Conference PaperPDF Available

Knowledge-Based Building Information Modeling (K-BIM) for Facilities Management

Knowledge-based Building Information Modeling (K-BIM)
for Facilities Management
V. Paul C. Charlesraj
Assistant Professor, RICS School of Built Environment, Amity University, India
Abstract -
Knowledge Management (KM) is a business
management technique that promises improved
competitive advantage among other benefits for an
organization. The application of KM in construction
is fairly researched and reported. Although Building
Information Modeling (BIM) is gaining wide
acceptance among Architects and Project Managers
for efficient and effective design and construction
management, the adoption of BIM in operations
during post-construction phase such as Facilities
Management (FM) is in its normative stage. As FM is
knowledge and information intensive and relies
heavily on historical information, a Knowledge-based
BIM (K-BIM) that is developed on the basis of as-
constructed information of the facility has the
capability for effective and efficient FM and thereby
enhance the competitive advantage of a FM
organisation. Ontologies have the potential to
represent the body of knowledge of the various
domains involved such as KM, FM and BIM.
Integration of KM, FM and BIM can also be achieved
through ontologies. The proposed conceptual
framework, K-BIM is an attempt to advance BIM by
way of integrating KM, FM and BIM using ontologies,
rather than building a system on a model built using
Keywords -
IT Applications; Knowledge Management;
Building Information Modeling; Facilities
Management; Knowledge-based BIM; Ontology
1 Introduction
Of late, in the quest of sustainable competitive
advantage, organisations have come to realise that their
competitiveness edge is mostly the brainpower or
intellectual capital of their employees and management.
To be more specific, an organisation’s competitive
advantage depends on what it knowshow it uses what
it knows – and how fast it can know something new. In
order to stay ahead of the pack, organisations must
leverage their knowledge internally and externally to
survive. Specific KM activities help focus the
organisation on acquiring, storing and utilising
knowledge for problem solving, dynamic learning,
strategic planning and decision making. It also protects
intellectual assets from decay, adds to organisation
intelligence and provides increased flexibility. The
emergence of KM may be explained by the confluence
and natural evolution of several factors. KM is a
necessity, driven by the market forces of competition,
market place demands, new operating and management
practices, and the availability of KM approaches and
Information & Communication Technologies (ICT).
The application of KM in construction is fairly
researched and reported. Although Building Information
Modeling (BIM) is gaining wide acceptance among
Architects and Project Managers for efficient and
effective design and construction management, the
adoption of BIM in operations during post-construction
phase is in its normative stage. Facilities Management
(FM) is one of the major tasks involved in the post-
construction phase. As FM is knowledge and
information intensive and relies heavily on historical
information, a Knowledge-based BIM (K-BIM) that is
developed on the basis of as-constructed information of
the facility has the potential for effective and efficient
FM and thereby enhance the competitive advantage of a
FM organisation. An integrated ontology-based KM
framework for FM facilitated by BIM has the potential to
promote the efficiency and effectiveness of a FM system.
K-BIM is such a framework that attempts to advance
BIM by way of integrating KM, FM and BIM using
2 Literature Review
2.1 Knowledge Management (KM)
KM can be defined as the systematic and explicit
management of knowledge-related activities involving
knowledge-workers in an organisation to improve
organisational knowledge-related efficiency and
effectiveness, thereby to achieve specified organisational
goals and objectives.
The 31st International Symposium on Automation and Robotics in Construction and Mining (ISARC 2014)
There has been a quite extensive research reported on
the role/application of KM in construction [1,2]. The
applicability and usefulness of KM in construction has
been researched in strategic management of construction
[3], general construction project management [4,5,6],
knowledge discovery from construction databases [7],
design management [8] and corporate memory for
construction [9]. Carrillo and Chinowsky investigated the
implementation of KM initiatives in major engineering
design and construction organisations in United States of
America [10]. Chen and Mohamed studied the impact of
the internal business environment on KM within
construction organizations in Hong Kong [11] and also
the strategic importance of tacit knowledge management
activities in construction [12]. It has been reported that
the changes in organizational culture are critical to
successful KM [13].
2.1.1 OntologiesinKM
Ontology is an explicit specification of a
conceptualisation [14]. Ontologies can be effectively
used in solutions for many KM processes, especially for
knowledge representation [15]. Maedche et al. proposed
an integrated enterprise-KM architecture for
implementing an Ontology-based KM System (OKMS)
[16]. Saito et al. described the KM technologies
according to their support for strategy through an
ontology development method and categorised the KM
technologies based on their relationship with KM
strategy [17]. Ontology-based KM frameworks have
been reported for engineering design management, risk
management in construction projects and competency
development of construction project managers [18,19,20].
2.2 Building Information Modeling (BIM)
Essentially, BIM combines technology with new
working practices to improve the quality of the delivered
product and also improve the reliability, timeliness and
consistency of the process. It is equally applicable to
asset and facilities management as it is to construction.
BIM provides a common single and coordinated source
of structured information to support all parties involved
in the delivery process, whether that be to design,
construct, and/or operate. Because all parties involved
with a BIM project have access to the same data, the
information loss associated with handing a project over
from design team to construction team and to building
owner/operator is kept to a minimum. It has been
reported that BIM is a suitable facilitator for KM in
construction for various applications such as knowledge
sharing [21], construction supply chain management [22],
sustainability & asset management [23] building
maintenance [24] construction defect management [25]
and lean architectural practice [26].
2.3 Facilities Management (FM)
Facility management is a profession that
encompasses multiple disciplines to ensure functionality
of the built environment by integrating people, place,
process and technology. [27]
It has been reported that the potential benefits of using
BIM in FM seem to be such as valuable ‘as-built’
(heritage) documentation, maintenance of warranty and
service information, quality control, assessment and
monitoring, energy and space management, emergency
management or retrofit planning [23,28,29,30].
Decontamination or deconstruction processes could also
benefit from structured up-to-date building information
to reduce errors and financial risk, e.g. through
deconstruction scheduling and sequencing, cost
calculation, rubble management, optimization of
deconstruction progress tracking or data management
2.4 Summary of Literature Review
It has been observed that the application/role of KM
in construction is well researched and in the other phases
of the built environment projects is limited. Ontology is
a potential technique for the solutions involving KM
systems. Research efforts on the role of BIM in KM as
well as in FM are in their normative stage. It would be
interesting to investigate how KM and BIM contribute
together for better FM.
3 K-BIM for FM Framework
The objective of this framework is to effectively
facilitate the FM through the strengths of KM & BIM. K-
BIM attempts to incorporate the best practices of the
three domains viz. Knowledge Management, Building
Information Modeling and Facilities Management as
shown in Figure 1.
In 2009, a global job task analysis (GJTA) of
International Facility Management Association (IFMA)
defined 11 core competencies of facility managers. The
GJTA included responses from facility managers in 62
countries. It is the most comprehensive to date and the
first truly global survey and analysis [27]. Those core
competencies are:
xCommunication - Communication plans and
processes for both internal and external
xEmergency Preparedness and Business
Continuity - Emergency and risk management
plans and procedures
xEnvironmental Stewardship and
Sustainability - Sustainable management of
built and natural environments
xFinance & Business - Strategic plans, budgets,
financial analyses, procurement
xHuman Factors - Healthful and save
environment, security, FM employee
xLeadership and Strategy - Strategic planning,
organize, staff and lead organization
xOperations and Maintenance - Building
operations and maintenance, occupant services
xProject Management - Oversight and
management of all projects and related contracts
xQuality - Best practices, process improvements,
audits and measurements
xReal Estate and Property Management - Real
estate planning, acquisition and disposition
xTechnology - Facility management technology,
workplace management systems
At the very outset, development of all the above
mentioned core competencies of facility management can
be facilitated by adopting the best practices of KM, BIM
and FM. The concept map of the proposed K-BIM
framework (as shown in Figure 2) is based on the premise
that BIM models of the constructed facilities would
facilitate the FM processes. Hence, it is expected that
BIM would play an important role in the development of
the core competencies of FM as BIM is the interface
between the facility managers and the knowledgebase.
There are three major components in the proposed K-
BIM framework. They are (i) Knowledgebase, (ii) K-
BIM Layer, and (iii) Stakeholder Interface.
3.1 Knowledgebase
The knowledgebase of the K-BIM framework is
primarily consists of two components. They are:
Ontology of KM and Ontology of FM.
3.1.1 OntologyofKM
The entire body of knowledge of the KM domain is
represented in this ontology. This include the KM
processes, knowledge domains, KM tools (techniques &
technology) and knowledge mapping [20].
3.1.2 OntologyofFM
The domain knowledge of the FM is represented
ontology of FM. This include the FM processes,
historical information, and best practices in FM. It would
also have the definition, assessment guidelines, and
performance criteria of the various core competencies of
FM as well as the competency mapping.
These ontologies can also interact between them based
on the context.
3.2 K-BIM Layer
The BIM layer consists of the BIM models of the
constructed facilities and the associated standards such as
National BIM Standard - United States (NBIMS-US)
[31]. These are managed by the BIM managers. The
data/information present in the models are depends
heavily on the knowledgebase as they are context-
specific. Whenever there is a request for information
(RFI) from any stakeholder, the knowledgebase is
referred before returning a result. Also, any updates shall
be applied to the BIM models/standards. In this way, the
capability of the BIM is enriched. The data/information
present in the BIM models are primarily knowledge-
driven rather than information-dependent. Hence, this
becomes the crucial layer of the proposed K-BIM.
3.3 Stakeholder Interface
Various stakeholders involved in the project/facility,
especially facility managers, shall use this interface to
interact with the K-BIM for problem-solving or decision
for FM
Figure 1. K-BIM for Facilities Management
The 31st International Symposium on Automation and Robotics in Construction and Mining (ISARC 2014)
Ontology of KM
Ontology of FM
BIM Manager
Service Contractors
Figure 2. Concept Map of K-BIM Framework for Facilities Management
Domains; Processes;
Techniques; Tools;
Knowledge Map
Processes; Historical
Information; Tools;
Best Practices;
Architectural; Structural;
Services; n-D As-built Coordination
Based on the context of the query (may be related to the
core competencies of FM) the I-BIM returns appropriate
information derived from the knowledgebase that would
facilitate the competency development of the manager as
well as better facility management. This in turn, would
enhance the competitive advantage of the FM
3.4 Suggested Methodology for
The proposed framework can be implemented by first
building the knowledgebase. Ontologies of KM & FM
shall be developed using Knowledge-Engineering
methodology [32] or use some existing ontologies. BIM
models shall be integrated with the existing standards &
protocols to achieve the intended goals such as
coordination, collaboration & communication across
various stakeholders and this needs to be moderated by
the BIM managers. The stakeholder interface shall be
integrated with the workflow management systems to
maximise the operational efficiency.
4 Summary
The proposed K-BIM framework for FM is an
attempt to harness the power of KM and BIM to facilitate
the FM processes. As discussed, the framework consists
of three major components viz. knowledgebase, K-BIM
layer and stakeholder interface. The entire body of
knowledge of the KM & FM domain are modelled in the
knowledgebase. Ontologies are the potential technique
for design, development and update of the
knowledgebase. The middle layer, K-BIM is an
enhanced BIM (models/standards) that is driven by the
knowledgebase. The stakeholder interface is the platform
through which all the stakeholders of the project/facility
would interact. This framework would also be helpful in
the competency development of the facilities managers.
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... BIM has an edge over conventional CAD 2D models, such that the BIM model can be viably utilized for planning, designing, construction and operation tasks of the projects [8]. Design, engineering and construction experts are inclined towards BIM for the successful and productive structure and development of the board [9]. Building information modeling is not just a product, but is a total procedure [8,10]. ...
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The Pakistan construction industry recorded a high growth rate of 9.05% in 2016-2017. However, it fails to complete the projects within the specified cost, time and quality due to the use of traditional management techniques. This can be easily overcome by adopting and implementing new technologies like Building Information Modeling (BIM). In this study, a questionnaire survey was performed to find the present state of BIM in Pakistan and highlight the barriers in its successful adoption. In addition, Interpretive Structure Modeling (ISM) and Cross-Impact Matrix Multiplication Applied to Classification (MICMAC) analysis were used to identify interrelationships among these barriers. Out of 104 responses received, 63% of Architecture, Engineering and Construction (AEC) professionals were aware of BIM and among them, only 17% had utilized BIM in their projects, which is a very low percentage. The adoption of BIM in Pakistan is only at 11%. The respondents acknowledged that BIM helps in minimizing the cost and time of a project up to 57%. This study concluded that BIM is more economical and efficient than other management techniques. Moreover, this research also identifies the ISM and MICMAC analysis-based hierarchical model and three level strategy model that can facilitate the possible implementation. Solutions to common barriers around the globe are also proposed. Thus, by utilizing BIM, an economical, timely, properly managed project can be obtained in Pakistan and other developing construction markets all over the globe.
... Heritage and archaeological site management is a challenging task facing many requirements in terms of legal issues, human resources, financial aspects [1] and information management [2]. Nowadays, there exist more and more heritage information systems (HIS) that deal with some of the issues mentioned. ...
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The digital management of an archaeological site requires to store, organise, access and represent all the information that is collected on the field. Heritage building information modelling, archaeological or heritage information systems now tend to propose a common framework where all the materials are managed from a central database and visualised through a 3D representation. In this research, we offer the development of a built heritage information system prototype based on a high-resolution 3D point cloud data set. The particularity of the approach is to consider a user-centred development methodology while avoiding meshing/down-sampling operations. The proposed system is initiated by a close collaboration between multi-modal users (managers, visitors, curators) and a development team (designers, developers, architects). The developed heritage information system permits the management of spatial and temporal information, including a wide range of semantics using relational along with NoSQL databases. The semantics used to describe the artifacts are subject to conceptual modelling. Finally, the system proposes a bi-directional communication with a 3D interface able to stream massive point clouds, which is a big step forward to provide a comprehensive site representation for stakeholders while minimising modelling costs.
The application of building information modeling to facility management system has proven to help reduce management costs during operation and maintenance phase. However, whenever this type of facility management system is built and changed, it is often necessary to communicate with 1) programmers and facility experts, 2) facility experts, and 3) facility experts and systems. The study established a framework for abstracting the information of BIM to the architecture and attributes of ontology model based on interviews with several facility experts. Also, write a transition function that transforms UML to SWRL. Finally, the execution result of ontology model is automatically obtained through the ontology platform. Therefore, the experts only need to systemize the domain knowledge to form the UML, and then the result of the logic flow chart can be obtained. In the result section, the facility management system is developed to assist the emergency response through different facility managers and firefighters. The results of the implementation found that in the case of no need for programmers and personally establish and alter the system, the facilities related personnel have higher grasp and trust in the system, and save more time in addition to the convenience of personnel communication.
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BIM application on construction projects is a potential risk that must be managed. Risk factors in construction projects will also increase with the extent of BIM application due to the challenges associated with BIM application. Managing the risk of BIM application on projects and the realisation of BIM value depends on the appropriate use of BIM. Several studies have identified the balance between BIM value, project characteristics, and BIM application as a way of mitigating the risk of BIM application on projects. However, frameworks or models providing the balance between the BIM value, project characteristics, and BIM application are scarce. Hence, using a meta-synthesis of relevant studies, this study proposes a strategic and contingent BIM application model for construction projects. The strategic part of the model entails the determination of BIM value and BIM effectiveness on a construction project by using appropriate BIM tools and processes for the project. The contingent part of the model involves the use of project complexity to determine the project expectations. The model turns into a strategic and contingent application of BIM on construction projects by matching the extent of BIM application to the level of project complexity. The model presents unique attributes for characterising BIM-based construction projects and provides a guide and research focus for case studies of BIM-based construction projects. Also, the model will make it easier to plan and manage BIM-based construction projects as well as enable a widespread application of BIM tools and processes.
Conference Paper
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Conventional tools like CPM/PERT can plan the workflow sequences for a project. In order to meet the growing demand for completing the projects quickly, one has to manage the information flow. Dependency Structure Matrix (DSM) is a powerful tool for modelling information flow and planning alternate sequences. An implementation procedure for modelling construction projects using DSM has been elaborated. It includes major phases such as formation of activity DSM, partitioning (re-sequencing the order of execution of activities for a feasible sequence), tearing (choosing a set of dependency relationships for temporary removal by making assumptions), estimation of project duration and rework duration. Effective and efficient planning using DSM requires inputs from domain experts at various phases. A major portion of this is mainly derived from historical information or the personal experience of the experts. This historic information may reside in documents, heads of people, drawings, etc. There is a need to formalise systems that can capture and disseminate the critical information from construction projects for reuse within and across projects. Knowledge Management (KM) can play a major role in meeting this requirement.
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By constructing a framework of knowledge management system based on ontology, this paper expounds the function of each layer, and analyses the implementation of this system from the knowledge organization and expression and knowledge retrieval. Finally, it provides a case which implements the management system and realizes some parts of retrieval modules. This management system establishes a sharable ontology that can be understood both by human and computer, which people can found more relations of different concepts through a better circumstance of knowledge retrieval interface. In addition, the system is also open to some extent, so it can accumulate tacit knowledge constantly and polymerize explicit knowledge efficiently, which can lead to a better management and application of knowledge, to support the innovation for the designers. (C) 2011 Published by Elsevier Ltd. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of [CEIS 2011]
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It is important that the knowledge generated on construction projects is captured and shared between project team members for continuous improvement, to prevent the 're-invention of the wheel' and to avoid repetition of previous mistakes. However, this is undermined mainly by the loss of important insights and knowledge due to time lapse in capturing the knowledge, staff turnover and people's reluctance to share knowledge. To address this, it is crucial for knowledge to be captured 'live' in a collaborative environment while the project is being executed and presented in a format that will facilitate its reuse during and after the project. This paper uses a case study approach to investigate the end-users' requirements for the 'live' capture and reuse of knowledge methodology, and shortcomings of current practice in meeting these requirements. A framework for the 'live' methodology that satisfies the requirements is then presented and discussed.
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Construction knowledge can be communicated and reused among project managers and jobsite engineers to alleviate problems on a construction jobsite and reduce the time and cost of solving problems related to constructability. This paper proposes a new methodology for the sharing of construction knowledge by using Building Information Modeling (BIM) technology. The main characteristics of BIM include illustrating 3D CAD-based presentations and keeping information in a digital format and facilitation of easy updating and transfer of information in the BIM environment. Using the BIM technology, project managers and engineers can gain knowledge related to BIM and obtain feedback provided by jobsite engineers for future reference. This study addresses the application of knowledge sharing management using BIM technology and proposes a BIM-based Knowledge Sharing Management (BIMKSM) system for project managers and engineers. The BIMKSM system is then applied in a selected case study of a construction project in Taiwan to demonstrate the effectiveness of sharing knowledge in the BIM environment. The results demonstrate that the BIMKSM system can be used as a visual BIM-based knowledge sharing management platform by utilizing the BIM technology.
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Building Information Modeling (BIM) is the use of virtual building information models to develop building design solutions and design documentation and to analyse construction processes. Recent advances in IT have enabled advanced knowledge management, which in turn facilitates sustainability and improves asset management in the civil construction industry. There are several important qualifiers and some disadvantages of the current suite of technologies. This paper outlines the benefits, enablers, and barriers associated with BIM and makes suggestions about how these issues may be addressed. The paper highlights the advantages of BIM, particularly the increased utility and speed, enhanced fault finding in all construction phases, and enhanced collaborations and visualisation of data. The paper additionally identifies a range of issues concerning the implementation of BIM as follows: IP, liability, risks, and contracts and the authenticity of users. Implementing BIM requires investment in new technology, skills training, and development of new ways of collaboration and Trade Practices concerns. However, when these challenges are overcome, BIM as a new information technology promises a new level of collaborative engineering knowledge management, designed to facilitate sustainability and asset management issues in design, construction, asset management practices, and eventually decommissioning for the civil engineering industry.
A successful construction business is a knowledge business. And knowledge must be managed effectively to be used efficiently, especially in a complex project-oriented business such as construction, where skills acquired and lessons learned on one project need to be applied to the next. A holistic approach to knowledge management (KM) is taken in this book to incorporate all of the relevant themes, tackling technological, socio-cultural and organizational issues, with the creation of value as a focus throughout. Information is drawn from a broad range of sources to explain core theories and provide guidance on practical application. Topics covered include: changing business relationships in a knowledge economy knowledge creation processes and theories data, text and knowledge mining techniques the learning construction organization future technology for knowledge management.
Facility management within healthcare is required to ensure that complex systems are maintained and operational while causing minimum interruption to clinical activities and maintaining patient safety. Their tasks are complicated by fragmented and sometimes incomplete information. To help facility managers better manage lifecycle information pertinent to managing the facility and responding to facility related patient safety events, an object oriented product model is proposed in the context of developing a healthcare facility information management framework. The product model is developed as a result of various case analyses that were conducted using Unified Modeling Language (UML) Use Cases to examine information needs for existing healthcare facility maintenance operations. The resulting classification system and its uses to respond to patient safety events are discussed in this paper.
Knowledge management (KM) has been studied extensively in recent years. Some consider knowledge to be the most strategically important resource for any company, but the fragmented, project-based and task-oriented nature of construction work makes it more difficult to implement KM in this sector.This paper presents a survey of perceptions of KM implementation in the Spanish construction sector and compares the results obtained from design and construction firms. Data were collected from the leading civil engineering companies in Spain.The survey found that the Spanish construction industry is aware of the benefits of KM but that systematic KM is not generally implemented. The findings clearly demonstrate that changes in organizational culture are critical to successful KM. The survey also revealed some distinctions between the KM perception of design firms and that of construction firms.