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Socializing Intelligence Through Academic Talk and Dialogue focuses on a fast-growing topic in education research. Over the course of 34 chapters, the contributors discuss theories and case studies that shed light on the effects of dialogic participation in and outside the classroom. This rich, transdisciplinary endeavor will appeal to scholars and researchers in education and many related disciplines, including learning and cognitive sciences, educational psychology, instructional science, and linguistics, as well as to teachers, curriculum designers, and educational policy makers.
Table of Contents
Acknowledgments v
1In tr od uc ti on Talk, Learning, and Teaching 1
Lauren B. Resnick, Christa S. C. Asterhan, and Sherice N. Clarke
2Prologue The Study of Classroom Discourse:
Early History and Current Developments 13
Hugh (Bud) Mehan and Courtney B. Cazden
Section 1: Effects of Dialogic Participation in and Beyond the Classroom
3 Dialogue-Intensive Pedagogies for Promoting Reading Comprehension:
What We Know, What We Need to Know 37
Ian A. G. Wilkinson, P. Karen Murphy, and Sevda Binici
4 Effective Classroom Talk Is Reading Comprehension Instruction 51
Margaret G. McKeown and Isabel L. Beck
5 Social and Cognitive Development During Collaborative Reasoning 63
Jingjing Sun, Richard C. Anderson, Tzu-Jung Lin, and Joshua Morris
6 Developing Norms of Discourse 77
Deanna Kuhn and Nicole Zillmer
7 An Exploration of Teacher Practices in Relation to Profiles of Small-Group Dialogue 87
Noreen M. Webb, Megan L. Franke, Angela C. Turrou, and Marsha Ing
8 The Role of Dialogue in Philosophy for Children 99
Keith J. Topping and Steven Trickey
9 “Scaling Down” to Explore the Role of Talk in Learning: From District Intervention
to Controlled Classroom Study 111
Catherine O’Connor, Sarah Michaels, and Suzanne Chapin
10 The Effects of Cognitive Acceleration 127
Philip Adey and Michael Shayer
Section 2: Dialogic Classroom Cultures
11 Uncertainty and Scientific Progress in Classroom Dialogue 143
Michael J. Ford and Ellice A. Forman
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viii | Contents
12 Discussing Argumentative Texts as a Traditional Jewish Learning Practice 157
Baruch B. Schwarz
13 The Right to Speak 167
Sherice N. Clarke
14 Discursive Cultures of Learning in (Everyday) Mathematics Teaching:
A Video-Based Study on Mathematics Teaching in German and Swiss Classrooms 181
Christine Pauli and Kurt Reusser
Section 3: Dialogue in the Digital Age
15 Accountable Talk and Learning in Popular Culture: The Game/Affinity Paradigm 197
James Paul Gee
16 Introducing Online Dialogues in Co-Located Classrooms: If, Why, and How 205
Christa S. C. Asterhan
17 Computer-Supported Academically Productive Discourse 219
Gerry Stahl
18 How Technology Is Broadening the Nature of Learning Dialogues 231
Allan Collins and Barbara Y. White
Section 4: Theoretical and Methodological Accounts of Learning and
Development Through Dialogue
Theoretical Accounts
19 Why All This Talk About Talking Classrooms? Theorizing the Relation Between
Talking and Learning 245
Anna Sfard
20 Classroom Talk Sequences and Learning 255
James G. Greeno
21 Dialogue Patterns in Peer Collaboration That Promote Learning 263
Michelene T. H. Chi and Muhsin Menekse
22 Accounting for Socializing Intelligence With the Knowledge-Learning-
Instruction Framework 275
Kenneth R. Koedinger and Eliane Stampfer Wiese
Methodological Accounts
23 What Sociolinguistics and Machine Learning Have to Say to Each Other
About Interaction Analysis 289
Carolyn Penstein Rosé and Alla Tovares
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Contents | ix
24 Statistical Discourse Analysis 301
Ming Ming Chiu
25 Improving Teaching at Scale: Design for the Scientific Measurement and
Learning of Discourse Practice 315
Richard Correnti, Mary Kay Stein, Margaret S. Smith, Jimmy Scherrer,
Margaret G. McKeown, James G. Greeno, and Kevin Ashley
Section 5: Scaling Dialogic Practice Through Teacher Development
26 Teacher Dialogue That Supports Collaborative Learning in the Classroom 335
Robyn M. Gillies
27 Conceptualizing Talk Moves as Tools: Professional Development Approaches
for Academically Productive Discussions 347
Sarah Michaels and Catherine O’Connor
28 Positioning Novice Teachers as Agents in Learning Teaching 363
Magdalene Lampert, Hala Ghousseini, and Heather Beasley
29 Orchestrating Productive Mathematical Discussions: Helping Teachers Learn to
Better Incorporate Student Thinking 375
Mary Kay Stein, Randi A. Engle, Margaret S. Smith, and Elizabeth K. Hughes
30 Sequencing Academically Productive Talk in English Language Arts 389
Vivian Mihalakis, Anthony Petrosky, and Stephanie McConachie
31 The Challenges of Scale 403
Jonathan Osborne
32 Embedding Dialogic Teaching in the Practice of a Large School System 415
Lindsay Clare Matsumura and Helen E. Garnier
33 Dialogic Pedagogy at Scale: Oblique Perspectives 429
Robin Alexander
34 Talking to Learn: The Promise and Challenge of Dialogic Teaching 441
Lauren B. Resnick with Faith Schantz
Name Index 451
Subject Index 455
About the Contributors 465
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... Learning can be promoted through verbal activities that involve interaction and coconstruction, such as clarifying misunderstandings and or challenged by and challenging others (Asterhan and Schwarz 2007;Pena-Shaff and Nicholls 2004;Resnick et al. 2015;. Drawing on Walton's work (Walton 1989), argumentation strategies can be divided in two major categoriesthose relating to the construction and exposition of one's own argument and those relating to the opponent's position and claims (Felton and Kuhn 2001;Kuhn and Udell 2003). ...
In everyday life, people seek, evaluate, and use online sources to underpin opinions and make decisions. While education must promote the skills people need to critically question the sourcing of online information, it is important, more generally, to understand how to successfully promote the acquisition of any skills related to seeking online information. This review outlines technologies that aim to support users when they collaboratively seek online information. Upon integrating psychological–pedagogical approaches on trust in and the sourcing of online information, argumentation, and computer-supported collaborative learning, we reviewed the literature (N = 95 journal articles) on technologies for collaborative online information seeking. The technologies we identified either addressed collaborative online information seeking as an exclusive process for searching for online information or, alternatively, addressed online information seeking within the context of a more complex learning process. Our review was driven by three main research questions: We aimed to understand whether and how the studies considered 1) the role of trust and critical questioning in the sourcing of online information, 2) the learning processes at play when information seekers engage in collaborative argumentation, and 3) what affordances are offered by technologies that support users’ collaborative seeking of online information. The reviewed articles that focused exclusively on technologies for seeking online information primarily addressed aspects of cooperation (e.g., task management), whereas articles that focused on technologies for integrating the processes of information seeking into the entire learning processes instead highlighted aspects of collaborative argumentation (e.g., exchange of multiple perspectives and critical questioning in argumentation). Seven of the articles referred to trust as an aspect of seekers’ sourcing strategies. We emphasize how researchers’, users’, and technology developers’ consideration of collaborative argumentation could expand the benefits of technological support for seeking online information.
... We are convinced that these developments are inextricable from Ely switching from individual to collaborative work with the module. The affordances of collaborative learning have been widely recognized (e.g., Resnick et al., 2015), and we are looking forward to future research on how learning of this sort comes about with learning-support modules. Furthermore, it appears almost self-evident that the developments in Ely's routine took place thanks to the module opening the space for them to happen, i.e., by offering a sequence of questions in which students could implement the same routine. ...
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Learning-support system is an umbrella term that we use for digital resources that assign students with mathematical questions and give automatic feedback on the inserted answers. Transitioning between questions and feedback is characteristic to students’ work with such systems. We apply the commognitive framework to explore the role of within-system transitions in students’ mathematics learning, with a special interest in what we term as “reroutinization”—a process of repeated development of conventional routines to be implemented in already familiar mathematical tasks. The study revolves around a digital module in integral calculus, which was designed to support undergraduates with finding areas enclosed by functions. The data comes from dyads and triads of first-year university students, who collaboratively interacted with the module. The analyses cast light on how transitioning within the module aided students to review familiar routines, amend them, confirm, and solidify the amendments. The transition process was not always linear and contained instances of students cycling back and forth between the assigned questions and feedback messages. We conclude with the discussion on the module’s design that afforded reroutinization and suggest paths for further research.
... Research regarding deliberative teaching has been shown to play a crucial role in the achievement of political competencies, future political participation, and conversational skills (Anderson, 2014), as well as in the development of democratic values and principles (García-Carrión et al., 2020;Villardón-Gallego et al., 2018). Likewise, there is a large body of empirical literature associated with argumentative deliberation or inquiry dialogue that evaluates the effects of peer argumentation in the classroom, showing that deliberation and discussion of controversial topics through joint and critical resolution has a positive impact on the understanding of complex disciplinary concepts (Asterhan & Schwarz, 2016;Asterhan, 2013;Larrain et al., 2019;Resnick et al., 2015). These investigations consider that teaching should go from the transmission of knowledge or recitation to dialogue, discussion, or argumentation practices. ...
... As Alexander (2020) points out, "dialogic" has assumed many different shades of meaning when applied to teaching, pedagogy and education (for two wide-ranging research collections, see Resnick, Asterhan and Clarke, 2015;Mercer, Wegerif and Major, 2019). But all versions of dialogic pedagogy are founded on the belief that educational success is enhanced by interactive talk that respects and fosters the agency of learners by allowing them to take discourse initiatives. ...
... Much research has focused on the role of language and discursive interaction in the knowledge-building process in classroom-based settings (Howe & Mercer, 2007;Mercer et al., 2020;Resnick et al., 2015;Schwarz & Baker, 2016). In the last 40 years, this research field has flourished under umbrella terms such as 'classroom dialogue' or 'dialogic teaching' (Kim & Wilkinson, 2019;Mercer & Dawes, 2014), encapsulating studies that aim to effectively use discursive interactions in the teaching context (Alexander, 2008). ...
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This article presents a theoretical work whose objective is the discussion of methodologies and methods in educational research, in particular those that analyze classroom discursive interactions. The first part discusses the two main research paradigms and their ontological and epistemological bases: positivism and interpretivism. Next, two methods for analyzing discursive interactions are presented and discussed, one for each paradigm. Systematic coding - within the quantitative context - is indicated to treat data from large samples, to describe general patterns and, by transforming the discourse into variables, to statistical comparisons or temporal analyses. The method is applied in a set of 42 episodes of group dialogue and the results are discussed in light of the nature of the research questions, showing what types of statistical tests can be performed. Within the interpretivist paradigm, sociocultural discourse analysis is presented as an example of qualitative method an it is applied to excerpts from classroom dialogues. The main finding is the identification of typologies that describe the ways in which teacher and students construct scientific explanations. In the final part, some possibilities and limits of each method are discussed and the conclusion defendes that both are complementary for the advancement of knowledge in the educational field.
... The construct of dialogic teaching builds upon a long tradition of theoretical and empirical research on the role of talk in learning, teaching, and society. This body of research includes the works of philosophers (e.g., Bakhtin, 1986;Freire, 2000;Matusov, 2009;Wegerif, 2008), cognitive and cultural psychologists (e.g., Bruner, 1996;Vygotsky, 1978), linguists (e.g., (Barnes, 1976;Cazden, 2001;Wells, 1999) as well as many classroom researchers (Alexander, 2017;Boyd & Markarian, 2011;Edwards & Westgate, 1994;Lefstein & Snell, 2013;Mercer, 2019;Resnick et al., 2015). Due to the breadth of research on this topic, researchers and scholars have not reached a full consensus on its terminology and conceptualisation (Howe & Mercer, 2017). ...
The role of talk in science education has long been established; an essential part of learning science is for students to engage in scientific discourse. Nonetheless, productive science discussion is still rare in the classroom. The rarity can be partly attributed to the complexity of dialogic science teaching: teachers have to respond to the dynamic flow of student talk in the moment, orchestrate different voices towards a collective understanding, support the emergence of new ideas, ensure disciplinary rigour of scientific practice, and attend to the complex social relationships in the class. The construct of contingent responsiveness (CR) describes teachers’ adaptive expertise in responding to student ideas in the moment to promote collective sense-making and classroom equity. This study used a design-based research method (DBR) to co-design a technology-enhanced professional development (PD) programme with teachers of students aged 5-12 years old in Pakistan, incorporating mixed-reality simulation technology (i.e. Mursion) over four iterations. The effectiveness of the PD programme in supporting CR was evident in the significant shift in teachers’ response patterns before and after the PD, shown by epistemic network analysis both visually and statistically. Furthermore, this study shed light on how to support teachers in developing CR using systematic conjecture mapping, tracing the path from design features to mediating processes, and then to the outcome. The conjecture map was refined over four iterations, which improved the design and learning theory over time. It was found that 1) adopting dialogic framings, 2) developing fluency with talk moves, 3) deploying flexible attention, 4) engaging in knowledge-based reasoning, and 5) experiencing metaphoric resonance could lead to CR. These processes were enabled by a combination of design features, i.e., mixed-reality simulations, talk moves, guided collaborative inquiry, case studies, and collective reflection. This study achieved the dual goals of DBR, producing usable knowledge in the form of an effective PD programme and building a preliminary learning theory of CR. Furthermore, unpacking the mechanisms of the PD allows the design to be adapted and tested in other educational and cultural contexts, thus enhancing its adaptability, sustainability, and potential for scalability.
... As Alexander (2020) points out, "dialogic" has assumed many different shades of meaning when applied to teaching, pedagogy and education (for two wide-ranging research collections, see Resnick, Asterhan and Clarke, 2015;Mercer, Wegerif and Major, 2019). But all versions of dialogic pedagogy are founded on the belief that educational success is enhanced by interactive talk that respects and fosters the agency of learners by allowing them to take discourse initiatives. ...
... As Alexander (2020) points out, "dialogic" has assumed many different shades of meaning when applied to teaching, pedagogy and education (for two wide-ranging research collections, see Resnick, Asterhan and Clarke, 2015;Mercer, Wegerif and Major, 2019). But all versions of dialogic pedagogy are founded on the belief that educational success is enhanced by interactive talk that respects and fosters the agency of learners by allowing them to take discourse initiatives. ...
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