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Measuring well-being: A comparison of subjective well-being and PERMA

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Measuring well-being: A comparison of subjective well-being and PERMA

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Abstract

We compared Seligman’s PERMA model of well-being with Diener’s model of subjective well-being (SWB) to determine if the newer PERMA captured a type of well-being unique from the older SWB. Participants were 517 adults who completed self-report measures of SWB, PERMA, and VIA character strengths. Results from four analytic techniques suggest the factor underlying PERMA is capturing the same type of well-being as SWB. Confirmatory factor analysis yielded a latent correlation of r = 0.98 between SWB and PERMA. Exploratory structural equation modeling found two highly related factors (r = 0.85) that did not map onto PERMA and SWB. SWB and PERMA factors showed similar relationships with 24 character strengths (average correlation difference = 0.02). Latent profile analyses yielded subgroups of people who merely scored high, low, or mid-range on well-being indicators. Our findings suggest that while lower-order indicators SWB and PERMA have unique features, they converge onto a single well-being factor.

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... Furthermore, due to the subjective nature of positive experiences, positive psychological research deliberately investigated the factors that make PPIs effective. Currently, there are some helpful frameworks to guide positive psychology practitioners in their practice, such as self-determination theory, self-concordance theory, character strengths, and virtues, etc. (Goodman et al., 2018;Mata, 2020;Ryan et al., 2008;Schutte & Malouff, 2019;Seligman, 2018;Wagner et al., 2019). Moreover, there are empirically significant self-report scales to measure the effectiveness of PPIs, similar to the methodology of clinical psychology (Duckworth et al., 2004). ...
... PERMA stands for positive emotions, engagement, relationships, meaning, and achievement (Seligman, 2018). The study suggests that high levels of PERMA indicate greater wellbeing, resiliency, and flourishing (Goodman et al., 2018;Seligman, 2018). Additionally, five elements of PERMA scores of individuals correlate positively, suggesting that an increase in one component may create a rippling effect in other elements of PERMA (Goodman et al., 2018). ...
... The study suggests that high levels of PERMA indicate greater wellbeing, resiliency, and flourishing (Goodman et al., 2018;Seligman, 2018). Additionally, five elements of PERMA scores of individuals correlate positively, suggesting that an increase in one component may create a rippling effect in other elements of PERMA (Goodman et al., 2018). PERMA can be a prominent framework to conceptualize psychedelics' potential for prevention and flourishing. ...
Article
Public and scientific interest in the effect of psychedelic drugs on wellbeing has risen significantly. Preliminary data show that psychedelic drugs, specifically classic psychedelics (DMT, psilocybin, mescaline, and LSD), may have the potential to treat mood disorders and increase wellbeing through their acute subjective effects. The acute subjective effects and enduring effects of psychedelics on wellbeing seem to relate to positive psychological frameworks (e.g., resilience factors and PERMA) considerably. Moreover, optimizing acute subjective effects indicates the importance of set (individual’s internal (mental) factors) and setting (individual’s external factors) in psychedelics administration as moderating factors. A new subfield in positive psychology, positive humanities, has the potential to inform set and setting studies significantly. This literature review investigates the potential for positive psychology and positive humanities in enhancing psychedelic studies, specifically the research areas of acute subjective effects and set and setting. Due to the seeming alignment between the operation of psychedelic drugs and both positive psychology and the positive humanities, there appear to be opportunities for research and scholarship at the intersection of these fields.
... However, we know remarkably little about suicide attempt survivors in the way of positive functioning. One important outcome that reflects positive functioning among suicide attempt survivors is their psychological well-being (PWB; Tong et al., 2021b), which encompasses positive functioning across emotional, intrapersonal, and interpersonal domains (Goodman et al., 2018). ...
... 89.6 % male; 75.6 % White, non-Hispanic). For C3, 45 of 4069 participants did not answer the item assessing prior suicide 1 PWB is often represented by one factor with lower-level facets (Disabato et al., 2016;Goodman et al., 2018). While there is general consensus that PWB includes hedonic and eudaimonic elements, there is debate about whether these elements represent distinct types of well-being or are better conceptualized as lower-level facets of PWB (Goodman et al., 2018(Goodman et al., , 2020. ...
... For C3, 45 of 4069 participants did not answer the item assessing prior suicide 1 PWB is often represented by one factor with lower-level facets (Disabato et al., 2016;Goodman et al., 2018). While there is general consensus that PWB includes hedonic and eudaimonic elements, there is debate about whether these elements represent distinct types of well-being or are better conceptualized as lower-level facets of PWB (Goodman et al., 2018(Goodman et al., , 2020. attempts and were excluded, resulting in a final sample of 4042 (M age = 62.2; ...
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Background Most people who survive suicide attempts neither re-attempt suicide nor die by suicide. Research on suicide attempt survivors has primarily focused on negative endpoints (e.g., increased suicide risk) rather than positive outcomes. One important outcome is psychological well-being (PWB), defined as positive functioning across emotional, intrapersonal, and interpersonal domains. We compared PWB among US military veterans with (i.e., attempt survivors) and without (i.e., non-attempters) a history of suicide attempt(s) using data from three nationally representative cohorts. Methods Each US veteran cohort (Cohort1: N = 3148; Cohort2: N = 1474; Cohort3: N = 4042) completed measures of suicidality (e.g., attempt history), character strengths (e.g., curiosity, optimism), psychological symptoms (e.g., depression), and indicators of PWB (e.g., happiness). t-Tests were conducted to examine group differences in PWB; hierarchical regressions were conducted to examine suicide attempt status as a predictor of PWB controlling for symptoms and demographics. Multivariable regressions were conducted to identify predictors of PWB among attempt survivors. Results In each cohort, reported PWB was markedly lower among suicide attempt survivors than non-attempters (ds = 0.9–1.2), even after adjusting for mental health symptoms. Individual differences in PWB were observed, with a subset of suicide attempt survivors reporting higher PWB levels than non-attempters (1.4–7.4 %). Curiosity and optimism were positively associated with PWB among suicide attempt survivors (rs = 0.60–0.78). Limitations Data were cross-sectional, limiting inferences about causation and directionality of associations. Conclusions Findings highlight diminished PWB as an important and understudied concern among veteran attempt survivors. Collectively, our findings underscore the importance of considering PWB in the research, assessment, and treatment of suicidality.
... Further, to cope up with the shift of old-school approaches into digital technologies, behavioural changes are trivial. There are theories such as Seligman's PERMA model [118,119] and Diener's tripartite [118,119], which identify the important elements of subjective well-being, suggests that subjective well-being is not the only factor that determines physical health; instead, it is the factor that determines overall health behaviours. With the help of such shreds of evidence, it can be inferred that behaviour is not independent of economic, social, health, and interpersonal relations of a human being. ...
... Further, to cope up with the shift of old-school approaches into digital technologies, behavioural changes are trivial. There are theories such as Seligman's PERMA model [118,119] and Diener's tripartite [118,119], which identify the important elements of subjective well-being, suggests that subjective well-being is not the only factor that determines physical health; instead, it is the factor that determines overall health behaviours. With the help of such shreds of evidence, it can be inferred that behaviour is not independent of economic, social, health, and interpersonal relations of a human being. ...
Article
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A coronavirus outbreak caused by a novel virus known as SARS-CoV-2 originated towards the latter half of 2019. COVID-19's abrupt emergence and unchecked global expansion highlight the inability of the current healthcare services to respond to public health emergencies promptly. This paper reviews the different aspects of human life comprehensively affected by COVID-19. It then discusses various tools and technologies from the leading domains and their integration into people's lives to overcome issues resulting from pandemics. This paper further focuses on providing a detailed review of existing and probable Artificial Intelligence (AI), Internet of Things (IoT), Augmented Reality (AR), Virtual Reality (VR), and Blockchain-based solutions. The COVID-19 pandemic brings several challenges from the viewpoint of the nation's healthcare, security, privacy, and economy. AI offers different predictive services and intelligent strategies for detecting coronavirus signs, promoting drug development, remote healthcare, classifying fake news detection, and security attacks. The incorporation of AI in the COVID-19 outbreak brings robust and reliable solutions to enhance the healthcare systems, increases users' life expectancy, and boosts the nation's economy. Furthermore, AR/VR helps in distance learning, factory automation, and setting up an environment of work from home. Blockchain helps in protecting consumers' privacy and securing the medical supply chain operations. IoT is helpful in remote patient monitoring, distant sanitizing via drones, managing social distancing (using IoT cameras), and many more in combating the pandemic. This study covers an up-to-date analysis on the use of blockchain technology, AI, AR/VR, and IoT for combating the COVID-19 pandemic considering various applications. These technologies provide new emerging initiatives and use cases to deal with the COVID-19 pandemic. Finally, we discuss challenges and potential research paths that will promote further research into future pandemic outbreaks.
... Estes resultados são, embora indiretamente, apoiados pela literatura, onde Keyes e colaboradores (2010) referem uma tendência para uma descida do estado de flourishing nos indivíduos com maior escolaridade. Apesar de flourishing e bem-estar serem conceitos diferentes, eles podem ser comparáveis na medida em que o flourishing é um estado que abrange o alcance e manutenção de várias dimensões necessárias para despoletar uma sensação final de bemestar (Goodman et al., 2018;Seligman, 2012). Esta perspetiva é corroborada pelos estudos de Matos e colaboradores (2010), que verificaram que jovens a frequentar o ensino secundário possuem um menor estado de flourishing do que os do 2º e 3º ciclos. ...
... These results are, albeit indirectly, supported by the literature, where Keyes et al. (2010) report a tendency for a decline in the flourishing status of individuals with higher education levels. Although flourishing and wellbeing are different concepts, they can be comparable in that flourishing is a state that encompasses the reach and maintenance of the various dimensions necessary to trigger a final feeling of wellbeing (Goodman et al., 2018;Seligman, 2012). This perspective is supported by the studies of Matos et al. (2010), who found that young people attending secondary education have a lower state of flourishing than those in the second and third cycles. ...
Article
Introduction: Wellbeing is a multidimensional concept that assumes that the individual must be involved in his or her daily life and find meaning and purpose in his or her occupation by building a personal identity and maintaining socially valued roles. Objective: This is a recent concept and still little studied, so the purpose of this study is to describe the prevalence of wellbeing in young people between 14 and 18 years old in the metropolitan area of Porto. Material and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study of 847 young people from secondary schools in Porto, Vila Nova de Gaia, Matosinhos, and Gondomar. Two wellbeing assessment scales, the Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Wellbeing Scale and the Pemberton Happiness Index, and a self-filled sociodemographic questionnaire were used. Results: Statistically significant differences were found regarding sex (pWEMWS <0.001; pPHI <0.001), knowing someone with mental health problems (pWEMWS <0.001; pPHI <0.001), education level (pWEMWS <0.031), and city of residence (pWEMWS <0.045; pPHI <0.011). Conclusion: Young males not knowing individuals with mental health problems and having a lower level of education were significant predictors of wellbeing.
... Seligman defined that PERMA (Positive Emotion, Engagement, Relationships, Meaning, and Accomplishment) are the elements of well-being (Martin Seligman, 2018), and can be measured through the PERMA profiler (Butler & Kern, 2016). It was further demonstrated that there is strong evidence of the subjective well-being is the final common path of PERMA elements (Goodman, Disabato, Kashdan, & Kauffman, 2018). ...
... Positive experiences embodied in subjective well-being are a central concept of positive psychology because it make life rewarding (Diener et al., 2002). Results from a recent study suggest the factor underlying PERMA is capturing the same type of well-being (Goodman et al., 2018). ...
Chapter
Organizations are increasingly investing in human resource development. The positive psychology approach warns of the importance of strengthening the forces. Leveraging the strengths is a way to achieve better results and even minimize the weaknesses of the leader. It is this assumption that positive psychology adds to the human resource development, which includes the leadership development. This chapter aims to propose a theoretical model about positive leader development supported by the positive psychology approach. This model comes from the literature to the evolution of leadership and organizational theories and the positive psychology. Positive leader development model seeks to enhance leadership development within an organization with a positive psychology approach. The literature shows the advantages of strengthening forces in the organizational context. So, it is necessary to systematize a theoretical model that facilitates the positive leader development in organizations. The proposed model is based on the study by Malinga, Stander, and Nell.
... Both LPA and LCA identify unobserved subgroup profiles using a probabilistic classifying approach based on response patterns among observed variables (Masyn, 2013). Goodman et al. (2018), for instance, used latent profile analysis to study a sample of 517 adults and obtained three subgroups of individuals who scored high, midrange, or low on well-being profiles. ...
... Such a skewed, non-normal distribution is consistent with the findings of previous studies using different well-being/ill-being datasets (e.g. Goodman et al., 2018;Huppert & So, 2013;Tomitaka et al., 2019). Further, correlations between well-being and ill-being measures were all negative and significant (p < .01), ...
... hypothesized that PERMA comprises the key elements of well-being and can build positive qualities of life.Goodman et al. (2018) found that their data were entirely consistent with Seligman's hypothesis.Schueller and Seligman (2010) discovered all components in positive psychology are distinguishable and correlate positively with subjective well-being. Furthermore, the PERMA model proves an acceptable model fit, with internal and cross-time consistency and conver ...
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Given the global call for more non-GDP-based indicators of national well-being, this study proposes a model incorporating economic and psychological (happiness) indicators. Considering the subjective nature of happiness, happiness measurements should incorporate individuals' inner strengths and satisfaction with their external environment. Furthermore, although numerous studies have found that positive psychology approaches can improve happiness, they have yet to be incorporated into any happiness models. Hence, this study proposes an integrated happiness framework that covers objective economic and subjective happiness factors to measure well-being beyond GDP. The study tests the model using survey data from Malaysia as a case study. A total of 1,368 participants were recruited with probability proportional to size. The study discovered that Malaysians’ inner strengths are rated higher than their external conditions. It seems Malaysians do not live in a way that cultivates their virtues. Overall, the study suggests that inner strength is crucial in shaping happiness (150 words).
... Researchers have previously tested the validity of the PERMA construct and showed good convergent validity with existing and reliable measures of well-being (see Iasiello et al., 2017;Kern et al., 2015). Significantly, Goodman et al. (2017) found a correlation of 0.98 between Diener's (1984) subjective well-being model and the PERMA Profiler (Butler & Kern, 2016). ...
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The 2020 COVID pandemic radically altered the way in which individuals live and work. For teachers, this entailed a shift in their teaching practice, with large numbers of schools around Australia and the world closing for prolonged periods of time and moving to an "online" format. This required teachers to quickly adapt their teaching practices adding further stress to an already stressful environment. In this article, we examine the relationships between teachers' stress, teachers' self-efficacy, and teachers' well-being during the COVID pandemic. The study presents the results from a quantitative survey undertaken in June and July 2020 with 534 teachers around Australia. While the study found that, overall, most teachers (77.29%) reported that they were not feeling anxious in their teaching role, teachers' responses indicated that they were experiencing high levels of stress and low levels of positive feelings such as joy, positivity, and contentment in their work during the COVID-19 pandemic negatively impacting their well-being and self-efficacy.
... Finally, three more items are added to the scale that will measure negative emotions (NE), so that they can be contrasted with the rest of the items to check the validity of the answers for the rest of the questionnaire, while at the same time obtaining a measurement, albeit an inverse one, of subjective well-being or hedonia beyond the aforementioned item. Thus, as Goodman et al. [32] state, the PERMA measurement effectively concurs with subjective well-being (SWB). ...
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Happiness at work is a consolidated topic. Perhaps the PR and communication sector, often at the forefront of organizational change, is one of the industries where most progress has been made in this regard. The objective of the present study was to carry out an exploratory analysis on the extent to which PR is a profession that enables the development of happiness in the workplace. To this end, a questionnaire was administered to a sample of PR professionals in Spain (N = 256). The questionnaire consisted of the PERMA-profiler, a model where work relationships, engagement, positive affections/emotions, vital sense/purpose and achievements are measured. The results show a remarkable level of happiness among surveyed professionals, especially among women, who obtained higher scores on all five factors, although with a statistically significant difference only in two of the five factors in PERMA (Engagement and Relationships). Neither age nor the hierarchical level of the respondent had any incidence. Therefore, PR can be a profession that notably enables human flourishing at work, even more so among women.
... Subsequent work showed that PERMA and subjective well-being are indistinguishable (Goodman et al., 2018). Seligman (2018) responded by calling for the need to "transcend psychometrics, " accompanied by an exegesis on the psychometrics of baseball pitching. ...
Article
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Envisioning the future of positive psychology (PP) requires looking at its past. To that end, I first review prior critiques of PP to underscore that certain early problems have persisted over time. I then selectively examine recent research to illustrate progress in certain areas as well as draw attention to recurrent problems. Key among them is promulgation of poorly constructed measures of well-being and reliance on homogeneous, privileged research samples. Another concern is the commercialization of PP, which points to the need for greater oversight and quality control in profit-seeking endeavors. Looking ahead, I advocate for future science tied to contemporary challenges, particularly ever-widening inequality and the pandemic. These constitute intersecting catastrophes that need scientific attention. Such problems bring into focus “neglected negatives” that may be fueling current difficulties, including greed, indifference, and stupidity. Anger, which defies easy characterization as positive or negative, also warrants greater scientific study. Going forward I advocate for greater study of domains that likely nurture good lives and just societies – namely, participation in the arts and encounters with nature, both currently under study. Overall, my entreaty to PP is to reckon with persistent problems from its past, while striving toward a future that is societally relevant and virtuous.
... Some studies indicated that EWB and SWB facets differ in terms of temporal stability (Ryff et al., 2015) and their associations with other variables (Ryff, 1989), whereas other researchers have questioned the validity of distinguishing between SWB and EWB facets due to conceptual (Kashdan et al., 2008) or empirical reasons (Disabato et al., 2016;Goodman et al., 2018). Longitudinal studies contrasting the impact of unemployment on CWB, AWB and EWB facets are currently lacking. ...
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While long-lasting declines in life satisfaction following unemployment have been well documented, evidence on the impact of unemployment on affective and eudaimonic well-being is scarce. Moreover, most existing studies relied on yearly panel data and were unable to separate the immediate effects of entering unemployment from prospective effects occurring before individuals become unemployed. The present study identified the immediate effects of entering unemployment on cognitive, affective and eudaimonic well-being facets using a control-group design based on monthly panel data of initially employed German jobseekers who were at high risk of losing their job. In order to investigate patterns of short-term adaptation, the study further examined whether average well-being levels change within the first months of unemployment using a mixed-effects trait-state-occasion model. All effects were separately computed for jobseekers affected by mass-layoffs or plant closures and individuals who registered as jobseekers due to other reasons. Multi-item instruments and experience sampling were used to validly measure the various well-being facets. The results indicate that life satisfaction and income satisfaction significantly decreased for individuals affected by mass-layoffs or plant closures from the last month in employment to the first month in unemployment. For individuals who registered as jobseekers due to other reasons, these effects were smaller and not significant in the case of life satisfaction. Crucially, there were no immediate effects of entering unemployment on the examined affective and eudaimonic well-being facets. Moreover, well-being levels were generally stable within the first months of unemployment indicating a general absence of short-term adaptation.
... Some studies indicated that EWB and SWB facets differ in terms of temporal stability (Ryff et al., 2015) and their associations with other variables (Ryff, 1989), whereas other researchers have questioned the validity of distinguishing between SWB and EWB facets due to conceptual (Kashdan et al., 2008) or empirical reasons (Disabato et al., 2016;Goodman et al., 2018). Longitudinal studies contrasting the impact of unemployment on CWB, AWB and EWB facets are currently lacking. ...
Article
While long-lasting declines in life satisfaction following unemployment have been well documented, evidence on the impact of unemployment on affective and eudaimonic well-being is scarce. Moreover, most existing studies relied on yearly panel data and were unable to separate the immediate effects of entering unemployment from prospective effects occurring before individuals become unemployed. The present study identified the immediate effects of entering unemployment on cognitive, affective and eudaimonic well-being facets using a control-group design based on monthly panel data of initially employed German jobseekers who were at high risk of losing their job. In order to investigate patterns of short-term adaptation, the study further examined whether average well-being levels change within the first months of unemployment using a mixed-effects trait-state-occasion model. All effects were separately computed for jobseekers affected by mass-layoffs or plant closures and individuals who registered as jobseekers due to other reasons. Multi-item instruments and experience sampling were used to validly measure the various well-being facets. The results indicate that life satisfaction and income satisfaction significantly decreased for individuals affected by mass-layoffs or plant closures from the last month in employment to the first month in unemployment. For individuals who registered as jobseekers due to other reasons, these effects were smaller and not significant in the case of life satisfaction. Crucially, there were no immediate effects of entering unemployment on the examined affective and eudaimonic well-being facets. Moreover, well-being levels were generally stable within the first months of unemployment indicating a general absence of short-term adaptation.
... One of these cognitive interventions that can be used is a positive-oriented intervention which includes elements focusing on: 1) positive emotions; 2) engagement; 3) relationship; 4) meaning; and 5) accomplishment. This is called the PERMA model and it is based on Seligman's PERMA theory of well-being (12)(13)(14)(15). Behavioral approaches can also be used for infertile couples' therapy. ...
Article
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Background: Psychological interventions may reduce fertility problems. Positive emotion, engagement, meaning, positive relationship and accomplishment (PERMA) is a cognitive intervention and integrative-behavioral couple therapy (IBCT) is a behavioral intervention. Appropriate mental interventions are important in infertility treatment. Objective: To investigate the effect of the PERMA model vs. IBCT in reducing the fertility problems of couples. Materials and methods: The content of the interventions was developed and adjusted based on a literature review and the opinions of experts. In this three-arm parallel randomized clinical trial, 42 couples undergoing infertility treatment will be allocated randomly into three groups (n = 14 couples/each). Group 1 will receive the PERMA intervention, group 2 will receive the IBCT intervention, and group 3 as the control group will receive an infertility treatment training program intervention. The primary outcome will be the fertility problems, which will be measured by completing a fertility problem inventory at baseline, as well as in the 5 th and 9 th wk as a follow-up. Another primary outcome, satisfaction with the intervention, will also be assessed in the 5 th and 9 th wk. The secondry outcome will be a positive pregnancy test at wk 12. The interventions will be conducted through a combination of face-to-face and online via WhatsApp. Conclusion: This study will assess social, sexual, and parenthood concerns. A combination of online and face-to-face interventions will be appropriate given the COVID-19 pandemic. Couple's counseling may provide better counseling outcomes for fertility problems in comparison with group counseling. This study will try to optimize resilience during infertility treatment through learning better relationship and problem-solving skills, and may have an indirect impact on pregnancy rate, burden of infertility, and costs of treatment due to increased effectiveness.
... SWB was modeled as a single factor indicated by the SWL and PANAS subscales (Goodman, Disabato, Kashdan, and Kauffman, 2018). We conducted confirmatory factor analyses for the final score of SWB and had acceptable model fit [χ 2 (3) = 426.475, ...
Article
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Polymorphisms in the oxytocin receptor ( OXTR ) gene are related to individual differences in negative emotions, such as depressive symptoms and anxiety. However, it remains unclear what the potential roles of OXTR polymorphisms are in subjective well-being (SWB), which is negatively correlated with depressive symptoms. We examined attributional styles as mediator between SWB and five polymorphisms of the oxytocin receptor gene ( OXTR rs53576, rs2254298, rs1042778, rs2268494, and rs2268490) among 627 full-time college freshmen ( M age = 20.90, SD = 0.82 for male; M age = 20.81, SD = 0.92 for female) using structural equation modeling. The results showed that individuals with the OXTR rs2254298 AA genotype and rs53576 AA/GA genotype reported higher scores on SWB, which suggested that individuals with this genotype experienced more happiness. Moreover, external attributional style partially mediated the association between OXTR rs2254298 polymorphism and SWB ( β = 0.019, 95% CI [0.001, 0.036], p = 0.035). In conclusion, our findings demonstrated that the genetic variations of OXTR played a role in the individual differences of SWB, and external attribution style could mediate the association.
... However, despite its growth and contribution, positive psychology is not without its challenges. Since its formal inception in 2000, many scholars have questioned the unique contribution of the paradigm as well as the validity of the theories, methods, interventions, and philosophy underpinning the discipline (Brown et al., 2014;Goodman et al., 2017;Wong and Roy, 2017;Compton and Hoffman, 2019;Van Zyl, 2019;Yakushko, 2019). This, in turn, has negatively affected positive psychology's scientific credibility and public perception (Van Zyl and Ten Klooster, 2022). ...
Article
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Positive psychology is one of the fastest-growing sub-disciplines of psychology and established itself as a genuinely transdisciplinary science. It has broadened our understanding of the elements of wellbeing and the factors that undermine it. However, despite its growth and contribution, positive psychology is not without its challenges. Since its formal inception in 2000, many scholars have questioned the unique contribution of the paradigm as well as the validity of the theories, methods, interventions, and philosophy underpinning the discipline. However, within these criticisms and critiques lies unique opportunities to channel the future growth and development of the discipline. A clear and consolidated view of positive psychology’s grand challenges is required to help chart a course for future directions. Therefore, this paper explores the grand challenges confronting positive psychology and highlights the opportunities and possibilities that they pose.
... The present study sheds light on the directional influence of POS and PsyCap over time and the benefits of being hopeful, efficacious, resilient, and optimistic for employee flourishing. While the ongoing debate about the conceptualization of flourishing is outside the scope of this study [47,48], our results provided evidence of convergent validity, whereby POS and PsyCap are common predictors of both overall well-being and building blocks of well-being. ...
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People working in urban areas often experience various work-related stressors, such as long working hours, high work pressure, and work-life interference, which can lead to severe mental and physical consequences. Identification of the protective factors that enable employees to flourish and thrive is especially important. The present study aims to identify the organizational and personal resources that contribute to employee flourishing. Adopting the conservation of resources theory and organizational support theory, it was hypothesized that perceived organizational support (POS) would promote employee flourishing through increasing psychological capital (PsyCap). A prospective study was conducted on a sample of 400 working adults from the social and personal services industry in Hong Kong. Data were collected at baseline, three months, and one year. Both Diener’s composite model of flourishing and Seligman’s PERMA model of flourishing were tested. Structural equation modeling showed that PsyCap at three months significantly mediated the effects of POS at baseline on flourishing and all dimensions of PERMA (positive emotion, engagement, relationships, meaning, accomplishments) at one year. Findings suggest that PsyCap underlies the process through which POS influences flourishing, whereby the promotion of positive psychological resources in a nurturing and supportive organization contributes to psychosocial functioning in the long run.
... According to Seligman (2011), each domain can be pursued separately, but relationships between them provide wider spectrum of well-being. A number of researches support this broad understanding of well-being including both hedonic and eudemonic aspects (Huppert and So, 2011;Butler and Kern, 2016;Goodman et al., 2017). ...
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Background : Physical activity is associated with higher levels of subjective well-being. However, little research has been conducted in naturalistic conditions with a longitudinal design. In the current study, we aimed to examine whether regular activity initiation can impact happiness, life satisfaction, and self-esteem 4 weeks later. Methods : The sample ( N = 217, 124 women) was divided into three groups based on level of physical activity (active people, beginners, and inactive people). The participants completed measures of happiness, satisfaction with life, self-esteem, and a survey on physical activity. Ninety-five of participants who completed the same set of measures sent by email after 4 weeks were included in the analyses. Results : The study showed a strong relationship between subjective well-being and physical activity. Active people showed higher levels of happiness and self-esteem compared to beginners and inactive people and a higher level of life satisfaction than inactive people. Furthermore, after 4 weeks of exercising, beginners revealed greater life satisfaction and happiness compared to the baseline. Conclusion : These findings confirm that regular physical activity leads to higher levels of well-being. It seems that even a short engagement in physical activity (4 weeks) may contribute to an increase in subjective well-being.
... Seligman et al. (2006) conceptualized that PPIs foster positive emotion, engagement and meaning that increases wellbeing, which raises questions regarding whether the processes that lead to subjective wellbeing are the same as the outcomes to be measured or are these distinguishable entities? However, there is since development with the emergence of the PERMA profile measure (Butler & Kern, 2016) which maps onto the PERMA model in addition to the same form of subjectivewellbeing as delineated by Diener (Goodman et al., 2017). A greater conceptual connection was evident between PPIs and depression. ...
Article
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Mental health services are placing a greater emphasis on wellbeing and recovery. The current research investigated if positive psychology interventions (PPIs) increase peoples’ subjective wellbeing and reduce clinical depression. A systematic methodological review was conducted on randomized-control-trials with people attending clinical services. Five databases were searched. A hand search was then completed on the reference lists of the identified articles and the associated journals. Eleven research interventions were reviewed. PPIs were found to significantly increase wellbeing, relative to controls and there were fewer studies indicating a difference in decreasing depression. However, subsequent analysis revealed that the interventions were heterogeneous which limits the drawing of definitive systematic conclusions. A methodological evaluation also found that there were recurring issues: in delivering the interventions, measuring subjective wellbeing, and applying the design. Thus, the methodological quality of the research interventions, as measured by the current review was low. There is emerging evidence that PPIs improve peoples’ mental health. However, there is scope to standardize and to improve the quality of the research interventions.
... Nevertheless, I felt a work related to positive psychology should at least sketch a positive outlook; a fuller treatment has to await another occasion. 4 And possibly also for the psychology of judgement and decision making, see the last section of this paper. 5 Adkins [15] (p. ...
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The present article critiques standard attempts to make philosophy appear relevant to the scientific study of well-being, drawing examples in particular from works that argue for fundamental differences between different forms of wellbeing (by Besser-Jones, Kristjánsson, and Kraut, for example), and claims concerning the supposedly inherent normativity of wellbeing research (e.g., Prinzing, Alexandrova, and Nussbaum). Specifically, it is argued that philosophers in at least some relevant cases fail to apply what is often claimed to be among their core competences: conceptual rigor—not only in dealing with the psychological construct of flow, but also in relation to apparently philosophical concepts such as normativity, objectivity, or eudaimonia. Furthermore, the uncritical use of so-called thought experiments in philosophy is shown to be inappropriate for the scientific study of wellbeing. As an alternative to such philosophy-as-usual, proper attention to other philosophical traditions is argued to be promising. In particular, the philosophy of ZhuangZi (a contemporary of Aristotle and one of the most important figures in Chinese intellectual history) appears to concord well with today’s psychological knowledge, and to contain valuable ideas for the future development of positive psychology.
... Despite the exponential growth on this topic, Goodman et al. (2018) convincingly demonstrated that researchers tend to disagree on what constitutes wellbeing. In their latest discussion of leisure and wellbeing, Mansfield et al. similarly point out: "while most contemporary research claims wellbeing is multidimensional in character and associated with how well we feel we are doing as individuals, communities and societies, there is no single agreed definition" (2020, p. 1). ...
Article
Research on tourists’ eudaimonic and hedonic wellbeing has grown exponentially in the tourism literature. The paper re-examines the conceptualization of psychological tourist wellbeing. While there is agreement that tourist wellbeing is multidimensional in nature, it is unclear what specific dimensions, or psychological domains, underpin tourists’ hedonic and eudaimonic wellbeing. Models that summarize these domains seemingly overlap, notably the PERMA and DRAMMA models. Ideas on re-conceptualizing tourist wellbeing are proposed. A new conceptual model re-organizing hedonic and eudaimonic dimensions of tourists’ psychological wellbeing is presented for consideration in future research. This new model is termed DREAMA. It consists of the following dimensions: detachment-recovery (DR); engagement (E); affiliation (A); meaning (M); and achievement (A). The new affiliation dimension now includes both social connections and tourists’ connections with the natural environments, thus reframing tourist wellbeing conceptualization beyond human-to-human contact.
... W wystąpieniu w 1990 r. stwierdził on, że psychologia nie powinna się skupiać jedynie na chorobach i niedoborach, lecz konieczne jest włączenie do niej analiz dotyczących pozytywnych aspektów życia [Klimka, Budzińska, 2015]. Aby opisać dobrostan, stworzył model PERMA zawierający następujące składowe: P -pozytywne emocje (positive emotions), E -zaangażowanie (engagement), R -dobre relacje (positive relationships), M -poczucie sensu (meaning), A -osiągnięcia (accomplishment) [Goodman, Disabato, Kashdan, Kauffman, 2017]. ...
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Celem artykułu jest zaprezentowanie wyników badań dotyczących dobrostanu pracowniczego w specyficznych uwarunkowaniach istniejących w przedsiębiorstwach o modelach hybrydowych. Zgromadzono listę czynników wpływających negatywnie i pozytywnie na trzy wymiary dobrostanu pracowników w pracy hybrydowej. Przedstawiono także różne modele pracy hybrydowej. ...//... The aim of the article is to present the results of research on employee well-being in specific conditions existing in enterprises with hybrid models. A list of factors that have a negative and positive impact on the three dimensions of employee well-being in hybrid work was collected. Various models of hybrid work are also presented.
... Given that, Kern and colleagues (2015) developed the PERMA scale with five factors: Positive emotions, Engagement, Relationships, Meaning and Accomplishment; and captures both hedonic and eudaimonic elements. Well-being evaluation by PERMA scale has been supported at different settings (Goodman, et al., 2018;Kern, et al., 2015), however, in adventure recreation activities and participatory sports is still limited (Mirehie & Gibson, 2020). Adventure and recreation activities comprise aspects that are particularly relevant to wellbeing such as physical challenge in the field (hedonic element: accomplishment and engagement), trip with friends (relationships) and do something in nature (eudaimonic element: meaningful). ...
... However, despite its growth and contribution, positive psychology is not without its challenges. Since its formal inception in 2000, many scholars have questioned the unique contribution of the paradigm as well as the validity of the theories, methods, interventions, and philosophy underpinning the discipline (Brown et al., 2014;Goodman et al., 2017;Wong and Roy, 2017;Compton and Hoffman, 2019;Van Zyl, 2019;Yakushko, 2019). This, in turn, has negatively affected positive psychology's scientific credibility and public perception (Van Zyl and Ten Klooster, 2022). ...
... Huppert et al. (2009) evaluated the success of European countries in improving their personal and social well-being by using a set of welfare indicators included in the European social survey. Goodman et al. (2017) compared Seligman's PERMA welfare model and Diener's subjective well-being model. The sample consisted of 517 adults recruited at Amazon. ...
... Following the procedure used in Kan et al. (2020), a first step was to identify which measurement model had the best fit to the Secure Flourishing Measure data in the entire sample. Three common latent-variable models of well-being (e.g., Goodman et al., 2018;Longo et al., 2020;Węziak-Białowolska et al., 2019) and a network model were compared: (1) a measurement, first-order model consisting of the six constituents of flourishing; ...
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A systems perspective explains dynamics of human flourishing based on the relations between its constituents. Using cross-sectional data from emerging adults (ages 18–29) in 10 countries (N = 7221), this study explored the interrelatedness among constituents of flourishing – happiness & satisfaction with life, mental & physical health, meaning & purpose, character & virtue, close social relationships, and financial & material stability – within and across countries. Each country’s sample was characterized by a unique flourishing network, although there were similarities. Except for financial & material stability, all constituents were positively related across samples. Financial & material stability showed the highest cross-country heterogeneity in its relations. Happiness & satisfaction with life and meaning & purpose showed the strongest interrelations. A higher level of one constituent was associated with lower network connectivity. This systems perspective extends existing knowledge about the conceptualization of flourishing and how people can be supported to achieve and maintain complete well-being.
... Huppert et al. (2009) evaluated the success of European countries in improving their personal and social well-being by using a set of welfare indicators included in the European social survey. Goodman et al. (2017) compared Seligman's PERMA welfare model and Diener's subjective well-being model. The sample consisted of 517 adults recruited at Amazon. ...
... Faced with two views on well-being, Goodman et al. [26] compared the PERMA model of well-being suggested by Seligman and the subjective well-being model suggested by Diener, verifying a latent and almost perfect correlation between the two proposed models. In this sense, Butler and Kern [27] suggested the non-acceptance of a single model that evaluates well-being, but rather different concepts that can contribute to the abstract construction of the concept of well-being and concentrate on the evaluation of positive emotions, commitment, relationship, meaning, and achievement. ...
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Tourism has been affirmed as an activity that promotes health and well-being. The present study aims to present a confirmatory analysis of the PERMA model in a sample of Portuguese senior tourists who visited the island of São Miguel (Azores). After approval of the study by the ethics committee (reference 6/2022), a Sociodemographic Questionnaire, PERMA Profiler, and Life Satisfaction Scale—SWLS were applied to 1083 senior tourists (≥55 years) of various nationalities. To evaluate the PERMA model for senior tourism in Portugal, a total of 434 senior tourists of Portuguese nationality were extracted from the sample. The results revealed that most of the participants attributed scores above the midpoint in the five dimensions of PERMA (positive emotions, engagement, relationships, meaning, accomplishment) and in the satisfaction with life scale. Using scale reliability analyses, we found that some of the dimensions in the PERMA model showed relatively low values both for Cronbach alpha and composite reliability. Several confirmatory structural equation models (single factorial, second order, and five factors) were calculated, as well as the usual adjustment measures, with the five-factor PERMA model presenting the best structure, although with a relatively low fit. The modification of the model by the weight of regressions between some of the items with larger covariances allowed a better adjustment: χ2(73) = 264.960, p < 0.001, χ2/df = 3.63, CFI = 0.94, TLI = 0.91, IFI = 0.94; GFI = 0.92, RMSEA = 0.078, p < 0.001. Although the results revealed that the experiences of senior tourists when visiting the island of São Miguel contributed significantly to their well-being and the modified model presented superior adjustment quality, future studies are suggested to evaluate the quality of the PERMA model applied to tourism.
... This has been supported by a .98 latent correlation with Diener's subjective well-being (Goodman et al., 2018). This means that as subjective well-being rises, so does PERMA and the converse is also correct. ...
Article
Since its inception, Hollywood has enjoyed the benefits of privilege and prestige based in part because of scarcity of resources (i.e., financing, information, labor, equipment). Today’s technology has leveled the filmmaking landscape, and the incoming generation of filmmakers are less tolerant of the traditional devaluing behaviors in Hollywood. If the resources are no longer coveted and the typical behaviors not accepted, can Hollywood remain the filmmaking leader? This paper suggests that it can by evolving its behaviors to nurture people and relationships instead of exploit and deplete them. By utilizing tools such as positive psychology’s well-being model PERMA and positive organizational scholarship’s high-quality connections, the industry can inspire artists by shifting away from traditional devaluing behaviors and create a culture of support. Hollywood can leverage its position as the world’s foremost creative collective to influence new standards of relationships in production that prioritize genuine kindness, trust, and respectful engagement, or as this filmmaker calls it positive production.
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This paper explores how working from home has impacted leaders and the workforce in corporate environments during the pandemic, how these experiences might influence the workplace of the future, and what role coaching could play to foster skill development in the 21st century workplace. Before the pandemic, plenty of research had already been done on what factors influence well-being and engagement in the workplace. Models explaining the elements of well-being and engagement, as well as, tools to measure their existence or the lack of have been reviewed, tested, and validated. We know little at this point about what combinations of factors caused the decline in well-being and engagement during the pandemic, and what skills in leaders, or requirements for the workplace would be necessary to hone and implement, to improve the situation of well-being and engagement in future work environments. This paper explores how coaching could support leaders in the 21st century workplace. The business world is facing challenges while moving into post-pandemic workplace scenarios. The plurality of interests increases the complexity of the topic. The literature on well-being and engagement has been reviewed. Data that was collected during the pandemic by different organisations and conclusions drawn from these were compared with what the literature says and it was combined with experiences the author made in the field while coaching leaders and their teams in corporate environments during the pandemic. This paper concludes with a recommendation on how to enhance coaching skills among leaders and to build their knowledge and literacy in the field of coaching, to result in positive effects on workplace well-being and engagement in contemporary work environments.
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A growing body of empirical evidence suggests that PERMA (positive emotions, engagement, relationships, meaning, accomplishments) may be a robust framework for the measurement, management and development of wellbeing. While the original PERMA framework made great headway in the past decade, its empirical and theoretical limitations were recently identified and critiqued. In response, Seligman (2018) clarified the value of PERMA as a framework for and not a theory of wellbeing and called for further research to expand the construct. To expand the framework into organizational contexts, recent meta-analyses and systematic literature reviews showed that physical health, mindset, physical work environments and economic security could be seen as essential contextually relevant building blocks for work-related wellbeing and are therefore prime candidates to expand the PERMA framework for use within organizational contexts. Through expanding the original PERMA framework with these four factors, a new holistic approach to work-related wellbeing and work performance was born: The PERMA+4. As such, the purpose of this brief perspective paper is to provide a conceptual overview of PERMA+4 as holistic framework for work-related wellbeing and work performance which extends beyond the predominant componential thinking of the discipline. Specifically, we aim to do so by providing: (a) a brief historical overview of the development of PERMA as a theory for wellbeing, (b) a conceptual overview of PERMA+4 as a holistic framework for work-related wellbeing and work performance, (c) empirical evidence supporting the usefulness of PERMA+4, and (d) charting a course for the second wave of positive organizational psychological research.
Article
A recurrent dimension occurring in wellbeing models pertains to positive relationships of individuals. Yet there is little information elucidating the link between positive relationships and subjective wellbeing in different cultures. Thus, the aims of this paper were (1) to examine whether there is an association between positive relationships and adolescent wellbeing across several culturally distinct countries and (2) explore whether the association between positive relationships and adolescent wellbeing differed for these countries along the cultural dimensions of individualism/collectivism and indulgence/restraint. Well-being measures were obtained from the large-scale assessment PISA 2018 and cultural dimensions indices were obtained. The results provide compelling evidence that positive relationships are positively associated with both affective and eudemonic wellbeing. Furthermore, there may be a greater association between positive relationships and positive affect in collectivist-indulgent countries than in collectivistic restraint countries. The study furthers our understanding of adolescent wellbeing across different cultural dimensions.
Chapter
As confirmed by organizations such as UNAIDS, UNICEF, NGOs, and various authors, the psychological, social, physical, and emotional turmoil caused by varying degrees of violence, abuse, neglect, abandonment, and bereavement has negatively impacted orphans and vulnerable children's education. However, very few studies have been conducted to document the psychosocial support provided to OVC in public schools. Psychosocial support is rarely available to vulnerable children around the world, despite the fact that it is a fundamental right for children that has largely gone unacknowledged. Despite signing the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child, many governments pay lip service to them; thus, the purpose of this chapter is to contextualize them. Educational stakeholders must pay close attention and contribute to the provision of inclusive education that meets the needs of all children. This chapter contributes to a better understanding of the difficulties teachers face when providing psychosocial support to OVC, as well as interventions to address these difficulties.
Article
This research shows that consumers’ experience of art, including artistic commercial products, enhances consumers’ well-being by inducing a sense of inspiration. Prior research in neuroscience and psychology has documented that participating in art and culture programs enhances individuals’ well-being, but there is a shortage of empirical evidence documenting the effect of consumers’ art appreciation as products and services on well-being or the cognitive mechanism underlying that effect. Our five studies, based on an administrative dataset (Study1) and laboratory experiments (Studies 2a, 2b, 2c and 2d), show that consumers’ experience of art in daily life increases consumers’ well-being. Furthermore, consumers’ experience of art induces inspiration, which in turn enhances subjective well-being (Studies 2b and 2c), and consumer well-being (Study 2d). Critically, that effect remained significant across various forms of art, including paintings, song lyrics, and sculpture, and extended to commercial products such as computer screen saver and handbags depicting artistic images. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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While literature about the relationship between wellbeing and accomplishment exists, previous studies were mainly quantitative and neglected the subjective experience of female retirees, which the current study aimed to address. Three female retired charity CEOs based in the UK were interviewed using in-depth, semi-structured interviews. The interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) yielded three themes: (1) “accomplishment and wellbeing - a potentially negative interaction”, (2) “accomplishment and wellbeing - a positive link through interaction with other wellbeing domains”, and (3) “retirement - a moderator for negative direct impacts”. The results provided a complex picture of how high-achieving women post-retirement perceived accomplishment as a contributor to their wellbeing. By highlighting an intricate link between accomplishment and other domains of wellbeing, particularly positive relationships, the findings critique that positive psychology overemphasizes the individual and highlight the need for further research into the interaction between different domains of wellbeing. The study also contributes to the debate about the relationship between age and wellbeing by illuminating the individuality of the experience depending on circumstances and environment. Finally, discussed are the implications of the current study in the context of retired high-fliers.
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Amaç: Bu çalışmada, ampute futbolcuların kinezyofobi düzeylerinin farklı değişkenler açısından incelenmesi amaçlanmıştır. Yöntem: Araştırma nitel veri toplama tekniklerinden betimsel yöntem ile sürdürülmüştür. Araştırmaya 2021-2022 yılı futbol sezonunun ikinci yarısında müsabık olan yaşları 16-39 arasında değişen 75 ampute futbolcu katılmıştır. Katılımcıların demografik bilgileri belirlendikten sonra, Yılmaz ve ark. tarafından geçerlik ve güvenilirlik çalışmaları yapılan ‘Tampa Kinezyofobi’ anketi kullanılmıştır. İstatistiksel işlemler SPSS paket program 25 ile yapılmıştır. Veriler normal dağıldığından ikili gruplarda Bağımsız Örneklem T Testi, ikiden fazla grup karşılaştırmaları için ANOVA testi yapılmıştır. Çalışmada anlamlılık düzeyi 0.05 olarak belirlenmiştir. Bulgular: Yapılan istatistiksel analizler sonucunda; sonradan ampute olan katılımcıların kinesyofobi değeri (n=42), doğuştan ampute olan katılımcılara (n=33) göre daha yüksek bulunmuştur (p=0.000). Bekar (n=51) olan katılımcıların, evlilere (n=24) göre kinezyofobi düzeyi daha yüksek bulunmuş fakat istatistiksel olarak anlamlı farklılık bulunmamıştır (p>0.05). Katılımcıların eğitim durumu artıkça kinezyofobi değeri artmıştır. Fakat anlamlı düzeyde bir farklılık tespit edilmemiştir (p>0.05). Katılımcıların spor yaşları bakımından bakıldığında; 5-9 yıl arası ampute futbol oynayanların kinezyofobi düzeyleri 1-4 yıl ve 10 ve üzeri ampute futbol oynamış bireylerden daha fazla bulunmuştur (p=007). Sonuç: Ampute futbolcuların kinezyofobi düzeyleri farklı değişkenler açısından değişim göstermektedir. Ampute bireylere yönelik rehabilitasyon çalışmalarında araştırmamız sonuçlarının kullanılması önerilmektedir.
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In recent years, increasing attention has been paid to the all-around development and mental health of students in education. Positive education, a rapidly developing ramification of positive psychology, has proved beneficial to students’ learning and wellbeing. Meanwhile, online learning has quickly gained popularity due to the impact of COVID-19. However, there have been few reports discussing the relationship between positive education and online learning by combining theories and practices. To explore the connection between positive education and online learning, we provide a literature review for studies, mostly between 2010 and 2022, of theories and practices for both positive education and online learning. Next, we establish one-to-one links between the relevant theories and practices of online learning to each domain in the PERMA model of positive education, a theoretical framework including Positive emotion(P), Engagement(E), Relationship(R), Meaning(M), and Accomplishment(A). We aim to explore how to promote the development of positive education by applying the theoretical and practical advantages of online learning to the PERMA framework of positive education. This study aims to enrich the research perspectives of positive education and provide a reference for future research.
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Resumen El presente estudio se enfoca en analizar los datos de encuestas de bienestar aplicadas en 2019 y 2020 a los alumnos de las preparatorias de Universidad Tecmilenio. Se utiliza un instrumento desarrollado en la Universidad de Pensilvania y validado en inglés y español para valorar el bienestar de los estudiantes. El instrumento mide los cinco pilares del bienestar propuestos por el modelo PERMA. El estudio identifica las diferencias en términos de bienestar reportado por los estudiantes. Se compara información del año previo a la pandemia e información levantada durante la contingencia sanitaria provocada por el Covid-19. Abstract This study analyzes data from well-being surveys applied in 2019 and 2020 to students from Tecmilenio University high schools. It makes use of an instrument developed at the University of Pennsylvania and validated in English and Spanish to assess students´ well-being. This instrument measures the five pillars of well-being proposed by the PERMA model. The study identifies the differences in terms of well-being reported by students. It compares information from the year before the pandemic and information collected during the health contingency caused by Covid-19.
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The Lapinlahti Hospital initiative in Helsinki has transformed a disused psychiatric hospital into an open site for mental health promotion. The current study uses qualitative methods to explore how the initiative may promote population mental health. The phenomenological study comprised of data from 7 focus group including 28 participants. Resulting data were thematically analysed to articulate how the initiative supports mental wellbeing in different ways. Mental health benefits were categorized into three themes; mental health value, civil values and common values which were comprised of nine subthemes; paradigm shift, social inclusion, personal meaning, regeneration, ambience, stigma, sustainability, democracy and environment. Mental health promotion emphasises the impact of daily environments in which people live their lives. Results from this study support the use of broad based actions which promote different components of mental wellbeing simultaneously. Psychiatric hospitals may offer historically meaningful sites for such actions.
Thesis
Religion is a very important context for many individuals in society and spirituality is seen as a fundamental dimension for the human being (Aldwin, et al, 2014). The main goals of this thesis was to find the possible relation between the religious practice with spiritual well-being levels and psychological flourishing levels; and to verify the relationship between spiritual well-being´s dimensions and psychological flourishing's dimensions. The instruments used for this subject were Spiritual Health and Life Orientation Measure (SHALOM) and PERMA-Profiler (Seligman, 2011, Butler and Kern, 2013). The sample included for this study 837 participants aged between 18 and years 83 (M = 41,34; SD = 11,972), 69.9% female and 30.1% male. 63.7% refer to have a religious practice. The demonstration of the results showed the existence of a significant relationship between having a religious practice and spiritual well-being levels, as well as with psychological flourishing levels. It was found the higher frequency of the religious practice increase the spiritual well-being and psychological flourishing levels. However, the study showed as well exactly the opposite, as the lower frequency of religious practice, the higher the levels of Negative Emotions and Loneliness dimensions of psychological flourishing will come out. The relationship between spiritual well-being and psychological flourishing dimensions proved to be positive all thought weak. The conclusion was, having a religious practice has an important role in a person's well-being, however, may not be meaningful for all human beings.
Article
Background Little is known about the relationship between childhood maltreatment and well-being in young adults, including the role of post-traumatic growth (PTG) in promoting better outcomes for young adults who have a history of childhood maltreatment (HCM). Objective To examine the relationship between child maltreatment and well-being among young adults, by considering the perpetrator and the extent of the maltreatment, as well as PTG among young adults with a HCM. Participants and setting The sample comprised 537 young adults (aged 18–25; M = 21.09 years, SD = 2.36) from across Australia, with 182 young adults in the sample forming the cohort with a HCM. Method Participants' current well-being, the extent of maltreatment by their mother, father and other adults experienced as a child (<18 years), and PTG was collected using an online survey. Tests of group differences and multiple regression were conducted to analyse the relationships between child maltreatment, PTG, and current well-being. Results Maltreatment by one's mother or father predicted poorer current well-being, but not maltreatment by another adult. Young adults who identified as having a HCM had poorer well-being than those who did not. Within the cohort of those with a HCM, greater PTG predicted greater well-being, and also mitigated the negative relationship between child maltreatment by one's father and well-being. Conclusion Findings indicate that both the extent of child maltreatment and the relationship to the perpetrator have implications for well-being among young adults. PTG appeared to play a protective role, highlighting the potential therapeutic benefit of fostering PTG to improve well-being among young adults with a HCM.
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Aim: This study was conducted to determine the relationship between character strengths, person-job fit and job involvement with organizational well-being in west Tehran social security employees. Methods: The research method was correlation and statistical population was 1400 employees of west Tehran Social Security Organization and its branches. The sample size was 312 employees which were selected by random cluster sampling. Tools used for this study were Kanungo's job involvement questionnaire (1982), workplace Perma profiler by Kern (2014), via character strengths questionnaire by Peterson and Seligman (2004) and person job fit questionnaire by Ahmadi (2015). Data from 312 questionnaires were analysed using structural equations with partial least squares method in Smart Pls software. Findings: Calculation and analysis of fitness indicators using Smart-PLS software, confirmed adaptation of conceptual framework and empirical data. The conceptual model was validated by Goodness of Fit index (GOF=0.733). The results also showed that character strengths, person job fit, job involvement and organizational well-being are related and job involvement played a mediating role in the relationship(p=0.001 , t= 3.137, t=3.543). Conclusion: Fostering and encouraging using of character strengths by employees alongside with applying person job fit concept in hiring and task assigning in organization, can lead to higher organizational well-being and positive outcomes for both organization and employees.
Book
V monografiji avtorice predstavljajo ugotovitve več raziskav, ki so jih izvedle v zadnjih desetih letih, in jih umestijo na področje pozitivne psihologije, ki se je kot znanstvena disciplina uveljavila po letu 2000. Kot teoretični okvir v prvem poglavju predstavijo raziskave laičnega pojmovanja sreče in teoretične modele subjektivnega blagostanja. Poudarek na znanstveni ustreznosti merskih instrumentov v pozitivni psihologiji je spodbudil interes za konstrukt subjektivnega blagostanja tudi na drugih področjih psihologije.
Article
Current frameworks define flourishing in terms of wellbeing alone. This paper examines whether community members similarly define flourishing in terms of wellbeing or whether they prioritise both wellbeing and mental health. We also compare whether those indicators of wellbeing and mental health prioritised to define flourishing are similarly important for community members’ definition of quality of life. Results are from 2 surveys of community respondents (Survey 1 n = 359; Survey 2 n = 287) aged between 18 and 84 years. Participants were asked to identify 5 indicators of wellbeing or mental health which best reflected ‘Quality of Life’ (Survey 1), and Flourishing (Survey 2). Eleven indicators of wellbeing were from the European Social Survey (ESS) Wellbeing module and nine indicators of mental health were from the Diagnostic Statistical Manual of Disorders V.5 (DSM 5) diagnoses for Major Depressive Disorder and Generalised Anxiety Disorder. Respondents defined flourishing and quality of life in similar ways and in terms of a combination of mental health and wellbeing indicators. Importantly respondents rated both wellbeing and absence of mental illness as reflecting flourishing. There was no single indicator that was endorsed by all participants; instead a range of wellbeing and mental health indicators were endorsed by participants as reflecting flourishing and quality of life. Contrary to current flourishing frameworks, community respondents defined flourishing in terms of both the presence of wellbeing and absence of mental illness. We propose a new model of psychological health that is informed by both wellbeing and mental health/illness and where flourishing is defined in terms of both wellbeing and mental health.
Article
Purpose The objectives of the study are to assess the application of corporate social responsibility (CSR) initiatives in three hotel companies of similar standing by interviewing the unit general managers and to analyse the well-being of the three general managers and explore if their CSR initiatives align with the dimensions of quality of life and well-being. The article concludes with a review of the likely impact of employee well-being on the concept of the circular economy and overall sustainability. Design/methodology/approach Explores the potential relationship between the well-being of hotel general managers and its impact on the CSR initiatives of their hotels, three luxury hotels located in Dubai, Portugal and India provide case study examples. The hotels are similar in size and scale of operations and are positioned as leisure hotels. All three hotels have a workforce of 300–400 employees on permanent contracts with an additional 150–200 on temporary contracts. This is indicative of the significant responsibilities of general managers in fostering well-being in the workplace. Findings Findings suggest that a hotel general manager’s own well-being does not necessarily translate into high levels of CSR activity at the unit level. However, case study analysis of the three hotels seems to indicate a correlation between enhanced sustainable initiatives and competitive advantage that is advantageous for the businesses. Originality/value Using a combination of the positive emotion, engagement, relationships, meaning, achievement (PERMA) well-being profiler and three in-depth interviews, this study examines the relationship between well-being, as measured by PERMA, CSR practices, and awareness of CSR implementation. In addition, the potential role of the circular economy is considered in fostering hospitality for employee well-being.
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Sales in the management consulting sector reached a new high in 2019, with the trend weakening slightly in 2020 under conditions of a corona pandemic. Simple concepts and new solutions that promise uniqueness are in demand-even if their effectiveness is often not scientifically proven. Against the background of evidence-based management, the question therefore arises as to whether and what opportunities and limitations the Positive Leadership approach according to PERMA promises in the teaching context. Among the results of the evidence-based brief analysis is that approaches for promoting the well-being of students can be derived. At the same time, it is important to pursue a balanced mix of interventions that focuses not only on positive psychology but also on problem-solving and stress management skills.
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Objective: Personality traits are associated with well-being, but the precise correlates vary across well-being dimensions and within each Big Five domain. This study is the first to examine the unique associations between the Big Five aspects (rather than facets) and multiple well-being dimensions. Method: Two samples of U.S. participants (Total N = 706, Mage = 36.17, 54% female) recruited via Amazon's Mechanical Turk completed measures of the Big Five aspects and subjective, psychological, and PERMA well-being. Results: One aspect within each domain was more strongly associated with well-being variables. Enthusiasm and Withdrawal were strongly associated with a broad range of well-being variables, but other aspects of personality also had idiosyncratic associations with distinct forms of positive functioning (e.g., Compassion with positive relationships, Industriousness with accomplishment, and Intellect with personal growth). Conclusions: An aspect-level analysis provides an optimal (i.e., parsimonious yet sufficiently comprehensive) framework for describing the relation between personality traits and multiple ways of thriving in life. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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In the book Flourish (2011), Seligman defined wellbeing in terms of five pillars: Positive emotion, Engagement, Relationships, Meaning, and Accomplishment, or PERMA. We developed the PERMA-Profiler as a brief measure of PERMA. We first compiled hundreds of theoretically relevant items. Three studies ( N = 7,188) reduced, tested, and refined items, resulting in a final set of 15 questions (three items per PERMA domain). Eight additional filler items were added, which assess overall wellbeing, negative emotion, loneliness, and physical health, resulting in a final 23-item measure. A series of eight additional studies ( N = 31,966) were conducted to test the psychometrics of the measure. The PERMA-Profiler demonstrates acceptable model fit, internal and cross-time consistency, and evidence for content, convergent, and divergent validity. Scores are reported visually as a profile across domains, reflecting the multidimensional nature of flourishing. The PERMA-Profiler adds to the toolbox of wellbeing measures, allowing individuals to monitor their wellbeing across multiple psychosocial domains.
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Objective Investigators within many disciplines are using measures of well-being, but it is not always clear what they are measuring, or which instruments may best meet their objectives. The aims of this review were to: systematically identify well-being instruments, explore the variety of well-being dimensions within instruments and describe how the production of instruments has developed over time. Design Systematic searches, thematic analysis and narrative synthesis were undertaken. Data sources MEDLINE, EMBASE, EconLit, PsycINFO, Cochrane Library and CINAHL from 1993 to 2014 complemented by web searches and expert consultations through 2015. Eligibility criteria Instruments were selected for review if they were designed for adults (≥18 years old), generic (ie, non-disease or context specific) and available in an English version. Results A total of 99 measures of well-being were included, and 196 dimensions of well-being were identified within them. Dimensions clustered around 6 key thematic domains: mental well-being, social well-being, physical well-being, spiritual well-being, activities and functioning, and personal circumstances. Authors were rarely explicit about how existing theories had influenced the design of their tools; however, the 2 most referenced theories were Diener's model of subjective well-being and the WHO definition of health. The period between 1990 and 1999 produced the greatest number of newly developed well-being instruments (n=27). An illustration of the dimensions identified and the instruments that measure them is provided within a thematic framework of well-being. Conclusions This review provides researchers with an organised toolkit of instruments, dimensions and an accompanying glossary. The striking variability between instruments supports the need to pay close attention to what is being assessed under the umbrella of ‘well-being’ measurement.
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Recent decades have seen rapid growth in the science of subjective well-being (SWB), with 14,000 publications a year now broaching the topic. The insights of this growing scholarly literature can be helpful to psychologists working both in research and applied areas. We describe five sets of recent findings on SWB: (1) the multidimensionality of SWB; (2) circumstances that influence long-term SWB; (3) cultural differences in SWB; (4) the beneficial effects of SWB on health and social relationships; and (5) interventions to increase SWB. Additionally, we outline the implications of these findings for the helping professions, organizational psychology, and for researchers. Finally, we describe current developments in national accounts of well-being, which capture the quality of life in societies beyond economic indicators and point toward policies that can enhance societal well-being.
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Purpose: This study assessed the long-term stability and instability of subjective well-being during post-school transition (i.e., transition from adolescence to young adulthood) and evaluated the determinants of transition stability. Methods: Using two cohorts from a national representative longitudinal study, the Longitudinal Study of Australian Youth (N = 20991), latent profile analysis and latent transition analysis were conducted to examine transition patterns among subjective well-being profiles for youth from age 17 to 25. Multinomial logistic regressions were conducted to evaluate whether key socio-demographic variables were associated with transition stability. Results: We identified: (1) three subjective well-being profiles: Low (30%), Moderate (50%), and High (20%); and (2) three major transition patterns among these subjective well-being profiles: stable, partially-stable, and unstable. The majority of youth had stable transition patterns during the transition from adolescence to adulthood. A large percentage of youth (52%) started low in subjective well-being profile and remained in the low subjective-wellbeing profile. Our examination also revealed gender was the most pronounced indicator for transition stability during this time period, with males more likely to have unstable transition patterns than females. Conclusions: Results suggest that different subjective well-being status and transition patterns can be identified in the post-high school transition to adulthood, including unstable transitions. By targeting those groups more vulnerable to transition, mental health promotion and interventions may be delivered more effectively.
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Objective This study examined the factor structure and measurement invariance of the Mental Health Continuum-Short Form (MHC-SF) in young adults from Iran and the USA and across gender. Method The sample consisted of 387 Iranian and 395 American university students. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and the new method of exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM) were used to analyze the data. Results The three-dimensional model of well-being as measured by the MHC-SF was consistent with the data. ESEM resulted in better fit indices as well as considerably lower factor correlations than did CFA. Partial measurement invariance across nations and full measurement invariance across gender were established. Conclusion The results confirm the three-dimensional structure of mental well-being, and indicate that the items of the MHC-SF function largely similarly across the two nations. These results also showcase the unique value of ESEM in understanding the factor structure of mental well-being.
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Goodness-of-fit (GOF) indexes provide "rules of thumb"—recommended cutoff values for assessing fit in structural equation modeling. Hu and Bentler (1999) proposed a more rigorous approach to evaluating decision rules based on GOF indexes and, on this basis, proposed new and more stringent cutoff values for many indexes. This article discusses potential problems underlying the hypothesis-testing rationale of their research, which is more appropriate to testing statistical significance than evaluating GOF. Many of their misspecified models resulted in a fit that should have been deemed acceptable according to even their new, more demanding criteria. Hence, rejection of these acceptable-misspecified models should have constituted a Type 1 error (incorrect rejection of an "acceptable" model), leading to the seemingly paradoxical results whereby the probability of correctly rejecting misspecified models decreased substantially with increasing N. In contrast to the application of cutoff values to evaluate each solution in isolation, all the GOF indexes were more effective at identifying differences in misspecification based on nested models. Whereas Hu and Bentler (1999) offered cautions about the use of GOF indexes, current practice seems to have incorporated their new guidelines without sufficient attention to the limitations noted by Hu and Bentler (1999).
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Well-being theory (WBT) proposes five indicators of well-being [i.e., positive emotion, engagement, relationships, meaning, achievement (PERMA)] that are, independently , empirically supported predictors of flourishing (i.e., an optimal level of well-being; Seligman in Flourish: a visionary new understanding of happiness and well-being. Free Press, NY, 2011). However, there is limited empirical support for the multidimensional model suggested by WBT. Two studies sought to test and validate the higher-order factor structure of the five components of PERMA and PERMA's ability to predict concurrent and prospective flourishing outcomes (e.g., physical health, college success). In Study 1, a longitudinal examination of college students, participants completed measures of well-being (including four of the five PERMA indicators), physical health, and college success at the end of their sophomore, junior, and senior years. In Study 2, a larger, cross-sectional study was conducted online to further validate the PERMA model with a broader sample and all five PERMA indicators. Participants completed measures similar to those administered at Study 1 and other measures used to validate Study 1 measures. Results from Study 2 further validated the PERMA model by comparing Study 1 measures to established measures and by adding meaning to the model. Study 1 and Study 2 PERMA models predicted markers of well-being (e.g., vitality, life satisfaction) and flourishing (e.g., physical health). The two studies reported here provide cross-sectional and longitudinal support that WBT is useful for predicting flourishing.
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Amazon.com's Mechanical Turk (MTurk) website provides a data collection platform with quick and inexpensive access to diverse samples. Numerous reports have lauded MTurk as capturing high-quality data with an epidemiological sample that is more representative of the U.S. population than traditional in-person convenience samples (e.g., undergraduate subject pools). This benefit, in combination with the ease and low-cost of data collection, has led to a remarkable increase in studies using MTurk to investigate phenomena across a wide range of psychological disciplines. Multiple reports have now examined the demographic characteristics of MTurk samples. One key gap remains, however, in that relatively little is known about individual differences in clinical symptoms among MTurk participants. This paper discusses the importance of assessing clinical phenomena in MTurk samples and supports its assertions through an empirical investigation of a large sample (N = 1,098) of MTurk participants. Results revealed that MTurk participants endorse clinical symptoms to a substantially greater degree than traditional nonclinical samples. This distinction was most striking for depression and social anxiety symptoms, which were endorsed at levels comparable with individuals with clinically diagnosed mood and anxiety symptoms. Participants' symptoms of physiological anxiety, hoarding, and eating pathology fell within the subclinical range. Overall, the number of individuals exceeding validated clinical cutoffs was between 3 and 19 times the estimated 12-month prevalence rates. Based on the current findings, it is argued that MTurk participants differ from the general population in meaningful ways, and researchers should consider this when referring to this sample as truly representative. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
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In recent years, well-being researchers have distinguished between eudaimonic happiness (e.g., meaning and purpose; taking part in activities that allow for the actualization of one's skills, talents, and potential) and hedonic happiness (e.g., high frequencies of positive affect, low frequencies of negative affect, and evaluating life as satisfying). Unfortunately, this distinction (rooted in philosophy) does not necessarily translate well to science. Among the problems of drawing too sharp a line between ‘types of happiness’ is the fact that eudaimonia is not well-defined and lacks consistent measurement. Moreover, empirical evidence currently suggests that hedonic and eudaimonic well-being overlap conceptually, and may represent psychological mechanisms that operate together. In this article, we outline the problems and costs of distinguishing between two types of happiness, and provide detailed recommendations for a research program on well-being with greater scientific precision.The purpose of life is to be happy. The Dalai LamaYou will never be happy if you continue to search for what happiness consists of. Albert CamusAnd they all lived happily ever after. The Brothers Grimm
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In an earlier paper (Kashdan, Biswas-Diener, & King, 2008), we outlined a critique of the distinction being made between eudaimonic and hedonic forms of happiness. That paper seems to have had the desired effect in stimulating discourse on this important subject as evidenced by a number of responses from our colleagues. In this paper, we address these responses collectively. In particular, we outline common intellectual ground with the responding authors as well as points of difference.
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Kashdan, Biswas-Diener and King (20086. Sen , A . 1999 . Development as freedom , New York : Knopf . View all references) debated with Waterman (20087. Waterman , AS . 2008 . Reconsidering happiness: A eudaimonist's perspective . Journal of Positive Psychology , 3 : 234 – 252 . [Taylor & Francis Online]View all references) the value of eudaimonic perspectives in well-being research. In this invited response we discuss problems associated with reducing the conceptualization of well-being to subjective well-being (SWB). Although we like and use SWB ourselves as an indicator of well-being, the value of eudaimonic thinking, both in the generation of hypotheses concerning how goals and lifestyles link with wellness, and in broadening and differentiating the outcomes considered to be reflective of wellness. We agree that eudaimonic research in psychology is young and varied, but suggest that preemptively constraining the field to a “big one” (SWB) conceptualization of wellness would be less generative.
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This handbook presents the most comprehensive account of eudaimonic well-being to date. It brings together theoretical insights and empirical updates presented by leading scholars and young researchers. The handbook examines philosophical and historical approaches to the study of happy lives and good societies, and it critically looks at conceptual controversies related to eudaimonia and well-being. It identifies the elements of happiness in a variety of areas such as emotions, health, wisdom, self-determination, internal motivation, personal growth, genetics, work, leisure, heroism, and many more. It then places eudaimonic well-being in the larger context of society, addressing social elements. The most remarkable outcome of the book is arguably its large-scale relevance, reminding us that the more we know about the good way of living, the more we are in a position to build a society that can be supportive and offer opportunities for such a way of living for all of its citizens.
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This paper presents the development and validation of a new well-being questionnaire: the Scales of General Well-Being (SGWB). A review of current measures identified fourteen common constructs as lower-order indicators of well-being: happiness, vitality, calmness, optimism, involvement, self-awareness, self-acceptance, self-worth, competence, development, purpose, significance, self-congruence and connection. Three studies were then conducted. In study 1, the item pool was developed and the adequacy of its content to assess each of the fourteen constructs was evaluated by consulting a panel of six subject expert academics. In study 2, the dimensionality was assessed in an adult North American sample (N = 560). The results supported the hierarchical factor structure. In study 3, further evidence confirmed the factor structure, and provided support for the measure's internal and test-retest reliability, measurement invariance across gender, age and a longitudinal period of 5 weeks, and criterion validity in an adult North American sample (N = 1101). The SGWB promises to be a useful research tool that provides both a global measure of well-being as well as a collection of fourteen individual health-related scales.
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Interest in the study of psychological health and well-being has increased significantly in recent decades. A variety of conceptualizations of psychological health have been proposed including hedonic and eudaimonic well-being, quality-of-life, and wellness approaches. Although instruments for measuring constructs associated with each of these approaches have been developed, there has been no comprehensive review of well-being measures. The present literature review was undertaken to identify self-report instruments measuring well-being or closely related constructs (i.e., quality of life and wellness) and critically evaluate them with regard to their conceptual basis and psychometric properties. Through a literature search, we identified 42 instruments that varied significantly in length, psychometric properties, and their conceptualization and operationalization of well-being. Results suggest that there is considerable disagreement regarding how to properly understand and measure well-being. Research and clinical implications are discussed.
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Abstract The present study used the methods of Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) and Exploratory Structural Equation Modeling (ESEM) to reinvestigate the factor structure of the Mental Health Continuum-Short Form (MHC-SF) in a nationally representative sample from the Netherlands (N = 1662). The results showed that ESEM yielded better fit and considerably smaller factor correlations than did CFA. These findings suggest that ESEM is a more appropriate method than traditional CFA for examining the factor structure of mental well-being. The contributions of ESEM to current debates concerning the distinction between hedonic and eudaimonic well-being are discussed.
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The literature on subjective well-being (SWB), including happiness, life satisfaction, and positive affect, is reviewed in three areas: measurement, causal factors, and theory. Psychometric data on single-item and multi-item subjective well-being scales are presented, and the measures are compared. Measuring various components of subjective well-being is discussed. In terms of causal influences, research findings on the demographic correlates of SWB are evaluated, as well as the findings on other influences such as health, social contact, activity, and personality. A number of theoretical approaches to happiness are presented and discussed: telic theories, associationistic models, activity theories, judgment approaches, and top-down versus bottom-up conceptions.
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A large international sample was used to test whether hedonia (the experience of positive emotional states and satisfaction of desires) and eudaimonia (the presence of meaning and development of one's potentials) represent 1 overarching well-being construct or 2 related dimensions. A latent correlation of .96 presents negligible evidence for the discriminant validity between Diener's (1984) subjective well-being model of hedonia and Ryff's (1989) psychological well-being model of eudaimonia. When compared with known correlates of well-being (e.g., curiosity, gratitude), eudaimonia and hedonia showed very similar relationships, save goal-directed will and ways (i.e., hope), a meaning orientation to happiness, and grit. Identical analyses in subsamples of 7 geographical world regions revealed similar results around the globe. A single overarching construct more accurately reflects hedonia and eudaimonia when measured as self-reported subjective and psychological well-being. Nevertheless, measures of eudaimonia may contain aspects of meaningful goal-directedness unique from hedonia. (PsycINFO Database Record
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In this article, the authors examine the most common type of improper solutions: zero or negative error variances. They address the causes of, consequences of, and strategies to handle these issues. Several hypotheses are evaluated using Monte Carlo simulation models, including two structural equation models with several misspecifications of each model. Results suggested several unique findings. First, increasing numbers of omitted paths in the measurement model were associated with decreasing numbers of improper solutions. Second, bias in the parameter estimates was higher in samples with improper solutions than in samples including only proper solutions. Third, investigation of the consequences of using constrained estimates in the presence of improper solutions indicated that inequality constraints helped some samples achieve convergence. Finally, the use of confidence intervals as well as four other proposed tests yielded similar results when testing whether the error variance was greater than or equal to zero.
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This article reports the development and validation of a scale to measure global life satisfaction, the Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS). Among the various components of subjective well-being, the SWLS is narrowly focused to assess global life satisfaction and does not tap related constructs such as positive affect or loneliness. The SWLS is shown to have favorable psychometric properties, including high internal consistency and high temporal reliability. Scores on the SWLS correlate moderately to highly with other measures of subjective well-being, and correlate predictably with specific personality characteristics. It is noted that the SWLS is suited for use with different age groups, and other potential uses of the scale are discussed.
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The proposal of five dimensions of social well-being, social integration, social contribution, social coherence, social actualization, and social acceptance, is theoretically substantiated. The theoretical structure, constructure, construct validity, and the social structural sources of the dimensions of social well-being are investigated in two studies. Item and confirmatory factor analyses in both studies corroborate the theoretical model of social well-being. The new scales correlate convergently with measures of anomie, generativity, perceived social constraints, community involvement and neighborhood quality. The new scales correlate discriminantly with measures of dysphoria, global well-being, physical health and optimism. Multivariate analyses in both studies substantiate the claim that social well-being is an achievement, facilitated by educational attainment and age. The state and direction of the study of adult functioning are discussed.
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"Construct validation was introduced in order to specify types of research required in developing tests for which the conventional views on validation are inappropriate. Personality tests, and some tests of ability, are interpreted in terms of attributes for which there is no adequate criterion. This paper indicates what sorts of evidence can substantiate such an interpretation, and how such evidence is to be interpreted." 60 references. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved).
Article
The Mental Health Continuum-Short Form (MHC-SF) is a growingly popular questionnaire designed to assess three components of well-being: emotional, social, and psychological. The main goal of the present study was to evaluate the structural validity of the MHC-SF and test the bifactor model of the MHC-SF, which includes one general factor and three specific factors of well-being. Sample 1 consisted of 1095 Serbian students (aged 18–26 years), while Sample 2 included 325 Serbian adults (aged 27–63 years). The bifactor model of the MHC-SF yielded the best fit to the data across the two samples. The results showed that the general factor of well-being accounted for substantially greater amount of variance of the MHC-SF than three specific factors of well-being. After controlling for the general factor, three specific factors explained a small portion of variance in well-being. In addition, the three subscales of the MHC-SF showed low reliability as estimated by omega-subscale coefficients, indicating that these subscales comprise too small amount of reliable variance to interpret. The present findings suggest that researchers should not calculate separate scores for three types of well-being when using the MHC-SF and that alternative measures of specific components of well-being should be considered.
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The study of well-being is hampered by the multiplicity of approaches, but focusing on a single approach begs the question of what “well-being” really is. We analyze how well-being is defined according to the three main kinds of theories: “Liking” approaches (generally adopted by psychologists), “Wanting” approaches (predominant among economists), and “Needing” approaches (used in both public policy and psychology). We propose an integrative framework, the engine model of well-being, drawing on Seligman (Seligman, M. E. P., 2011, Flourish. New York, NY: The Free Press) and Sen's (Sen, A. K., 1999, Development as freedom. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press) emphasis on the plurality of this construct by distinguishing among (a) inputs (resources that enable well-being), (b) processes (internal states of mechanisms influencing well-being), and (c) outcomes (the intrinsically valuable behaviors that reflect the attainment of well-being). We discuss implications for research, measurement, and interventions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), path analysis, and structural equation modeling (SEM) have long histories in clinical research. Although CFA has largely superseded EFA, CFAs of multidimensional constructs typically fail to meet standards of good measurement: goodness of fit, measurement invariance, lack of differential item functioning, and well-differentiated factors in support of discriminant validity. Part of the problem is undue reliance on overly restrictive CFAs in which each item loads on only one factor. Exploratory SEM (ESEM), an overarching integration of the best aspects of CFA/SEM and traditional EFA, provides confirmatory tests of a priori factor structures, relations between latent factors and multigroup/multioccasion tests of full (mean structure) measurement invariance. It incorporates all combinations of CFA factors, ESEM factors, covariates, grouping/multiple-indicator multiple-cause (MIMIC) variables, latent growth, and complex structures that typically have required CFA/SEM. ESEM has broad applicability to clinical studies that are not appropriately addressed either by traditional EFA or CFA/SEM. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Clinical Psychology Volume 10 is March 20, 2014. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/catalog/pubdates.aspx for revised estimates.
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We investigated the relationship between various character strengths and life satisfaction among 5,299 adults from three Internet samples using the Values in Action Inventory of Strengths. Consistently and robustly associated with life satisfaction were hope, zest, gratitude, love, and curiosity. Only weakly associated with life satisfaction, in contrast, were modesty and the intellectual strengths of appreciation of beauty, creativity, judgment, and love of learning. In general, the relationship between character strengths and life satisfaction was monotonic, indicating that excess on any one character strength does not diminish life satisfaction.
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We demonstrate that, under a theorem proposed by Q.H. Vuong [Econometrica 57, No. 2, 307-333 (1989; Zbl 0701.62106)], the likelihood ratio statistic based on the Kullback-Leibler information criterion or the null hypothesis that a random sample is drawn from a k 0 -component normal mixture distribution against the alternative hypothesis that the sample is drawn from a k 1 -component normal mixture distribution is asymptotically distributed as a weighted sum of independent chi-squared random variables with one degree of freedom, under general regularity conditions. We report simulation studies of two cases where we are testing a single normal versus a two-component normal mixture and a two-component normal mixture versus a three-component normal mixture. An empirical adjustment to the likelihood ratio statistic is proposed that appears to improve the rate of convergence to the limiting distribution.
Article
How are character strengths related to recovery? A retrospective web-based study of 2087 adults found small but reliable associations between a history of physical illness and the character strengths of appreciation of beauty, bravery, curiosity, fairness, forgiveness, gratitude, humor, kindness, love of learning, and spirituality. A history of psychological disorder and the character strengths of appreciation of beauty, creativity, curiosity, gratitude, and love of learning were also associated. A history of problems was linked to decreased life satisfaction, but only among those who had not recovered. In the case of physical illness, less of a toll on life satisfaction was found among those with the character strengths of bravery, kindness, and humor, and in the case of psychological disorder, less of a toll on life satisfaction was found among those with the character strengths of appreciation of beauty and love of learning. We suggest that recovery from illness and disorder may benefit character. 'Tis an ill wind that blows no good. English proverb