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Background: Alcohol-related rape among university students is clearly a major concern. However, there have been no large-scale surveys of the prevalence of this offence among university students in the UK. The aim of the current paper is to investigate the prevalence and characteristics of alcohol-related rape among university students in seven universities in Wales. Methods: All universities in Wales were approached to take part in the research. Eight of the nine universities agreed to take part and seven universities emailed their students as planned. On the launch date, emails were sent by the universities to all students requesting that they take part in the survey. The email contained a link to a questionnaire covering a range of topics including: demographics, lifestyle factors, and substance misuse. Results: In total, 7,846 students submitted a questionnaire. Overall, just under six per cent of females reported being the victim of alcohol-related rape while at university compared with one per cent of males. Sexual orientation was significantly correlated with alcohol-related rape, with three per cent of heterosexuals reported being the victim of alcohol-related rape, compared with eight per cent of lesbians or gays. Students who drank alcohol frequently and those involved in binge drinking were also significantly more likely to report the offence. Conclusions: The government and universities should play a more direct role to ensure that actions are taken to deter, prevent, and treat the consequences of these largely unreported offences.

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... Four studies reported past-year prevalence rates for women unselected for sexual orientation. Among the studies using nationally representative designs, the past-year prevalence of sexual assault ranged from 0.6% (Spain; Domenech Del Rio & Sirvent Garcia Del Valle, 2017) to 1.7% (Netherlands; de Haas et al., 2012), whereas the highest past-year prevalence rate (1.9%) was identified in the one study of past-year prevalence among students (United Kingdom; Holloway & Bennett, 2018). Two studies of past-year prevalence used interviews to assess sexual assault and found rates of 0.6% (Spain; Domenech Del Rio & Sirvent Garcia Del Valle, 2017) and 1.2% (Germany; Allroggen et al., 2016). ...
... Two studies of past-year prevalence used interviews to assess sexual assault and found rates of 0.6% (Spain; Domenech Del Rio & Sirvent Garcia Del Valle, 2017) and 1.2% (Germany; Allroggen et al., 2016). In comparison, similar but somewhat higher rates were identified in the two studies using self-report measures: 1.7% (Netherlands; de Haas et al., 2012) and 1.9% (Wales; Holloway & Bennett, 2018). In terms of study definitions, the study assessing past-year prevalence with the most restrictive definition (which referenced both completed forced penetration and "sexual assault" generally) found a prevalence rate of 1.2% (Germany; Allroggen et al., 2016). ...
... Among the studies using nationally representative designs, the past-year prevalence of sexual assault was 0.6% (Germany; Allroggen et al., 2016) and 0.7% (Netherlands;de Haas et al., 2012). In comparison, among the studies not using nationally representative designs, the past-year prevalence was similar at 0.5% (Sweden;Swahnberg et al., 2012) and, in the only study to assess past-year prevalence in a sample of college students, past-year prevalence was 0.6% (United Kingdom; Holloway & Bennett, 2018). In the study with the most restrictive definition (which referenced both completed forced penetration and "sexual assault" generally), past-year prevalence was 0.6% (Germany; Allroggen et al., 2016), whereas in the study using the most inclusive definition (including coerced, nonpenetrative, and/or attempted assaults), past-year prevalence was similar, at 0. 7% (Netherlands;de Haas et al., 2012). ...
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Objective: We present a review of peer-reviewed English-language studies conducted outside the United States and Canada on the prevalence of sexual assault victimization in adolescence and adulthood published since 2010. Method: A systematic literature search yielded 32 articles reporting on 45 studies from 29 countries. Studies that only provided prevalence estimates for sexual assault in intimate relationships or did not present separate rates for men and women were excluded. All studies were coded by two coders, and a risk of bias score was calculated for each study. Both past-year and prevalence rates covering longer periods were extracted. Results: The largest number of studies came from Europe (n=21), followed by Africa (n=11), Asia and Latin America (n=6 each). One study came from the Middle East and no studies were found from Oceania. Across the 22 studies that reported past-year prevalence rates, figures ranged from 0% to 59.2% for women, 0.3% to 55.5% for men, and 1.5% to 18.2% for LGBT samples. The average risk of bias score was 5.7 out of 10. Studies varied widely in methodology. Conclusion: Despite regional variation, most studies indicate that sexual assault is widespread. More sustained, systematic, and coordinated research efforts are needed to gauge the scale of sexual assault in different parts of the world and to develop prevention measures.
... The contribution of alcohol to sexual assault and rape cannot be discussed without also describing the general characteristics of rape (Holloway and Bennett 2018). This paper thus alternates between providing information about rape in general, and contrasting this information with findings regarding alcohol-related rape. ...
... Alcohol abuse is not a new phenomenon in several parts of the world, and SA is no exception. Many studies have been carried out on the impacts of alcohol abuse on human health, crime and an increasing level of accidents that have claimed several lives (Edwards et al. 2020;Fritzsche et al. 2020;Möhring et al. 2019;Holloway and Bennett 2018). However, relatively few studies in SA have focused on the nexus between alcohol abuse and rape. ...
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This paper explores the linkage between alcohol abuse and rape cases in Limpopo Province of South Africa. Contemporarily in South Africa, the media is saturated with news and reports of rape incidences. Official police records and crime statistics have also shown an increase in the menace.Although measures were taken by the State to address the menace, they have not really been productive. From the findings of a broader doctoral study, using qualitative method approach, it was discovered that there is a strong linkage between alcohol abuse and rape in Limpopo province. In point of fact, alcohol abuse was reputed as the main causative factor of rape in the province. The researchers also found that despite the increased awareness level of the linkage between alcohol abuse and rape, appropriate actions at combating the menace were found to be weak and ineffective.
... reported that alcohol and hard drugs have been shown to play a role in sexual violence as it provides opportunity for antisocial behaviors. This implies that people are more likely to act violently under the influence of alcohol or psychoactive drugs because they do not consider that they will be held accountable for their behavior (Katy & Trevor, 2017;Grisso et.al, 2009). It is worthy to note that half of the respondents did not see sexual acts in return for good scores or gift as a form of sexual violence. ...
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Sexual violence is a major public health problem that disregards basic human rights globally. Worldwide, mass media reports have shown an increased rate of sexual violence in higher institutions of learning, therefore exploring the knowledge of causes and strategies in prevention of sexual violence among undergraduate students is crucial in order to promote a coordinated movement against it. This descriptive cross-sectional study is aimed at assessing the knowledge of causes and strategies employed in prevention of sexual violence among undergraduate students in Niger Delta region of Nigeria. Data were collected using the questionnaire and a multistage sampling technique was used to obtain a sample of 400 respondents from the population. Data analysis was done using SPSS version 20.0 at a 5% level of significance. Both descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyze the data collected. These were presented in tables and figures. All the respondents have heard of sexual violence and opined that sexual violence is prevalent in the university. Most of the respondents demonstrated adequate knowledge on sexual violence but poor knowledge of where to report cases of sexual violence in the university. The major causes identified were Inadequate Punishment of perpetrators (100%), Keeping silent and not reporting the offenders 392 (98.0%), Portrayal of women as sex objects in the media (96.5%), Alcohol and drugs (95.5%), Inadequate security on campus (99.5%), Indecent dressing 374 (93.5%). The major strategies identified for preventing sexual violence include severe punishment for perpetuators/offenders (100%), adherence to dress code of the school (99.0%), mass campaigns against sexual violence (98.5%), enact laws prohibiting pornography (98.5%), avoid late night outing/party (97%), provision of adequate security on campus and avoid walking alone on lonely path (96.5%).
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Sexual victimization continues to be a problem on college campuses across the United States. Research on risk focuses on victimization of heterosexual women while that of sexual minority students is under-studied. The current study uses National College Health Assessment data to examine the relationship between sexual identity and four measures of self-reported sexual victimization. Several victimization correlates identified in prior research are included in analyses. Logistic regression results show that gay men and bisexual men and women were more likely compared to heterosexuals to report all four victimization types, and unsure students are more likely to report three types. However, lesbian students are no more likely than heterosexual students to report any sexual victimization. Also, transgendered students were more likely compared to female students to report three victimization types.
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Alcohol is associated with risk of sexual assault among women and with increased risk of experiencing completed rape once attacked. In particular, alcohol use prior to sexual assault by both offenders and victims may affect the severity of sexual victimization experienced by women. Little research has explored the mechanisms (e.g., social context, behavior) through which alcohol may affect outcomes of sexual attacks using multivariate analysis. This study analyzed the role of alcohol in sexual assaults experienced by a national sample of female college students. A hierarchical multivariate regression showed that victim alcohol abuse propensity and both victim and offender alcohol use prior to attack were directly associated with more severe sexual victimization to women as measured by the Sexual Experiences Survey. This study suggests that alcohol use plays both direct and indirect roles in the outcomes of sexual assaults. Rape and alcohol abuse prevention efforts can benefit from incorporating information about alcohol's role in different assault contexts.
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The purpose of the present study was to examine associations between use of protective behavioral strategies (PBS) and alcohol-related outcomes (alcohol consumption, negative alcohol consequences, and positive alcohol consequences) using a daily diary approach. This approach is less affected by retrospective memory biases than typical self-reports of alcohol-related variables and allows the examination of both between-subjects and within-person effects. Using hierarchical linear modeling of data from 40 subjects who completed daily dairies for up to 15 days, we found significant within-person variation in PBS use over time, and each type of PBS had unique relationships with alcohol-related outcomes. For example, within-person variation in Serious Harm Reduction, one form of PBS, predicted increased daily alcohol use, negative consequences, and positive consequences. Our findings suggest the importance of intensive longitudinal methods to examine both between-subjects and within-subjects effects of PBS use and alcohol-related outcomes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).
Article
Alcohol use among college students remains a major public health concern with many students experiencing negative alcohol-related consequences as a result of their drinking. Protective behavioral strategies (PBS) have been conceptualized as skills used by drinkers to moderate their drinking and/or resulting consequences. The correlational evidence for the relationships among PBS, alcohol use, and related problems has been mixed. Experimental research reveals inconsistent relationships among intervention condition, PBS use, and alcohol outcomes. There is currently insufficient evidence to support the claim that PBS function as a mechanism of behavior change for college drinkers. We propose that the inconsistencies found in the correlational and experimental research are explained in part by psychometric and methodological issues. This review summarizes measurement and methodological issues in studies that have directly assessed the relationship between PBS and alcohol use and/or alcohol-related consequences in college drinking samples. Additionally, we provide some suggestions and future directions to overcome methodological and conceptual limitations and to advance understanding of the role of protective behavioral strategy use in reducing alcohol involvement among college drinkers.
Article
In this study we assessed the incidence of and the risk factors for date rape and other forms of male-against-female sexual aggression (SA) in dating situations. Over the course of two semesters, 341 women and 294 men anonymously completed questionnaires. They were asked to describe their most recent date (to provide normative data on dating) and their worst experience with SA during a date, if applicable. We assessed possible risk factors in three ways: (a) For people who had been involved in SA, we compared the characteristics of their SA dates and their recent dates; anything occurring more often on SA dates than on recent dates might be a risk factor. (b) We compared the most recent dates of people who had versus had not experienced SA to identify differences in their date habits. (c) We compared attitudes of people who had versus had not been involved in SA. Results showed that 77.6% of the women and 57.3% of the men had been involved in some form of SA; 14.7% of the women and 7.1% of the men had been involved in unwanted sexual intercourse. Variables that appear to be risk factors are the man's initiating the date, paying all the expenses, and driving; miscommunication about sex; heavy alcohol or drug use; "parking"; and men's acceptance of traditional sex roles, interpersonal violence, adversarial attitudes about relationships, and rape myths. The length of time that dating partners have known each other seems unrelated to the risk of SA. Implications for rape-prevention programs are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Purpose: To describe differences in alcohol use, marijuana use, and smoking behaviors between lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) and heterosexual college students, and determine whether there was a difference in the health information each group received. Data sources: A random sample of 3000 college students aged 18–24 years who were currently enrolled at a southeastern metropolitan university on a full-time basis were invited to participate. The final sample (n= 772) consisted of heterosexuals (n= 731) and LGB (n= 41) college students. Gay and bisexual men (n= 20) and lesbian and bisexual women (n= 21) were compared to heterosexual college students. Conclusions: Lesbian/bisexual women were 4.9 times more likely to smoke, 10.7 times more likely to drink, and 4.9 times more likely to use marijuana than heterosexual women. Gay/bisexual men did not significantly differ from heterosexual men. There was no difference in the health information on alcohol and drug prevention the groups received. Gay/bisexual men were less likely (p= .02) compared to heterosexual men to have received tobacco prevention information. Implications for practice: Advanced practice nurses must ensure that every patient receives preventive services and anticipatory guidance at every visit. LGB clients in particular need health assessments and interventions appropriate to their individual risk profiles.
Article
This study examined the relationship between alcohol, sex-related alcohol expectancies, and sexual assaults among women college students. Participants completed measures of sexual behaviors, sexual victimization experiences, sex related alcohol expectancies, and drinking habits. Based on participants’ responses women were categorized as having experienced no assault, unwanted sexual contact, sexual coercion, attempted rape, and rape. It was observed across groups that relative to controls, women reporting attempted rape and rape consumed higher levels of alcohol. Within group comparisons revealed that relative to controls, victimized women endorsed higher levels of sex-related alcohol expectancies. In the prediction of severity of sexual victimization, regression analyses revealed an interaction between alcohol consumption and expectancy of vulnerability to sexual coercion. At higher levels of alcohol consumption women endorsing high vulnerability to sexual coercion experienced more severe victimatization. Implications of the findings are discussed.
Article
Using survey responses from a sample of 185 college women enrolled at a large northwestern university, this study identified the various risk factors related to three different forms of verbally and physically coercive sexual victimization. Three logistic regression models were estimated and findings indicated that (1) more sexual partners and delays in responding to danger in sexual settings significantly increased the odds of experiencing unwanted sex as a result of verbal coercion, (2) an increased number of sex partners significantly increased the odds of experiencing alcohol-induced sexual assault, and (3) an increased number of sex partners and affiliation with the university Greek system significantly increased the odds of experiencing completed rape. Future research directions and policy implications are discussed.
Article
This meta-analysis quantitatively compiled the results of studies from 1992 to 2009 to determine the prevalence and types of victimization experienced by lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) individuals. Based on the results of three searches, 386 studies were retrieved and coded. Comparisons were made across all LGB individuals (138 studies), between LGB and heterosexual individuals (65 studies), and between LGB females and males (53 studies), with over 500,000 participants. Multiple types of victimization were coded, including discrimination, physical assault, and school victimization. Findings revealed that for LGB individuals, reports of victimization experiences were substantial (e.g., 55% experienced verbal harassment, and 41% experienced discrimination) and some types have increased since a 1992 review, while others have decreased. LGB individuals experienced greater rates of victimization than heterosexual individuals (range: d = .04-.58). LGB males experienced some types of victimization more than LGB females (e.g., weapon assault and being robbed) but, overall, the gender differences were small. It can be concluded that LGB individuals still experience a substantial amount of victimization. Implications for research methods are discussed, including recommendations for sampling and measurement of victimization. [Supplementary materials are available for this article. Go to the publisher's online edition of Journal of Sex Research for the following free supplemental resource(s): Supplementary Tables. These tables are referred to in the text of this article as "Table S1," "Table S2," etc.].
Article
Two studies investigated the effects of information related to rape myths on Spanish college students' perceptions of sexual assault. In Study 1, 92 participants read a vignette about a nonconsensual sexual encounter and rated whether it was a sexual assault and how much the woman was to blame. In the scenario, the man either used physical force or offered alcohol to the woman to overcome her resistance. Rape myth acceptance (RMA) was measured as an individual difference variable. Participants were more convinced that the incident was a sexual assault and blamed the woman less when the man had used force rather than offering her alcohol. In Study 2, 164 college students read a scenario in which the woman rejected a man's sexual advances after having either accepted or turned down his offer of alcohol. In addition, the woman was either portrayed as being sexually attracted to him or there was no mention of her sexual interest. Participants' RMA was again included. High RMA participants blamed the victim more than low RMA participants and were less certain that the incident was a sexual assault, especially when the victim had accepted alcohol and was described as being sexually attracted to the man. The findings are discussed in terms of their implications for the prevention and legal prosecution of sexual assault.
Article
Dating violence is a serious and prevalent problem among college-aged dating couples. Although substance use has been shown to be associated with dating violence among college students in empirical studies, the use of substances as they relate to dating violence has yet to be systematically reviewed. The purpose of the present manuscript is to review research on dating violence (perpetration and victimization) and substance use (alcohol and drugs). First, theoretical explanations for the association between substances and dating violence are presented. Second, the literature on substance use and dating violence is reviewed. The literature suggests a consistent association between alcohol and dating violence perpetration and victimization, although the association between drug use and dating violence is less clear. Implications of this review for dating violence prevention programming and future research are discussed.
Article
Sexually coercive experiences, heavy alcohol use, and alcohol-related problems occur at relatively high base rates in college populations. As suggested by the self-medication hypothesis, alcohol consumption may be a means by which one can reduce negative affect or stress related to experiences of sexual coercion. However, few studies have directly tested the hypothesis that coping motives for drinking mediate the relation between sexual assault and problem drinking behaviors, and no published studies have tested this in men. The current study tested this hypothesis using structural equation modeling in a sample of 780 male and female undergraduates. Results revealed that coping motives partially mediated the relation between sexual coercion and drinking and alcohol-related negative consequences. In addition, direct and indirect paths between sexual coercion and drinking were found for men whereas only indirect paths were found for women. Results provide support for self-medication models of drinking and suggest the importance of exploring gender differences in mechanisms for drinking.
Article
We sought to examine relationships between women's sexual orientations and their sexual assault experiences before and during university. Self-reported responses on a web-based survey of 5,439 female undergraduates who participated in the Campus Sexual Assault study were analyzed to compare three groups: bisexuals, lesbians, and heterosexuals. Groups were compared in terms of the prevalence of sexual assault before and during university, and the extent to which sexual assault before university predicted sexual assault during university. The prevalence of sexual assault before and during university was higher among bisexuals and lesbians compared with heterosexuals (25.4% of bisexuals, 22.4% of lesbians, and 10.7% of heterosexuals were sexually assaulted before university; 24.0% of bisexuals, 17.9% of lesbians, and 13.3% of heterosexuals were sexually assaulted during university). Sexual assault before university was highly predictive of sexual assault during university, especially among non-heterosexuals. Compared with heterosexuals not sexually assaulted before university (the referent group), previously assaulted non-heterosexuals (bisexuals/lesbians) had eight times the odds of sexual assault during university (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 8.75), whereas previously assaulted heterosexuals had four times the odds of sexual assault during university (AOR, 4.40). However, there was no difference in the odds of sexual assault during university between non-heterosexuals not sexually assaulted before university and heterosexuals not sexually assaulted before university. Bisexual and lesbian women are more likely than heterosexual women to be sexually assaulted before and during university. Sexual assault before university is linked to sexual assault during university for all women, with this association being especially pronounced among non-heterosexuals.
Article
This study examined the extent to which protective behavioral strategies (PBS) mediated the influence of drinking motives on alcohol consumption, and if these hypothesized relationships were corroborated across subsamples of gender and race. Online surveys were completed by 1592 heavy drinking college undergraduates from two universities (49.9% male and 50.1% female; 76.9% Caucasian and 23.1% Asian). Independent samples t-tests compared males and females as well as Caucasians and Asians on measures of drinking motives, PBS use, and alcohol consumption, and structural equation models examined the mediating role of PBS. Consistent with predictions, t-tests revealed that males reported greater levels of consumption than females, but females reported greater use of PBS than males. Caucasians reported greater consumption levels, endorsed higher enhancement motives, and higher PBS related to serious harm reduction, but Asians endorsed higher coping and conformity motives, and PBS focused on stopping/limiting drinking. In multiple-sample SEM analyses, PBS were shown to largely mediate the relationship between motives and consumption in all demographic subsamples. Findings indicate that PBS use leads to reductions in drinking despite pre-established drinking motives, hence pointing to the potential value of standalone PBS skills training interventions in lowering alcohol use among diverse groups of heavy drinking college students.
Article
College students are an at-risk population based on their heavy alcohol consumption and associated consequences. First-year students are at particular risk due to greater freedom and access to alcohol on campus. Web-based (electronic) interventions (e-interventions) are being rapidly adopted as a universal approach to prevent high-risk drinking, but have not been well evaluated. The objective of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of the two most widely adopted EIs, AlcoholEdu and The Alcohol eCHECKUP TO GO (e-Chug), in reducing both alcohol use and alcohol-related consequences in incoming college students. To do so, we conducted a 3-group randomized trial (N=82) comparing AlcoholEdu and e-Chug to an assessment-only control group. Compared to the assessment-only control group, participants in the AlcoholEdu and e-Chug groups reported lower levels of alcohol use across multiple measures at 1-month follow-up. Participants who received AlcoholEdu showed significantly fewer lower alcohol-related consequences than assessment-only controls, while there was a trend for reduced consequences in participants who received e-Chug versus assessment-only. Findings indicate that e-intervention is a promising prevention approach to address the problem of college student alcohol consumption, especially for campuses that have limited resources.
Article
Because of inadequacies in the methods used to measure sexual assault, national crime statistics, criminal victimization studies, convictions, or incarceration rates fail to reflect the true scope of rape. Studies that have avoided the limitations of these methods have revealed very high rates of overt rape and lesser degrees of sexual aggression. The goal of the present study was to extend previous work to a national basis. The Sexual Experiences Survey was administered to a national sample of 6,159 women and men enrolled in 32 institutions representative of the diversity of higher education settings across the United States. Women's reports of experiencing and men's reports of perpetrating rape, attempted rape, sexual coercion, and sexual contact were obtained, including both the rates of prevalence since age 14 and of incidence during the previous year. The findings support published assertions of high rates of rape and other forms of sexual aggression among large normal populations. Although the results are limited in generalizability to postsecondary students, this group represents 26% of all persons aged 18–24 in the United States.
Article
This article summarizes research on the role of alcohol in college students' sexual assault experiences. Sexual assault is extremely common among college students. At least half of these sexual assaults involve alcohol consumption by the perpetrator, the victim or both. Two research literatures were reviewed: the sexual assault literature and the literature that examines alcohol's effects on aggressive and sexual behavior. Research suggests that alcohol consumption by the perpetrator and/or the victim increases the likelihood of acquaintance sexual assault occurring through multiple pathways. Alcohol's psychological, cognitive and motor effects contribute to sexual assault. Although existing research addresses some important questions, there are many gaps. Methodological limitations of past research are noted, and suggestions are made for future research. In addition, recommendations are made for college prevention programs and policy initiatives.
Article
Epidemiological and experimental literature examining the link between men's alcohol consumption and perpetration of sexual aggression is reviewed. The following are included in the review: (1) associational studies that examine the correlation between typical alcohol consumption and history of sexual aggression perpetration; (2) event-level studies that examine the impact of alcohol consumption at the time of sexual assault; and (3) experimental studies that consider the impact of administered alcohol on men's responses to a sexual aggression analog. Associational studies suggest a modest correlation between typical alcohol consumption and history of sexual aggression perpetration, but spurious effects may account for much of the relationship. Event-level studies offer mixed evidence in support of a relationship between alcohol consumption at the time of the sexually aggressive incident and severity of outcome. Experimental analog studies provide evidence of a proximal, pharmacological effect of alcohol on the likelihood of sexual aggression perpetration and more modest evidence supporting an alcohol expectancy effect. An integrative heuristic model of alcohol's distal and proximal effects on sexual aggression perpetration is proposed. Priorities for future research include greater specificity in measurement of sexual aggression, examination of alcohol's indirect effects on aggression through context, and consideration of mechanisms other than alcohol myopia in understanding alcohol's proximal effects.
Article
Heavy alcohol use among college students represents a public health problem on American college campuses. A promising area for combating this problem is identifying protective behavioral strategies that may reduce consumption and its resulting negative consequences among students who do choose to use alcohol. The purpose of this study was to develop and conduct initial psychometric analyses on a new scale, which we named the Protective Behavioral Strategies Survey. Data were collected on 437 undergraduate students, who volunteered to participate in the study, at a large, public university in the northeast region of the United States. Results from an exploratory factor analysis yielded three theoretically meaningful factors that we labeled Limiting/Stopping Drinking, Manner of Drinking and Serious Harm Reduction. The three factors were, as a group, significantly associated with both alcohol consumption and alcohol-related problems, but the strongest unique relationship existed between Manner of Drinking and the outcome variables. Protective behavioral strategies seem to be a measurable construct that are related to alcohol consumption and alcohol-related problems, and thus may be a useful component of intervention and prevention programs with college students.
Article
This investigation examined college women's experiences with unwanted sexual contact. Participants completed a questionnaire assessing the incidence of various types of forced sexual contact the women had experienced since enrolling in college. Demographic and situational variables associated with these incidents of sexual violence were also obtained. It was observed that since enrolling in college, 27% of the sample had experienced unwanted sexual contact ranging from kissing and petting to oral, anal, or vaginal intercourse. Type of sexual violence, perpetrator characteristics, and racial differences regarding types of unwanted sexual contact were examined. The implications of the data are discussed.
Article
Interventions designed to reduce heavy drinking among college students often contain suggestions for drinking control strategies. However, little is known about the relationship between the use of these strategies and alcohol consumption. The authors developed a measure of drinking control strategies and investigated its psychometric properties in a sample of 250 college drinkers. Strategies clustered into three factors: selective avoidance of heavy drinking activities and situations, strategies used while drinking, and alternatives to drinking. These three types of strategies were independently associated with alcohol use; however, the first and last types were negatively associated with alcohol consumption, whereas the second type was positively associated with alcohol use. The findings from this study suggest that the type of strategy recommended may be important when the goal is alcohol reduction.
Article
This study examined differences in male-perpetrated adult sexual assault experiences among women of various sexual orientations using a large urban convenience sample (N = 1,022). Results showed many similarities in disclosure to others, perceived helpfulness, and attributions of blame, but there were also differences by sexual orientation. Heterosexual women were more likely to experience completed sexual assault than lesbian or bisexual women. Lesbians were more likely to be assaulted by relatives than bisexual or heterosexual women. Finally, bisexual women disclosed the assault to the greatest number of formal support sources, were most likely to tell a romantic partner about the assault, received the fewest positive social reactions overall, and had higher posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptomatology.