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Optimism, happiness, and self-esteem among university students

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Optimism, happiness, and self-esteem among university students

Abstract

The present study intended to examine the level of optimism, happiness, and self esteem among University students. Further, the study strived to find the correlation between the variables. This study consisted sample of 60 University students with equal number of male and female participants, selected through purposive sampling technique. The life orientation test revised (LOT-R) by Scheier, Carver, and Bridges (1994) Oxford happiness questionnaire (OHQ) developed by Hills and Argyle (2002), and Self esteem scale constructed by Rosenberg (1965) were used to measure optimism, happiness, and self esteem respectively. For statistical analysis Mean, t- Test, and Pearson Correlation were applied by using SPSS 20.0 version. The results revealed that male and 20-24 years old students have high level of optimism, happiness, and self esteem than female and 25-28 years old students. Significant difference was found between the mean scores of male and female students in respect to their optimism, happiness, and self esteem, whereas insignificant difference was found between the mean scores of 20-24 years old and 25-28 years old students in respect to their optimism, happiness, and self esteem. Further results also revealed that there is positively significant correlation between optimism, happiness, and self esteem. Concurrently, gender is negatively significant correlated with optimism, happiness, and self esteem, whereas age was found negatively insignificant correlated with optimism, happiness, and self esteem respectively. On the basis of the findings of the present study we may conclude thatgenderhas aninfluentialimpactonoptimism,happiness,andselfesteem,whereas agedoes not.
The present study intended to examine the level of optimism, happiness, and self esteem among University students.
Further, the study strived to find the correlation between the variables. This study consisted sample of 60 University
students with equal number of male and female participants, selected through purposive sampling technique. The
life orientation test revised (LOT-R) by Scheier, Carver, and Bridges (1994) Oxford happiness questionnaire (OHQ)
developed by Hills and Argyle (2002), and Self esteem scale constructed by Rosenberg (1965) were used to measure
optimism, happiness, and self esteem respectively. For statistical analysis Mean, t- Test, and Pearson Correlation
were applied by using SPSS 20.0 version. The results revealed that male and 20-24 years old students have high
level of optimism, happiness, and self esteem than female and 25-28 years old students. Significant difference was
found between the mean scores of male and female students in respect to their optimism, happiness, and self esteem,
whereas insignificant difference was found between the mean scores of 20-24 years old and 25-28 years old students
in respect to their optimism, happiness, and self esteem. Further results also revealed that there is positively
significant correlation between optimism, happiness, and self esteem. Concurrently, gender is negatively significant
correlated with optimism, happiness, and self esteem, whereas age was found negatively insignificant correlated with
optimism, happiness, and self esteem respectively. On the basis of the findings of the present study we may conclude
that gender has an influential impact on optimism, happiness, and self esteem, whereas age does not.
Keywords: optimism, happiness, self esteem, gender, and age
The term optimism was introduced by Scheier and Carver (1985) Self esteem is the individual's personal opinion about him or
according to them optimism is the global generalized tendency to herself and appreciation of his/her worth. It is a favorable or
believe that one will generally experience good versus bad outcomes unfavorable attitude toward the self. It essentially means how much
in life. Optimistic people expect that good things will happen and a person values his or herself and how important he/she thinks is in
pessimists expect bad things will happen to them. Thus, a person this world. It is how a person sees him/ herself and how he /she feel
presumes that when a goal is important he or she will act to reach the about his/ her accomplishments (Rosenberg, 1965). Self esteem is
desired goal, hoping for the positive outcomes (Scheier & Carver, one's general feelings of self worth (Bong & Clark, 1999). Self
1985-1993). esteem is a principal component of mental health; it has pervasive
and powerful impact on human cognition, emotion, motivation, and
Happiness is commonly defined as a state of wellbeing, associated
behavior (Campbell & Lavallee, 1993). People with high level of
with experiencing pleasures and feeling good. It is an elusive,
self esteem are likely to seek and receive more social support,
affective or enthusiastic state, characterized by feelings of
experience low levels of stress and employ more adaptive coping
enjoyment and satisfaction. Argyle et al. (1989) reported that happy
strategies, which in turn promote good health (Orth, Robins, &
people are those who have average level of satisfaction over a
Widaman, 2012).
specific period. Happy people perceive the world as safer and feel
more confident, they are cooperative, tolerant and make sound Optimism, happiness, and self esteem are important aspects of
decisions. Happiness, as described by Martin Seligman is having psychological wellbeing; they have unavoidable and intense effect
three constituent parts viz pleasure, engagement, and meaning. on student's academic performance, emotion, interest, motivation,
Pleasure includes the "feel-good" part of happiness. Living a good and behavior.
life of family, work, friends, and hobbies refers to engagement. Empirical evidence shows that optimism, pessimism, self esteem,
Meaning refers to the use of an individual's strengths and potentials and happiness have significant effects on physical and mental well
to contribute to a large purpose. Myers (1992) exhibits that happiness being (Carver, Scheier, & Segerstrom, 2010; Scheier, Carver, &
promotes success in different areas of human functioning. Happy Bridges, 2001). Optimism is associated to higher academic
people are efficient, active, and productive in their work, they earn performance (Aspinwall & Taylor, 1992); better professional
better income (Argyle, 2001). They are more positive and optimistic performance (Long, 1993); has positively correlated with
toward others (Seligman, 2002). Also they enjoy better physical, psychological well being, individuals' success, academic
emotional, as well as mental health, and cope effectively with daily achievement, and extraversion (Shaheen, 2015; Shepperd, Maroto,
stressors than their counterparts (Vaillant, 2000). & Pbert, 1996; Norem & Chang, 2002). Optimists displayed better
task performance in various domains than pessimists (Robbins,
Spence, & Clark, (1991). Within this context, optimism is seen as a
behavioral strategy that allows people to be happier, more successful
and healthier in their lives (Lopez & Snyder, 2003). Significant
relationship was also found between optimism and happiness.
Optimism, happiness, and self-esteem among university students
Correspondence should be sent to Aehsan Ahmad Dar
Lecturer Government Degree College Sumbal Sonawari
Bandipora Jammu and Kashmir
E-mail: aehsanbla@gmail.com
Indian Journal of Positive Psychology
2017, 8(3),
http://www.iahrw.com/index.php/home/journal_detail/19#list
275-279
© 2017 Indian Association of Health, Research and Welfare
ISSN-p-2229-4937e-2321-368X
Mohammad Amin Wani
Department of Psychology
Annamalai University
Tamil Nadu
Aehsan Ahmad Dar
Lecturer Government Degree College
Sumbal Sonawari Bandipora
Jammu and Kashmir
Further, results indicated that positivism predicts happiness Exclusion Criteria
significantly (Hills & Argyle, 2001) simultaneously happiness is Students from Science and engineering course were excluded.
strongly associated with optimism (Gorsy & Panwar, 2016). On the Family pattern of participants was excluded.
other hand, self esteem has positively correlated with happiness, and Socioeconomic status of participants was excluded.
optimism (Baumeister, Jennifer, Joachim, & Kathleen, 2003; Religion of the participants was also excluded.
Bastianello, Pacico, & Hutz, 2014). Low self esteem is related with
serious behavioral problems like maladjustment, suicidal tendencies Instruments
and also leads to various psychological problems like stress, anxiety, The Oxford Happiness Questionnaire: The oxford happiness
loneliness, depression etc. (Bhattacharjee & Deb, 2007; Manani & questionnaire (OHQ) developed by Hills and Argyle (2002) scale
Sharma, 2013; Leary, 2004). Moksnes and Espnes (2012) consists of 29 items , Each item has five response alternatives
highlighted that levels of self esteem increased with age, results also namely not at all true, slightly true, true, very true, and extremely
revealed that males report higher self esteem than females across all true.
age groups. Saleem and Rafique (2012) also found gender Self Esteem Scale: Self esteem scale constructed by Rosenberg
differences in self esteem and procrastination. Males have (1965) the scale is a ten item Likert scale with items answered on a
significantly higher level of self esteem than females (Nupur & four point scale, from strongly agrees to strongly disagree.
Mahapatro, 2016; Parmar, 2014; Wani et al., 2016). On the basis of Reliability of the test was found through test-retest (.82 to .88) and
above literature, the researcher selected the problem to investigate Cronbach's alpha (.77 to .88) respectively. The scale ranges from 0-
the level of optimism, happiness, and self esteem among university 30, with 30 indicating the highest score possible. Scores between 15
students with following, objectives and hypotheses. to 25 indicates normal level of self esteem and scores below 15
Objectives of the study indicates low self esteem.
The Life Orientation Test Revised (LOT-R): The Life Orientation
To find the level of optimism, happiness, and self esteem among
Test Revised (LOT-R) developed by Scheier and Carver (1985)
male and female university students
revised by Scheier, Carver, and Bridges (1994). It consists of 10
To find the level of optimism, happiness, and self esteem among statements (3 positively, 3 negatively and 4 filter items). Only 6
20-24 years and 25-28 years old university students. items are scored, other four filler items are not used for scoring
To find out the correlation between variables. purpose. These six items are scored as 0 = Strongly Disagree, 1=
Hypotheses of the study Disagree, 2 = Neutral, 3 = Agree, and 4=Strongly Agree. Cronbach's
alpha (0.78) and test retest (0.68 to 0.79) method was used to
H1: There would be significant difference found between optimism, measure the reliability of the test.
happiness, and self esteem among male and female university
students. Procedure
H2: There would be significant difference found between optimism, The study was conducted in Annamalai University Annamalainagar
happiness, and self esteem among 20-24 years and 25-28 years old Tamil Nadu on a sample of 60 students, selected through purposive
university students. sampling technique. Prior to administrating the questionnaires
H3: Significant correlation would be found between optimism, among students, proper rapport was established and they were
happiness, and self esteem. informed about the purpose of meeting. During the administration
H4: Gender would be significantly correlated with optimism, process researcher helped those students who had difficulty in
happiness, and self esteem. understanding the statements, after 20-30 minute the participants
H5:Age would be significantly correlated with optimism, happiness, handed over the questionnaires to the researcher and were thanked
and self esteem. for their cooperation. Therefore, the data was collected, after that
obtained data was arranged in tabular form, then systematically
Variables analyzed by applying Mean, t- test, and Pearson Correlation by
In the present study experimental variables are, gender and age, using SPSS 20.0 version.
criterion variables are optimism, happiness, and self esteem. Results
Method The main findings of the present study are shown in tables given
underneath.
Participants
The present study was conducted on a sample of 60 university
students equally divided into two groups on the basis of gender
(males & females). Further these two groups were equally
subdivided into two more groups on the basis of age (20-24 years &
25-28 years), selected through purposive sampling technique.
Inclusion Criteria
Only university students were taken in the study.
Participants between the age group of 20-28 years old.
Both Male and Female students were included. Graph 1: Showing gender wise mean scores of optimism,
happiness and self esteem
Students from social sciences were included.
DAR AND WANI/ OPTIMISM, HAPPINESS, AND SELF-ESTEEM AMONG UNIVERSITY276
Variable Gender No Mean S.D S.E.M df t-value
Optimism Male 30 18.66 3.11 .56 58 7.24**
Female 30 13.33 2.56 .46
Happiness Male 30 94.66 16.24 2.96 58 3.94**
Female 30 76.66 19.02 3.47
Self Esteem Male 30 22.00 3.65 .66 58 6.54**
Female 30 15.66 3.83 .70
** Significant at the 0.01 level
Table 1: Gender wise mean, S.D, SEM, and t- value of optimism, happiness, and self-
esteem scores of university students
Variable Age No Mean S.D S.E.M df t-value
Optimism 20-24 30 16.66 3.99 .72 58 1.33 NS
25-28 30 15.33 3.75 .68
Happiness 20-24 30 87.46 18.67 3.40 58 .703 NS
25-28 30 83.86 20.92 3.82
Self Esteem 20-24 30 18.93 4.93 .90 58 .157 NS
25-28 30 18.73 4.94 .90
** Significant at the 0.01 level
Table 2: Age wise mean, S.D, SEM, and t- value of optimism, happiness, and self-esteem
scores of university students
Graph 2: Showing age wise mean scores of optimism,
happiness and self esteem
Gender Optimism Happiness Self Esteem
Gender 1 -.689** -.460** -.652**
Optimism -.689** 1 .532** .566**
Happiness -.460** .532** 1 .436**
Self Esteem -.652** .566** .436** 1
** Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed)
Table 3: Correlation between gender, optimism, happiness, and self-esteem
Age Optimism Happiness Self esteem
Age 1 -.172 -.092 -.021
Optimism -.172 1 .532** .566**
Happiness -.092 .532** 1 .436**
Self Esteem -.021 .566** .436** 1
** Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed)
Table 4: Correlation between age, optimism, happiness, and self-esteem
Indian Journal of Positive Psychology 2017, 8(3), 275-279 277
students in respect to their optimism, happiness, and self esteem.
Discussion Results also affirmed that there is positive significant correlation
This study clearly demonstrated that male and 20-24 years old between optimism, happiness, and self esteem. Further, gender
students have high level of optimism, happiness, and self esteem than shows negative significant correlation with optimism, happiness,
female and 25-28 years old students. The obtained mean scores of and self esteem. Whereas age was found negatively insignificant
male students in optimism, happiness, and self esteem are more than correlated with optimism, happiness, and self esteem respectively.
female students. The mean, S.D, and SEM of male students was
found [(optimism, M = 18.66, S.D = 3.11, SEM = .56), (happiness, References
M= 94.66, S.D = 16.24, SEM = 2.96) and (self esteem, M = 22.00,
S.D = 3.65, SEM = .66)]. Respectively the mean, S.D, and SEM of
female students was found [(optimism, M = 13.33, S.D = 2.56, SEM
= .46), (happiness, M= 76.66, S.D = 19.02, SEM = 3.47) and (self
esteem, M = 15.66, S.D = 3.83, SEM = .70)]. The obtained t-value's
of optimism, happiness, and self esteem of the same group was found
(4.24), (3.94) and (6.54) respectively with df 58, all these values are
more than tabulation value at 0.01 level of significance, hence first
hypothesis is accepted. Therefore, it can be said that there is
significant difference between optimism, happiness, and self esteem
among male and female university students. Studies by Wani et al.
(2016); Nupur and Mahapatr (2016); Parmar (2014); Nupur and
Agarwal (2013); Saleem and Rafique (2012); Bcahman et al. (2012)
and Moksnes and Espnes (2012); and Sherina et al. (2008) also found
same results.
Results confirmed that there is insignificant difference found
between optimism, happiness, and self esteem among 20-24 years
and 25-28 years old university students, as obtained t-value's of all
three variables [(optimism = 1.33), (happiness = .703) and (self
esteem =.157)] are found insignificant at 0.05 level in t-table.
Therefore, second hypothesis is rejected. The mean, S.D, and SEM
of optimism, happiness, and self esteem scores of 20-24 years old
students was found [(optimism, M = 16.66, S.D = 3.99, SEM = .72),
(happiness, M= 87.46, S.D = 18.67, SEM = 3.40) and (self esteem, M
= 18.93, S.D = 4.93, SEM = .90)]. The mean, S.D, and SEM of 25-28
years old university students was found [(optimism, M = 15.33, S.D
= 3.75, SEM = .68), (happiness, M= 83.86, S.D = 20.92, SEM = 3.82)
and (self esteem, M = 18.73, S.D = 4.94, SEM = .90)] respectively.
Further findings divulge that there is positive significant
correlation between optimism, happiness, and self esteem as the
obtained values .532, .566, and .436 were found significant at 0.01
level. Simultaneously, gender was also significantly negative
correlated with optimism, happiness, and self esteem, the obtained
values of these three variables -.689,-.460, and -.625 were also found
significant at 0.01 level. Therefore, third and fourth hypotheses are
accepted. These findings are consistent with the results proposed by
Baumeister, Jennifer, Joachim, and Kathleen (2003) Bastianello,
Pacico, and Hutz (2014); Hills and Argyle (2001); and Gorsy and
Panwar (2016). Whereas age was found insignificantly correlated
with optimism, happiness, and self esteem as the obtained values (-
.172, -.092, & -.021) were found less than tabulation value at 0.05
level respectively. Moreover, the fifth hypothesis is rejected. Hence,
it can be stated that age is negatively insignificantly correlated with
optimism, happiness, and self esteem.
Conclusion
On the basis of the findings of the present study, it can be concluded
that there is significant difference between the mean scores of male
and female students in respect to their optimism, happiness, and self
esteem respectively. Whereas insignificant difference was found
between the mean scores of 20-24 years old and 25-28 years old
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... For example, the secure attachment was found to be positively related to perceived satisfaction in the relationships (Sümer, 2006), marital adjustment (Senchak & Leonard, 1992), relational self-esteem (Hamarta, 2004), hope and trust (Simmons, Gooty, Nelson, & Little, 2009), and protective health behavior (Huntsinger & Luecken, 2004). On the other hand, the anxious attachment and avoiding attachment were positively related to relationship satisfaction (Sarı & Owen, 2016), sexual satisfaction (Butzer & Campbell, 2008), agreement and relationship dimensions of the marital adjustment (Karabacak Çelik & Çitfci, 2020), marital satisfaction (Sarı, 2012), selfesteem (Huntsinger & Luecken, 2004;Famously, 2015); and positively related to depression (Karlıoğlu and Parlar, 2020), predisposition to depressive symptoms (Scott & Cordova, 2002) and negative conflict resolution skills and cheating tendency The literature showed that self-esteem was positively related to dyadic adjustment (Turanlı, 2010), relationship satisfaction (Kırıt Gülaydın & Semerci, 2018), emotional intelligence (Bibi, Saqlain, & Mussawar, 2016), academic performance (Arshad, Zaidi, & Mahmood, 2015;Saadat, Ghasemzadeh, & Soleimani, 2012), optimism and happiness (Dar & Wani, 2017), life satisfaction (Arslan, Hamarta, & Uslu, 2010) and secure attachment (Terzi & Çankaya, 2009); while negatively associated with stress and depression (Ha, 2010), anxiety (Mustafa, Melonashi, Shkembi, Besimi, & Fanaj, 2015), internet addiction (Bahrainian, Alizadeh, Raeisoon, Gorji, & Khazaee, 2014), and loneliness . There are also studies that investigated the relationships between self-esteem and attachment styles. ...
... Alanyazındaki çalışmalarda, örneğin, benlik saygısı ile çift uyumu (Turanlı, 2010), ilişki doyumu (Kırıt Gülaydın ve Semerci, 2018), duygusal zeka (Bibi, Saqlain ve Mussawar, 2016), akademik performans (Arshad, Zaidi ve Mahmood, 2015;Saadat, Ghasemzadeh ve Soleimani, 2012), iyimserlik ve mutluluk (Dar ve Wani, 2017), yaşam doyumu (Arslan, Hamarta ve Uslu, 2010) ve güvenli bağlanma (Terzi ve Çankaya, 2009) arasında pozitif ilişki; stres ve depresyon (Ha, 2010), kaygı (Mustafa, Melonashi, Shkembi, Besimi ve Fanaj, 2015) internet bağımlılığı (Bahrainian, Alızadeh, Raeisoon, Gorji ve Khazaee, 2014) ve yalnızlık ) ile negatif ilişki bulunmuştur. Benlik saygısı ile bağlanma stilleri arasındaki ilişkiyi araştıran çalışmalar da mevcuttur. ...
... Understanding these issues better can inform universities to facilitate the support necessary throughout students' studies to enable them to finish successfully. Furthermore, studies have found differences in the levels of happiness and optimism between male and female students (Srivastava & Agarwal, 2013;Dar & Wani, 2017). Dar and Wani (2017) found such a result for India. ...
... Furthermore, studies have found differences in the levels of happiness and optimism between male and female students (Srivastava & Agarwal, 2013;Dar & Wani, 2017). Dar and Wani (2017) found such a result for India. ...
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... However, Iranian society still preserves its collectivist values and is governed by Islamic principles (Dastmalchian et al., 2001). The study showed that there is a significant relationship between optimism and happiness that was consistent with the findings of (Trudel-Fitzgerald et al., 2019;Wani & Dar, 2017) research. The relationship between these two variables is probably due to the almost similar nature and structure of these two variables. ...
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Right now, more than ever in our lives, we need to remain optimistic. The present study aimed to examine the validity and reliability of The Optimism Scale, developed by Balcı & Yılmaz (2002), among Iranian university students and to adapt to Iranian culture. The scale is a single-factor scale with 24 items. The participants were selected using an appropriate sampling method, and the sample consisted of 600 Iranian university students (360 females and 240 males) from Tehran and Tabriz cities. Participants’ age ranged from 18 to 24 years (M = 21.58, SD = 1.75). The study findings suggested similarities between Iran and Turkey culture (e.g., religion, language, neighborhood relations). The optimism scale revealed a good construct validity in the Goodness of fit index indicators. The Cronbach alpha internal consistency coefficient for the scale was 0.76 and Convergent validity with happiness was 0.38. In future studies, the scale’s factor structure can be investigated in different samples, such as adolescents and adults.
... Being optimistic has a positive impact on people's health, work performance and education (Scheier & Carver, 1993). Current researches showed a positive link between self-esteem and optimism (Scheier et al., 1994;Wani, 2017). Self-esteem is also positively correlated with dimensions like life satisfaction or well-being (Zimmerman, 1999). ...
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Performing as an illusionist requires having adequate internal and personality resources. They determine the success of stage performance and have an impact on how an individual perceives self, and influence to self-esteem. The aim of the article is to determine how ego-resiliency, self-efficacy and optimism influence self-esteem. A group of 50 top world magicians - World Champions of Magic - took part in research. The participants were surveyed using the Self-Esteem Scale (SES), the General Self-Efficacy Scale (GSES), the Ego-Resiliency Scale (ER11) and the Life Orientation Test (LOT-R). Results showed positive, statistically significant correlations between self-esteem and: self-efficacy, ego-resiliency dimensions and positive life orientation. Moreover, stepwise regression analysis allowed determining predictors of self-esteem, where the strongest one was optimism.
... Many studies administered other scales assessing optimism and pessimism, showing similar associations with self-esteem (see Bastianello, Pacico & Hutz, 2014;Dar & Wani, 2017;Duy & Yildiz, 2019;Tan & Tan, 2014) and hopelessness (O'Connor & Cassidy, 2007). Using the Life-Orientation Test (LOT), Greenberger et al. (2003) found optimism positively correlated with self-esteem. ...
... With regard to gender differences in self-esteem, studies have noted that there are significant differences between boys and girls, reporting that especially teenage girls have lower self-esteem [26]. Various researches connect self-esteem in adolescence with different aspects as physical appearance, academic achievement, family and peer relationships, athletic skills and socio-cultural influences [27]. Indicating self-esteem as a predictor of mental disorders as suggested by studies [2,10,28] both male and female with lower self-esteem are vulnerable regarding future mental health problems. ...
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The focus of the present study is to identify the effects that self-esteem has on stressful experiences and how the adolescent copes with stress levels. Methods: A sample of 200 teenagers (N=132) female and (N=68) male, aged between 13 and 18 years. Rosenberg rating scale and Self-Evaluation Rate of Self-Assessment to adolescents were used for the development of research. Results: About 26.5% of adolescents experience high levels of stress, 28.5% moderate stress, and the majority of 45% with low stress levels. Differences were found between women and men (t=2.256, p ≤ 0.05) in terms of stress levels, where men had higher stress levels (M=259.26, SD=17.583) compared to women (M=198.07, SD=187.156). Conclusion: The presences of stressful experiences during adolescence are seen as a strong point in how teenagers will cope with stressful events along their lifetime. An adolescent with a high self-esteem will be able to better manage internal personal resources in the way he copes with stressful experiences.
... Samopoštovanje pozitivno korelira sa: ekstraverzijom, saradljivošću, savjesnošću i otvorenošću za (nova) iskustva (Amirazodi i Amirazodi, 2011), kao i sa zadovoljstvom životom (Thompson, 2017), optimizmom i osjećanjem sreće (Dar i Wani, 2017), te uspjehom na poslu (Akgunduz, 2015) i akademskim uspjehom (Aryana, 2010). S druge strane, negativno korelira sa osjećajem bespomoćnosti (Mutlu, Balbag i Cemrek, 2010), neuroticizmom (Amirazodi i Amirazodi, 2011), anksioznošću i depresivnošću (Manna, Falgares, Ingoglia, Como i De Santis, 2016) i usamljenošću (Thompson, 2017). ...
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Sažetak: Primarni cilj ovog rada je prikaz jedne reformulacije konstrukta samopoštovanja, definisanog kao evaluativna komponenta samopoimanja. Riječ je o ličnom, opštem samopoštovanju, koje nije samo rezultat ''apsolutne'' procjene vlastite vrijednosti i kompetentnosti, već i procesa kontinuiranog upoređivanja sebe sa drugim ljudima (što je nazvano ''relativnim'' ili ''komparativnim'' samopoštovanjem). Ideja za ovakav vid rekonceptualizacije jednog dobro ustanovljenog i široko istraživanog konstrukta proistekla je iz nekih zapažanja u vezi sa možda najčešće korištenom njegovom operacionalizacijom-Rosenbergovom skalom (globalnog) samopoštovanja (RSES). U skladu sa dvokomponentnim shvatanjem samopoštovanja, autor takođe predlaže nešto drugačiju operacionalizaciju ovog konstrukta, u vidu Skale apsolutnog i relativnog samopoštovanja od 16 ajtema (SARS-16). Takođe, raspravljene su potencijalne prednosti i nedostaci ovog instrumenta, uz preporuke za provjeru njegove valjanosti i mogućnosti primjene SARS-16 u psihološkim istraživanjima.
... With regard to gender differences in self-esteem, studies have noted that there are significant differences between boys and girls, reporting that especially teenage girls have lower self-esteem [26]. Various researches connect self-esteem in adolescence with different aspects as physical appearance, academic achievement, family and peer relationships, athletic skills and socio-cultural influences [27]. Indicating self-esteem as a predictor of mental disorders as suggested by studies [2,10,28] both male and female with lower self-esteem are vulnerable regarding future mental health problems. ...
Article
Full-text available
The focus of the present study is to identify the effects that self-esteem has on stressful experiences and how the adolescent copes with stress levels. Methods: A sample of 200 teenagers (N=132) female and (N=68) male, aged between 13 and 18 years. Rosenberg rating scale and Self-Evaluation Rate of Self-Assessment to adolescents were used for the development of research. Results: About 26.5% of adolescents experience high levels of stress, 28.5% moderate stress, and the majority of 45% with low stress levels. Differences were found between women and men (t=2.256, p ≤ 0.05) in terms of stress levels, where men had higher stress levels (M=259.26, SD=17.583) compared to women (M=198.07, SD=187.156). Conclusion: The presences of stressful experiences during adolescence are seen as a strong point in how teenagers will cope with stressful events along their lifetime. An adolescent with a high self-esteem will be able to better manage internal personal resources in the way he copes with stressful experiences.
... Studies on self-esteem among students show contradictory results. There are studies which found that male students' selfesteem is higher than females (Dar and Wani 2017;Ahsan ul Haq 2016;Arshad et al. 2015;Serınkan et al. 2014) while Gürhan et al. (2017) found in their studies that girl students have higher self-esteem scores than the boys. On the other hand, other studies found no differences in self-esteem between males and females (Ümmet 2015;Saadat et al. 2012). ...
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The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between anxiety, self-esteem, and depression among students of economic sciences and nursing science. The participants were students from a Cypriot University following different study programs: nursing and business administration and finances. Data were collected using three selfreport questionnaires: the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, the Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale, and the Beck Depression Inventory II. The results indicate that State and Trait were significantly correlated to each other among all students. State and Trait were significantly correlated with Depression in both student groups. Self-esteem scale was significantly correlated with Depression and Trait only in the business administration and finances students group. It is also showed a significant and positive association of State with increased year of studies among all students. Self-esteem score increased as year of studies increased among the students in business administration and finances. It is concluded that there is a need to provide proper mental health services and implement mental health promotion interventions for university students.
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