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Sexuality education including lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) issues in schools

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Abstract

Should children and adolescents be educated in school about gender diversity, including lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) issues? This is a question many governments and educational policymakers discuss in their process of reforming relationships and sex education. However, these reform plans face resistance from parents, religious groups, and political parties. Specifically, opponents argue that (a) children who learn about LGBT issues in school will engage in same-sex practices or even become homosexual, bisexual, or trans* themselves; (b) schools force a particular view on children that stands in contrast to the heteronormative, religious, and/or political views of parents; and (c) teachers act as role models and change the sexual orientation and gender identity of their students. This systematic literature review aims to offer evidenced-based answers to these arguments on the grounds of biological, sociological, psychological, and educational research. First, twin studies and genome scans in behavioral genetics research unveil strong biological roots of sexual orientation and identity that will not change through inclusive sexuality education. Second, psychological and sociological research signals that heteronormativity, homosexuality non-acceptance, and negative attitudes toward LGBT people in general are associated with lower levels of education and intelligence as well as higher levels of religious belief and political conservatism. For at-risk sexual minority students who show gender nonconforming and gender atypical behavior, schools can create a safe climate and protect adolescent health if they succeed in reducing homophobic and transphobic discrimination, bullying, peer victimization, and verbal, physical, and sexual abuse. Third, action research and ethnographic narratives in educational research tend to indicate that queer educators as role models in classrooms do not change the sexual orientation and gender identity of their pupils. In summary, based on this systematic review, governments and policy makers can expect that reforming the teaching of sex education to include LGBT issues in schools will have positive effects for heterosexual students and for students belonging to a sexual minority.

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... Im deutschen und europäischen Bildungsdiskurs wird seit einigen Jahren über eine "Sexualpädagogik der Vielfalt" an Schulen ( Tuider, Müller, Timmermanns, BrunsBackmann, & Koppermann, 2012 Diversität geschlechtlicher Identitäten und sexueller Orientierungen ( Henningsen, Tuider, & Timmermanns, 2016;Ponzetti, 2016;Schmidt & Sielert, 2008;Sielert, 2015;Tuider & Timmermanns, 2015). Gerade die letztgenannten Bereiche werden in der schulischen Sexualbildung noch wenig thematisiert ( Bode & Heißling, 2015;Formby, 2016;Gegenfurtner & Gebhardt, 2017;Hoffmann, 2016) Gemeinsamkeiten zusammen zu denken ( Schmidt & Sielert, 2008;Sielert, 2015;Tuider et al., 2012). Insofern ist eine Sexualpädagogik der Vielfalt offen für unterschiedliche Wertvorstellungen ( Weller, 2013b), weil sie keine bestimmten normativen Sichtweisen privilegiert oder unterdrückt ( Henningsen et al., 2016;Tuider & Timmermanns, 2015). ...
... Besorgte heteronormativen Kultur. Heteronormativität kann definiert werden als Anschauungen und Praktiken, die Heterosexualität privilegieren und als normativen Standard innerhalb einer Gruppe oder Gesellschaft annehmen ( Gegenfurtner & Gebhardt, 2017;Warner, 1991) , Boyd, & Hayes, 2016;Schnabel, 2016;Souza & Cribari-Neto, 2015). Weitere Studien zeigen, dass auch politischer Konservatismus ( Golec de Zavala, Waldzus, & Cypryanska, 2014;Herek, 2016) und ein geringerer Bildungsabschluss ( Nguyen & Blum, 2014 Gebhardt & Gegenfurtner, 2017;Hong & Garbarino, 2012). ...
... Heteronormativität kann definiert werden als Anschauungen und Praktiken, die Heterosexualität privilegieren und als normativen Standard innerhalb einer Gruppe oder Gesellschaft annehmen ( Gegenfurtner & Gebhardt, 2017;Warner, 1991) , Boyd, & Hayes, 2016;Schnabel, 2016;Souza & Cribari-Neto, 2015). Weitere Studien zeigen, dass auch politischer Konservatismus ( Golec de Zavala, Waldzus, & Cypryanska, 2014;Herek, 2016) und ein geringerer Bildungsabschluss ( Nguyen & Blum, 2014 Gebhardt & Gegenfurtner, 2017;Hong & Garbarino, 2012). Weil diese Heranwachsenden oft ein geschlechtsatypisches und nonkonformes Verhalten zeigen ( Li, Pollitt, & Russell, 2016;van Beusekom, Baams, Bos, Overbeek, & Sandfort, 2016 , VanderLaan, & Vasey, 2017), sich selbst verletzen ( Tsypes, Lane, Paul, & Whitlock, 2016), an Selbstmord denken ( Blosnich, Nasuti, Mays, & Cochran, 2016) oder Selbstmord begehen ( Lian, Zuo, Lou, Gao, & Cheng, 2015 Deutsch oder den Fremdsprachen ( Clark & Blackburn, 2009;Jungjohann, Gegenfurtner, & Gebhardt, in Druck;Logan, Watson, Hood, & Lasswell, 2016;Tarelli, Lankes, Drossel, & Gegenfurtner, 2012) bzw. ...
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Die Diskussion über eine „Sexualpädagogik der Vielfalt“ im Bildungsplan an Schulen ist kontrovers und polarisierend. Befürworter und Gegner werfen sich gegenseitig vor, ihre Thesen pro bzw. contra lesbischer, schwuler, bisexueller, trans und intersexueller (LSBTI*) Themen in der Sexualbildung seien empirisch kaum begründet. Als Beitrag zu dieser Diskussion bietet der Artikel einen aktuellen, evidenzbasierten Überblick über die empirische Forschungslage. Die Ergebnisse lassen den Schluss zu, dass Sexualpädagogik den Beginn der Aufnahme sexueller Aktivität nicht beschleunigt, sondern häufig eher verzögert; LSBTI* Inhalte im Unterricht die sexuelle Orientierung von Jugendlichen nicht ändert; und eine Akzeptanz sexueller Vielfalt und geschlechtlicher Identitäten helfen kann, Kinder und Heranwachsende vor homo- und transphobem Bullying an Schulen zu schützen.
... LGBT-phobic bullying is related to anxiety, depression, traumatic stress, school absenteeism, suicidal ideation and suicide, drug use, criminal behavior, sexual risk behaviors, among other consequences (Birkett, Espelage & Koenig, 2009;Collier, 2014;Ferlatte et al., 2015;Gegenfurtner & Gebhardt, 2017;Martxueta, 2014;Mayock et al., 2009;Shields, Whitaker, Glassman, Franks & Howard, 2012;Tucker et al., 2016). Other researchers have observed that Emotional Intelligence (Garaigordobil & Oñederra, 2010) and empathy (Nolasco-Hernández, 2012) are related to lower levels of bullying perpetration and that, in addition, being a victim of bullying affects the satisfaction with life and self-esteem negatively (Estévez, Martínez-Ferrer & Musitu, 2006;Povedano, Hendry, Ramos & Varela, 2011). ...
... Es importante destacar que este fenómeno no solo afecta al colectivo LGBT. Diversos autores han confirmado que las personas que, aun siendo heterosexuales, se alejan del estereotipo masculino/femenino (Barrientos y Bozon, 2014;Collier, Bos y Sandfort, 2013;Elipe, Oliva Muñoz y Del Rey, 2018;Gegenfurtner y Gebhardt, 2017;Mayock, Bryan, Carr y Kitching, 2009) también muestran mayores niveles de victimización en comparación con sus iguales. Para hacerse a la idea de la magnitud con la que afecta este fenómeno, estudios de prevalencia general del bullying han evidenciado un alto uso de insultos homofóbicos al margen de la orientación e identidad sexual. ...
... La mayoría de los/las autores/ as que ha trabajado en este campo, ha relacionado este fenómeno con algunas variables de salud mental. Así, se ha podido observar que el bullying LGBT-fóbico genera consecuencias como ansiedad, depresión, estrés traumático, absentismo escolar, ideación de suicidio y suicidio, consumo de drogas, conductas delictivas, conductas de riesgo sexuales, entre otras, en las víctimas (Birkett, Espelage y Koenig, 2009;Collier, 2014;Ferlatte et al., 2015;Gegenfurtner y Gebhardt, 2017;Martxueta, 2014;Mayock et al., 2009;Poteat y Espelage, 2005, Shields, Whitaker, Glassman, Franks y Howard, 2012Tucker et al., 2016). ...
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El bullying es un fenómeno que está generando gran interés científico, aunque existe aún un gran vacío en cuanto a las investigaciones dirigidas a estudiar el bullying que tiene como causa la LGBT-fobia. Este estudio tiene como objetivo realizar una revisión sobre los estudios que analizan rasgos y características de personalidad en el colectivo LGBT y especialmente la conexión entre bullying LGBT-fóbico y estas variables personales. Con esta finalidad, se ha llevado a cabo una revisión sistemática y se han obtenido los siguientes resultados: (1) Las personas LGBT muestran mayores niveles de empatía y menores niveles de satisfacción con la vida, bienestar y felicidad; (2) la empatía correlaciona negativamente con la perpetración de bullying LGBT-fóbico, y (3) ser víctima de este fenómeno disminuye los niveles de autoestima. Algunos rasgos y características de la personalidad pueden ser relevantes para diseñar programas de prevención-intervención, por lo que sigue vigente la necesidad de continuar investigando en esta línea.
... These lived experiences of trans youth at school can vary, from empowering episodes to transphobic harassment. Compared with cisgender students, transgender students tend to experience more invisibility, marginalization, victimization, and physical and verbal abuse at school (Airton & Koecher, 2019;Gegenfurtner & Gebhardt, 2017;Johns et al., 2019;Martín et al., 2020;Norris & Orchowski, 2020;Paechter et al., in press). For example, Simons and colleagues (2021) reconstructed the school-age experiences of eleven transgender people of color; a key theme that emerged from the interview data was being bullied, which all interviewees reported. ...
... The great hope is that teachers, school counselors, and principals are prepared to support trans students and intervene against transnegative behavior when it occurs (Airton & Koecher, 2019;Gegenfurtner & Gebhardt, 2017;Mangin, 2020;Poteat et al., 2019;Simons et al., 2021). For creating a positive school climate in which all students feel welcome, accepted, and safe, affirmative attitudes of teachers toward trans issues are essential. ...
... For instance, Ullman (2017) analyzed the responses of 51 Australian gender diverse adolescents and showed that teacher positivity was a significant predictor for trans students' personal school well-being, belonging, and connectedness to their school environment. If it is true that teachers are relevant support resources for trans students (Gegenfurtner & Gebhardt, 2017), then teacher education needs to improve the trans attitudes of teacher candidates and prepare them to become allies for trans youth. Developing a positive trans attitude is important because not all pre-service teachers feel ready and prepared to interact with trans students: In a thematic discourse analysis of 549 reflective online discussion posts authored by 183 preservice teachers, Blair and Deckman (2019, p. 7) noted that the "lack of familiarity with trans and gender creative students' identities and experiences and exploring the idea of having trans and gender creative students in their classroom was, at times, wrought with confusion, discomfort, and cognitive dissonance". ...
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Pre-service teachers can become important allies for trans children and adolescents at school, yet little is known about their attitudes toward transgender and gender nonconforming (TGNC) students. Based on intergroup contact theory and the secondary transfer effect, analyses of variance of feeling thermometer scores obtained from 560 teacher candidates revealed that attitudes were more positive for teachers with prior contact, close trans friends, and trans family members. Transgender attitudes were also more favorable if teachers were female, less religious, and had a left-wing political preference. Heterosexual, bisexual, and homosexual teachers differed non-significantly. Implications for teacher education include increasing the attitudes of (particularly) male teacher candidates and promoting social contact by inviting trans individuals to share their experiences in the classroom.
... 2 Throughout the past decade, policy makers have considered the introduction of comprehensive, LGBTI+ inclusive RSE education with varying implementation rates worldwide. 7 A recent review highlighted that the inclusion of LGBTI + faces resistance from parents, religious groups and political groups. 7 In terms of Strengths and limitations of this study ► The search strategy conducted used three distinct search engines to access journals with a biomedical, behavioural and sociocultural focus. ...
... 7 A recent review highlighted that the inclusion of LGBTI + faces resistance from parents, religious groups and political groups. 7 In terms of Strengths and limitations of this study ► The search strategy conducted used three distinct search engines to access journals with a biomedical, behavioural and sociocultural focus. ► A robust method of synthesis was employed examining both qualitative and quantitative approaches of any methodological design addressing LGBTI+ participants or educational training. ...
... 14-19 21-23 26 27 30-32 34 In addition, previous research highlights that the inclusion of LGBTI + issues has positive effects on all sexualities. 7 Previous research has shown this type of education increases healthy sexual behaviour in the general student population. 2 41-51 It is possible therefore that similar behaviour changes could be expected for LGBTI+ youth with the introduction of a comparable LGBTI+ inclusive sexual health programme. ...
Article
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Objectives: To critically appraise and synthesise the evidence in relation to both the receipt and delivery of LGBTI+ (Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, Intersex) inclusive sexual health education. Design: A systematic review and narrative synthesis. Data sources: A systematic search of three online databases (EMBASE, PsychINFO and SocINDEX) from January 1990 to May 2021 was conducted. Eligibility criteria: Studies included were (1) peer-reviewed; (2) English; (3) quantitative, qualitative and mixed methods; that evaluated (4) inclusive sexual health in an educational or online setting and (5) focused on training or educating. Studies were excluded if (1) the population was not LGBTI+ inclusive; (2) the studies did not focus on original data or (3) the study was not available in full text. Data extraction and synthesis: The studies that met the inclusion criteria were assessed using the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme tool. A narrative synthesis was then completed employing content analysis focusing on the results section of each article. Results: Of the 5656 records retrieved, 24 studies met the inclusion criteria. The majority of studies noted that both LGBTI+ youth and those who facilitate sexual health education are turning to online sources of information. Current sexual health education programmes operate mainly from a heterosexual perspective, creating a sense of exclusion for LGBTI+ youth. This is compounded by a lack of training, or provision of an inclusive curricula, resulting in facilitators feeling ill equipped or inhibited by their personal biases. Conclusions: LGBTI+ youth are not experiencing inclusive and comprehensive sexual health education. In parallel, educators report poor access to information, training and resources remain the primary reasons. There is a need to standardise sexual health curricula, making them LGBTI+ inclusive and incorporate holistic aspects of health such as pleasure and healthy relationships. Online approaches should be considered in the future, as they represent equality of access for both sexual health education professionals and LGBTI+ youth alike.
... Global homo-, bi-, and trans-phobic school violence is a long-term issue in part produced, and exacerbated by, aggressive school climates (Poteat 2008;Menesini and Salmivalli 2017;Hong and Espelage 2012) and/or negative attitudes towards sex, gender and sexuality diversity (Gegenfurtner and Gebhardt 2017). Bullying, often defined as acts of repeated aggression intended to cause harm in a situation where there is an imbalance of power, is a widely researched form of school violence associated with negative outcomes for those who produce, and experience the effects of, such behaviours (Hawker and Boulton 2000;Gegenfurtner and Gebhardt 2017;Klomek, Sourander, and Gould 2010), as well as bystanders (Menesini and Salmivalli 2017). ...
... Global homo-, bi-, and trans-phobic school violence is a long-term issue in part produced, and exacerbated by, aggressive school climates (Poteat 2008;Menesini and Salmivalli 2017;Hong and Espelage 2012) and/or negative attitudes towards sex, gender and sexuality diversity (Gegenfurtner and Gebhardt 2017). Bullying, often defined as acts of repeated aggression intended to cause harm in a situation where there is an imbalance of power, is a widely researched form of school violence associated with negative outcomes for those who produce, and experience the effects of, such behaviours (Hawker and Boulton 2000;Gegenfurtner and Gebhardt 2017;Klomek, Sourander, and Gould 2010), as well as bystanders (Menesini and Salmivalli 2017). Negative outcomes associated with experiencing bullying include an increased likelihood of depression, anxiety, suicidality, truancy, academic impairment, loneliness, and impaired physical health (Menesini and Salmivalli 2017;Gegenfurtner and Gebhardt 2017;Klomek, Sourander, and Gould 2010). ...
... Bullying, often defined as acts of repeated aggression intended to cause harm in a situation where there is an imbalance of power, is a widely researched form of school violence associated with negative outcomes for those who produce, and experience the effects of, such behaviours (Hawker and Boulton 2000;Gegenfurtner and Gebhardt 2017;Klomek, Sourander, and Gould 2010), as well as bystanders (Menesini and Salmivalli 2017). Negative outcomes associated with experiencing bullying include an increased likelihood of depression, anxiety, suicidality, truancy, academic impairment, loneliness, and impaired physical health (Menesini and Salmivalli 2017;Gegenfurtner and Gebhardt 2017;Klomek, Sourander, and Gould 2010). Reviews of research from Europe, North America, and Australasia, demonstrate that sexual and gender minority youth are significantly more likely to experience bullying behaviours than other young people (Hong and Espelage 2012;Gegenfurtner and Gebhardt 2017). ...
Article
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In 2016, UNESCO developed recommendations to address homophobic and transphobic violence and bullying, including guidance for the development of classroom resources. According to UNESCO, the effectiveness of interventions depends on inclusive, if not affirming, representations of sexual and gender diversity in learning materials, as well as age-appropriate, culturally sensitive, evidenced-based resources. UNESCO advocates that such resources be produced in partnerships with key stakeholders, including civil society and youth and student organisations. The high-level scope of the document however limits detail on how these elements may practically be realised. The purpose of this article is to critique and build on this guidance to extend its scope and offer further recommendations to achieve the changes it seeks. The article begins by integrating key concepts from the bullying research literature with pedagogical theory to offer a theoretical framework to support the ‘evidenced-based’ approach it advocates. Next, with reference to a case-study, the guidelines are reconceptualised and appended to form an eight-step process to guide resource design and production. The article concludes by noting the central importance of robust consultation and collaboration alongside a strong pedagogical theoretical framework as key foundations for successful classroom resource interventions.
... sexual education that addresses topics such as sexuality beyond heteronormativity and gender nonconformity (Gegenfurtner & Gebhardt, 2017). However, research states this lack of education can result in LGBTQ students not feeling safe in schools because their peers, who are not familiar with the issues surrounding this community, may harass them and teachers may not know how to respond when a student is being harassed or is in need of someone to talk to (Dragowski et al. 2016). ...
... 1. Children may engage in non-heteronormative sexual behavior or even become gay or lesbian if they learn about such sexualities in the classroom, 2. If the children learn about these other sexualities at school then it feels like the school is forcing these ideals onto the students that go against the parent's heteronormative religious and/or political views, and 3. The teachers may act as role models for LGBTQ representation and change the sexual identity or orientation of the students (Gegenfurtner & Gebhardt, 2017). ...
... Another great concern that parents may have is that they feel that they do not have control over what their child is learning at school, and that learning about gender and sexuality may force a different view on the child that is contradictory to the parent's ideal view. (Gegenfurtner & Gebhardt, 2017). Parents also fear that if educators teach or expose the students to these topics, they will encourage the students to engage and practice homosexuality or bisexuality (Gegenfurtner & Gebhardt, 2017). ...
... LGBT-inclusive curricula were also found to be associated with higher reports of safety at the individual and school levels (Snapp et al., 2015;Gegenfurtner and Gebhardt, 2017). Regarding this aspect, the Lgbtqi Inclusive Education Report (2018) indicated that in Portugal there is a lack of specific policies and action plans, inclusive national curricula, and mandatory teacher training regarding LGBTI issues. ...
... Peers in general were also mentioned as perpetrators of bullying: "In my school, with my colleagues, it's the only place where I don't feel comfortable revealing my sexuality" (Female,15,pansexual,cisgender). School environment was mentioned as many times as School curriculum, School staff and Peers: "The school doesn't have a very healthy environment in terms of diversity" (Male, 15, gay, cisgender) as agent of victimization, which is both consistent with international scholarship (Galliher et al., 2004;Pearson et al., 2007;Swearer et al., 2008;Birkett et al., 2009;Kosciw et al., 2013Kosciw et al., , 2014Snapp et al., 2015;Gegenfurtner and Gebhardt, 2017;Day et al., 2018) and the situation of LGBT youths in Portuguese schools (Lgbtqi Inclusive Education Report, 2018). ...
Article
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Portugal is one of the most egalitarian countries in Europe in terms of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and intersex (LGBTI) individuals’ legal rights. However, regarding education Portugal still lacks specific policies, plans and interventions to protect LGBTI students. To assess the perceptions of self-identified LGBTI youth regarding their school context, a total of 663 participants (aged from 15 to 20 years old) filled in an on-line questionnaire about their school climate. One hundred and forty-six of them answered an open-ended question about their personal experiences. A thematic analysis of these answers was conducted, and four main categories were identified: (i) victimization, (ii) coming out experiences, (iii) support networks, and (iv) demands. Most participants reported experiences of discrimination, and several sources of prejudice were identified. Furthermore, participants also recognized a lack of LGBTI information in school curriculum and made several demands. Besides inclusive laws, we suggest that the safety and the well-being of LGBTI youths in Portuguese schools depend upon others measures, such as teacher and school staff training, curricula inclusive of LGBTI diversity, and local strategies, such as Gay-Straight Alliances.
... Since the primary objective of these videos was to focus on puberty, reproductive anatomy, and menstruation, only one video alluded at all to the development of romantic feelings in a single very brief segment. In that video, EP aimed to be inclusive by showing protagonist's romantic object in silhouette without any gender markers, conscious of critiques that other educational materials and curricula promote heteronormativity (Fields, 2008;Gegenfurtner and Gebhardt, 2017). Also in contrast to other reproductive health education videos, which tend to be replete with advertisements and provide separate content for each sex (Fields, 2008), these videos contain no commercial content, and two out of three divided focus evenly between males and females. ...
... The team also has discussed creating videos focused on additional topics. The existing videos largely focused on the biology and biochemistry underlying pubertal processes, but there is a need for related educational content on other topics, such as the biology of sexual orientation and identity, and the characteristics of healthy romantic relationships (Forrest et al. 2004;Gegenfurtner and Gebhardt, 2017;Stubbs, 2016). ...
Article
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Learning basic information about puberty and human reproduction can alleviate concerns about the transition to adolescence and provide a foundation for later learning about more advanced reproductive health topics, such as family planning. Parents and children alike believe educational videos make these topics more engaging, and socio-cultural theory suggests such videos can effectively promote learning. To that end, we tested the efficacy of a series of reproductive health education videos called 'A New You, That’s Who', with a sample of 80 11-year-old children in a research laboratory setting. The series was designed with socio-cultural theory learning principles in mind and consisted of three 5-min animated music videos focused on puberty, reproductive anatomy, and menstruation. Children were randomly assigned to watch the 'A New You, That’s Who' videos or a control set of videos on the scientific method. Children who watched the treatment videos out-performed peers in the control group on a measure reproductive health knowledge. However, there were no differences in attitudes towards puberty between conditions. The videos provide effective ways to learn factual information about puberty and human reproduction, and may be valuable tools to supplement social-emotional lessons provided at home, at school, or in other real-world settings.
... LGBT issues are approached in their lessons (Stonewall, 2017). The potential aspects of teaching about these issues extend to helping this sexual minority inside and outside the school, so that they can be healthier and happier in their decisions and ways of living, as literature reveals there is a high probability of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transsexual pupils to use substances of abuse, be infected by sexually transmitted diseases or attempt suicide as responses to repression and negative school experiences (Gegenfurtner and Gebhardt, 2017). ...
Presentation
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This piece of work is a result of research in literature and discussion about the subject during the module 'EDUC2401 Inclusive Education' in University of Leeds (Leeds, UK). It is not related to a scientific project neither will be published or rewritten.
... Consistent with other research, stakeholders delivering sexual health interventions reported fear of community backlash (Johnston et al. 2015) and were therefore conservative in their approach. Rural stakeholders should aim to move forward from avoiding controversy and consider the need to deliver comprehensive curriculum (van Leent 2017; Collier-Harris and Goldman 2017), acknowledge research supportive of positive sexual health and RSE (Ferfolja and Ullman 2017;Burns and Hendriks 2018;Gegenfurtner and Gebhardt 2017) and advocate for community level systems approaches that address the setting's community and organisational socioecological levels (Hulme Chambers et al. 2017). While interventions can be provided covertly and 'fly under the radar', this approach fails to address the socio-ecological system levels beyond the individual or advocate for young people's needs. ...
Article
This paper examines the provision of youth targeted Relationships and Sexuality Education (RSE) and sexual health interventions in the rural Australian context by examining the perspectives and experiences of a range of community stakeholders. Sixteen participants undertook one-on-one semi structured interviews. Four key themes emerged from the data and included: ‘you’re not going to get the whole town to start thinking about adolescent sexual health’; backlash, stigma and secrecy; being consistent, credible and available; and small-town communication. This study contributes to the limited literature about RSE and sexual health provision in regional and rural Australia and provides a voice for rural stakeholders who provide RSE and sexual health interventions by default or necessity. The findings of this study have practical implications for rural settings when addressing youth sexual health needs.
... Аналізуючи наукові праці закордонних Gegenfurtner & Gebhardt, 2017;Шорыгин, 2017) та вітчизняних (Ізотов, 2017; Вербицька & Діденко & Івасій, 2018) вчених, а також матеріали 12 власних напівформалізованих інтерв'ю із бі-та гомосексуальними особами віком 17-25 років, проведених у рамках консультаційної роботи протягом 2018 року, означимо основні фактори ризику, з якими стикаються ЛГБТ-підлітки: емоційний стрес; ізоляція; інтерналізована гомофобія; депресія; зловживання речовинами, що викликають залежність; суїцидальна поведінка; віктимізація та насилля; сімейні конфлікти; погіршення академічної успішності у школі/ коледжі; проблема інфекцій, що передаються статевим шляхом. ...
... After all, student (mis)education is a principal cause of homophobic and transphobic bullying; some adults teach prejudiced beliefs (e.g., when adults teach kids in religious settings that it is wrong or immoral to be gay) and impart heteronormative ideologies to children, who then enforce traditional gender norms among other students (e.g., when young male bullies embrace masculine ideology beliefs and target other boys who act feminine; Poteat, Mereish, DiGiovanni, & Scheer, 2013). Indeed, education is at the heart of the LGBT bullying problem (as well as being part of the bullying solution): students who are less educated adopt more heteronormative practices that privilege heterosexuality, including LGBT nonacceptance; yet their more educated student counterparts are more likely to reject negative attitudes toward LGBT peers (Gegenfurtner & Gebhardt, 2017). Additionally, some adults, especially parents, perpetuate LGBT bullying behavior when they teach their children to adopt similar ideological attitudes that include their own antigay prejudices (Meeusen & Dhont, 2015). ...
... In addition, although sexuality is part of the educational curriculum nowadays, sexuality curricula vary (Gegenfurtner & Gebhardt, 2017), with some educational streams preaching to abstinence and others encouraging a somewhat more open dialogue regarding sexual orientation, sexually transmitted diseases and contraceptive methods (Rohrbach et al., 2015;Sears, 1992). A recent poll has shown that more adolescents tend to rely on sexual information conveyed through the school system nowadays (Tanton et al., 2015). ...
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The present study examined how older adults communicate about sexual issues in light of the tremendous societal changes that have taken place with regard to sexuality in the past few decades. We relied on interviews with 47 Israelis 60 years of age and older who were instructed to discuss sexuality in old age and its unique characteristics, using semi-structured interviews. Analysis consisted of repeated comparisons and contrasts to identify common themes. A common thread of “secrets and lies” characterized the discussion of sexual issues throughout the life course of respondents. The findings showed that although older adults have been aware of the limited information provided to them during their upbringing and of the limited room allowed to sexuality in their emerging adulthood years, many have continued to find it difficult to address sexual issues, even in later life. Moreover, many perceived the information currently available about sexuality and the contemporary approach to sexuality brought by the media or their children and grandchildren as being somewhat inadequate. Implications for practice are discussed.
... Furthermore, there are some teachers who argue that explicit LGBTQ supportive actions, such as standing up for LGBTQ rights, is actually discriminatory against other students (Shelton, Barnes, & Flint, 2019). It has been shown that teachers' decisions and actions in addressing these issues (or not) can directly influence their students' perceptions of the LGBTQ community, and potentially further ostracize marginalized students (Boyland et al., 2015;Gegenfurtner & Gebhardt, 2017). ...
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The purposes of this research were to: (a) explore and interpret four pre-service Health & Physical Education (H&PE) teachers' beliefs and experiences of learning to teach lesbian, gay, bisexual , transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) students, and (b) examine their articulation of strategies to support LGBTQ students. The research was framed by teacher beliefs and feminist theory. Data were generated from interviews and course syllabi. Findings showed that participants were committed to inclusionary practices but were critical of the lack of opportunities to learn about gender, sexuality, and LGBTQ issues in their pre-service H&PE teacher education. Few could articulate specific strategies to support LGBTQ students. The results of this research suggest that in the particular context of the study, in the very least, there may be a need for more intentional and specific attention to LGBTQ issues in pre-service H&PE teacher education. Résumé Les buts de cette recherche étaient les suivants : (a) explorer et interpréter les croyances et expériences d'apprentissage de l'enseignement à des élèves lesbiennes, gais, bisexuels, transgenre et « queer » de quatre étudiants en formation à l'enseignement de l'éducation physique et la santé; (b) examiner leur articulation de stratégies pour appuyer les élèves LGBTQ. Les croyances des enseignants et les théories féministes ont orienté la recherche. Les données de la recherche proviennent d'entrevues et de plans de cours. Les participants étaient engagés envers des pratiques inclusives et également critiques du manque d'occasions d'apprentissage portant sur le genre, la sexualité et des enjeux LGBTQ dans leur programme de formation. Peu d'entre eux pouvaient articuler des stratégies spécifiques pour appuyer les élèves LGBTQ. Les résultats de cette recherche suggèrent qu'il pourrait y avoir, à tout le moins dans ce contexte spécifique, un besoin de porter une attention spécifique et intentionnelle aux enjeux LGBTQ en formation à l'enseignement en éducation et santé. .
... After all, student (mis)education is a principal cause of homophobic and transphobic bullying; some adults teach prejudiced beliefs (e.g., when adults teach kids in religious settings that it is wrong or immoral to be gay) and impart heteronormative ideologies to children, who then enforce traditional gender norms among other students (e.g., when young male bullies embrace masculine ideology beliefs and target other boys who act feminine; Poteat, Mereish, DiGiovanni, & Scheer, 2013). Indeed, education is at the heart of the LGBT bullying problem (as well as being part of the bullying solution): students who are less educated adopt more heteronormative practices that privilege heterosexuality, including LGBT nonacceptance; yet their more educated student counterparts are more likely to reject negative attitudes toward LGBT peers (Gegenfurtner & Gebhardt, 2017). Additionally, some adults, especially parents, perpetuate LGBT bullying behavior when they teach their children to adopt similar ideological attitudes that include their own antigay prejudices (Meeusen & Dhont, 2015). ...
... After all, student (mis)education is a principal cause of homophobic and transphobic bullying; some adults teach prejudiced beliefs (e.g., when adults teach kids in religious settings that it is wrong or immoral to be gay) and impart heteronormative ideologies to children, who then enforce traditional gender norms among other students (e.g., when young male bullies embrace masculine ideology beliefs and target other boys who act feminine; Poteat, Mereish, DiGiovanni, & Scheer, 2013). Indeed, education is at the heart of the LGBT bullying problem (as well as being part of the bullying solution): students who are less educated adopt more heteronormative practices that privilege heterosexuality, including LGBT nonacceptance; yet their more educated student counterparts are more likely to reject negative attitudes toward LGBT peers (Gegenfurtner & Gebhardt, 2017). Additionally, some adults, especially parents, perpetuate LGBT bullying behavior when they teach their children to adopt similar ideological attitudes that include their own antigay prejudices (Meeusen & Dhont, 2015). ...
... After all, student (mis)education is a principal cause of homophobic and transphobic bullying; some adults teach prejudiced beliefs (e.g., when adults teach kids in religious settings that it is wrong or immoral to be gay) and impart heteronormative ideologies to children, who then enforce traditional gender norms among other students (e.g., when young male bullies embrace masculine ideology beliefs and target other boys who act feminine; Poteat, Mereish, DiGiovanni, & Scheer, 2013). Indeed, education is at the heart of the LGBT bullying problem (as well as being part of the bullying solution): students who are less educated adopt more heteronormative practices that privilege heterosexuality, including LGBT nonacceptance; yet their more educated student counterparts are more likely to reject negative attitudes toward LGBT peers (Gegenfurtner & Gebhardt, 2017). Additionally, some adults, especially parents, perpetuate LGBT bullying behavior when they teach their children to adopt similar ideological attitudes that include their own antigay prejudices (Meeusen & Dhont, 2015). ...
... Ghosh 2016). Thus, a second direction for future research is associated with analyses that examine how gender similarities vs. differences intersect with nationality and further trainee characteristics, such as ethnicity (Ghosh 2016;Shoobridge 2006), sexual orientation (Collins 2015;Gegenfurtner and Gebhardt 2017;Gegenfurtner and Gebhardt 2018;Jacobson, Callahan, and Ghosh 2016), age (Gegenfurtner and Vauras 2012;Raemdonck et al. 2015), or special needs (Gebhardt et al. 2015;Hidegh and Csillag 2013) in subjective task value, transfer motivation, and other constructs such as interest and self-efficacy (Jacot, Raemdonck, and Frenay 2016;Knogler et al. 2015;Quesada-Pallarès and Gegenfurtner 2015). Finally, when examining training reactions, future research can consider subjective task value as a conceptual framework and replicate the scales developed in this study. ...
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Are female and male trainees similar or different in their reaction to training programs, specifically regarding their subjective task value and motivation to transfer? According to the gender similarities hypothesis, women and men are alike on most psychological variables. However, according to research in organizational behavior, female and male employees differ on certain aspects, such as their job satisfaction and work identity. To test these two views on gender similarities and differences in the context of human resource development and training evaluation, the present study examined the extent to which gender moderated reactions to training. Based on the expectancy-value theory of motivation and self-determination theory, a web-based questionnaire was used to measure six training reactions: intrinsic value, attainment value, utility value, perceived relative cost, autonomous motivation to transfer, and controlled motivation to transfer. The results indicated that women and men differed in their ratings of attainment value but were similar for the remaining five reaction measures. These outcomes support the gender similarities hypothesis. The findings are discussed in terms of their theoretical implications for modeling gender effects in HRD research and their practical significance for promoting training effectiveness and transfer of training.
... In addition, it is stated that if educators are not knowledgeable and sensitive about LGBT, they will not be able to provide a safe educational environment for these individuals and the homophobic attitudes towards these individuals cannot change (TPA, 2015). Gegenfurtner and Gebhardt (2017) noted that teachers are role models for other students in sexual education in schools, and their reactions and attitudes about discussing LGBT issues in their classroom may be examples for students. At this point, it is thought that it is important to determine the educators" prejudices and misconceptions about sexual diversity, and then to support them to help students to struggle with sexual identity and to create a comprehensive educational environment and they educators should be educated about coping effectively with homophobic attitudes and bullying. ...
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The aim of this research is to investigate the effect of the Dealing with Homophobia Psycho-Education Program on homophobia levels of psychological counselor candidates. This research was conducted with a mixed model and utilized quantitative and qualitative methods. 2 (experimental and control groups) x 3 (pre-test, post-test, follow-up) research design which is a type of quasi-experimental design was used and content analysis was applied to the data obtained via interviews. The study was conducted with a total of 24 psychological counselor candidates, 12 in the experimental group and, 12 in the control group. The Homophobia Scale was used to determine the homophobia levels of psychological counselor candidates. The Dealing with Homophobia Psycho-Education Program was developed by the researcher. In order to determine the effectiveness of the program, The Two-Way Analysis of Variance with Repeated Measures was used. As a result of the research, it was determined that the Dealing with Homophobia Psycho-Education Program is effective in decreasing the levels of homophobia of the psychological counselor candidates. Also, according to the participant's views, it was determined that the psycho-education program was effective in decreasing homophobia and caused changes in attitudes. The importance and necessity of using the program on psychological counselor education are discussed.
... Health and Physical Education of the Australian curriculum is designed to allow schools flexibility to meet the learning needs of all young people, particularly in the health focus area of relationships and sexuality (Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority (ACARA), 2022 [120]). All school communities have a responsibility when implementing the Health and Physical Education curriculum to ensure that teaching is inclusive and relevant to the lived experiences of all students. ...
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Students who identify as lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, intersex or somewhere else on the gender/sexuality spectrum (LGBTQI+) are among the diverse student groups in need of extra support and protection in order to succeed in education and reach their full potential. Because they belong to a minority that is often excluded by heteronormative/cisgender people, they are often the targets of physical and psychological harassment. Such discrimination can place them at risk for isolation, reduced academic achievement, and physical and mental harm. This paper provides a brief history of how the LGBTQI+ population has often been misunderstood and labelled in order to understand challenges faced by students who identify as a part of this population. It continues by considering supportive educational policies and programmes implemented from national to local levels across OECD countries. Finally, the paper considers policy gaps and discusses policy implications to strengthen equity and inclusion for LGBTQI+ students.
... El bullying es un fenómeno que afecta a toda la comunidad educativa. No obstante, diversos autores concluyen que el colectivo LGB (lesbianas, gais y bisexuales) es un colectivo más vulnerable a padecer victimización en comparación con las personas heterosexuales (Abreu y Kennym, 2017;Baiocco et al., 2018;Camodeca et al., 2018;COGAM, 2016;Elipe et al., 2017;Gegenfurtner y Gebhardt, 2017;Toomey y Russel, 2016). Del mismo modo, las personas que no tienen clara su orientación afectivo-sexual (Birkett et al., 2009) también muestran mayores niveles de victimización en comparación con sus iguales. ...
Article
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Every student is at risk of aggressive bullying behavior during their lifetime. However, there are groups with a higher risk of suffering these aggressive behaviors, especially the LGTB group. This study has three objectives: (1) to analyze the prevalence of victims and aggressors of bullying among high school adolescents; (2) to explore differences based on sex; and (3) to identify differences based on sexual orientation. A sample consisting of 1,748 adolescents from the Basque Country completed two questionnaires. The results show (1) a high percentage of victims (41.6% global, 11% severe), as well as aggressors (28.5% global, 2.7% severe); (2) that girls show greater victimization and boys show aggression; and (3) a higher percentage of non-heterosexual victims, especially gay and bisexual. In conclusion, LGTB people show greater vulnerability to suffer bullying and, therefore, the need to develop and implement anti-discrimination programs in the educational community.
... During the data collection sessions, as reflected by a previous study [48], all insisted that more than half of current sexual health promotion materials do not meet the needs of gay men (e.g., the amount of attention devoted to underage pregnancy). In order to fill the gap in the coverage of essential sexual health topics, the health and social care professionals used their own experiences and lived stories as the materials for educating their patients [49]. ...
Article
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Mentorship of counselling for men who have sex with other men and gay youths is understudied. The purpose of this study was to explore the effectiveness of how the Mentor Modelling Programme may increase the sexual health knowledge and practices of gay youths. As an expansion of a previous study with the application of the conceptual framework, this study mapped a sexual health promotion plan and the six-month-long Mentor Modelling Programme with the coordination of eight health and social care professionals and 40 gay youths. The researcher found positive and supportive feedback of how the Mentor Modelling Programme could increase sexual health knowledge, promote long-term relationships, and encourage referral of other vulnerable people. The results indicated two directions. The first solicited the perspectives of health and social care professionals and gay youths on how they would describe the relationship, application to, and experience of the Mentor Modelling Programme and second, assessed how this Mentor Modelling Programme influenced and changed the ideas and senses about counselling services and mentorship. This study reflected the current limited sexual promotion between traditional and inclusive sexual health materials. It further indicated the necessary concerns and areas of attention needed to upgrade the materials and host inclusive sexual health materials for both youths and adults in the communities.
... Educators interviewed and surveyed often stated that it was challenging to find available resources that used inclusive language and depicted diverse families (e.g., same-sex couples). Only few studies to date (e.g., Gegenfurtner & Gebhardt, 2017;Hermann-Wilmarth & Ryan, 2015;Pearce & Cumming-Potvin, 2017) have examined how LGBTQ-affirmative content can be infused into specific areas of the curriculum; two of the aforementioned studies focus on the language arts classroom, and none of them discuss specific strategies from the Catholic school perspective. Therefore, the present study highlights a gap in the literature with regard to how educators can infuse LGBTQ-affirmative content into a variety of school subjects, and with the added constrictions of Catholic school doctrine. ...
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Educators can play a critical role in buffering LGBTQ youth from potential victimization. As such, the present study explored the following questions: 1) What are the roles of educators (i.e., teachers, school administrators) with respect to promoting and creating safe and inclusive spaces for LGBTQ youth; 2) what unique contributions can educators make in nurturing those spaces; and, 3) what barriers do educators face in creating safe and inclusive spaces for LGBTQ youth? This study used a convergent parallel design mixed-methods approach. Descriptive statistics were gathered from survey results; the interview data was analyzed using thematic analysis in order to generate themes relevant to the research questions. Discussion focuses on the roles of educators and the barriers with respect to providing safe and inclusive spaces for LGBTQ youth. The paper concludes with empirical and practical implications of the study. Les professionnels de l'éducation peuvent jouer un rôle essentiel en protégeant les jeunes LGBTQ d'une victimisation potentielle. Ainsi, la présente étude s'est penchée sur les questions suivantes : 1) Quels sont les rôles des professionnels de l'éducation (c'est-à-dire des enseignants et des administrateurs scolaires) en ce qui concerne la promotion et la création d'espaces sûrs et inclusifs pour les jeunes LGBTQ? 2) Quelles contributions uniques les professionnels de l'éducation peuvent-ils apporter à la création de ces espaces? 3) Quels obstacles les professionnels de l'éducation rencontrent-ils dans la création d'espaces sûrs et inclusifs pour les jeunes LGBTQ? Cette étude a utilisé une approche mixte de méthodes convergentes et parallèles. Des statistiques descriptives ont été recueillies à partir des résultats de l'enquête ; les données des entretiens ont été analysées à l'aide d'une analyse thématique afin de générer des thèmes pertinents pour les questions de recherche. La discussion porte sur les rôles des professionnels de l'éducation et les obstacles à la création d'espaces sûrs et inclusifs pour les jeunes LGBTQ. L'article se termine en présentant les implications empiriques et pratiques de l'étude.
... If these perspectives are not engaged with, there is an increased risk of harassment and discrimination for LGBT young people (Gegenfurtner and Gebhardt 2017). To prevent discrimination and advance the human rights of people with diverse bodies, genders and sexual orientations, it is of crucial importance to examine SRE critically. ...
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Shortcomings in sex and relationship education (SRE) related to norms and lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, intersex, asexuality (LGBTQIA) perspectives have been reported internationally and in Sweden. This paper reports on findings from a critical study of SRE content in Swedish biology textbooks for 13- to 16-year-old pupils, with the aim of revealing which sexual orientations and bodies are made visible or invisible in the texts. About 200 quotations were selected and analysed, quantitatively and qualitatively, with a focus on limitations and possibilities. The results show that LGBT content is visible in all SRE chapters. However, sexual orientation is often constructed as fixed. Furthermore, stereotypical gender binaries are reinforced via heteronormative assumptions regarding hormones, genitals and reproduction, focusing on differences instead of similarities, and thus limiting the‌ potential to widen non-binary perceptions of bodies and sexualities. Our quantitative analyses reveal that there are few, if any, queer, intersex, asexual or crip/disability representations. If gaps in young people’s knowledge regarding norms, intersex, asexuality, queer and crip sexualities are to be filled in order to promote equality and diversity, it is important to rethink the SRE content of Swedish biology textbooks.
... Under the aforementioned premises, international bodies and organizations claim the need to develop comprehensive sex/gender education across the globe as a way to train young generations appropriately with regard to sexual health, gender identity, and well-being [6,7]. To this respect, research has proved that addressing gender identity/equality and LGBT+ issues at schools does not affect students' sexual orientation and identity and, in turn, it can help create a safe environment for all of them regardless of their sexual or gender identity [8,9]. Research has also studied teachers' misconceptions [10,11] and the lack of inclusion of these topics in school materials [12,13]. ...
Conference Paper
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The inclusion of LGBT+ topics in education continues to be a heated debate despite the efforts of international bodies and organizations in the promotion of comprehensive sex/gender education across the globe as a way to train young generations appropriately in sexual health, gender identity, and well-being. However, and notwithstanding the impact that teachers can have on the learning process of their students, research has identified a lack of studies analyzing their perceptions about the inclusion of such topics in their lessons. This paper aims to examine the perceptions of a group of pre-service primary bilingual teachers (N = 52) from the University of Córdoba (Spain) regarding the inclusion of gender identity/equality and LGBT+ issues in the EFL classroom. The case study is developed as part of a training experience (implemented online due to the COVID-19 pandemic) in which they learned and discussed associated concepts, and where they were asked to use Flipgrid as a self-reflection tool. A mixed-method study based on content analysis is used to analyze the videos recorded by the participants in which they expressed their opinions. Six main categories are identified after applying content analysis techniques: (i) inclusion of gender identity/equality and LGBT+ issues in the classroom; (ii) reasons to include such topics; (iii) ways to address the topics; (iv) benefits for students; (v) potential problems; and (vi) other aspects. Findings reveal that, although part of the respondents agrees with including them in the EFL classroom, the majority of them believe these should be cross-curricular themes. Likewise, preparing and supporting students for society, and helping those who may not have the chance to learn about this reality at home are the main reasons for addressing these matters at schools, while increasing respect, tolerance and empathy, self-discovery and self-acceptance of LGBT+ learners, and reducing bullying are the main benefits for students.
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Stigmatisation of various sexual minorities is not a new phenomenon, as well as last century´s attempts to reduce the existing stigma or prejudice. Not only in the past (Allport, 1954), but also nowadays (Pettigrew & Tropp, 2006) attention is focused mainly on attitudes towards ethnic minorities or handicapped individuals. Despite increasing openness in western society (Natl. Gay Lesbian Task Force, 2012), sexual minorities are not a traditional object of interventions for prejudice reduction. Sexual minorities are often viewed as a threat of religion, culture and also gender questions (Herek & McLemore, 2013), which leaves more doors open, than perceived differences for example in ethnicity.
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Purpose The present study tests the hypothesis that there has been a significant increase in the implementation of six LGBTQ-supportive school practices in US states between 2010 and 2018. Methods Data were drawn from the publicly available School Health Profiles reports published by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Division of Adolescent and School Health. We conducted unadjusted linear regression models separately for each practice to examine state-specific linear trends in the percentage of secondary schools reportedly engaging in six LGBTQ-supportive practices across all 50 states. In addition, we conducted an unadjusted linear regression on the trend to estimate changes in the median percentage of schools across all states engaging in each of the six practices through time. Results In 2010, 5.7% of schools reported implementing all six practices, which increased to 15.3% in 2018. In the period from 2010 to 2018, the implementation of four of six key practices increased significantly in more than half of US states. Most states experienced a mix of either increases in practices or no change in practice prevalence, with no state experiencing a significant decrease. Discussion There have been significant gains in the percentage of schools implementing LGBTQ-supportive practices. Yet, despite increases in the examined practices, the median percentage of schools in the United States that implement all six remains low. There is considerable room to improve on the use of these practices in schools across the United States, including increased attention to the quality of implementation and the barriers and facilitators to their instantiation.
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Introduction There is recognition of the importance of comprehensive relationships and sexuality education (RSE) throughout the school years worldwide. Interventions have found some positive outcomes; however, the need for a greater focus on positive sexuality and relevant contemporary issues has been identified by teachers and students. The Curtin RSE Project provides training for teachers and preservice teachers and supports schools through training and advice to implement comprehensive school health promotion (CSHP) focusing on RSE allowing schools to develop programmes relevant to their school community. To examine contemporary phenomenon within a real word context, a case study design will be used to measure implementation. This paper will describe the protocol for a multiple, embedded case study to measure the implementation of CSHP focusing on RSE in a purposive sample of Western Australian schools. Methods and analysis This mixed methods study will include a multiple, embedded case study. Schools (n=3–4) will be purposively selected from within Western Australia based on their capacity to commit to implementing RSE as a case study school. Data will be collected from students (Grade 6 for primary school; Grades 7–12 for secondary school); teachers and other key staff and parents. Methods include school climate and school curriculum audits, documentation (collected with key staff at baseline and annually), interviews (parents and teachers at Year 2), focus groups (students at Year 2) and an online student survey (collected with students baseline and annually). Ethics and dissemination School principals will provide consent for school participation and staff and parents will provide individual consent. Student assent and parental consent will be obtained for student participants. Results will be disseminated through open-access reports, peer-reviewed journals and conference presentations.
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Introduction: Understanding how teenagers think about sexual health and assessing the ways in which they engage with sexual health information are important issues in the development of appropriate sexual health education programmes. Sexual health education programs in the UK are inconsistent and is not possible to assume that teenagers' information needs are being met by such programs. Teenagers often feel uncomfortable discussing sexual health making it difficult to assess teenagers' understanding and engagement with the topic. Methods: we used qualitative diaries to explore how thoughts about and exposure to sexual health information features in teenagers' day-to-day lives. Thirty-three low SES female teenagers aged 13 and 14 from schools in the UK kept a daily note of any sexual health related thoughts and feelings, and any sexual health information they encountered. Results & conclusions: Thematic analysis indicated three themes (1) Knowledge gaps and a desire for factual information (2) The social and emotional context of sexual health and (3) limited access to reliable information. Teenagers showed poor understanding of the biological aspects of sexual health and were concerned about the social and emotional context of sexual health. The teenagers' did not actively seek out sexual health information and access to information resources was limited. Although teenagers showed gaps in their knowledge they were curious about sexual health and were open to receiving sexual health information. Being aware of the ways that low SES female teenagers are thinking about sexual health is useful in developing education programs and other resources that will help fill gaps in knowledge and understanding.
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In Aotearoa/New Zealand, sexuality education is one of seven key areas of learning in the Health and Physical Education (HPE) subject area within The New Zealand Curriculum. Since 2015, sexual diversity (lesbian, gay, bisexual identities and perspectives) and gender diversity (transgender; non-binary gender) have been explicitly included in the curriculum guidelines for teaching sexuality education in schools. Based on survey data collected from a convenience sample of 73 participants aged between 16 and 19 years, this study focused on the prevalence of sexuality education provision, its content, and the inclusion of sexuality and gender diversity in the wider school environment. Despite sexuality education being a mandatory part of HPE, only around three-quarters of respondents remembered having been taught it at some point in years 9 and 10. When taught, sexuality education was reported to focus primarily on conventional content areas (e.g. heterosex; biological function) and was therefore not inclusive of sexuality and gender diversity. Inclusion in the wider school environment was also limited, being mainly restricted to easy to implement measures (e.g. allowing same-sex partners at school balls and having a rainbow ally group). The implications of these findings for the development, wellbeing and human rights of young people are discussed.
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This chapter provides a reflective account of the studies in Part II of this volume, with a focus on discussing their empirical and methodological contributions to research on agency at work. Agency at work is a crucial component of how individuals engage with work and learning in a way that enables them to develop. Until recently, research on agency at work has had a distinct conceptual stance. These empirical chapters, therefore, provide an important contribution to the literature, by both employing different conceptualisations and examining agency at work in various contexts. In this chapter, we provide some descriptive and reflective accounts of the variety and nature of the empirical work and the methodologies employed based on a framework inspired by conceptual depictions of agency in the literature. Emirbayer and Mische’s (Am J Sociol 103(4):962–1023, 1998) framework that indicates three facets of agency—iterative, practical-evaluative, and projective—has been complemented by characteristics emerging from the analysed studies, indicating the relational versus transformative nature of agency at work. We engage in a discussion on the focus of these studies and operationalisations of agency, the units of analysis, analytical approaches and main findings. We then reflect upon the nature of agency at work and discuss the heterogeneity that is distinctly featured among the studies: Heterogeneity of terms of operationalisations and methodologies employed and also of findings considered defining for agency at work has stood out as an important characteristic of these empirical works. Based on this analysis and reflection, we delineate avenues that may drive the further consolidation of the field. Our reflective account highlights that the studies reviewed have provided an understanding of agency beyond disciplinary boundaries and beyond exclusively individual or collective actions. They reflect the complexity at the empirical level, where agency is expressed in heterogeneous ways and drives actions that trigger further learning processes.
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The present study examined: (1) gender and age differences of mean gender identity disorder (GID) trait scores in Japanese twins; (2) the validity of the prenatal hormone transfer theory, which predicts that, in dizygotic (DZ) twin pairs, twins with an opposite-gender co-twin more frequently exhibit GID traits than twins with a same-gender co-twin; and (3) the magnitude of genetic and environmental influences on GID traits as a function of age and gender. Data from 1450 male twin pairs, 1882 female twin pairs, and 1022 DZ male–female pairs ranging from 3 to 26 years of age were analyzed. To quantify individual variances in GID traits, each participant completed four questionnaire items based on criteria for GID from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-TR). Our most important findings were: (1) Japanese females exhibited GID traits more frequently than males and Japanese children exhibited GID traits less frequently than adolescents and adults (among females, the prevalence was 1.6 % in children, 10 % in adolescents, and 12 % in adults; among males, the prevalence was 0.5, 2, and 3 %, respectively); (2) the data did not support the prenatal hormone transfer theory for GID traits; and (3) a large part of the variance for GID traits in children was accounted for by familial factors; however, the magnitude was found to be greater in children than in adolescents or adults, particularly among females. This study suggests that although the prevalence is likely to increase, familial effects are likely to decrease as individuals age.
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Child maltreatment and bullying victimization disproportionately affect sexual minority youth. Little research exists that explores psychological distress as a modifiable risk factor connecting these two forms of victimization. Utilizing a community-based sample of sexual minority youth (N = 125, 15–19 y/o), this study provides estimates of child maltreatment and bullying victimization, identifies their associations, and explores psychological distress as a potential mediator. Approximately 46 % of the sample reported moderate to extreme childhood emotional abuse, followed by physical abuse (34 %), sexual abuse (32 %), emotional neglect (28 %), and physical neglect (26 %). Higher levels of emotional, physical, and sexual abuse were associated with more frequent bullying victimization. Psychological distress mediated the relationship between emotional abuse and verbal bullying victimization only. Additional research is needed to explore other potential mental health mediators (e.g., emotional dysregulation, posttraumatic stress). Addressing psychological distress holds the potential to prevent or reduce verbal bullying victimization by improving social functioning.
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Ongoing political controversies around the world exemplify a long-standing and widespread preoccupation with the acceptability of homosexuality. Nonheterosexual people have seen dramatic surges both in their rights and in positive public opinion in many Western countries. In contrast, in much of Africa, the Middle East, the Caribbean, Oceania, and parts of Asia, homosexual behavior remains illegal and severely punishable, with some countries retaining the death penalty for it. Political controversies about sexual orientation have often overlapped with scientific controversies. That is, participants on both sides of the sociopolitical debates have tended to believe that scientific findings—and scientific truths—about sexual orientation matter a great deal in making political decisions. The most contentious scientific issues have concerned the causes of sexual orientation—that is, why are some people heterosexual, others bisexual, and others homosexual? The actual relevance of these issues to social, political, and ethical decisions is often poorly justified, however.
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Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and queer (LGBTQ) teachers are a marginalised group that historically have been absent from research on sexuality and schooling. Rather, much research in the field has focused upon the experiences of same sex attracted and increasingly, gender diverse young people in schools, as well as the delivery of sexuality education. Up until recently, very little research has been carried out that explicitly addresses the experiences of LGBTQ teachers, particularly within the Australian context. This article focuses upon key issues arising from the semi-structured interviews that the Out/In Front team carried out as part of a pilot study that took place between April and July 2013 in the state of Victoria, Australia. We interviewed nine current or former teachers working within primary and secondary education across the public, Catholic and private sectors. This paper focuses upon the notion that LGBTQ teachers exist within a ‘space of exclusion’ that is dominated by discursive mechanisms that (re)produce heteronormativity. We also argue that the Victorian policy context – as well as increasing socio-political tolerance for LGBTQ people within Australia – enables LGBT teachers to interrupt the discursive frameworks within which their professional lives are situated.
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The current study evaluated the possibility that greater negative mental health outcomes reported among gay, lesbian, and gender-atypical individuals, compared to gender-typical individuals, are present in childhood and persist into adulthood. Sex and sexual orientation differences in self-reported adulthood and recalled childhood indicators of depression and anxiety and their association with current and retrospectively reported gender (a)typicality were examined in a non-clinically recruited community sample of Canadian heterosexual men (n = 98), heterosexual women (n = 142), gay men (n = 289), and lesbian women (n = 69). Indicators of depression and anxiety were constructed based on diagnostic criteria for generalized anxiety disorder, major depression, agoraphobia, social anxiety disorder, panic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and specific phobias. Factor reduction analyses yielded three factors: (1) indicators of childhood separation anxiety, (2) indicators of childhood depression and anxiety, and (3) indicators of adulthood depression and anxiety. Lesbian women scored higher on childhood separation anxiety than all other groups. Heterosexual men scored lower on indicators of childhood separation anxiety than gay men and lower on indicators of childhood and adulthood depression and anxiety than all other groups. No other significant group differences were observed. Correlational analysis suggested that for men, but not for women, gender-atypical behavior was associated with negative mental health. The current study indicated that childhood should be considered a critical time period during which the noted sexual orientation-related mental health discrepancies manifest and that childhood gender atypicality is a key factor for understanding the emergence of such discrepancies.
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Bullying is characterized by the repeated attempts of a group or individual to gain social advantage by the use of relational, verbal, or physical aggression against a target, especially when there is a perceived or actual power imbalance (Espelage & Swearer, 2003). One consistent finding is that gay (i.e., androphilic) males report higher rates of victimization due to bullying in adolescence than their heterosexual (i.e., gynephilic) counterparts. Western data indicate that gender-atypical behavior, regardless of sexual orientation, is a key predictor of victimization due to bullying. Androphilic males generally display childhood gender-atypicality, including reduced levels of physical aggression, which may cause bullies to perceive them as “easy” targets. In order to test the associations between sexual orientation, childhood gender-atypicality, and recalled victimization due to bullying, a sample of Samoan gynephilic men (n = 100) were compared to a group of Samoan transgender androphilic males (n = 103), known as fa’afafine. Although the fa’afafine reported far more childhood gender-atypicality, the two groups did not differ significantly on measures of physical aggression or their reported rates of victimization due to bullying. Additionally, greater physical aggression, not gender-atypicality, was the only significant predictor of being bullied in both men and fa’afafine. These results suggest that there is nothing inherent in sexual orientation or childhood gender-atypicality that would potentiate victimization from bullying. Instead, the cultural context in which a bully functions influences the extent to which these are “acceptable” reasons to target certain individuals.
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This investigation explored suicide-related characteristics and help-seeking behavior by sexual orientation. Population-based data are from the California Quality of Life Surveys, which included 1,478 sexual minority (lesbian, gay, bisexual, and homosexually experienced individuals) and 3,465 heterosexual individuals. Bisexual women had a nearly six-fold increased risk of lifetime suicide attempts than heterosexual women (RR = 5.88, 95%CI: 3.89-8.90), and homosexually experienced men had almost 7 times higher risk of lifetime suicide attempts than heterosexual men (RR = 6.93, 95%CI: 3.65-13.15). Sexual minority men and women were more likely than heterosexual men and women to have disclosed suicide attempts to a medical professional (RR = 1.48 and RR = 1.44, respectively). Among persons who ever attempted suicide, sexual minority women had a younger age of index attempt than heterosexual women (15.9 vs. 19.6 years of age, respectively). Healthcare professionals should be aware of suicidal risk heterogeneity among sexual minority individuals, including vulnerable points of risk and evidenced-based treatments. (PsycINFO Database Record
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This study investigated the relations between sexual orientation, cyber victimization, and depressive symptoms in college students. Study aims were to determine whether sexual minority college students are at greater risk for cyber victimization and to examine whether recent cyber victimization (self-reported cyber victimization over the last 30 days) predicts depressive symptoms beyond traditional victimization and perceptions of high school cyber victimization. Findings from 634 college students (ages 18–22) across 25 U.S. states demonstrated significant relations between sexual minority status, particularly homosexual identification, and cyber victimization. The highest levels of depressive symptoms were reported by participants with high levels of both high school and recent cyber victimization and participants who reported high levels of both recent traditional victimization and recent cyber victimization. Findings should be used as a foundation for interventions geared to the sexual minority population.
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This study uses General Social Survey data to compare gender and homosexuality across American religious groups from the 1970s to 2014, examining three possible patterns for how evangelical attitudes relate to those of other groups: (1) they are similar; (2) they are different, but move together over time; (3) they are different and converge or diverge over time. Evangelical gender attitudes regarding work and family issues are more conservative than those of all other groups, but are adaptive to broad trends, changing at a rate similar to those of other groups. Evangelical attitudes toward the morality of homosexuality and same-sex marriage are more conservative than those of all other religious groups, and their rate of change is slower over time. Separate trends on the two issues suggest that gender and sexuality attitude change is decoupled, especially among evangelicals who are adapting more on gender while increasingly distinguishing themselves on same-sex relationships. A three-stage process of religious tension appears to characterize evangelical identity-building: (1) similarity, (2) distinction, and (3) adaptation.
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In inclusive classrooms teamwork and collaboration between general teachers and special education teachers are among the most important factors for student achievement. Yet, to date, little evidence exists on how teacher collaboration is implemented and whether general and special education teachers value their collaboration equally. The current study analyzes teacher collaboration in inclusive classrooms at elementary and secondary school levels. Participants were 191 general teachers and 130 special education teachers. The results suggest that all teachers were satisfi ed with their teamwork; diff erences between general and special education teachers were non-signifi cant. Elementary school teachers had more positive perceptions than secondary school teachers. These findings are discussed in terms of their theoretical significance and their practical relevance for teacher education in inclusive classrooms.
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Sexual minority individuals are at an elevated risk for depression compared to their heterosexual counterparts, yet less is known about how depression status varies across sexual minority subgroups (i.e., mostly heterosexuals, bisexuals, and lesbians and gay men). Moreover, studies on the role of young adult gender nonconformity in the relation between sexual orientation and depression are scarce and have yielded mixed findings. The current study examined the disparities between sexual minorities and heterosexuals during young adulthood in concurrent depression near the beginning of young adulthood and prospective depression 6 years later, paying attention to the diversity within sexual minority subgroups and the role of gender nonconformity. Drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 9421), we found that after accounting for demographics, sampling weight, and sampling design, self-identified mostly heterosexual and bisexual young adults, but not lesbians and gay men, reported significantly higher concurrent depression compared to heterosexuals; moreover, only mostly heterosexual young adults were more depressed than heterosexuals 6 years later. Furthermore, while young adult gender nonconforming behavior was associated with more concurrent depression regardless of sexual orientation, its negative impact on mental health decreased over time. Surprisingly, previous gender nonconformity predicted decreased prospective depression among lesbians and gay men whereas, among heterosexual individuals, increased gender nonconformity was not associated with prospective depression. Together, the results suggested the importance of investigating diversity and the influence of young adult gender nonconformity in future research on the mental health of sexual minorities.
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Homophobic bullying is pervasive and deleterious, and a source of extensive health and mental health disparities affecting sexual and gender minority youth (SGMY). Investigations conducted over the past two decades across the social ecology of SGMY indicate individual (e.g., gender), microsystem (e.g., schools), and exosystem level (e.g., community norms) factors associated with homophobic bullying. Emerging evidence at the macrosystem level demonstrates the powerful influence of laws, policies, and ideologies on the population health of sexual minority adults. Based on social ecological theory and emerging evidence at the macrosystem level, we advance a conceptualization of the religious social ecology of homophobic bullying and articulate the construct of conversion bullying, a form of bias-based bullying that may be unique to SGMY. Conversion bullying is manifested in the invocation of religious rhetoric and rationalizations in repeated acts of peer aggression against SGMY that cause harm, based on the premise that same-sex attractions and behaviors are immoral or unnatural and with implicit or explicit communication that one should change one's sexuality to conform to heteronormative ideals. We describe implications of conversion bullying for social work practice, education, social policy, and research.
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Introduction: One of the never-ending debates in the developing field of sexual medicine is the extent to which genetics and experiences (i.e., "nature and nurture") contribute to sexuality. The debate continues despite the fact that these two sides have different abilities to create a scientific environment to support their cause. Contemporary genetics has produced plenty of recent evidence, however, not always confirmed or sufficiently robust. On the other hand, the more traditional social theorists, frequently without direct evidence confirming their positions, criticize, sometimes with good arguments, the methods and results of the other side. Aim: The aim of this article is to critically evaluate existent evidence that used genetic approaches to understand human sexuality. Methods: An expert in sexual medicine (E.A.J.), an expert in medical genetics (G.N.), and two experts in genetic epidemiology and quantitative genetics, with particular scientific experience in female sexual dysfunction (A.B.) and in premature ejaculation (P.J.), contributed to this review. Main outcome measure: Expert opinion supported by critical review of the currently available literature. Results: The existing literature on human sexuality provides evidence that many sexuality-related behaviors previously considered to be the result of cultural influences (such as mating strategies, attractiveness and sex appeal, propensity to fidelity or infidelity, and sexual orientation) or dysfunctions (such as premature ejaculation or female sexual dysfunction) seem to have a genetic component. Conclusions: Current evidence from genetic epidemiologic studies underlines the existence of biological and congenital factors regulating male and female sexuality. However, these relatively recent findings ask for replication in methodologically more elaborated studies. Clearly, increased research efforts are needed to further improve understanding the genetics of human sexuality. Jannini EA, Burri A, Jern P, and Novelli G. Genetics of human sexual behavior: Where we are, where we are going. Sex Med Rev 2015;3:65-77.
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The relative contributions of genetic and environmental factors to the development of gender identity have been debated. Twins were studied that are concordant or discordant for gender identity status in order to provide clarification of this issue. An extensive library search yielded reports of 27 male and 16 female sets concordant or discordant for transsexuality. An Internet bulletin board search and clinical contact requests for participants in a survey of twins in which one or both transitioned located 69 new twin pairs. In addition to asking about matters associated with gender, these new twins were asked about their transition, rearing, and sexual practices. Combining data from the present survey with those from past-published reports, 20% of all male and female monozygotic twin pairs were found concordant for transsexual identity. This was more frequently the case for males (33%) than for females (23%). The responses of our twins relative to their rearing, along with our findings regarding some of their experiences during childhood and adolescence show their identity was much more influenced by their genetics than their rearing.
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National research illustrates the high degree of discrimination that prevails against lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and queer (LGBTQ) students resulting in diminished educational outcomes, both academic and social. This phenomenon is influenced by the prevalence of whole-school silences around LGBTQ topics in many Australian schools. This paper presents an analysis of the New South Wales (NSW) homophobia in schools policy, as well as both NSW state and Australian federal curriculum and syllabus documents in the health and physical education key learning area. This analysis illustrates how contradictory framing and messages; silences and omission; and various discursive constructions of the LGBTQ subject together produce silencing technologies that have critical implications for the implementation of education, both in this key learning area and across the schooling sector.
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Objectives: We examined (1) whether sexual minority youths (SMYs) are at increased risk for physical dating violence victimization (PDVV) compared with non-SMYs, (2) whether bisexual youths have greater risk of PDVV than lesbian or gay youths, (3) whether youths who have had sexual contact with both sexes are more susceptible to PDVV than youths with same sex-only sexual contact, and (4) patterns of PDVV among SMYs across demographic groups. Methods: Using 2 measures of sexual orientation, sexual identity and sexual behavior, and compiling data from 9 urban areas that administered the Youth Risk Behavior Surveys from 2001 to 2011, we conducted logistic regression analyses to calculate odds of PDVV among SMYs across demographic sub-samples. Results: SMYs have significantly increased odds of PDVV compared with non-SMYs. Bisexual youths do not have significantly higher odds of PDVV than gay or lesbian youths, but youths who had sexual contact with both-sexes possess significantly higher odds of PDVV than youths with same sex-only sexual contact. These patterns hold for most gender, grade, and racial/ethnic subgroups. Conclusions: Overall, SMYs have greater odds of PDVV versus non-SMYs. Among SMYs, youths who had sexual contact with both sexes have greater odds of PDVV than youths with same sex-only sexual contact. Prevention programs that consider sexual orientation, support tolerance, and teach coping and conflict resolution skills could reduce PDVV among SMYs.
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Adolescence is marked by the emergence of human sexuality, sexual identity, and the initiation of intimate relations; within this context, abstinence from sexual intercourse can be a healthy choice. However, programs that promote abstinence-only-until-marriage (AOUM) or sexual risk avoidance are scientifically and ethically problematic and—as such—have been widely rejected by medical and public health professionals. Although abstinence is theoretically effective, in actual practice, intentions to abstain from sexual activity often fail. Given a rising age at first marriage around the world, a rapidly declining percentage of young people remain abstinent until marriage. Promotion of AOUM policies by the U.S. government has undermined sexuality education in the United States and in U.S. foreign aid programs; funding for AOUM continues in the United States. The weight of scientific evidence finds that AOUM programs are not effective in delaying initiation of sexual intercourse or changing other sexual risk behaviors. AOUM programs, as defined by U.S. federal funding requirements, inherently withhold information about human sexuality and may provide medically inaccurate and stigmatizing information. Thus, AOUM programs threaten fundamental human rights to health, information, and life. Young people need access to accurate and comprehensive sexual health information to protect their health and lives.
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This study investigates whether Lesbian, Gay and Bisexual (LGB) young adults are more at risk of bullying than their heterosexual peers using Next Steps, a nationally representative longitudinal dataset from England. The experiences of more than 7,200 young adults from across England who were born in 1989-90 are examined. At age 20, the young adults were asked about their sexual identity and whether they had been bullied in the previous 12 months and during secondary school. The findings show that young LGB adults had a 52 per cent chance of having been bullied in the past year at age 20, compared to a 38 per cent chance for their heterosexual peers, after taking into account other characteristics that may make someone more likely to be targeted, such as gender, ethnicity, disability, or family socioeconomic background. The situation had improved slightly since their school years. Between the ages of 14 and 16, young people who later went on to identify as LGB had a 56 per cent chance of having been bullied in the past year, compared to a 45 per cent chance for their heterosexual peers. Moreover LGB young people were at considerably greater risk of being bullied frequently - that is, once or more every fortnight - during secondary school. LGB young people were found to be more than twice as likely as their heterosexual classmates to be regularly physically bullied and excluded from social groups. This paper also examines the association between being bullied and life satisfaction: the findings show that by the time they reached age 20, young LGB adults were less likely than their heterosexual peers to report being "very satisfied" with how their lives had turned out so far. However, all young adults -regardless of sexual identity - were less likely to be very satisfied with their lives if they had been bullied. In summary, although all people are less likely to be bullied as they get older, young LGB adults remain at higher risk than their peers. These findings suggest that in order to tackle the problem, anti-bullying interventions cannot be focused only at schools and their pupils. Policymakers, employers, further education institutions and others working with young adults need to do just as much in order to challenge discrimination at all ages.
Article
Objectives: To determine the influences of victimization experience and familial factors on the association between sexual minority status and psychological health outcomes among adolescents. Methods: We used data from the Child and Adolescent Twin Study in Sweden, a prospective, population-based study of all twins born in Sweden since 1992. Cross-sectional analyses included individuals who completed assessments at age 18 years (n = 4898) from 2000 to 2013. We also compared psychological health among sexual minority adolescents and their nonminority co-twins. Results: Sexual minority adolescents were more likely than were unrelated nonminority adolescents to report victimization experiences, including emotional abuse, physical abuse or neglect, and sexual abuse. Sexual minority adolescents also reported significantly more symptoms of anxiety, depression, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, disordered eating, and substance misuse in addition to increased parent-reported behavior problems. Victimization experience partially mediated these associations. However, when controlling for unmeasured familial confounding factors by comparing sexual minority adolescents to their same-sex, nonminority co-twins, the effect of sexual minority status on psychological health was almost entirely attenuated. Conclusions: Familial factors-common genetic or environmental influences-may explain decreased psychological adjustment among sexual minority adolescents. (Am J Public Health. Published online ahead of print December 20, 2016: e1-e7. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2016.303573).
Article
This exploratory study examines the relationship between sexual identity and violent victimization experiences as predictors of differences in illicit substance and alcohol use and substance use problems among a sample of incarcerated women in rural Appalachia (N = 400). Results indicated that, compared to heterosexual women, sexual minority women were more likely to have a lifetime history of weapon, physical, and sexual assault, and were younger at the time of their first violent victimization. Sexual minority women were younger than heterosexual women at the age of onset for intravenous drug use and at the time they first got drunk, and were more likely to report having overdosed. Multivariate analysis found violent victimization to be the strongest predictor of a history of overdose and substance use problems.
Article
Aims: To test two indirect pathways through which sexual minority adolescents (SMAs) may be at risk for heavy episodic drinking (HED) including a socialization pathway via substance-using peer affiliations and social marginalization pathway via sexual minority-specific victimization and subsequent substance-using peer affiliations. Design: Analysis of the first three waves (6 months apart) of a longitudinal adolescent health risk study (2011-14). Participants were referred by medical providers or a screening system in providers' waiting rooms. Setting: Two large urban adolescent health clinics in Pennsylvania and Ohio, USA. Participants: A total of 290 adolescents (ages 14-19 years, mean: 17.08) who were 71.0% female, 33.4% non-Hispanic white and 34.5% SMAs. Measurements: Self-reported sexual minority status (wave 1) and affiliation with substance-using peers (waves 1 and 2), and latent sexual-minority specific victimization (waves 1 and 2) and HED (waves 1 and 3) variables. Findings: Using mediation analyses in a structural equation modeling framework, there was a significant indirect effect of sexual minority status (wave 1) on HED (wave 3) via affiliation with substance-using peers [wave 2; indirect effect = 0.03, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.01, 0.07], after accounting for the indirect effect of sexual-orientation related victimization (wave 2; indirect effect = 0.10, 95% CI = 0.02-0.19). The social marginalization pathway was not supported, as victimization (wave 1) was not associated with affiliation with substance-using peers (wave 2; β = - 0.04, P = 0.66). Sex differences in the indirect effects were not detected (Ps > 0.10). Conclusions: Sexual minority adolescents in the United States appear to exhibit increased heavy episodic drinking via an indirect socialization pathway, including affiliations with substance-using peers and a concurrent indirect pathway involving sexual minority-related victimization. The pathways appear to operate similarly for boys and girls.
Article
Objectives: To examine the effects of the cumulative victimization experienced by lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender youths on mental disorders. Methods: We recruited 248 participants from the Chicago, Illinois, area in 7 waves of data collected over 4 years, beginning in 2007 (83.1% retention rate). Mean age at enrollment was 18.7 years, and 54.7% were Black. We measured depression and posttraumatic stress disorder using structured psychiatric interviews. Results: Latent class analyses of victimization over time identified a 4-class solution. Class 1 (65.4%) had low, decreasing victimization. Class 2 (10.3%) had moderate, increasing victimization. Class 3 (5.1%) had high, steady victimization. Class 4 (19.2%) had high, decreasing victimization. Controlling for baseline diagnoses and birth sex, lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender youths in classes 2 and 3 were at higher risk for depression than were those in class 1; youths in classes 2, 3, and 4 were at elevated risk for posttraumatic stress disorder. Conclusions: Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender youths with steadily high or increasing levels of victimization from adolescence to early adulthood are at higher risk for depression and posttraumatic stress disorder. (Am J Public Health. Published online ahead of print January 21, 2016: e1-e7. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2015.302976).
Chapter
Sexuality education is defined and labeled in many different ways to meet different objectives for targeted stakeholders. It has been described as the set of instructions and learning on issues that are related to human sexuality, including sexual intercourse and abstinence, sexual reproduction and reproductive health, and sexual anatomy among others. When examining evidence-based sex education in Africa, there are many issues and concepts that need to be considered including the definition and concept of sex education, the content areas of sex education, age appropriateness, gender issues and other cultural factors that influence the design and implementation of evidence-based sex education programs. These factors are presented in this chapter, along with the evidence of the current state of knowledge and practice, and an exploration of resource availability. The barriers, facilitating factors and the future of sex education in Africa are also reviewed.
Article
In external evaluations and school inspections, experts rate instructional quality based on a set of empirically confirmed criteria of good teaching. For this rating, teams of evaluators use different information sources, including observations and surveys. The present study examines to what extent information from observations and surveys contribute to the final rating results. The findings show that both information sources explain different degrees of variance of the final rating, depending on the evaluation criterion used. These results are used to discuss the methodological implications of contemporary procedures employed in Germany when estimating instructional quality in external evaluations and school inspections.
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Representing both traditional and emerging perspectives, this multi-disiplinary and truly international volume will serve as a seminal resource for students and scholars. © John. F. Dovidio, Miles Hewstone, Peter Glick and Victoria M. Esses 2010.
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Although legislation has made achievements to strengthen the rights of homosexual people in many European countries, the school setting seems to be a place where it can be hard to be open as a homosexual person. This article presents articulations of what it is to be homo- or bisexual as a teacher, based on a discourse analysis. The empirical material suggests two different discursive approaches described as vigilance and resource, suggesting different realities of these teachers. It is interpreted that it is not enough only to rely on laws and a positive mind-set of the general public. An explicit support from colleagues is suggested to be crucial to facilitate this group's prerequisites to participate equally compared to norm conforming colleagues.
Article
Purpose: Sexual minority youth (SMY) are at higher risk for victimization and suicide than are heterosexual youth (HY). Relatively little research has examined which types of victimization are most closely linked to suicide, which is necessary to develop targeted prevention interventions. The present study was conducted to address this deficit. Methods: The data come from the 2011 Chicago Youth Risk Behavior Survey (n = 1,907). Structural equation modeling (SEM) in Mplus evaluated the direct, indirect, and total effects of sexual orientation on a latent indicator of suicidal ideation and behaviors via seven types of victimization. Four indicators of victimization were school-specific (e.g., harassment due to sexual orientation or gender identity (SO/GID), bullying, threatened or injured with a weapon, and skipping school due to safety concerns), and three indicators assessed other types of victimization (e.g., electronic bullying, intimate partner violence, and sexual abuse). Results: Thirteen percent of youth were classified as SMY. Significantly more SMY than HY reported suicidal ideation (27.95% vs. 13.64%), a suicide plan (22.78% vs. 12.36%), and at least one suicide attempt (29.92% vs. 12.43%) in the past year (all P < .001). A greater percentage of SMY reported SO/GID-related harassment, skipping school, electronic bullying, and sexual abuse. Sexual orientation was not directly related to suicidal ideation and behaviors in SEM. Rather, SMY's elevated risk of suicidality functioned indirectly through two forms of school-based victimization: being threatened or injured with a weapon (B = .19, SE = .09, P ≤ .05) and experiencing SO/GID-specific harassment (B = .40, SE = .15, P ≤ .01). There also was a trend for SMY to skip school as a strategy to reduce suicide risk. Conclusion: Although SMY experience higher rates of victimization than do HY, school-based victimization that involves weapons or is due to one's SO/GID appear to be the most deleterious. That SMY may skip school to reduce their risk of suicidal ideation and behaviors is problematic, and schools should be encouraged to enact and enforce policies that explicitly protect SMY from victimization.
Article
Our main goal is to explain the proportion of homosexuality non-acceptance, i.e., the proportion of people for whom homosexuality can never be justified. To that end, we use data on 52 countries and consider the beta regression model which is tailored for rates and proportions. We use several conditioning variables, such as average intelligence, per capita income, an indicator as to whether the country is Muslim, an income inequality index and a religious diversity index. It is noteworthy that homosexuality non-acceptance negatively correlates with average intelligence (- 0.58) and with religious disbelief (- 0.52). The estimated regression coefficients corresponding to such covariates are - 0.0207 and - 12.3636, respectively. They are both negative and statistically significant. The implication is that homosexuality non-acceptance tends to decrease when average intelligence or religious disbelief increases. We construct impact curves that measure such impacts and show how their strengths change with the relevant conditioning variables. The estimated impacts are almost always stronger for Muslim nations; they can be nearly twice as strong for such countries. The estimated impacts are also stronger when average intelligence and the prevalence of religious disbelievers are small. Bootstrap confidence intervals are also computed.
Article
Objective: Despite consistently greater rates of non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) and suicidal thoughts and behaviors (STBs; i.e., suicidal ideation, method/plan, and attempts) in lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) individuals, prevalence, characteristics, and relations between these dangerous thoughts and behaviors are equivocal. The present study sought to examine and compare the rates of NSSI and STBs in a large sample of sexual minority and majority young adults. In addition, this study is the first to our knowledge to examine how different NSSI characteristics (i.e., frequency, number of forms, and number of functions) relate to STBs of varying severity by sexual attraction (SA). Methods: Participants were 12,422 college students (ages 18-29; 57.3% female) who self-reported demographic characteristics, NSSI frequency, the number of NSSI forms used, the number of NSSI functions, as well as STB history (i.e., ideation, method/plan, and attempts). Each participant’s degree of SA was assessed via a 7-point scale (i.e., K0-K6) from Alfred Kinsey’s research of sexual attraction and sexual experiences. This scale was collapsed to create five categories of SA: exclusively other SA (K0), mostly other SA (K1/2), equally other and same SA (K3), mostly same SA (K4/5), and exclusively same SA (K6). Respondents who chose two or more groups were categorized as having equally other and same SA (K3). Results: Consistent with previous research, we found that being a sexual minority young adult was associated with significantly higher odds of STBs compared to being a heterosexual young adult. In addition, compared to the exclusively other SA group (K0), being in the mostly other SA group (K1/2), equally other and same SA group (K3), or mostly same SA group (K4/5) was associated with significantly higher odds of NSSI engagement. Among those with NSSI, we found that the number of NSSI forms was significantly associated with suicide attempts, but was not associated with either suicidal ideation or suicide method/plan in the mostly other SA group (K1/2) or in the equally other and same SA group (K3). We also found a significant curvilinear relation between NSSI frequency and STBs in the mostly other SA group (K1/2) and between NSSI frequency and suicide method/plan and attempt in the exclusively other SA group (K0). In addition, we revealed specificity with regard to the relation between the number of lifetime NSSI episodes and risk for STBs among the equally other and same SA (K3), mostly same SA (K4/5), and exclusively same SA (K6) groups. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that among sexual minority young adults, equally other and same SA individuals may be at higher risk of NSSI and STBs than their sexual minority counterparts. In addition, our findings extend previous research by suggesting that the relation between NSSI frequency, number of forms, and number of functions and STBs might vary according to SA. A multi-theory based explanation is provided to explain the key findings and the study implications are discussed.
Article
This study uses a feminist theoretical framework to extend the literature on the relationship between sexual history, bullying victimization, and poor mental health outcomes. First, we examined whether an association between the sexual double standard and bullying victimization would apply to sexual minority youth the same way it applies to heterosexual youth. A second aim was to assess whether sexual minority boys, typically stereotyped as effeminate, would report the highest odds of bullying victimization. A third and final aim of our study was to look at the joint effect of sex and sexual intercourse on depression and suicidal ideation. Our analytic sample (N = 9,300) was from the 2009, 2011, and 2013 Rhode Island Youth Risk Behavior Surveys. Findings demonstrated that heterosexual girls who engaged in sexual intercourse had significantly higher adjusted odds of bullying victimization than heterosexual boys who engaged in the same behavior. Similar results were not found for sexual minority adolescents, suggesting the sexual double standard may not apply to sexual minority adolescents in the same way it applies to heterosexual adolescents. Consistent with our second hypothesis, sexual minority boys reported the highest odds of being recently bullied compared with heterosexual boys. Among students who were recently bullied, sexual minority girls displayed the highest adjusted odds of recent depression and suicidal ideation. Our study demonstrated that using a feminist theoretical framework broadens our understanding of why girls and sexual minority boys are particularly vulnerable to bullying victimization and the sequel of depression and suicidal ideation. © The Author(s) 2015.
Article
The goal of this study was to evaluate a novel measure of environmental risk factors for bullying among sexual minority youths. Data on lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) assault hate crimes were obtained from police records, geocoded, and then linked to individual-level data on bullying and sexual orientation from the 2008 Boston Youth Survey Geospatial Dataset (N = 1,292; 108 sexual minorities). Results indicated that sexual minority youths who reported relational and electronic bullying were more likely to reside in neighborhoods with higher LGBT assault hate crime rates. There was no association between LGBT assault hate crimes and bullying among heterosexual youths, providing evidence for specificity to sexual minority youth. Moreover, no relationships were observed between sexual minority bullying and neighborhood-level violent and property crimes, indicating that the results were specific to LGBT assault hate crimes.
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In this article, Carla Rensenbrink explores the question of what difference it makes to be a lesbian teacher, for the teacher herself and for her students. Rensenbrink focuses her exploration by telling the story of Rosemary Trowbridge, a fifth-grade teacher who comes out as a lesbian to her students and colleagues. Drawing on interviews and visits to Rosemary's classroom, the author notes ways in which Rosemary's lesbianism does make a positive difference in her classroom. She makes connections between Rosemary's identity as a lesbian and the fact that her classroom represents a safe place where students feel comfortable questioning the culture and taking an active stand.
Article
We assessed whether homophobic name-calling accounts for the relationship between gender nonconformity and mental health (social anxiety and psychological distress) in a sample of 1,026 Dutch adolescents (boys: n = 517) ages 11 to 16 (Mage = 13.4). We also explored whether this hypothesized mediation differs by sexual attraction and biological sex. Data were collected by means of paper-and-pencil questionnaires at five secondary schools located in urban areas in the Netherlands. Mediation analysis indicated that gender nonconformity was related to both social anxiety and psychological distress partially via homophobic name-calling. Moderated mediation analysis further showed that the mediating role of homophobic name-calling varied according to levels of same-sex attraction (SSA) and biological sex. The mediation effects increased in magnitude when levels of SSA increased and were significant only for adolescents with mean and high levels of SSA. The mediation effects were significant for boys and girls in general, although the mediation effects were stronger for boys than for girls. Our findings emphasize the importance of research and school-level interventions to focus on factors that promote acceptance of cross-gender behavior among adolescents.
Article
Alcohol-related violence and other types of victimisation are prevalent, but unevenly distributed across the population. The study investigated the relationship between alcohol-related victimisation and sexual orientation (heterosexual, homosexual, bisexual, other) in a national sample. The study used cross-sectional data from the 2010 Australian National Drug Strategy Household Survey. Logistic regression was used to assess the association of sexual orientation with three types of victimisation (verbal abuse, physical abuse and feeling threatened by a person intoxicated on alcohol in the last 12 months) and controlled for probable confounding variables. Of 24 858 eligible respondents aged 14 years or older, 26.8% experienced victimisation. Less than 30% of heterosexual men and women suffered victimisation compared with nearly 50% of gay men and bisexual women. Controlling for alcohol, tobacco and illicit drug use, age group, mental health, Indigenous status and socioeconomic factors, logistic regression, stratified by gender, found that the odds of both verbal [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 1.52] and physical abuse (AOR=2.04) were greatest for lesbians, while gay men had the greatest odds (AOR=2.25) of feeling threatened. Across all types of victimisation, some or all sexual minority groups had increased odds of being victimised in the last 12 months compared with their heterosexual counterparts. The pattern of results shows the importance of disaggregating sexual minority status in considering the impact of alcohol-related victimisation and in developing interventions or policies. [Tait RJ. Alcohol-related victimisation: Differences between sexual minorities and heterosexuals in an Australian national sample. Drug Alcohol Rev 2015]. © 2015 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.
Article
Purpose: Substantial research documents sexual-orientation-related mental health disparities, but relatively few studies have explored underlying causes of these disparities. The goals of this article were to (1) understand how differences in sexual identity and victimization experiences influence risk of hazardous drinking and depression, and (2) describe variations across sexual minority subgroups. Methods: We pooled data from the 2001 National Study of Health and Life Experiences of Women and the 2001 Chicago Health and Life Experiences of Women study to compare rates of victimization, hazardous drinking, and depression between heterosexual women and sexual minority women (SMW), and to test the relationship between the number of victimization experiences and the study outcomes in each of five sexual identity subgroups. Results: Rates of each of the major study variables varied substantially by sexual identity, with bisexual and mostly heterosexual women showing significantly higher risk than heterosexual women on one or both of the study outcomes. The number of victimization experiences explained some, but not all, of the risk of hazardous drinking and depression among SMW. Conclusion: Although victimization plays an important role, sexual-minority-specific stressors, such as stigma and discrimination, likely also help explain substance use and mental health disparities among SMW.
Article
Introduction: Homosexuality is a stable population-level trait in humans that lowers direct fitness and yet is substantially heritable, resulting in a so-called Darwinian "paradox." Evolutionary models have proposed that polymorphic genes influencing homosexuality confer a reproductive benefit to heterosexual carriers, thus offsetting the fitness costs associated with persistent homosexuality. This benefit may consist of a "sex typicality" intermediate phenotype. However, there are few empirical tests of this hypothesis using genetically informative data in humans. Aim: This study aimed to test the hypothesis that common genetic factors can explain the association between measures of sex typicality, mating success, and homosexuality in a Western (British) sample of female twins. Methods: Here, we used data from 996 female twins (498 twin pairs) comprising 242 full dizygotic pairs and 256 full monozygotic pairs (mean age 56.8) and 1,555 individuals whose co-twin did not participate. Measures of sexual orientation, sex typicality (recalled childhood gender nonconformity), and mating success (number of lifetime sexual partners) were completed. Main outcome measure: Variables were subject to multivariate variance component analysis. Results: We found that masculine women are more likely to be nonheterosexual, report more sexual partners, and, when heterosexual, also report more sexual partners. Multivariate twin modeling showed that common genetic factors explained the relationship between sexual orientation, sex typicality, and mating success through a shared latent factor. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that genetic factors responsible for nonheterosexuality are shared with genetic factors responsible for the number of lifetime sexual partners via a latent sex typicality phenotype in human females. These results may have implications for evolutionary models of homosexuality but are limited by potential mediating variables (such as personality traits) and measurement issues.
Article
Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) adolescents are at increased risk for substance use, relative to their heterosexual counterparts. Although previous research has demonstrated that experiences of anti-LGBT harassment, discrimination, and victimization may explain some of this disparity, little is known about the mechanisms whereby such mistreatment leads to substance abuse. This study aimed to examine whether mechanisms suggested by the Social Development Model might explain the links between school-based victimization and substance use in this population. Five hundred and four ethnically diverse LGBT adolescents ages 14-19 reported their experiences with school victimization, substance abuse, school bonding, and deviant peer group affiliation. Anti-LGBT victimization in school was associated with substance abuse, and although causality cannot be established, structural equation modeling confirmed that the data are consistent with a theoretical model in which this association was mediated by increased affiliation with deviant peers. Preventive interventions for LGBT adolescents must not only attempt to make schools safer for these youth, but also help keep them engaged in healthy peer groups when they are confronted with mistreatment in school.