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Hericium erinaceus (H. erinaceus) is one of the widely used edible mushrooms around the world, primarily in Asian countries. H. erinaceus is used in traditional medicines, and mushroom based foods. The fruiting body and mycelia of H. erinaceus are extracted using the solvents, and several bioactive compounds were identified. Several studies have reported that those bioactive compounds exhibit many health benefits such as hemagglutinating, antimicrobial, immunomodulatory, antitumor, antioxidant, and anti-aging activities, etc. This manuscript consciously updated the information about the composition of H. erinaceus, H. erinaceus based foods, and anti-hyperglycemic property of H. erinaceus.
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Mini review
Anti-hyperglycemic property of Hericium erinaceus A mini review
Chaiyavat Chaiyasut, Bhagavathi Sundaram Sivamaruthi
Innovation Center for Holistic Health, Nutraceuticals, and Cosmeceuticals, Faculty of Pharmacy, Chiang Mai University,
Article history:
Received 6 Sep 2017
Received in revised form 10 Sep 2017
Available online 6 Oct 2017
Fermented Hericium erinaceus
Hericium erinaceus
Hericium erinaceus (H. erinaceus) is one of the widely used edible mushrooms around
the world, primarily in Asian countries. H. erinaceus is used in traditional medicines, and
mushroom based foods. The fruiting body and mycelia of H. erinaceus are extracted
using the solvents, and several bioactive compounds were identied. Several studies have
reported that those bioactive compounds exhibit many health benets such as hemag-
glutinating, antimicrobial, immunomodulatory, antitumor, antioxidant, and anti-aging
activities, etc. This manuscript consciously updated the information about the composi-
tion of H. erinaceus,H. erinaceus based foods, and anti-hyperglycemic property of
H. erinaceus.
1. Introduction
Edible mushrooms are one of the acceptable functional foods
for human and are being used for several hundred years.
Mushrooms are known for its texture, avor, and health-
promoting property
. Especially, mushrooms are a rich
source of all essential amino acids that are required by the
human beings. They are considered as a healthy food because
of its enriched protein and dietary ber content with low
calories and fat
. Thus far, more than two thousand
mushrooms species have been reported
. Edible
mushrooms have been screened and studied for several
medicinal properties like anticancer, and antimicrobial
activities. Moreover, mushrooms were used as alternative food
based medicines
Hericium erinaceus (H. erinaceus) is one of the well-studied
edible and medicinal mushrooms that belongs to family Her-
iciaceae, order Russulales, and class Agaricomycetes.
H. erinaceus has a prominent place in Chinese traditional
medicine, and information about H. erinaceus is available in
European and South American literature
. The fruiting
body and mycelia of H. erinaceus have been reported for
its several pharmacological actions, such as hemagglutinating,
antimicrobial, immunomodulatory, antitumor, antioxidant, and
anti-aging activities
This manuscript summarizes the nutritional composition of
H. erinaceus and recent developments on H. erinaceus based
functional foods and scientic reports about the hypoglycemic
property of H. erinaceus.
2. Composition of H. erinaceus
The chemical composition and bioactive compounds of fruit
bodies and mycelia of H. erinaceus have been reported by
several researchers. H. erinaceus contains structurally diverse
compounds, and about seventy different secondary metabolites
were estimated. Hericerins [aromatic compounds such as her-
icerin A, isohericenone J, isoericerin, hericerin, N-dephenylethyl
isohericerin, hericenone J, 4-(3
formyl-3-hydroxy-5-methoxybenzylalcohol, erinacene D, resor-
cinols, erinacerins, and hericenols], erinacines (erinacine A, and
diterpenoids), erinacerins-isoindolin-1-ones (erinacerins C-L),
erinaceolactones, glycoprotein (H. erinaceus polysaccharide-
protein-5), polysaccharides (
-D-glucans), sterols (ergosterol,
*Corresponding author: Bhagavathi Sundaram Sivamaruthi, Innovation Center
for Holistic Health, Nutraceuticals, and Cosmeceuticals, Faculty of Pharmacy, Chiang
Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200, Thailand.
Tel: +66 53944341
Fax: +66 53894163
E-mail: (B.S. Sivamaruthi).
Peer review under responsibility of Hainan Medical University. The journal
implements double-blind peer review practiced by specially invited international
editorial board members.
Contents lists available at ScienceDirect
Asian Pacic Journal of Tropical Biomedicine
journal homepage:
Asian Pac J Trop Biomed 2017; 7(11): 103610401036
2221-1691/Copyright © 2017 Hainan Medical University. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://
creativecom censes/by-nc -nd/4.0/).
and erinarols G-J), vitamin B12 lactone (c-lactone), and volatile
compounds (2-methyl-3-furanthiol, 2-ethylpyrazine, and 2,6-
diethylpyrazine) have been reported to be present in the
H. erinaceus. The health promoting ability of H. erinaceus is
attributed to these chemical substances (Table 1).
3. H. erinaceus based functional foods
It is known that the dried powder of H. erinaceus fruiting
body conned with protein (20%), carbohydrate (61%), fat
(5%), ash (7%), amino acids (14.3 mg/g dry weight), and water
(6%) content, whereas mycelia consists of protein (42%), car-
bohydrate (42%), fat (6%), ash (4%), amino acids (30.6 mg/g
dry weight), and water (4%) content. The fungal body also
contains unsaturated fatty acids, saturated fatty acids, and other
elements. Some potential bioactive compounds such as
nobutyric acid (GABA), ergothioneine, and lovastatin were also
found to be reported in H. erinaceus
. Thus, mushroom
H. erinaceus has been used to develop several functional
foods and used to improve quality of the foods. The
mushrooms are consumed as the main dish in dining or as a
supporting food. Currently, mushroom based fermented non-
alcoholic beverages are trending in the Asian countries.
The probiotic bacteria mediated fermented mushroom bev-
erages are effective functional foods. We have reported the
production of
-glutamic acid (GA), and GABA rich fermented
H. erinaceus juice using Lactobacillus brevis HP2 and
Lactobacillus fermentum HP3 strains as a starter culture.
Moreover, the factors (K
, pH, and temperature) inu-
encing the production of GA and GABA was also reported
Woraharn et al.
reported the development of
-glutamic acid rich fermented H. erinaceus beverage
using Enterococcus faecalis (G414/1) mediated fermentation.
Probiotic mediated fermented H. erinaceus beverages are the
best health promoting supplements with added probiotic
benets. Li et al.
described the use of H. erinaceus as a
substrate for the production of vinegar and wine, and the
product was found to be accepted by the human volunteers.
A dry powder of H. erinaceus mycelia has been used in
preparing bread. Addition of 5% of H. erinaceus mycelia
powder acted as additives in the preparation of bread, which also
enhances the nutritional value of the bread. The presence of
GABA and ergothioneine helps to improve the brain and heart
4. Antihyperglycemic activities
Due to the high antioxidant potential and bioactive com-
pounds, H. erinaceus has been used for the management of
metabolic disorders, especially for diabetic treatments.
Wang et al.
demonstrated the anti-hyperglycemic prop-
erty of methanol extract of H. erinaceus in streptozotocin
induced diabetes Wistar rats. The supplementation of 20100
mg of H. erinaceus extract per kg of body weight showed the
reduction in blood glucose, serum triglyceride, and total
cholesterol levels. The protective effect of methanol extract of
H. erinaceus was found to be in a dose-dependent manner.
About 100 mg of extract (per kg of body weight) supplemen-
tation showed a signicant level of improvement in host health.
The hypoglycemic and antihyperlipidemic activities of
aqueous extract of H. erinaceus have been reported using
experimental rat model. The supplementation of H. erinaceus
extract (100200 mg/kg body weight) improved the serum in-
sulin level and reduced the glucose level in streptozotocin
induced diabetic rats. The researcher also reported that the
supplementation of H. erinaceus aqueous extract exhibited
antihyperlipidemic activities, and improved the free radical
scavenging enzymes
Yi et al.
reported that the ethanolic extract of
H. erinaceus exhibited the anti-neuropathic pain activity in
Table 1
Composition and bioactivities of H. erinaceus.
S. No. Compounds Bioactivities Refs
1 Hericerins
Hericerin A, Isohericenone J, Isoericerin, Hericerin, N-dephenylethyl
isohericerin, Hericenone J, 4-(3
hydroxy-5-methoxybenzylalcohol, Erinacene D, Resorcinols, Erinacerins,
and Hericenols.
2 Erinacines
Erinacine A
3 Erinacerins-Isoindolin-1-ones
Erinacerins C-L
4 Erinaceolactones Plant growth
regulatory activity
5 Glycoprotein
H. erinaceus polysaccharide-protein
Hemagglutinating activity,
Inhibit gastric carcinoma.
6 Polysaccharides
Immune modulation
7 Sterols
Erinarols G-J
Anti-inammatory, antiproliferative
8 Vitamin B12 Lactone
9 Volatile Compounds
2-methyl-3-furanthiol, 2-ethylpyrazine, 2,6-diethylpyrazine
Chaiyavat Chaiyasut, Bhagavathi Sundaram Sivamaruthi/Asian Pac J Trop Biomed 2017; 7(11): 10361040 1037
alloxan induced diabetic neuropathic Wistar rat model. About
40 mg of an ethanolic extract of H. erinaceus (per kg of body
weight) supplementation reduced the neuropathic pain,
increased the inhibition of lipid peroxidation and improved the
activities of antioxidant enzymes such as lactate dehydrogenase,
glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, catalase,
ATPase, and glutathione S transferase in the experimental
rats. The report claimed that the enhancement of antioxidant
system of the host by H. erinaceus extract could be responsible
for the amended diabetic neuropathy.
Wu and Xu
reported the in vitro antidiabetic nature of
H. erinaceus and revealed that inhibition of
-glycosidase and
aldose reductase activity was in a dose-dependent way. Xue
et al.
explained the reduction of blood glucose, and
improvement of sugar tolerance level in alloxan-induced dia-
betic mice supplemented with polysaccharides of H. erinaceus.
The fermented H. erinaceus juice supplementation enhanced
the health of streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. The body mass
and serum insulin level were increased, and the fasting plasma
glucose was reduced in the diabetes rats of the supplemented
group. The level of inammatory markers was reduced, which
conrms that the fermented H. erinaceus juice prevents the
diabetes rat from inammatory damages (Unpublished data)
(Table 2).
5. Other health benets
Apart from antihyperglycemic activity, H. erinaceus has
been reported for exhibiting several health benets. For
example, agglutinin of H. erinaceus exhibited antiproliferative
activity against hepatoma, and HIV-1 reverse transcriptase
inhibitory activity
. The polysaccharides of H. erinaceus
could regulate the pro-inammatory cytokines, induce the
macrophage mediated immune response, and induce the den-
dritic cells maturation
.H. erinaceus nullies the gastric
mucosal injury, and gastric ulcer
. The free radical
scavenging, hepatoprotective, neuroprotective, neurode-
generative, hypolipidemic, anti-fatigue, and anti-aging activ-
ities of H. erinaceus polysaccharides have also been reported
.H. erinaceus polysaccharides were found to be active
against Helicobacter pylori
6. Conclusions
The mushroom H. erinaceus is composed of many bioactive
compounds with proven health promoting properties. Several
patents were led for the pharmacological applications and
formulations made using the bioactive compounds of
H. erinaceus, especially polysaccharides
. Still, a gap remains
in transferring the information to the needy people. H. erinaceus
is an affordable natural, healthy food. The improvement of
existing foods and development of new H. erinaceus based
functional foods are necessary to explore the medicinal
property of the mushroom for the betterment of human life,
primarily to treat and manage the diabetic condition. Further,
scientic information is required concerning the inuence of
H. erinaceus supplementation on the hyperglycemic status of
humans, the prescribed dose for the management of the
diabetic condition, and affordable form of supplementation
(like fermented H. erinaceus juice, or H. erinaceus extract,
etc.), which help to advance the alternative medications for
Conict of interest statement
All authors declare that they have no conict of interest.
The authors gratefully acknowledge the Faculty of Pharmacy
and Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand. BSS wish to
acknowledge the CMU Post-Doctoral Fellowship [Ref: No.
6592(11)/01501, dated 24 February 2017], Chiang Mai Uni-
versity, Chiang Mai, Thailand.
Table 2
Reported antihyperglycemic activities of H. erinaceus.
S. No. Experimental model Supplementation Outcome Refs
1 Alloxan-induced
diabetic mice
Polysaccharides of H. erinaceus
(625 mg/kg b.wt)
Reduced blood glucose level.
Enhanced the sugar tolerance
2 Streptozotocin induced
diabetes Wistar rat
Methanol extract of H. erinaceus
(20100 mg/kg b.wt)
Reduced blood glucose, serum
triglyceride and total cholesterol
3 Streptozotocin mediated
diabetes induced Wistar
Aqueous extract of H. erinaceus
(100200 mg/kg b.wt)
Reduced serum glucose level.
Improved serum insulin level.
Improved antioxidant enzyme
Reduced lipid related disorders.
4 Alloxan induced diabetic
neuropathic Wistar rat
Ethanol extracts of H. erinaceus
(40 mg/kg b.wt)
Reduced serum and urine
glucose level.
Improved the enzyme activities
(lactate dehydrogenase, glutathione
peroxidase, glutathione reductase,
catalase, Na
ATPase, and
glutathione S transferase) and
inhibition of lipid peroxidation.
Attenuation of diabetic neuropathy.
5 Streptozotocin induced
diabetes Wistar rat.
Probiotic mediated fermented
H. erinaceus Juice
Reduced blood sugar level, slightly
increased the serum insulin level.
Improved the health status of
experimental rat
Unpublished data
Chaiyavat Chaiyasut, Bhagavathi Sundaram Sivamaruthi/Asian Pac J Trop Biomed 2017; 7(11): 103610401038
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Chaiyavat Chaiyasut, Bhagavathi Sundaram Sivamaruthi/Asian Pac J Trop Biomed 2017; 7(11): 103610401040
... Considering proteins, mushrooms can produce large quantities of protein in short periods [2]. Macrofungi are recognized as one of the important food items for their significant roles in human health, controlling and modulating many functions of the human body, such as reducing inflammation, improving gut microbiota, impacting the immune system positively and consequently maintaining a state of good health necessary to reduce the risk of diseases such as diabetes, hypercholesterolemia and cancer [3][4][5]. ...
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Macrofungi are among the most promising sources of biologically active natural products with nutritional qualities and therapeutic values. In this work, the nutritional value of nine species of wild macrofungi from Ibague-Tolima (Colombia) was evaluated. In addition the antioxidant, antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of an ethanol:water (70:30) extract of wild basidiomata were evaluated. The wild mushrooms’ nutritional potential showed that the genus Pleurotus and Lentinus have the best protein percentages, with 18.4% and 18.5%. The nine extracts evaluated managed to stabilize the two radicals evaluated; however, lower IC50 was found for Phellinus gilvus and Ganoderma australe extracts. The results showed that Trametes coccinea, Pleurotus floridanus and Ganoderma australe extracts were the most effective as antimicrobials, with high inhibition percentages against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Antifungal activity results against Rhizopus oryzae, Penicillium sp. and Aspergillus niger showed that the nine extracts were effective at the concentrations tested. Considering cell viability against isolated leukocytes, seven of the nine extracts showed percentages higher than 50% of cell viability. This research describes the nutritional value of nine wild macrofungi in Colombia and their potential for antimicrobial, cytotoxic and antioxidant activity.
... Recent advances in research of medicinal mushrooms have approved the traditional knowledge about therapeutic properties of mushroom-derived bioactive compounds and extracts, as well as their usage in mycotherapy (Hapuarachchi et al. 2017;Kües and Badalyan 2017;Badalyan and Rapior 2021a). Clinical trials in European and Asian countries indicate that biotech products derived from mushrooms are used in different preventive and therapeutic strategies and other therapies (Wasser 2011(Wasser , 2014(Wasser , 2017Chaiyasut and Sivamaruthi 2017). Additional data from in vitro and in vivo studies using experimental animal models have been reported. ...
Several human diseases, such as diabetes, cancer, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative disorders, increasingly affect the adult population worldwide. Therefore, scientists have tried to discover new natural sources of medicines, especially from mushrooms, to prevent and treat these diseases. Wild mushrooms and mushrooms growing on solid media or in submerged cultures belong to a large number of genera (Agaricus, Auricularia, Ganoderma, Grifola, Hericium, Lentinula, Schizophyllum) and may be used to produce biologically active compounds (lectins, polysaccharides, phenolics, terpenoids, and steroid derivatives) as anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antitumor, antiviral, hepatoprotective, hypocholesterolemic, hypoglycemic, immunomodulatory, and neuroprotective agents. Metabolomics and genomic studies of the unexplored biotechnological potential of mushrooms may also assist in the production of mushroom-derived biotech products. High-quality, long-term, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical studies have been described as necessary to prove the efficacy of mushroom extracts or isolated compounds. The present review discusses the current state of knowledge and the main findings of previous studies on mycotherapeutics and healthy mycofood. This chapter is an update contribution to modern mycopharmacology and biomedicine. Keywords: Biomedicine Clinical trials Mushrooms Mycopharmaceuticals Mycotherapy Nutraceuticals
... Thus, mushrooms had been seen as a great source of non-starchy carbohydrates, dietary fiber, proteins, amino acids, minerals, vitamins, and protein contents (Yao et al., 2019;Zied et al., 2017), very useful as a substitute for meat in vegetarian diets but low in calorific value (Stanley and Odu, 2012). Moreover, mushrooms had been reported to possess immunostimulatory and anticancer activity coupled with other biological properties such as antidiabetic, antioxidant, and antitumour (Nowacka-Jechalke et al., 2018;Adebayo et al., 2018;Chaiyasut and Sivamaruthi, 2017;Meng et al., 2016;Cheung, 2013;Lemieszek and Rzeski, 2012;Deng et al., 2009). ...
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Underutilized palm oil waste (shaft and bunch) and sawdust supplemented with wheat and rice bran were used to cultivate mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus). Substrates were compounded following the designed protocol, bagged, and sterilized. Bags were inoculated with actively growing spawn, incubated at 28 ± 2°C, ramified, and growth parameters were observed and recorded. The highest values were obtained in protein content of (19.14%) in the shaft supplemented with wheat bran, fat contents (1.70%) in the bunch alone, ash content of 10.10% and 9.59% in the fermented bunch, and bunch supplemented with wheat bran respectively. Bunch combined with sawdust gave the highest carbohydrate of 6.19%. Fermented bunch gave the highest value of vitamin A (2.21 UI/100g), E (5.71 UI/100g), and D (5.90 UI/100g). In the current study, it was shown that Pleurotus ostreatus cultivated on the palm waste substrate supplemented with rice bran and wheat bran produced better dietic quality mushrooms.
... 17) Hericium erinaceus (HE) is known as Lion's Mane mushroom or yamabushitake in Japan. HE is a medicinal mushroom that has the potential for treating various conditions, including depression, anxiety, 18) neurodegenerative diseases, 19,20) dementia, cognitive impairment, [21][22][23] diabetes, 24) cancer, 25,26) and spinal cord injury. 27) It has also been shown to promote neurite outgrowth and nerve regrowth and to have a neuroprotective effect. ...
Estrogen deficiency during menopause causes a variety of neurological symptoms, including depression. The edible Lion’s Mane mushroom, Hericium erinaceus (Bull.: Fr.) Pers. (HE), is a medicinal mushroom that has the potential for a neuroprotective effect and ameliorating neurological diseases, such as depression, anxiety, and neurodegenerative diseases. HE contains phytoestrogens, including daidzein and genistein. However, the ameliorating effect of HE on menopausal symptoms is not well understood. Here we investigated the impact of methanol extract of the HE fruiting body on depressive-like behavior in postmenopausal model rats. The activation of estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) causes body weight loss and uterine weight gain. Body weight gain and uterine weight loss by estrogen deficiency in ovariectomized (OVX) rats were reversed with 17β-estradiol (E2) but not with HE. Thus, the phytoestrogens in HE may hardly activate ERα. Estrogen receptor beta (ERβ) is expressed in the brain, and activation of ERβ ameliorates menopausal depressive symptoms. Notably, depressive-like behavior in OVX rats evaluated in forced swim test was reduced by administration of not only E2 but also HE for 92 d. Long-term activation of ERα increases the risk of breast and uterine cancers. HE, therefore, may be effective in treating menopausal depression without the risk of carcinogenesis caused by ERα activation. Fullsize Image
... The hypolipidemic activity of the polysaccharide HEP-C was accompanied by stimulation of the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase/protein kinase B (PI3K/Akt) signalling pathway (Cai et al., 2020). The treatment of alloxaninduced diabetic mice with polysaccharides extracted from H. erinaceus resulted in an anti-hyperglycemic effect through reductions in BGL and improvement in glucose tolerance levels (Chaiyasut and Sivamaruthi, 2017). Many studies report that P38 MAPK is abnormally expressed in the cardiovascular system in STZ-induced diabetic animals (Wang S. et al., 2016). ...
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Diabetes mellitus is a prevalent metabolic and endocrine illness affecting people all over the world and is of serious health and financial concern. Antidiabetic medicine delivered through pharmacotherapy, including synthetic antidiabetic drugs, are known to have several negative effects. Fortunately, several natural polysaccharides have antidiabetic properties, and the use of these polysaccharides as adjuncts to conventional therapy is becoming more common, particularly in underdeveloped nations. Oxidative stress has a critical role in the development of diabetes mellitus (DM). The review of current literature presented here focusses, therefore, on the antioxidant properties of mushroom polysaccharides used in the management of diabetic complications, and discusses whether these antioxidant properties contribute to the deactivation of the oxidative stress-related signalling pathways, and to the amelioration of β-cell dysfunction and insulin resistance. In this study, we conducted a systematic review of the relevant information concerning the antioxidant and antidiabetic effects of mushrooms from electronic databases, such as PubMed, Scopus or Google Scholar, for the period 1994 to 2021. In total, 104 different polysaccharides from mushrooms have been found to have antidiabetic effects. Most of the literature on mushroom polysaccharides has demonstrated the beneficial effects of these polysaccharides on reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS) levels. This review discuss the effects of these polysaccharides on hyperglycemia and other alternative antioxidant therapies for diabetic complications through their applications and limits, in order to gain a better understanding of how they can be used to treat DM. Preclinical and phytochemical investigations have found that most of the active polysaccharides extracted from mushrooms have antioxidant activity, reducing oxidative stress and preventing the development of DM. Further research is necessary to confirm whether mushroom polysaccharides can effectively alleviate hyperglycemia, and the mechanisms by which they do this, and to investigate whether these polysaccharides might be utilized as a complementary therapy for the prevention and management of DM in the future.
Reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced oxidative damage is strongly associated with the pathogenesis of chronic diseases, and natural antioxidant peptides have good abilities of scavenging ROS. The antioxidant activity of peptide Lys-Ser-Pro-Leu-Tyr (KSPLY) derived from Hericium erinaceus remains unclear. In the present study, the antioxidant effect and mechanism of KSPLY on H2O2-induced oxidative damage in HepG2 cells were investigated. The results indicated that KSPLY exhibited the antioxidant capacity in H2O2-induced HepG2 cells by enhancing superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and catalase (CAT) activities. In comparison with the H2O2-treated damage group, the apoptosis rate, ROS level, and malondialdehyde (MDA) content of HepG2 cells treated with KSPLY were significantly decreased. The H. Erinaceus-derived peptide KSPLY pretreatment promoted the expression of detoxification and antioxidant enzymes via the Keap1/Nrf2 signal pathway, thereby inhibiting the generation of ROS and MDA. In conclusion, the H. erinaceus-derived peptide KSPLY effectively protected HepG2 cells against H2O2-induced oxidative damage, and it provided a theoretical basis for the further development of new natural antioxidants.
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his book, as part of the "Natural Products Chemistry of Global Plants" series, describes in detail the health promoting wild edible and medicinal mushrooms specific to the Himilayas region. The focus of the book is to draw on the rich culture, folklore, and environment of the Upper Himilayas, which represents a scientifically significant region. The Himilayas has rich plant resources and a large diversity of plants and mushrooms, which can provide important health benefits as detailed throughout the text. Drawing attention to these mushrooms with detailed scientific descriptions may help in the awareness and in developing sustainable growth of these important resources. Features: Provides an opportunity to describe the wild edible and medicinal mushrooms from this scientifically significant region. Represents a wider variety of mushrooms than previously published in other books. Presents more content related to traditional uses, phytochemistry, pharmacology, distribution, processing, toxicology, conservation and future prospective of individual mushrooms. The plants and mushrooms of the region are valuable resources not only to local populations but to those living outside the region. Scientists are monitoring the rich Himalayan plant resources and the consequences of climate change on this precarious ecosystem.
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Diabetes is the third most customary non-infectious disease occurring worldwide and leads to untimely disability and mortality. This metabolic disorder is characterized by impaired insulin secretions and high blood glucose levels. Among others, type 2 diabetes is the most common. Various chemical and biochemical hypoglycemic drugs are utilized to control and treat hyperglycemia but required further interventions to reduce their toxicity and side effects on the users. Edible mushrooms have been employed from ancient times to heal many diseases as it composed of anti-oxidant, alkaloids, fibers, triterpenoids, and other phytochemicals. The bioactive secondary metabolites of mushrooms can improve insulin resistance and reduce blood glucose levels by activation of insulin receptor substrate-2, protein kinase B, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, and adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase pathway. Moreover, mushrooms can inhibit the function of aldolase reductase and α-glucosidase, the two major enzymes responsible for an increased glucose level. Diabetes has increased the chance of viral infections and mortality rates. This article is focused on analyzing the concern of different types of diabetes and summarizing the significance of mushroom as a curative agent. We also discussed the fungal metabolites which acted as a complimentary successor for curing diabetes as it will discursively decrease the severity and mortality rate of patients suffering from outbreak (COVID-19).
This volume of the book “Therapeutic Mushrooms for Diabetes Mellitus: Current Evidences and Future Scope” focuses on the prevalence, causes, management of diabetes mellitus type II. It gives an insight in to the role of mushrooms such as Ganoderma lucidum, Innotus obliquus, Grifola frondosa, Phellinus species, etc. against diabetes mellitus. It highlights the use of mushrom powder, extracts and their bioactive components for the management of diabetic syndrome, various in vitro, in vivo and clinical studies performed to lower hyperglycemia and other diabetes associated secondary abnormalities as well as provides information regarding the mushrooms based antidiabetic market products.The initial part provides information about diabetes mellitus, its causes, treatments available, natural resources for the management of diabetes mellitus, history of use of mushrooms especially against diabetes. The middle part of the book comprises of chapters highlighting 1) the presence of bioctive contituents of antidiabetic mushrooms, 2) the mechanism of action of these antidiabetic mushroom components and 3) in vitro and gestational diabetes mellitus studies performed using antidiabetic mushrooms. The closing portion of the book lays emphasis on 1) in vivo studies and clinical trials done using antidiabetic mushrooms and the avaialble antidiabetic market products of mushrooms.
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The protective effects of extracellular and intracellular polysaccharides from Hericium erinaceus SG-02 on the CCl4-induced hepatic injury of mice were investigated in this work. By the analysis of GC, the extracellular polysaccharides (EPS) were composed of arabinose, mannose, galactose, and glucose with a ratio of 1:7:14:52, and the composition of intracellular polysaccharides (IPS) was rhamnose, xylose, mannose, galactose, and glucose with a ratio of 3:4:7:14:137. The model of hepatic injury of mice was induced by CCl4 and three tested levels (200, 400, and 800 mg/kg) of EPS and IPS were set as the experimental group. Results showed that the aspartate aminotransferase and glutamic pyruvic transaminase activities in serum were reduced by the supplement of EPS and IPS, while the blood lipid levels including cholesterol, triglyceride, and albumin were improved. In liver tissue, the lipid peroxidation and malondialdehyde were largely decreased, and the superoxide dismutase and catalase activities were significantly increased. The evidence demonstrated that the EPS and IPS of H. erinaceus SG-02 were protective for liver injury. The histopathological observations of mice liver slices indicated that EPS and IPS had obvious effects on liver protection.
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ABSTRACT: Peripheral nerves have the unique capability to regenerate after injury. Insights into regeneration of peripheral nerves after injury may have implications for neurodegenerative diseases of the nervous system. We investigated the ability of polysaccharide from Hericium erinaceus mushroom in the treatment of nerve injury following peroneal nerve crush in Sprague-Dawley rats by daily oral administration. In sensory functional recovery test, the time taken for the rats to withdraw its hind limb from contact with the hot plate was measured. The test revealed acceleration of sensory recovery in the polysaccharide group compared to negative controls. Further, peripheral nerve injury leads to changes at the remotely located DRG containing cell bodies of sensory neurons. Immunofluorescence studies showed that Akt and p38 MAPK were expressed in DRG and strongly upregulated in polysaccharide group after peripheral nerve injury. The intensity of endothelial cells antigen-1 that recognized endothelial cells in the blood vessels of distal segments in crushed nerves was significantly higher in the treated groups than in the negative control group. Our findings suggest that H. erinaceus is capable of accelerating sensory functional recovery after peripheral nerve injury and the effect involves the activation of protein kinase signaling pathways and restoration of blood-nerve barrier.
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DOI 10.1007/s11557-015-1105-4. Online Medicinal mushrooms have become a compelling topic because the bioactive compounds they contain promise a plethora of therapeutic properties. Hericium erinaceus commonly known as “Houtou” or “Shishigashira” in China and “Yamabushitake” in Japan, has commonly been prescribed in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), because its consumption has been shown to be beneficial to human health. The species is found throughout the northern hemisphere in Europe, Asia, and North America. Hericium erinaceus has been firmly established as an important medicinal mushroom and its numerous bioactive compounds have been developed into food supplements and alternative medicines. However, the correspondence of the active components that cause the observed effects is often not clear. The mushroom as well as the fermented mycelia have been reported to produce several classes of bioactive molecules, including polysaccharides, proteins, lectins, phenols, and terpenoids. Most interestingly, two classes of terpenoid compounds, hericenones and erinacines, from fruiting bodies and cultured mycelia, respectively, have been found to stimulate nerve growth factor (NGF) synthesis. In this review we examine the scientific literature to explore and highlight the scientific facts concerning medicinal properties of H. erinaceus. We provide up-to-date information on this mushroom, including its taxonomy and a summary of bioactive compounds that appear related to the therapeutic potential of H. erinaceus. See
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Fermented plant beverages (FPBs) are non-alcoholic and are produced by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) with different edible plant sources. Owing to the lack of a detailed study on fermented Hericium erinaceus with LAB, the current study was employed to exploit and optimize the fermentation condition for the production of L-glutamic acid (GA)- and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-rich fermented H. erinaceus beverage by Lactobacillus brevis HP2 and Lactobacillus fermentum HP3, respectively. Box-Behnken design (BBD) for response surface methodology was employed with cofactor, pH and temperature as independent variables. The results suggested that L. brevis HP2 and L. fermentum HP3 are good starter cultures for H. erinaceus fermentation with enriched GA and GABA production. In this case, GA production was significantly influenced by K2HPO4, pH and temperature whereas GABA production was significantly influenced by pH and temperature. Further thorough and fine optimization is required to fabricate high-quality fermented drinks with low cost.
Hericium erinaceus (Bull.) Pers., also known as Yamabushitake, Houtou and Lion’s Mane, is capable of fortifying the spleen and nourishing the stomach, tranquilizing the mind, and fighting cancer. Over the past decade, it has been demonstrated that H. erinaceus polysaccharides possess various promising bioactivities, including antitumor and immunomodulation, anti-gastric ulcer, neuroprotection and neuroregeneration, anti-oxidation and hepatoprotection, anti-hyperlipidemia, anti-hyperglycemia, anti-fatigue and anti-aging. The purpose of the present review is to provide systematically reorganized information on extraction and purification, structure characteristics, biological activities, and industrial applications of H. erinaceus polysaccharides to support their therapeutic potentials and sanitarian functions.
A sialic acid-binding lectin (Hericium erinaceum lectin, HEL), isolated from fresh fruiting bodies of Hericium erinaceum, was treated with various temperature and pH to investigate its fluorescence spectra and hemagglutinating activity. It was found that the hemagglutinating activity of HEL was relatively steady below 60 degreesC and at pH from 6 to 11, and the change of hemagglutinating activity was relative to the change of hydrophobic areas where tryptophan residues located. In fluorescence quenching study of HEL by acrylamide and KI, it was indicated that nearly all the tryptophan residues of HEL located on the surface of the molecule, and most of them were in hydrophobic areas or negatively charged areas. Chemical modification of HEL proved that there were about twelve tryptophan residues in a HEL molecule and all of them were located on the surface or in the shallow groove of the molecule, and eight of them were essential for hemagglutinating activity; aspartic acid or glutamic acid residues were involved in maintaining the crucial conformation of activity center and made great contribution to the hemagglutinating activity of HEL, but they could not touch the sialic acid molecule directly; tyrosine residues also played a role in the hemagglutinating activity of HEL; while arginine, serine, threonine, histidine residues had no effect on the hemagglutinating activity of HEL.
Submerged cultivation of Hericium erinaceus in various media was studied. The yield of the biomass was shown to depend mainly on the carbon source, whereas the content of water soluble polysaccharides depended mainly on the nitrogen source. The optimal medium composition provided the biomass yield of 21-23 g/l in 7 days. The biomass was characterized by the content of total protein, lipids and carbohydrates. In addition, the amino acid composition of the biomass was determined and shown to meet all the requirements of FAO/WHO concerning the amounts of essential amino acids (with exception of tryptophane). Oleinic and linoleic acids were identified as the main components of the fatty acids. Two water soluble polysaccharide fractions differing in solubility in aqueous ethanol were isolated and shown to contain rhamnose, fucose, xylose, glucose and galactose in different proportions. Vitamins B1, B2, B6, PP and E, ergosterol and coenzyme Q were also detected in the biomass of H. erinaceus.
Fermented plant beverages (FPB) with a high content of desirable principle components are served as functional foods from several years. Hericium erinaceus is famous for its antimicrobial, antioxidant, antihypertensive and antidiabetic nature. Accordingly, the current study was aimed to produce fermented H. erinaceus juice with a high content of L-glutamine (Gln) and L-glutamic acid (GA) through lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from fermented Thai foods. LAB isolates were screened and identified the potent protease-producing bacteria Enterococcus faecalis (G414/1) that facilitate the production of Gln and GA through protein hydrolysis. Box–Behnken design (BBD) and response surface methodology (RSM) were adapted for the optimisation of conditions for the increased production of Gln and GA during fermentation of H. erinaceus. We succeeded with an optimum concentration of cofactor (CaCl2), pH and temperature for improved protease activity and subsequent Gln and GA production. The ability of isolated E. faecalis strain to produce Gln and GA was demonstrated in this study. Further, upstream processes like strain improvement and media optimisation will direct the way to produce enriched H. erinaceus based FPB.
The culinary and medicinal mushroom Hericium erinaceus is widely consumed in Asian countries, but apparently not in the United States, for its nutritional and health benefits. To stimulate broader interest in the reported beneficial properties, this overview surveys and consolidates the widely scattered literature on the chemistry (isolation and structural characterization) of polysaccharides and secondary metabolites such as erinacines, hericerins, hericenones, resorcinols, steroids, mono- and diterpenes, and volatile aroma compounds, nutritional composition, food and industrial uses, and exceptional nutritional and health-promoting aspects of H. erinaceus. The reported health-promoting properties of the mushroom fruit bodies, mycelia, and bioactive pure compounds include antibiotic, anticarcinogenic, antidiabetic, antifatigue, antihypertensive, antihyperlipodemic, antisenescence, cardioprotective, hepatoprotective, nephroprotective, and neuroprotective properties and improvement of anxiety, cognitive function, and depression. The described anti-inflammatory, antioxidative, and immunostimulating properties in cells, animals, and humans seem to be responsible for the multiple health-promoting properties. A wide range of research advances and techniques are described and evaluated. The collated information and suggestion for further research might facilitate and guide further studies to optimize the use of the whole mushrooms and about 70 characterized actual and potential bioactive secondary metabolites to help prevent or treat human chronic, cognitive, and neurological diseases.
In this study we investigated the production of vinegar using a Hericium erinaceus fermentation. After 9 days of alcoholic fermentation, the alcohol contents reached 16% with all concentrations (1.25%, 2.5% and 5.0%) of H. erinaceus powder investigated, whereas the sugar content decreased from 25 degrees Brix to 14 degrees Brix. Also, the broth pH decreased from 4 to 3.7 and the acidity increased from 0% to 0.3%. According to the sensory evaluation, the mushroom wine produced with 5.0% H. erinaceus powder was preferred by the panel, which was then chosen for subsequent acetic acid fermentation. During the acetic acid fermentation, there was little change in pH, even though the acidity increased from 2% to 4.09%. Besides the abundant acetic acid present in the H. erinaceus vinegar, malic acid and succinic acid were also detected after 9-day of fermentation. Moreover, the H. erinaceus vinegar showed antioxidant activity comparable to other vinegar products when assayed by DPPH and ABTS.