all parts of the plant such as the seeds, leaves, flower, and roots (Adom et al., 2017;Wang et al., 2015). Earlier studies reported that P. major is used in different parts of the world for the treatment of numerous conditions like skin diseases, infectious diseases, digestive problems, respiratory abnormalities, glitches related to reproduction, circulation, tumors, and inflammation (Azab et al., 2016). ...
... Растения рода Plantago (Подорожники) используются в течение столетий для лечения заболеваний дыхательной системы, пищеварительного тракта, мочеполовой системы, а также заживления ран [7], что обусловлено фитохимическим спектром экстрактов, включающих иридоиды, флавоноиды, таннины и другие соединения [8]. Имеющиеся данные свидетельствуют о том, что извлечения из растений рода Plantago проявляют выраженный противовоспалительный и антиоксидантный эффект, слабую антибиотическую активность, антиульцерогенное, иммуностимулирующее и анальгетическое действие [9]. ...
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Objective. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the impact of aqueous ex- tracts of three Plantago species (P. major, P. lanceolata and P. maxima) on development of diet- induced obesity and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in animals. Materials and methods. 64 female Wistar rats were divided into 8 groups. The first group was maintained on standard diet (STD) being controls, whereas the second group was fed a high fat high carbohydrate diet (HFHCD) used for development of obesity. Animals of the III, V, and VII groups were maintained at STD and obtained P. major, P. lanceolata and P. maxima ex- tracts, respectively. At the same time, rats from the IV, VI and VIII groups were fed HFHCD while obtaining the above mentioned Plantago extracts, respectively. At the end of the experi- ment, assessment of animal morphometry, serum markers of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, tissue vanadium content, as well as histological examination of liver was performed. Results. The obtained data demonstrate that administration of Plantago extracts does not prevent body adiposity in rats. At the same time, consumption of P. major and P. maxima re- duced liver steatosis as evidenced by reduced size of lipid droplets in hepatocyte cytoplasm both in centrilobular and periportal areas. At the same time, P. major and P. maxima extracts reduced insulin resistance index HOMA-IR that was found to be elevated in HFHCD-fed rats. Admin- istration of Plantago extracts also prevented obesity-associated increase in serum total cholester- ol. The observed effects were accompanied by a significant accumulation of vanadium in liver of all Plantago-fed rats, whereas P. major extract consumption also resulted in a significant in- crease in adipose tissue vanadium content. Conclusion. Therefore, the results of the present study demonstrate efficiency of P. max- ima and P. major extracts against development of obesity-associated non alcoholic fatty liver disease and insulin resistance, that may be mediated by phytochemical constituents or bioavaila- ble vanadium from Plantago extracts.
... In addition to substantivity, PLA showed other desirable effects of antimicrobial agents, like significant reduction of bacterial biofilm and inflammation (Matesanz-Pérez et al., 2013). Also, it has been demonstrated presence of oligosaccharides in PLA that have beneficial effects on human health (Lukova et al., 2017;Adom et al., 2017;Parhizgar et al., 2018). ...
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Aim: To evaluate subgingival irrigation with Matricaria recutita (MAT) and Plantago major (PLA) adjunct to scaling and root planing (SRP) on treatment of experimental periodontitis (EP). Design: EP was induced in 72 rats. After 7 days, animals were randomly distributed in groups: SRP-SRP and irrigation with saline; MAT-SRP and irrigation with MAT solution ; and PLA-SRP and irrigation with PLA solution. Euthanasia was performed after 7, 15 and 30 days (n=8). It was evaluated colony-forming units (CFU), bone loss (BL), percentage of mature and immature collagen fibers, TRAP, RANKL and OPG (p <0.05). Results: Groups MAT and PLA had significantly lower number of CFU than Group SRP (15 days). Group PLA had significantly lower BL than Group MAT (7 days). Group MAT had significantly higher percentage of immature collagen fibers than groups SRP and PLA (15 days). Group PLA presented significantly higher OPG than Group SRP (7 days) and significantly lower RANKL than groups MAT and SRP (15 days). Conclusions: Combine MAT or PLA with SRP to treat EP presented additional antimi-crobial and anti-inflammatory effects when compared to SRP. However, PLA presented significantly higher collagen maturation and protective effect against bone resorption than MAT.
... Portanto, são necessários mais estudos sobre esses extratos, tanto de identificação como de propriedades terapêuticas dos mesmos. 48 Sendo detectada, pela primeira vez, a presença da catequina entre os compostos fitoquímicos na P. major ou no gênero Plantago. ...
... Plantago major L. is efficacious as a wound healer, anti ulcerative, antidiabetic, antidiarrheal, antiinflammatory, antinociceptive, antibacterial, and antiviral agent. In addition, Plantago major L. contains antioxidants and free radical scavengers that can combat fatigue and cancer (Adom, et al., 2017). ...
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Prostate cancer is the most common type of cancer diagnosed in men worldwide and the second leading cause of death after lung cancer. Testosterone and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) have been known to play an essential role in prostate cancer. Androgen receptor (AR) binding to the ligand allows homodimerization and translocation to the nucleus, which acts as a transcription factor for androgen-responsive genes such as PSA (Prostate-specific antigen). Although many anti-androgens have been established, including Bicalutamide, Flutamide, and Abiraterone, the problem of non-specific cytotoxicity effects and cancer recurrence due to potential drug resistance remains a significant obstacle to establishing effective therapy. Plantago major L. is one of the plants that can choose anticancer therapy because, based on reports, it has anticancer activity through DNA damage in cancer cells. This study focused on the search for the potential phytochemical activity of Plantago major L. as an anti-androgen, non-cytotoxic, and had significant AR inhibitory activity. This study uses Lipinski prediction (RO5), ADMET prediction, and a structure-based approach with molecular docking techniques using the PDB ID 2AM9 receptor structure and 13 compounds from Plantago major L. as test ligands compared to known AR antagonists. From the research results, Hispidulin has the highest potential as an anti-androgen with binding energy (-9.43 kcal/mol) that is closest to natural ligands and is smaller than Flutamide as a comparison drug. This anti-androgen activity was hypothesized from the similarity of hydrogen bonds with amino acid residues 705-Asn and 711-Gln as key AR residues present in Hispidulin.
... Камфорный спирт в составе средства обладает противовоспалительным, антибактериальным и обезболивающим действием, а биологически активные вещества экстракта подорожника разрушительно действуют на бактериальную флору поврежденных тканей, подавляя развитие вторичной инфекции. В то же время экстракт подорожника обеспечивает защиту кожи от вредных факторов, таких как трение, мацерация, излишняя влага и способствует быстрой регенераций поврежденной кожи [7][8][9][10]. ...
... P. major contains a number of active compounds including terpenoids, alkaloids, iridoid glycosides, flavonoids, phenolic acid derivatives, polysaccharides, vitamins and fatty acids in its seeds, leaves, flowers and roots. This perennial medicinal plant possesses several biological properties such as anti-inflammatory, antiviral, anti-bacterial, anti-oxidant, anti-cancer and wound-healing activities (Zubair et al. 2016;Adom et al. 2017). P. major also showed a great potential for in vitro culture, in vitro shoot organogenesis and in vitro plant regeneration (Rahamooz-Haghighi et al. 2018). ...
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The aim of this study was to establish the hairy root (HR) culture of Plantago major to evaluate the accumulation of apigenin, catalpol and gallic acid after elicitation and investigate the biological activity of its methanolic extraction. The highest transformation frequency was obtained by Agrobacterium rhizogenes strain A4, 0.5 mg/L 6-Benzylaminopurine in pre-cultivation medium, 150 mM acetosyrin-gone in co-cultivation medium (1/2 MS), and immersion method for inoculation of leaf explants. The production of apigenin, catalpol and gallic acid compounds were significantly affected by treatment of 1.18 mM AgNO 3 at 24 h which yielded 4.30, 8.24 and 2.89-fold increase, respectively. The assessment of anti-bacterial activity showed that the methanolic extracts of the HRs elicited with 1.18 mM AgNO 3 were significantly active against Proteus vulgaris (PTCC 1182) (MIC ¼ 25 mg/mL and MBC ¼ 25 mg/mL). Furthermore, the MTT assay revealed that the methanolic extracts of the HRs were cytotoxic on the SW-480 cell (IC 50 ¼337.56 ± 1.82 mg/mL). ARTICLE HISTORY
... Many researchers have given more attention to medicinal plants because they can generate many uses and applications in medicine and pharmacy [5]. It is estimated that half of the pharmaceutical drugs are derived from medicinal plants due to their capacity of the chemical constituents that bring therapeutic effects [6]. 4. Ethnomedicinal Use of Plantago lanceolate L. ...
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The medicinal benefits of P. lanceolata L. have been acknowledged worldwide for hundreds of years. The plant is now distributed worldwide, especially in temperate zones. This review gives an overview of ethnomedicinal use, phytochemistry, pharmacological activities, and other potential application of P. lanceolate L. Several effective chemical constituents such as polyphenols, tannins, flavonoids, alkaloids, terpenoids, iridoid glycosides, fatty acids, and polysaccharides are found in P. lanceolata L., which contribute to its exerting specific therapeutic effects. Correspondingly, studies have found that P. lanceolata L. has different biological activities, including antioxidant, antibacterial, wound-healing, anti-inflammatory, cytotoxic, and antiulcerogenic activity. The plant also treats various diseases related to the skin, respiratory organs, digestive organs, reproduction, circulation, cancer, pain relief, and infections. The plant has many applications in cosmetics such as lotion and creams; it is also used as an excellent indicator to know the presence and absence of heavy metals and the accumulation in industrial and urban areas. The plant suppresses soil nitrogen mineralization in agriculture due to allelochemicals such as aucubin. The biological activities, medicinal properties, and industrial application of P. lanceolata mainly depend on the activities of the responsible, active chemical constituents. However, this field still needs more study to determine the exact mechanisms and the main bioactive compound activity accountable for these activities. Also, most of the studies have been performed in vitro, so further in vivo studies are recommended for the future.
... Moreover, according to Dahat et al. [55], quercetin and its glycoside rutin have been reported in extracts displaying nephroprotective properties. In addition, luteolin and apigenin have been shown to inhibit the viability of leukemic cells, colon and ovarian carcinoma cells, and particularly human breast cancer cells, as well as reduce the occurrence of mouth sores and induce mild symptomatic relief [56]. Quercetin also helps protect against certain types of cancers, especially colon cancer [49], reduces the occurrence of mouth sores, and helps to induce mild symptomatic relief [52]. ...
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This study investigated the phytochemical contents of Taif’s rose pruning wastes and their potential application as phytomedicine, thereby practicing a waste-recycling perspective. In the Al-Shafa highland, four Taif rose farms of various ages were chosen for gathering the pruning wastes (leaves and stems) for phytochemical and pharmacological studies. The leaves and stems included significant amounts of carbohydrates, cardiac glycosides, alkaloids, flavonoids, and other phenolic compounds. The cardiac glycoside and flavonoid contents were higher in Taif rose stems, while the phenolic and alkaloid contents were higher in the plant leaves. Cardiovascular glycosides (2.98–5.69 mg g−1), phenolics (3.14–12.41 mg GAE g−1), flavonoids (5.09–9.33 mg RUE g −1), and alkaloids (3.22–10.96 mg AE g−1) were among the phytoconstituents found in rose tissues. According to the HPLC analysis of the phenolic compounds, Taif’s rose contains flavonoid components such as luteolin, apigenin, quercetin, rutin, kaempferol, and chrysoeriol; phenolics such as ellagic acid, catechol, resorcinol, gallic acid, and phloroglucinol; alkaloids such as berbamine, jatrorrhizine, palmatine, reticuline, isocorydine, and boldine. Warm water extract was highly effective against Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, and Proteus vulgaris, whereas methanol and cold water extracts were moderately effective against Aspergillus fumigatus and Candida albicans. The study’s findings suggested that Taif’s rose wastes could be used for varied medical purposes.
... In Ethiopia, more than 800 plant species have been claimed to treat more than 300 ailments [13]. The bioactive compounds are responsible for the pharmaceutical properties of MPs [14] and can be isolated from plant seeds, fruits, bark, leaves, stems, roots, and flowers [15]. Alkaloids, terpenoids, flavonoids, glycosides, and polyphenols are bioactive compounds obtained from MPs and are used to cure various diseases, including cancer [16]. ...
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Ethiopia is one of Africa’s six plant-rich countries, with around 60% of the plants being indigenous and most of them having medicinal properties. 80% of people in the country use these plants as a primary health care system to tackle different diseases, including cancer. This review is aimed at summarizing the evidence gained from diverse MPs in Ethiopia that have been used ethnobotanically and ethnopharmacologically for treatment of cancer. The primary data sources were Google Scholar, Web of Science, Science Direct, Scopus, PubMed, and other electronic scientific databases. This literature review showed that there are around 200 MPs used as anticancer. Seventy-four herbs, 39 trees, 77 shrubs, and 17 weed/climbers belonging to 56 families have been identified for their ethnobotanical anticancer potential, and 31 species were recognized for their pharmaceutically anticancer activities. The reviewed data also indicated that many Ethiopian MPs had been used to treat breast, lung, blood, and skin cancers and other tumors. Besides, the collected data showed that the leaves (36.76%), roots (27.2%), bark (12.5%), stem (5.1%), and fruit (7.35%) of plants are commonly used for the preparation of anticancer remedies. Among the reported plant species, Euphorbiaceae (10.71%), Acanthaceae (7.14%), and Asteraceae (7.1%) are the most prominent plant families being used to treat cancer ethnobotanically. Phytochemicals such as flavonoids (like xanthone, indirubin, flavopiridol, and silybin), alkaloids (like taxol, vincristine, evodiamine, and berberine), and physalin B, D, and F steroids exhibited anticancer activity on various cancer cell lines. The crude extracts of Aerva javanica, Vernonia leopoldi, Withania somnifera, Kniphofia foliosa, and Catharanthus roseus were powerful anticancer agents with an IC50 value below 10 μg/mL. Although several Ethiopian plants possess anticancer potential, only a limited number of plants are scientifically studied. Therefore, more scientific studies on anticancer MPs should be carried out; it may lead to discovering and isolating cost-effective and safe anticancer drugs.
... Plantago asiatica L. is used to be a folk medicine since ancient times [14]. As revealed by pharmacological articles, plantain possesses antiulcer, antidiarrheal, antiinflammatory, analgesic, antioxidant, anticancer, and antiviral activities [15,16]. Phytochemical studies showed that the main chemical components of Plantago asiatica L. are lipids, polysaccharides, iridoid glycosides, alkaloids, flavonoids, and caffeic acid derivatives [13]. ...
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Pseudorabies (PR) is an acute infectious disease of various domestic animals and wild animals caused by pseudorabies virus (PRV). It is mainly characterized by fever, itching, encephalomyelitis, and respiratory and neurological disorders. Plantago asiatica polysaccharide (PLP), extracted from the whole plant of Plantago asiatica L., showed immunomodulatory and antioxidation effects, but the antiviral activity had not been reported. In this study, the inhibitory effect of PLP on PRV infection was studied. Our study first revealed that PLP could inhibit PRV infection in a dose-dependent manner. By adding PLP at different stages of the virus’s life cycle, we revealed that PLP could reduce the attachment and penetration of PRV into PK15 cells. The inhibition of PRV attachment was better than inhibition of PRV penetration. However, PLP did not affect PRV replication and inactivation. In addition, PLP decreased the intracellular ROS levels in infected cells significantly, and ROS scavenger NAC decreased PRV infection. Therefore, our study provided preliminary data of anti-PRV activity of PLP, which was established to be a novel anti-PRV infection agent.
... M. lupulina was previously found to be a rich source of apigenin, kaempferol, luteolin and quercetin derivatives [26]. Apigenin, quercetin and kaempferol derivatives were also previously found in K. arvensis [48] and L. croniculatus [49], as well as luteolin and apigenin derivatives in P. major [20]. Thus, the results presented herein are in line with the previously published results. ...
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The research on the possibilities of using biowaste from urban green areas is scarce. In this work, four plants, widely distributed in urban parks in Central Europe (Lotus corniculatus, Medicago lupulina, Knautia arvensis and Plantago major) were extracted using eco-friendly solvents based either on aqueous cyclodextrin solutions (hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin or γ-cyclodextrin) or natural deep eutectic solvents based on glycerol, betaine and glucose. Metal content was determined using total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF). The content of selected metabolites was determined using UV-VIS spectrophotometric methods and HPLC. Skin-related bioactivity was assessed using tyrosinase and elastase inhibition assays. The selected plants contained metals beneficial for skin health, such as zinc and calcium, while having a low content of toxic heavy metals. The extracts contained the bioactive phenolics such as quercetin, kaempferol, luteolin and apigenin. L. corniculatus was the most potent tyrosinase inhibitor, while K. arvensis showed the most pronounced elastase inhibitory activity. The employed solvents actively contributed to the observed bioactivity. The results indicate that the biowaste obtained from urban parks represents an ecologically acceptable alternative to conventional cultivation for the preparation of ecologically acceptable, high-value cosmetic products.
... The medicinal plants were assumed to have similar medicinal values. The plants are used locally for fractures, ulcers and stula, internal and external wound healing, skin warts, diarrhea treatment, and breathing problems(Adom et al., 2017). In addition, the plants are being used to feed poultry, have good blood circulation, and increased soil fertility in the study area. ...
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Background: Medicinal plants play a pivotal role in the traditional medicine system in Ethiopia. Since the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic, domestic demand for medicinal plants has increased, particularly for Artemisia annua species. However, coupled with the secrecy nature in medicinal plant utilization, knowledge regarding marketing and value addition of medicinal plants is lacking in the literature. The objective of the present market study was to investigate the marketing and value addition of Artemisia annua and other major medicinal plants in selected towns of Southern Ethiopia. Methodology: Primary data were collected using questionnaire, focus group discussions, and personal observations with producers and traders. Marketing benefits of the potential medicinal plants were captured by total return and marketing margins. Result: The major medicinal plants in Chencha area were Artemisia annua, Stevia rebaudiana, and Silybum marianum, Echinops kebericho and Silene macrosolen Steud are widely used in Tula and Hawassa; Ocimum tenuiflorum and Ruta graveolens were found in Basha area, while Zehneria scabra was found in Chencha and Basha. The above-mentioned medicinal plants are used to treat various illnesses, while generating income to the local communities. The marketing or profit margins of the value-added products indicated a share of 28.6%, 14.36%, 14.31%, and 42.73% for producers, local collectors, and traders in Arbaminch and Addis Ababa, respectively. Conclusion: Up scaling the cultivation and commercialization of these medicinal plants has the potential to maintain the public health while providing alternative income sources for local communities in Ethiopia. In an effort to capture local value addition of medicinal plants, processing materials, market outlets, and road infrastructures should be improved.
... También hay reporte de su uso con este fin en la India (Blanco, Saborío & Garro, 2008). En la literatura se mencionan varias potenciales propiedades farmacológicas del P. major que pudieran sustentar su uso tradicional ante la otalgia, entre ellas sus propiedades analgésicas (De-la-Cruz et al., 2007), antiinflamatorias (Sajem & Gosai, 2010;Morales et al., 2017;Farzan, Abbaszadeh & Teimouri, 2019) y antibacteriales (Guarrera, 2005;Sajem & Gosai, 2010;Jamilah, Sharifa & Sharifah, 2012;Zambrano, Buenaño, Mancera & Jiménez, 2015;Adom, et al., 2017;Farzan et al., 2019). Es de anotar que en Colombia, además de las cuatro plantas empleadas en Bojayá ante el dolor de oído, han sido descritas otras con el mismo uso, desde comunidades indígenas, campesinas, o afrocolombianas. ...
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Abstract:The municipality of Bojayá, Chocó, faces the aftermath of the detonation of an improvised explosive device on the Afro-Colombian civilian population during the 2002 massacre.Survivors report having physical problems that are poorly cared for by biomedicine, among which hearing problems stand out. Traditional medical knowledge has been deployed from community resources in search of relief andhas reduced access barriers to the full enjoyment of the health rights of the peoplewho live in areas with little institutionalized medical infrastructure available for their care. This descriptivestudy was developed during 2018 and 2019 through five successive phases that combined qualitative and quantitative techniques for the collection and analysis of information: clinical surveys, individual and collective oral interviews, participant observation on herbal practices, verification with local and academic experts on useful plants identified in the previous steps, and a review of published literature on the subject. Earache is the most common hearing problema and the medicinal plants that the community has used for its treatment were identified. Four plants were recognized for the management of earache in the studied population: chicoria or siempreviva (Tripogandra serrulate (Vahl) Handlos), ajo(Allium sativumL.), llantén(Plantago majorL.),and orégano chocoano or oreganón (Plectranthus amboinicus(Lour.) Spreng.);Additionally, it was described how they were used by the locals. In conclusion, in rural contexts that have been affected by armed conflict, with poor access to institutionalized biomedical health services, ancestral health knowledge provides relief from neglected symptoms facilitating the enjoyment of health rights. In a population with frequent hearing symptoms as a result of armed violence, herbalism was evidenced as ausefuland easily accessible cultural resource used for earache, in the absence of others. This must be taken into account for the design of comprehensive health systems, which enable dialogue between their own ancestral knowledge and institutionalized biomedical health, for the benefit of rural inhabitants.Keywords:Rural Health; Earache; Anthropology, Medical; Traditional medicine; African Continental Descent Group; Armed Conflicts (source: DeCS -Bireme) Resumen El municipio de Bojayá, Chocó, afronta las secuelas de la detonación de un artefacto explosivo improvisado sobre población civil afrocolombiana durante una masacre del año 2002. Los sobrevivientes reportan problemas físicos escasamente atendidos desde la biomedicina, entre los que sobresalen los problemas auditivos. Los saberes médicos tradicionales han sido desplegados desde los propios recursos comunitarios en busca de alivio, y han disminuido barreras de acceso al disfrute del derecho pleno a la salud en estas personas, habitantes en zonas con escasa infraestructura médica institucionalizada. Este estudio descriptivo se desarrolló con información obtenida en 2018 y 2019, a través de cinco fases sucesivas que combinaron técnicas de investigación cualitativas y cuantitativas: entrevistas estructuradas y valoraciones clínicas individuales, entrevistas libres individuales y conversatorios, observación participante sobre prácticas de herbolaria, verificación con sabedores locales y académicos sobre plantas útiles identificadas en los pasos anteriores, y revisión de literatura publicada sobre el tema. El dolor de oído fue el problema auditivo mas frecuente entres los sobrevivientes evaluados; se indagó por las plantas medicinales que la comunidad ha utilizado para su tratamiento. Se reconocieron cuatro plantas para el manejo del dolor de oído en la población abordada: chicoria o siempreviva (Tripogandra serrulata (Vahl) Handlos), ajo (Allium sativum L.), llantén (Plantago major L.), y orégano chocoano u oreganón (Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng.); Además, se describieron sus modos locales de uso, y se evidenció un mejor acceso a practicas de salud tradicionales que a servicios de salud institucionales. En conclusión, en contextos rurales afectados por conflictos armados, con pobre acceso a servicios de salud biomédicos institucionalizados, los conocimientos ancestrales en salud proporcionan el alivio de síntomas desatendidos, facilitando el disfrute del derecho a la salud; en una población con frecuentes síntomas auditivos fruto de violencia armada se evidenció a la herbolaria como recurso cultural útil y de fácil acceso empleado para el dolor de oído, en ausencia de otros. Ello debe tenerse en cuenta para el diseño de sistemas integrales de salud, que posibiliten el dialogo entre los saberes médicos ancestrales propios y los biomédicos institucionalizados, en beneficio de los pobladores rurales. Palabras clave Rural health, Earache, Anthropology, Medical, Traditional medicine, African Continental Descent Group, Armed conflicts Salud Rural, Dolor de Oído, Antropología médica, Medicina tradicional, Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Africana, Conflictos armados
... Among them, polysaccharides are the most abundant component, and their multiple functions have been widely studied and reported. (Adom et al., 2017;Ji, Hou, & Guo, 2019). Both the leaves and seeds of Plantago contain amounts of polysaccharides. ...
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Plantago (Plantaginaceae) is an herbal plant, which is used in folk medicine, functional food, and dietary supplement products. Recent pharmacological and phytochemical studies have shown that polysaccharides isolated from Plantago have multiple medicinal and nutritional benefits, including improve intestinal health, hypoglycemic effect, immunomodulatory effect, etc. These health and pharmacological benefits are of great interest to the public, academia, and biotechnology industries. This paper provides an overview of recent advances in the physicochemical, structural features, and biological effects of Plantago polysaccharides and highlights the similarities and differences of the polysaccharides from different species and in different parts, including leaves, seeds, and husks. The scientific support for its use as a prebiotic is also addressed. The purpose of this review is to provide background as well as useful and up-to-date information for future research and applications of these polysaccharides.
... Nas últimas décadas, o interesse pelas terapias naturais tem aumentado significativamente, expandindo o uso de plantas medicinais e de fitoterápicos. O perfil fitoquímico da espécie P. major L. revela a presença de diversos constituintes químicos com aplicabilidade e comprovação de variados benefícios médicos, destacando-se flavonoides, associados a atividades anti-inflamatórias, antioxidantes e anticâncer [6,14] , e triterpenos, relacionados a atividade anti-inflamatória por inibição seletiva da enzima cicloxigenase do tipo 2 [15] . Em relação à atividade antimicrobiana, esta pode ser associada a polissacarídeos extraídos das folhas da planta, como um tipo de pectina polissacarídica, a PMII [16] , com efeito comprovado em teste in vivo para tratamento de pneumonia estreptocócica em camundongos [17] . ...
Article
Plantago major L. (Plantaginaceae) é uma planta utilizada no tratamento de feridas e tosse devido ao seu potencial anti-inflamatório, cicatrizante e antimicrobiano. Visando o emprego da planta na formulação de produtos para uso oral, o objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a atividade antimicrobiana desta espécie in vitro. Extratos etanólico e hidroalcoólico, preparados com partes aéreas de P. major, foram submetidos à triagem fitoquímica e análise de cromatografia em camada delgada (CCD). A atividade antimicrobiana dos extratos e de tintura comercial foi testada frente a Enterococcus faecalis e Pseudomonas aeruginosa por difusão em ágar. As análises fitoquímicas demonstraram a presença de substâncias fenólicas, cumarinas e triterpenos, além de baixo teor de fenóis e flavonoides nos extratos. Os sinais observados na CCD demonstraram ausência do marcador químico, ácido 5-O-cafeoilquínico, porém o número de classes de substâncias encontradas e a presença de um provável derivado de ácido 5-O-cafeoilquínico condizem com exemplares de P. major. Na avaliação da atividade antimicrobiana, os extratos alcoólicos e tintura não foram capazes de inibir o crescimento bacteriano, entretanto não deve ser descartada a sua ação anti-inflamatória devido as substâncias encontradas e o seu uso em sinergismo como outros agentes antimicrobianos para o desenvolvimento de produtos de uso oral.
... Plantago species have immune-stimulating properties and helping the animal's defense system; therefore, few antibiotic growth agents might be required. Plantago lanceolata phytochemical analysis indicated the presence of reducing sugar, glycoside, anthraquinone, and tannins 69 . This shows that Plantago lanceolata, collected from Mansehra, was reported for the first time for its Ag. ...
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Silver nanoparticles (Ag. NPs) have shown a biological activity range, synthesized under different environment-friendly approaches. Ag. NPs were synthesized using aqueous crude extract (ACE) isolated from Plantago lanceolata. The ACE and Ag. NPs were characterized and assessed their biological and antioxidant activities. The existence of nanoparticles (NPs) was confirmed by color shift, atomic force microscopy (AFM), and UV-Vis's spectroscopy. The FT-IR analysis indicated the association of biomolecules (phenolic acid and flavonoids) to reduce silver (Ag +) ions. The SEM study demonstrated a sphere-shaped and mean size in the range of 30 ± 4 nm. The EDX spectrum revealed that the Ag. NPs were composed of 54.87% Ag with 20 nm size as identified by SEM and TEM. AFM has ended up being exceptionally useful in deciding morphological elements and the distance across of Ag. NPs in the scope of 23-30 nm. The TEM image showed aggregations of NPs and physical interaction. Ag. NPs formation also confirmed by XPS, DRS and BET studies. Ag. NPs showed efficient activity as compared to ACE, and finally, the bacterial growth was impaired by biogenic NPs. The lethal dose (LD 50) of Ag. NPs against Agrobacterium tumefaciens, Proteus vulgaris, Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli were 45.66%, 139.71%, 332.87%, and 45.54%, with IC50 (08.02 ± 0.68), (55.78 ± 1.01), (12.34 ± 1.35) and (11.68 ± 1.42) respectively, suppressing the growth as compared to ACE. The antioxidant capacity, i.e., 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) of Ag. NPs were assayed. ACE and Ag. NPs achieved a peak antioxidant capacity of 62.43 ± 2.4 and 16.85 ± 0.4 μg mL −1 , compared to standard (69.60 ± 1.1 at 100 μg mL −1) with IC 50 (369.5 ± 13.42 and 159.5 ± 10.52 respectively). Finally, the Ag. NPs synthesized by P. lanceolata extract have an excellent source of bioactive natural products (NP). Outstanding antioxidant, antibacterial activities have been shown by NPs and can be used in various biological techniques in future research. OPEN
... Moreover, P. major differed significantly in TFD quantity from other Plantago species (Table 3), a finding that was different from that reported by Beara et al. (2009). It may be concluded that the TFD content of P. major should be linked to its anticancer (Beara et al., 2009) and anti-inflammatory (Adom et al., 2017) effects. ...
Article
pharmaceutical applications. In this study, six different Iranian species of plantago were studied to determine their antioxidant activity as well as their total phenolics, flavonoids, flavonols, chlorophyll, carotenoids, and anthocyanin content. The highest contents for total phenolics (92.37 mg GAE/g DW) and total flavonoids (57.16 mg QE/g DW) were found in P. major, whereas the highest total flavonols content (46.07 mg QE/g DW) and carotenoids (0.13 mg/g DW) were detected in P. cornopus. The least 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazy (DPPH) activity (0.66 mg/ml) was found in P. major. Also, total antioxidant capacity was in the following order P. major > P. cornopus > P. subulata > P. lanceolate ≥ P. maritima > P. ovata. Preliminar comparison of the Iranian plantago species identified them as good sources of phenolic compounds. Hence, P. major followed by P. cornopus were identified as the richest species in phenolics content with high antioxidant activity.
... The phenolic compound, gallic acid, and the alkaloids trigonelline and xanthine were identified in the aromatic region between δ5.0 and δ10.0. The presence of phenolic and alkaloid compounds in the family Plantaginaceae has been widely reported [23,38]. Gallic acid was reported in other Plantaginaceae species like Plantago coronopus L. subsp. ...
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Background Anarrhinum pubescens Fresen. (Plantaginaceae) is a rare plant, endemic to the Saint Catherine area, of South Sinai, Egypt. Earlier studies have reported the isolation of cytotoxic and anti-cholinesterase iridoid glucosides from the aerial parts of the plant. The present study aimed to investigate the chemical profiling of the wild plant shoots as well as establish efficient protocols for in vitro plant regeneration and proliferation with further assessment of the genetic stability of the in vitro regenerated plants. Results Twenty-seven metabolites have been identified in wild plant shoots using the Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The metabolites include alkaloids, amino acids, carbohydrates, organic acids, vitamins, and a phenol. In vitro propagation of the plant was carried out through nodal cutting-micropropagation and leaf segment-direct organogenesis. The best results were obtained when nodal cutting explants were cultured on Murashige and Skoog medium with Gamborg B5 vitamins supplemented with 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) (1.0 mg/L) and naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) (0.05 mg/L), which gave a shoot formation capacity of 100% and a mean number of shoots of 27.67 ± 1.4/explant. These shoots were successfully rooted and transferred to the greenhouse and the survival rate was 75%. Genetic fidelity evaluation of the micropropagated clones was carried out using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) molecular markers. Jaccard’s similarity coefficient indicated a similarity as high as 98% and 95% from RAPD and ISSR markers, respectively. Conclusions This study provides the chemical profiling of the aerial part of Anarrhinum pubescens . Moreover, in vitro regeneration through different tissue culture techniques has been established for mass propagation of the plant, and the genetic fidelity of the in vitro regenerated plants was confirmed as well. Our work on the in vitro propagation of A. pubescens will be helpful in ex situ conservation and identification of bioactive metabolites.
... is result was supported by previous research where the glycemic control effect of P. major L. extracts was contributed due to the presence of flavonoids compounds. e characteristic structures of these compounds contain aromatic rings with hydroxyl groups and are similar to standard flavonoid compounds used for antioxidants or inhibiting α-glucosidase activity, such as quercetin and resveratrol [20][21][22][23][24]. e efficacy of EP6 fraction is comparable to the result obtained from the treatment with Glucophage (a standard antihyperglycemic drug currently being used to treat type 2 diabetes patients) in the positive control group after 15 days. ...
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Plantago major L. (P. major L.) is a perennial plant belonging to the family Plantaginaceae. It has been used as a folk remedy for diabetes in Europe and Asia. However, the biologically active constituents responsible for the antidiabetic effects have not been reported. The objectives of this study aimed at determining the chemical components of Plantago major L. and evaluating the antidiabetic activity of the extracts using streptozotocin- (STZ-) induced diabetic mice. In this study, the Swiss mice were fed a high-fat diet to gain weight before STZ injections to induce diabetic conditions. The STZ-induced diabetic mice were orally treated with P. major L. extracts. The blood glucose test results from the treated diabetic mice and nontreated diabetic mice were compared. We found that a 15-day treatment with EP6 extract from P. major L. at a dose of 400 mg/kg could reduce the blood glucose level to the same level as a 15-day treatment with glucophage at a dose of 70 mg/kg. The major chemical components and structural characterization of EP6 extract were also reported. AST (aspartate transferase) and ALT (alanine aminotransferase) indicators of liver damage were measured in the treated and nontreated diabetic mice to give an overall view of the antidiabetic effect of P. major L. extracts.
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COVID-19, a worldwide epidemic, is afflicting the whole planet. Vaccines have been developed; however, they will not be able to eliminate the COVID-19 virus. As a result, the only approach to address the problem is to the disease is to have a robust immune system. A well-balanced diet can help enhance immunity, which is necessary for preventing and treating viral illnesses. Vitamins A, C, and D and minerals like Selenium and Zinc found in fruits, herbs, and vegetables have been demonstrated to have beneficial immunity-enhancing effects in viral respiratory infections. In this publication, we have attempted to describe the advantages of medicinal herbs, vitamins, minerals, nutraceuticals, and probiotics in combating the new Coronavirus. The dietary concept based on existing evidence might help inhibit and regulate COVID-19.
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In the recent years synthetic drugs have been widely replaced with herbal medicines and plant extracts because of their little undesirable and extensive beneficial effects. Plantago major L. (also known as plantain and way bread) is a member of the Plantaginaceae family. Leaves and seeds of the plant have been widely used in folk medicine for various purposes, including treatment of an extensive range of diseases and disorders such as respiratory complications and digestive system infections. Plantago major L. leaves have been used as a wound healing remedy for centuries in almost all parts of the world and in the treatment of a number of diseases apart from wound healing. P. major contains biologically active compounds such as polysaccharides, Lipids, caffeic acid derivatives, flavonoids, iridoid glycosides and terpenoids. Alkaloids and some organic acids have also been detected. A range of biological activities has been found from plant extracts including wound healing activity, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antioxidant, weak antibiotic, immune-modulating and antiulcerogenic activity. The medicinal benefits of Plantago major have been acknowledged around the world for hundreds of years. Correspondingly, studies have found that Plantago major is effective as a wound healer, as well as an anti-ulcerative, antidiabetic, antidiarrheal, anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, antibacterial, and antiviral agent. It also combats fatigue and cancer, is an antioxidant and a free radical scavenger. This paper provides a review of the medicinal benefits and chemical constituents of Plantago major published in journals from year 1953 to 2021 which are available.
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Introduction The genus Plantago (Plantaginaceae) encompasses 250 species distributed worldwide, many of them used in traditional medicine. Technological advances regarding this genus are constantly being proposed. The target of this study was to carry out a patent survey of Plantago-based products and processes. Methods The search was performed in the Espacenet® patent database, limiting the period from 1999 to 2019 and using the terms "Plantago" or "plantain herb" in the title. Results A total of 216 patents available were divided into groups: health care (50%), biotechnology (7%) and other subjects (47%). The majority of patent applicants are from China (52%), Korea (South) (23%) and Germany (6%). The documents were filed by companies (45%), independent applicants (38%) or universities (17%). In the health group, which includes half of the total patents, 25% of them are related to the food field, 63% to the phytotherapy field, 11% to the phytotherapy/food field and 1% to the cosmetics field. The phytotherapy subgroup has been deeply analyzed and mainly describes the use of Plantago asiatica, Plantago major, and plantain herb (a term used to refer to Plantago lanceolata and other Plantago species). The main applications proposed for the patented products are in the treatment of dermatological and neurodegenerative diseases, as well as antioxidants. Discussion/Conclusions The present review shows the major fields that patent products involving Plantago as well as the major countries and applicants that invest in new technologies and intellectual property in this area.
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The importance of traditional and indigenous knowledge is acknowledged on a worldwide scale for its coexistence principles and sustainable use techniques. In view of this, the present study is an attempt to document the ethno-veterinary plants used by the tribal communities of Western Himalaya. This study also provides the scientific validation of herbal medicines used in ethno-veterinary practices through a reverse pharmacological approach. A total of 59 informants were selected through a non-probability sampling method. Detailed information on the medicinal plants used in ethno-veterinary practices along with their habits and habitats, part/s used, remedy preparation methods, additives/ingredients used during preparation and administration, dosages administered, and route of administration was collected. Data was analyzed for the Relative Frequency of Citations (RFC), Use Values (UV), Informant Consensus Factor (ICF), and Jaccard Index (JI). Further, a reverse pharmacological approach was used for scientific validations of the documented herbal knowledge of plant species. During the study, 56 plant species belonging to 54 genera and 39 families were documented. Asteraceae was the dominant family followed by Lamiaceae, Amaranthaceae and Fabaceae. Life forms were dominated by herbaceous species and leaves were the most common plant parts used. The highest Relative Frequency of Citations (RFC) and Use Values (UV) were recorded for Brassica rapa L. (Brassicaceae). The Pearson correlation coefficient between RFC and UV shows a strong positive correlation between the proportion of uses of a plant species within a sample of informants and the number of times that a particular use of a plant species was mentioned by the informant. Studies of the biological activity of ethno-veterinary plants can provide clues of promising leads for the isolation and identification of useful compounds that may be developed into pharmaceuticals for human welfare.
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Cancer is a serious and significantly progressive disease. Next to cardiovascular disease, cancer has become the most common cause of mortality in the entire world. Several factors, such as environmental factors, habitual activities, genetic factors, etc., are responsible for cancer. Many cancer patients seek alternative and/or complementary treatments because of the high death rate linked with cancer and the adverse side effects of chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Traditional medicine has a long history that begins with the hunt for botanicals to heal various diseases, including cancer. In the traditional medicinal system, several plants used to treat diseases have many bioactive compounds with curative capability, thereby also helping in disease prevention. Plants also significantly contributed to the modern pharmaceutical industry throughout the world. In the present review, we have listed 33 medicinal plants with active and significant anticancer activity, as well as their anticancer compounds. This article will provide a basic set of information for researchers interested in developing a safe and nontoxic active medicinal plant-based treatment for cancer. The research will give a scientific foundation for the traditional usage of these medicinal herbs to treat cancer.
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The Ni0.5Zn0.5AlFeO4 magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) were synthesized using Plantago major seed extract via an environmentally friendly, efficient, low-cost, and simple process. The nanoparticles were characterized by FTIR, XRD, SEM, EDS, TEM, VSM, DRS, DLS, zeta potential analysis, and BET surface area analysis. The Ni0.5Zn0.5AlFeO4 MNPs were examined as a catalyst for photodegradation of reactive blue 21 (RB 21). The results illustrated that the MNPs were efficient for the photodegradation of RB 21. The catalyst eliminated about 92% of RB 21 after 40 minutes (30 mg of catalyst dosage at a concentration of 20 ppm for RB 21). The band gap of Ni0.5Zn0.5AlFeO4 MNPs computed by DRS was 1 eV. The XRD analysis showed a cubic spinel structure without any impurity phases with a crystallite size of about 10 nm. The zeta potential analysis and DLS indicated some agglomerations in the solvent. The hot filtration test showed that the reaction was heterogeneous. The kinetics for photodegradation of RB 21 on Ni0.5Zn0.5AlFeO4 MNPs follow the first-order kinetics model.
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The paper presents results of the comparative study of the iron-chelating potential and antioxidant activity of the raw material of phytopreparations and analysis of correlations between these activities and the content of phenolic compounds as the most important plant antioxidants. The total content of phenolic compounds was determined by the Folin-Chokalteu method, che-lating activity was evaluated using the ferrozine method, antiradical activity was determined by DPPH assay, and total antioxidant (reducing) capacity was assessed by the phosphomolybdenum method. A strong positive correlation was found between the con-tent of phenolic compounds and all the parameters of antioxidant properties of the phytopreparations. The analysis of the dataset (total phenolics, chelating, antiradical and reducing activities) allows arranging the phytopreparations in the order: Origani herba > Uvae Ursi folia, Hyperici herba > Helichrysi arenarii flores > Millefolii herba > Equiseti arvensis herba > Plantaginis majoris folia > Chamomillae flores > Calendulae flores > Urticae folia. Phytopreparations Origani herba, Uvae Ursi folia, and Hyperici herba are demonstrated the highest chelating activity and antioxidant potential. These results can be used as a basis for further studies of chelating and antioxidant properties of medicinal plant raw material.
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Objective Evaluation of the effect of Plantago major (P. major) seed on ulcerative colitis (UC) symptoms. Methods In this randomized double-blind clinical trial, 61 subjects received 3600 mg/day roasted P. major seed in intervention group (n = 31) and roasted wheat flour in control group (n = 30), for 8 weeks, as a complementary to standard medications. Variables were assessed using the Lichtiger Colitis Activity Index (LCAI) at baseline, week 4, and week 8. Results 51 patients completed the trial (n = 28 in Plantago and n = 23 in placebo groups). Abdominal tenderness (p = 0.011), gastroesophageal reflux and gastric pain (p = 0.049 for both), were significantly less severe in P. major group. Visible blood in stool (p = 0.001), distension (p = 0.001), and anal pain (p = 0.051), decreased significantly in P. major group, although no significant difference was observed between the two groups: (p = 0.224), (p = 0.283), and (p = 0.455) respectively. Conclusion P. major seems to be effective in complementary management of UC.
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Background Plantago major has been reported to have anticancer and anti-inflammatory properties. However, its antiproliferative and anti-inflammatory mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. Moreover, which plant parts are more suitable as starting materials has not been explored. Objectives To investigate the antiproliferative activity of P. major extracts against MCF-7, MDA-MB-231, HeLaS3, A549, and KB cancer cell lines as well as their effects on inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-α, interleukin [IL]-1β, IL-6, and interferon [IFN]-γ) production by lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated THP-1 macrophages. Materials and Methods The methanol and aqueous extracts of P. major from different plant parts and its chemical compounds, i.e., ursolic acid (UA), oleanolic acid (OA), and aucubin were tested in this experiment. Results Methanol and aqueous extracts of P. major seeds exhibited the greatest antiproliferative activity. The methanol extracts of seeds also demonstrated the highest inhibition of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and IFN-γ production. Interestingly, the roots, which were commonly discarded, exhibited comparable activities to those of leaves and petioles. Furthermore, UA exhibited stronger activities than OA and aucubin. Conclusions The seeds are being proposed as the main source for further development of anticancer and anti-inflammatory products, whereas the roots could be included in the preparation of P. major derived products with respect to anti-inflammatory. SUMMARY Amongst the parts of Plantago major, seeds exhibited the greatest antiproliferative activity against MCF-7, MDA-MB-231, HeLaS3, A549, and KB cell lines as well as the highest inhibition on TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and IFN-γ production The roots, which were commonly discarded, exhibited comparable antiproliferative and cytokines inhibition activities to those of leaves and petioles Ursolic acid, a chemical compound of Plantago major, exhibited stronger activities than oleanolic acid and aucubin The seeds are being proposed as the main source for further development of anticancer and anti inflammatory products, whereas the roots could be included in the preparation of Plantago major derived products with respect to anti inflammatory. Abbreviations used: TNF: Tumor Necrosis Factor; IL: Interleukin; IFN: Interferon; HPTLC: High Performance Thin Layer Chromatography; UA: Ursolic Acid; OA: Oleanolic Acid; AUC: Aucubin.
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Introduction: The aim of this study was to investigate the possible renoprotective effect of Plantago major extract against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. Materials and methods: Rats were divided into 6 groups. The first group was the control, group 2 was treated with cisplatin (7 mg/kg, single dose), and groups 3 to 6 received cisplatin with vitamin E (100 mg/kg) and Plantago major extract at doses of 300 mg/kg, 600 mg/kg, and 1200 mg/kg, for 20 days. Results: On day12, serum concentration of urea, creatinine, and potassium significantly increased and sodium concentration significantly decreased in the cisplatin group compared with the control rats. However, serum creatinine, urea, and potassium concentrations were significantly lower in all of the Plantago major groups compared to the cisplatin group. Also, there was a significant elevation in serum sodium concentration in the Plantago major 600 mg/kg group compared to the cisplatin group on day12. Injection of cisplatin caused a significant elevation in malondialdehyde concentration but a significant decrease in catalase activity and total thiol content compared to the control group. Plantago major extract at 1200 mg/kg significantly improved malondialdehyde concentration and total thiol content compared to the cisplatin group. Catalase activity with Plantago major significantly increased at all doses compared to the cisplatin group. Conclusions: The current study suggests that Plantago major extract and vitamin E are able to improve kidney function as well as oxidative stress in cisplatin-induced renal toxicity in the rat.
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In this study, minimum inhibitor concentrations of acetone and ethyl alcohol extracts of Plantago major L. leaves on predetermined bacteria species was determinbed by Macrodilution liquid (tube) method. Both extracts were tested for nine bacteria species (Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus mirabilis, Salmonella enteritidis). Ethyl alcohol extract showed no antibacterial activity against all species (except for E. coli and B. cereus), but acetone extract was effective on selected bacteria species in different concentrations. Gram Pozitif ve Gram Negatif Bakteriler üzerine Plantago major L.'nin Etanol ve Aseton Ekstraktlarının Antibakteriyel Etkisi Özet Çalışmamızda, Plantago major L. yapraklarından elde edilen aseton ve etil alkol ekstraktlarının Makrodilusyon sıvı (tüp) yöntemi ile Minimum inhibitör konsantrasyonları (MİK) tespit edilmiştir. Her iki ekstrakt dokuz farklı bakteri türü (Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus mirabilis, Salmonella enteritidis) üzerinde test edilmiştir. Etil alkol ekstraktının test bakterilerinden E. coli ve B. cereus dışındaki diğer bakterilere karşı antibakteriyel etkinlik göstermediği saptanırken, aseton ekstraktının ise kullanılan bakteri suşlarına karşı farklı konsantrasyonlarda etkinlik gösterdiği görülmüştür.
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Plantago major (PM) is one of a perennial plant and it belonging to the family of Plantaginaceae. It has been used in Malaysia as a folk remedy for diabetes and other illness. PM grows widely in whole of Europe and temperate Asia. The objective of study was evaluating antidiabetic activity of alcoholic extract of PM using STZ-induced diabetic rats. Methodology: adult male Sprague dually (SD) rats were used in the experiment for hypoglycaemic activity in oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and antidiabetic activity in streptozotocin induced rats. Results: showed that the continuous post-treatment for 14 days with the 1000 mg/kg of PM showed potential hypoglycaemic activity in OGTT and antidiabetic activity in streptozotocin induced rat models. Furthermore, isolation and establishment of exact mechanism of action of specific compound from PM is to be carried out in the future.
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Plantago major L. produces several chemical substances with anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities and its use in the treatment of oral and throat inflammation in popular medicine is well described. In this study, the antioxidant potential of the Plantago major hydroethanolic extract was screened and its protective action was evaluated against t-BOOHinduced oxidative stress. The extract was obtained by fractionated percolation using 50% ethanolic solution and, after drying, suspended in dimethyl sulfoxide. The chromatographic profile of crude extract was obtained with the identification of some phytochemical markers and the total phenols and flavonoids were quantified. The scavenger activity against DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) radicals was determined and the antioxidant activity in biological systems was evaluated in isolated rat liver mitochondria and HepG2 cells. The extract exhibited a significant free radical scavenger activity at 0.1 mg/mL, and decreased the ROS (reactive oxygen species) generation in succinate-energized mitochondria. Such an effect was associated with the preservation of the intrinsic antioxidant defenses (reduced glutathione and NAD(P)H) against the oxidation by t-BOOH, and also to the protection of membranes from lipid oxidation. The cytoprotective effect of PmHE against t-BOOH induced cell death was also shown. These findings contribute to the understanding of the health benefits attributed to P. major.
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Hepatic injury induces inflammatory process and cell necrosis. Plantago major is traditionally used for various diseases. This study aimed to determine the anti-inflammatory property of P. major leaf extracts on inflammatory reaction following acetaminophen (APAP) hepatotoxicity. Thirty male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 5 groups, namely, normal control (C), APAP, aqueous (APAP + AQ), methanol (APAP + MT), and ethanol (APAP + ET) extract treated groups. All APAP groups received oral APAP (2 g/kg) at day 0. Then, 1000 mg/kg dose of P. major extracts was given for six days. The levels of liver transaminases were measured at day 1 and day 7 after APAP induction. At day 7, the blood and liver tissue were collected to determine plasma cytokines and tissue 11 β -HSD type 1 enzyme. The in vitro anti-inflammatory activities of methanol, ethanol, and aqueous extracts were 26.74 ± 1.6%, 21.69 ± 2.81%, and 12.23 ± 3.15%, respectively. The ALT and AST levels were significantly higher in the APAP groups at day 1 whereas the enzyme levels of all groups showed no significant difference at day 7. The extracts treatment significantly reduced the proinflammatory cytokine levels and significantly increased the 11 β -HSD type 1 enzyme activity ( p < 0.05 ). In conclusion, the P. major extracts attenuate the inflammatory reaction following APAP-induced liver injury.
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The relationship between the structural characteristics of 29 flavonoids and their antiradical activity was studied. The obtained results suggest that the free radical scavenger potential of these polyphenolic compounds closely depends on the particular substitution pattern of free hydroxyl groups on the flavonoid skeleton. The possible mechanism of action of flavonoids lacking B ring OHs as free radical scavengers has been proposed.
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The wound-healing properties of Plantago major L. (plantain) were evaluated using an ex-vivo porcine wound-healing model. Ethanol- and water-based extracts were prepared from greenhouse-grown and freeze-dried leaves of P. major. Both types of extracts stimulated wound healing in porcine skin, but the ethanol-based extracts had a somewhat stronger effect. A concentration of 1.0 mg/mL (on dry weight basis) produced the best results for both types of extracts.
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Nutritional (ascorbic acid, dehydroascorbic acid and carotenes); antinutritional and toxic components (oxalic acid, nitrate and erucic acid) were determined in sixteen popular species of wild edible plants which are collected for human consumption in southeast Spain. Ascorbic + dehydroascorbic acids contents were very high in several species, especially in Chenopodium album L. (155 mg/100 g). Carotenoid content ranged from 4.2 mg/100 g (Stel-laria media Villars) to 15.4 mg/100 g (Amaranthus viridis L.). A range of values was found for oxalic acid from absence to 1100 mg/100 g of plant material. Nitrate contents ranged from 47 mg/100 g (Salicornia europaea L.) to 597 mg/100 g (Amaranthus viridis L.). Low amounts of erucic acid were found in the Cruciferae family (Sisymbrium irio L. 1.73%; Cardaria draba L. 1.23%) and Plantago major L. 3.45%.
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Plantago major is a common plant that grows worldwide in temperate zones and is found in fields, lawns, and on the roadsides. Its leaves and seeds have been used in almost all parts of the world for centuries as a wound healer, analgesic, antioxidant, and antibiotic, as well as an immune system modulator, antiviral, antifungal, and anti-inflammatory agent. Baicalein and aucubin are the two most biologically active components of P. major, and both have been shown to have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer properties. Neutrophils have a pivotal role in wound healing and inflammation. Their principal mechanism of host defense is the killing of pathogens via the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The aim of the present study was to determine the in vitro effects of P. major extract, baicalein, and aucubin on human neutrophil respiratory burst activity. The cytotoxicity of the agents was assessed by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assays. A standard luminol-dependent chemiluminescence (CL) assay was utilized to monitor the respiratory burst of the neutrophils after exposure to P. major extract and its two active ingredients, baicalein and aucubin. Three replicates per group were included in each of the three runs of the experiments and analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used for statistical analysis. P. major and baicalein were not toxic to the cells at any of the concentrations examined. Aucubin was toxic to the cells only at the highest concentration tested (P=0.0081). However, genistein was toxic to the cells at all of the concentrations examined except for the lowest concentration of 16.9 μg/ml (P=0.985). P. major (−0.10±0.11), aucubin (0.06±0.16), baicalein (−0.10±0.11), and genistein (−0.18±0.07) all significantly (P
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The antibacterial activity of plant extracts obtained from Bixa orellana L., Chamomilla recutita L., Ilex paraguariensis A. St.-Hil., Malva sylvestris L., Plantago major L. and Rheum rhaponticum L. has been evaluated against two reference strains and eleven clinical isolates of Helicobacter pylori. All the plant species chosen are used in popular Brazilian cuisine and folk medicine in the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. Initial screening was made by the disk diffusion test and then minimum inhibitory concentration was determined by the agar dilution method. The results presented in this work demonstrated that among the plant preparations analyzed, B. orellana L., C. recutita L., I. paraguariensis A. St.-Hil. and M. sylvestris L. were capable of inhibiting the in vitro growth of H. pylori.
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In the recent years synthetic drugs have been widely replaced with herbal medicines and plant extracts because of their little undesirable and extensive beneficial effects. Plantago majorL. (also known as plantain and way bread) is a member of the Plantaginaceae family. Leaves and seeds of the plant have been widely used in folk medicine for various purposes, including treatment of an extensive range of diseases and disorders such as respiratory complications and digestive system affections. It has been also used in wound healing and as an antiinflammatory, antimicrobial and antitumor agent. Moreover, plantain contains ingredients which can neutralize internal and external poisons. Recent studies have also shown its anti-fatigue properties. Phytochemical analysis of P. major extract has indicated that this plant contains a wide range of chemicals such as polysaccharides, lipids (saturated and non-saturated), amino acids (essential and non-essential), caffeic acid derivatives, flavonoids, iridoidglycosides and terpenoids, which have the potential to exert different biological effects. Phenols (ferulic acid), flavonoids and tannins have the highest amount in Plantago leaves. The present review describes the traditional uses and recent findings(Since 2000 till date) about the pharmacological effects of Plantago major L.
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Plantago major extract has been traditionally used for treating diabetes and to increase male fertility. This study was conducted to verify its efficacy. The hypoglycaemic property of P. major aqueous leaf extract was determined by oral administration of four treatment doses (l00, 200, 400 and 600 mg/kg body weight). Saline and glibenclamide were used as controls. Glucose Tolerance Test was done at -10, 0, 5, 15, 30, 60, 90, 120 and 180 minutes and the plasma glucose concentration was determined by the glucose oxidase assay. The study showed that only the 600 mg/kg dose had a significant effect in reducing blood glucose level in diabetic rats. However, the effect of the aqueous extracts was less pronounced compared to glibenclamide. In the fertility study, an aqueous extract from P. major seeds was given orally to rats at 30, 60, 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight respectively. The effect of each dose on vas deferens sperm concentrations after 20 days of treatment was determined. Analysis of the data showed significant increases in sperm concentrations in the 60, 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight groups. However, the trend in increased testosterone levels from day 8 to 14 in the 60 and 200 mg/kg groups was insignificant, suggestive of otherfactors, possibly antiestrogens in the seed extract contributing to the spermatogenic effect. The studies suggest that aqueous extract from P. major could contain chemicals for treating diabetes mellitus and male infertility problems.
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Despite the large use of the Plantago major and Siparuna guianensis in traditional medicine, there are no studies demonstrating the effectiveness from extracts of these plants in the healing process by the present methodology. This study reported the effects and toxicity of the P. major and S. guianensis extracts in the wound healing compared with a commercial product used in Brazil by macroscopic and microscopic analysis. Following injury in cervical dorsal area of the mice, the extract from P. major and S. guianensis and ointment was applied after an injury in cervical dorsal area of the mice. Wound healing rates were calculated at 4, 9, 15 and 21 d after the wounding, and tissues were obtained on the ninth day for histological analysis. Moreover, mutagenic assay of extracts was performed. Mutagenicity studies carried out with plant extracts showed not mutagenic with or without metabolic activations. Reduction of the wound area occurred earlier in mice treated with P. major and control treatment. On the 15th day, the complete wound closure occurred in P. major-treated wounds. Throughout ointment and S. guianensis treatment it was not observed the wound closured. Microscopic analyses of the wound, on the ninth day, showed the more efficient formation of the neoepithelium and skin appendages in animals treated with S. guianensis and P. major, while ointment treatment presented no re-epithelialization and absent skin appendages in wound. Thus, P. major extract showed good effects on wound healing processes rendering it a promising candidate for the treatment of wounds what also justified its traditional usage in wound treatment.
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Introduction: Selective extraction of plant materials is advantageous for obtaining extracts enriched with desired constituents, thereby reducing the need for subsequent chromatography purification. Such compounds include three cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitory substances in Plantago major L. targeted in this investigation: α-linolenic acid (α-LNA) (18:3 ω-3) and the triterpenic acids ursolic acid and oleanolic acid. Objective: To investigate the scope for tuning the selectivity of supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) using bioassay guidance, and Soxhlet extraction with dichloromethane as solvent as a reference technique, to optimise yields of these substances. Method: Extraction parameters were varied to optimise extracts' COX-2/COX-1 inhibitory effect ratios. The crude extracts were purified initially using a solid phase extraction (SPE) clean-up procedure and the target compounds were identified with GC-MS, LC-ESI-MS and LC-ESI-MS² using GC-FID for quantification. Results: α-LNA was preferentially extracted in dynamic mode using unmodified carbon dioxide at 40°C and 172 bar, at a 0.04% (w/w) yield with a COX-2/COX-1 inhibitory effect ratio of 1.5. Ursolic and oleanolic acids were dynamically extracted at 0.25% and 0.06% yields, respectively, with no traces of (α-LNA) and a COX-2/COX-1-inhibitory effect ratio of 1.1 using 10% (v/v) ethanol as polar modifier at 75°C and 483 bar. The Soxhlet extracts had ursolic acid, oleanolic acid and αLNA yields up to 1.36%, 0.34% and 0.15%, respectively, with a COX-2/COX-1 inhibitory effect ratio of 1.2. Conclusion: The target substances can be extracted selectively by bioassay guided optimisation of SFE conditions.
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Among the various known therapeutic effects of Plantago major (L.), a few recent studies have shown that preparations of the crude extracts of some plant leaves could prevent or regress the growth of certain tumours. In this study, the effect of P. major, an anticancerogenic, against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma in mice was investigated. The animals were separated into five groups: two groups for control (HC, healthy control; TC, tumour control) and three groups for experiments E1 (25 g/ml extract given after tumour inoculation), E2 (50 g/ml extract given after tumour inoculation) and E3 (75 g/ml extract given after tumour inoculation). Ehrlich ascites tumours (1x10 6 cells) were injected intraperitonally into the mice's of E1, E2, E3 and TC groups. P. major extract was given in three different concentrations for 10 days orally. Following the administration, all animals sacrificed and their intestine and colon tissues taken out then stained with haematoxilen-eosin for pathological investigations. Pathological findings stated out that P. major extract had inhibitory effect against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma. Therefore, our results show that P. major could be proposed as an effective agent for cancer prevention.
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Fresh samples of 16 wild edible plants were assayed for Ascorbic Acid and 10 plants were assayed for Vitamin A. Many of the plants were found to be rich sources of these vitamins when compared with some common garden fruits and vegetables.
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The etiology of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is not yet known, but many factors such as defects in the immune system, oxidative stress, microbial content in the gastrointestinal tract, nuclear factor (NF)-κB, nitric oxide (NO), cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2), and leukotriene B4 (LB4) are thought to play a role in its pathogenesis. In traditional Iranian medicine (TIM), several medicinal plants are thought to be effective for the treatment of IBD. In this study, information on all of these remedies were derived from all available old sources such as documents or notes and books and were added to the information derived from modern medical databases covering all in vitro, in vivo and clinical trials. For some of these plants, only one or two mechanisms of action have been found such as in Cassia fistula, Lepidium sativum, and Bunium persicum. However, for some plants various mechanisms of action are known. For example, Commiphora mukul is effective in IBD due to its immunomodulatory, antioxidant, and antibacterial properties and it decreases NF-κB, NO and Cox-2. Another herb, Plantago ovata, has immunomodulatory, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and wound healing activities and decreases NO and LB4. Considering the mechanisms of action of these plants, the combination of some of them may be useful because of their many mechanisms of action such as Pistacia lentiscus, Bunium persicum, Solanum nigrum, Plantago ovata, Boswellia, Solanum nigrum, Plantago ovata and Commiphora mukul. For some of the herbal products used in TIM such as oleogum resin from Commiphora myrrha, seeds of Ocimum basilicum, seeds of Linum usitatissimum, gum resin of Dracaena cinnabari, seeds of Plantago major, seeds of Lallementia royleana, and seeds of Allium porrum, there is no or not enough studies to confirm their benefits in IBD. It is suggested that an evaluation of the effects of these plants on different aspects of IBD should be performed.
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The aim of this study was to investigate anti-inflammatory and hepatoprotective activities of Plantago major L. (PM). Anti-inflammatory activity: Control and reference groups were administered isotonic saline solution (ISS) and indomethacin, respectively. Plantago major groups were injected PM in doses of 5 mg/kg (PM-I), 10 mg/kg (PM-II), 20 mg/kg (PM-III) and 25 mg/kg (PM-IV). Before and three hours after the injections, the volume of right hind-paw of rats was measured using a plethysmometer. HEPATOPROTECTIVE ACTIVITY: The hepatotoxicity was induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) administration. Control, CCl4 and reference groups received isotonic saline solution, CCl4 and silibinin, respectively. Plantago major groups received CCl4 (0.8 ml/kg) and PM in doses of 10, 20 and 25 mg/kg, respectively for seven days. Blood samples and liver were collected on the 8th day after the animals were killed. Plantago major had an anti-inflammatory effect matching to that of control group at doses of 20 and 25 mg/kg. It was found that reduction in the inflammation was 90.01% with indomethacin, 3.10% with PM-I, 41.56% with PM-II, 45.87% with PM-III and 49.76% with PM-IV. Median effective dose (ED50) value of PM was found to be 7.507 mg/kg. Plantago major (25 mg/kg) significantly reduced the serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels when compared to the CCl4 group. The histopathological findings showed a significant difference between the PM (25 mg/kg) and CCl4 groups. The results showed that PM had a considerable anti-inflammatory and hepatoprotective activities.