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Abstract

Ongoing urban exploitation is increasing pressure to transform urban green spaces, while there is increasing awareness that greenery provides a range of important benefits to city residents. In efforts to help resolve associated problems we have developed a framework for integrated assessments of ecosystem service (ES) benefits and values provided by urban greenery, based on the ecosystem service cascade model. The aim is to provide a method for assessing the contribution to, and valuing, multiple ES provided by urban greenery that can be readily applied in routine planning processes. The framework is unique as it recognizes that an urban greenery comprises several components and functions that can contribute to multiple ecosystem services in one or more ways via different functional traits (e.g. foliage characteristics) for which readily measured indicators have been identified. The framework consists of five steps including compilation of an inventory of indicator; application of effectivity factors to rate indicators' effectiveness; estimation of effects; estimation of benefits for each ES; estimation of the total ES value of the ecosystem. The framework was applied to assess ecosystem services provided by trees, shrubs, herbs, birds, and bees, in green areas spanning an urban gradient in Gothenburg, Sweden. Estimates of perceived values of ecosystem services were obtained from interviews with the public and workshop activities with civil servants. The framework is systematic and transparent at all stages and appears to have potential utility in the existing spatial planning processes. © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

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... For instance, modeling tools (Luederitz et al., 2015), in general, suffer from the need to detailed modeling hindering their usage. Moreover, recent methods like cascade model (Andersson-Sköld et al., 2018), which was developed to include other biological resources like pollinations (which relay on birds or bees effectiveness) in the quantification of benefits and ES valuation, are not generically applicable methods to whole city area. Also, such recent methods are not integrated in the planning process. ...
... This is because their populations and influences change over time and it is not possible (and is expensive) to do surveys to find their effectiveness on every piece of urban green areas. Moreover, the demand of services is mostly used as a factor for valuing supply of services (Andersson-Sköld et al., 2018). Therefore, supply, relevant to demand, is a time-related factor. ...
... The differences between estimation methods, defined above, and the proposed method in this paper is that in the former methods the estimated results are developed to be used as an input data in planning process, and mostly biologists and environmental scholars use this method (Andersson-Sköld et al., 2018, Elmqvist et al., 2015, Wangai et al., 2019, Kaiser et al., 2013. They provide information about benefits and change of ecosystem benefits by urbanization. ...
Article
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The need for a sustainable approach to landscape management is increasingly felt in urban planning necessitating the need for new tools and techniques for spatially decision making. The spatial dimensions of sustainability engage processes and interconnections between different land uses and ecosystems at different scales. Therefore, planning for sustainability requires ecological knowledge and approaches. One of the newest and most important urban ecological planning principles is supporting ecosystem processes and services in urban green areas. Green and natural spaces provide ecological services that play a key role in the sustainability of cities. Different urban spaces have diverse needs for ecological services based on their land uses and demographic conditions. In mapping ecosystem services, the first step is reviewing the needs and comparing them with the ecosystem services supply in making integrated plans. This method would be very useful especially in a context with limited data (like the case study of this research). In this paper, an ecosystem services assessment of existing green spaces is done, and socio-ecological needs of these spaces are analyzed. Classification of ecosystem services needs and supply provide comparable data to find where we need more ecosystem services; in addition, it helps planners determine the supply of current ecosystem services in specific neighborhoods. The combination of these maps solves one of the main issues of planning, such as prioritizing neighborhoods in providing green areas according to the social needs to ecosystem services. Moreover, such maps will help to develop the best planting plan to satisfy the specific needs of different neighborhood.
... Functional values are concerned with technological and ecological relationships of service and usefulness (Bengston, 1994), such as ecosystem services (e.g. Andersson-Sköld et al., 2018). Yet, the cognition of functional relationships might (or might not) influence people's judgment and action, which is argued to be unconsciously guided by preference-related or individual values (Lockwood, 1999). ...
... The term rests mainly on function-based value relationships and was developed to be normative (Jax et al., 2013). Contemporary frameworks that assess ecosystem service value, separate function, service, benefit and valuewhere values are often associated with economic value and valuation (e. g. see Andersson-Sköld et al., 2018). Although several intangible values and non-utility attributes of nature are listed among cultural and supporting services (see Table 1), the message of ecosystem services remains one of utility and instrumental value. ...
Article
Built environment design professionals balance competing requirements for human comfort, aesthetics and ecological integrity in their projects. Among them, landscape designers play an important role in optimising the benefits derived from urban green spaces. This study critically considers value dimensions and domains that impinge on professionals’ decision making and environmental values that are applicable to built environment design. It specifically identifies the dominant group-based value domains and environmental values in local practice and examines how landscape designers determine the relative importance of competing values in urban South Africa. The study made use of semi-structured interviews with long-standing figures in the industry. The findings indicate that the political change, the economy and the varied climate and landscape character are contextual influences that strongly shape regional social constructions of urban nature. These constructions emphasise instrumental utility value that juxtapose fundamental values and overshadow less urgent eudemonistic and intrinsic environmental values. In the design process, designers trade off artistic pursuits for instrumental values, with implications for aesthetics and quality. The contextual influences undermine value pluralism. Current trade-offs arguably perpetuate a local legacy of the uneven distribution of quality green spaces. Promisingly, designers show environmental concern and value for sustainability, indigenous plants, utility, quality and safety. The potential for designers to strengthen bonds with urban nature lies in the creation of aesthetic experiences that build on existing local affinities to landscape character and indigenous species. Professional bodies have an important task to assist built environment designers in creating cities that preserve human-nature relationships.
... There have been several studies carried out globally exploring the applicability of the concept of ecosystem services within green structure planning practice, showing the concept as being positively received by the practice as a way of integrating multiple values of nature into planning (see for instance Andersson-Sköld et al. 2018a;Beery et al. 2016;Hansen et al. 2015;Jaligot and Chenal 2019;La Rosa, 2019;Mascarenhas et al. 2015;Rall et al. 2015;Schubert et al. 2018;Woodruff and BenDor 2016). However, several of the studies stress that the use of the concept is often more conceptual rather than as a strategic tool (e.g. ...
... Hence, Sweden is a country in which it is expected that the concept of urban ecosystem services will be implemented in various parts of the strategic planning and management of green structure. Studies in Sweden have shown the concept of ecosystem services as having a wide acceptance into practice, with the concept being recognised as a useful tool for strategic planning and management of urban green structure by the practice (Andersson-Sköld et al. 2018a;Beery et al. 2016;Schubert et al. 2018). However, these studies also identified a need for support, clear guidance and consistent definitions in order to support further implementation of the concept in Swedish municipalities (Beery et al. 2016;Schubert et al. 2018). ...
Article
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Research to date on urban ecosystem services has mainly been conducted in large cities, particularly in China, the USA and some European countries. This study examined the provision of urban ecosystem services in a Swedish municipality context, based on interviews with municipal stakeholders in strategic management and planning from six municipalities and a review of existing publications readily available to practitioners. The analysis focused on (1) the ecosystem services explicitly covered, (2) whether multifunctionality was covered and specific synergies and trade-offs identified and, (3) the spatial scale and context used for ecosystem services (valuation/mapping, planning, design or maintenance) in practical application. The results showed that regulatory services are very much the focus in municipal operations as well as in publications available to practitioners. This is reflected in the implementation of the concept through problem solving often related to regulatory services, using multifunctionality and win-win situations in ecosystem service supply. These findings contribute to the growing body of work exploring how the concept of ecosystem services is adapted and utilised in practice.
... Ecosystem services is a transition process in the cascade model that specifies whether a green space supplies the services that match the needs that inhabitants' demands. It connects the structural biodiversity of an ecosystem with the functions that give benefits to inhabitants (Andersson-Sköld et al., 2018;Potschin-Young et al., 2016). Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, MEA (2005) define ES as benefits that people obtain from ecosystems. ...
Article
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The use of urban green space is a determinant for urban inhabitant’s well-being. However, increasing urbanisation lessened the opportunity for urban inhabitants to engage with green space. This situation requires landscape planners to design an urban green space with maximum benefits that fulfil inhabitants’ needs for their well-being. Structural biodiversity is an essential element in generating the benefits and values interpreted through the activities at the urban green space. This paper aims to identify the cultural practices that influenced by structural biodiversity of two urban forests in Johor Bahru, Malaysia. Multiple Response Analysis was used to analyse the data from on-site questionnaire surveys completed by 253 visitors of both urban forests. The result shows that a high-density urban forest offers an opportunity for visitors to get attached to nature and attract visitors to involve in sedentary and moderate activities. In contrast, a moderate density urban forest offers a less natural value that attracts visitors to take part in moderate and vigorous activities with less engagement with nature. This study would contribute to a better understanding of the structural biodiversity that influenced visitors’ cultural practices, where the present condition of the two urban forests has illustrated the current benefits that visitors obtained from the ecosystem.
... The concept of water having value has long been recognized by economists (e.g., see discussions in Hanemann 2006 andYoung andLoomis 2014), and there are many studies estimating its value in different contexts (e.g., Faux and Perry 1999;Viscusi et al. 2008). Separately, there is a growing literature on the externalities of trees and forests (e.g., McPherson 2007;Nilsson et al. 2011;Andersson-Sköld et al. 2018;, including empirical estimates of the value of urban trees (e.g., see Sander et al. 2010;and Mullaney et al. 2015 for a review of the literature). However, to the best of our knowledge, there are no prior studies specifically modeling the tradeoff between water and urban trees in arid climates. ...
Article
Managing outdoor water use while maintaining urban tree cover is a key challenge for water managers in arid climates. Urban trees generate flows of ecosystem services in arid areas, but also require significant amounts of irrigation. In this article, a bioeconomic-health model of trees and water use is developed to investigate management of an urban forest canopy when irrigation is costly, water has economic value, and trees provide ecosystem services. The optimal tree irrigation decision is illustrated for Albuquerque, New Mexico, an arid Southwest US city. Using a range of monetary values for water, we find that the tree irrigation decision is sensitive to the value selected. Urban deforestation is optimal when the value of water is sufficiently high, or alternatively starts low, but grows to cross a specific threshold. If, however, the value of water is sufficiently low or if the value of tree cover rises over time, then deforestation is not optimal. The threshold value of water where the switch is made between zero and partial deforestation is well-within previously identified ranges on actual water values. This model can be applied generally to study the tradeoffs between urban trees and water use in arid environments.
... There are also ecosystem services valuation techniques linking urban consumption and regional supply (Jenerette et al., 2006). At a local and more detailed scale, efforts to valuate ecosystem services within cities were performed, using non-monetary valuations exclusively (Andersson-Sköld et al., 2018) or combining monetary and non-monetary assessments . A comprehensive description of the evolution of ecosystem services valuation tools is included in Liu et al. (2010). ...
Article
The world is continuing to urbanize. As a result, most of the interactions between humans and nature take place in cities. These interactions are varied and complex. But, contrary to past conception, urbanites do not decimate nature in cities and it continues to thrive. The rich urban biodiversity includes both endemic and cultured species. People oriented evaluations of the importance urban nature differ from evaluations focused on the ecological system. Most of the urban-economic literature has focused on estimates of the positive externalities of the proximity to nature, albeit in relations to very limited aspects of such effects. The quantification of eco-services has been only partly successful. Recently there is a growing realization that there exist associated negative externalities as well. For example, in many cities the penetration of large mammals, made possible by the morphology of built areas, is generating behavior patterns, such as at least partial changes in the spatial incidence of the demand for housing. The world is continuing to urbanize. As a result, most of the interactions between humans and nature take place in cities. These interactions are varied and complex. But, contrary to past conception, urbanites do not decimate nature in cities and it continues to thrive. The rich urban biodiversity includes both endemic and cultured species. People oriented evaluations of the importance urban nature differ from evaluations focused on the ecological system. Most of the urban-economic literature has focused on estimates of the positive externalities of the proximity to nature, albeit in relations to very limited aspects of such effects. The quantification of eco-services has been only partly successful. Recently there is a growing realization that there exist associated negative externalities as well. For example, in many cities the penetration of large mammals, made possible by the morphology of built areas, is generating behavior patterns, such as at least partial changes in the spatial incidence of the demand for housing. cities may be high, they do not necessarily stem from the values of biodiversity. So is the relationship between provisioning/ regulating services and biodiversity. And so the question remains open, whether future cities can sustain human welfare while retaining biodiversity patterns and function. Finally, we ask which type of species do we wish to conserve? What is the contribution of conservation biology to the issue and to what extent conservation biology and urban economy are compatible?.
... The processes and consequences of anthropogenic activities in the area also relate to the views by Adeloye andRustum (2011), Pauleit et al. (2005). Other articles have applied biophysical approaches to assess potentials for selected regulating ES Kaiser et al. 2013;Larondelle et al. 2014;Andersson-Sköld et al. 2018). ...
Article
Full-text available
Recent scientific developments are advancing to link land use and land cover (LULC) change with ecosystem service (ES) potentials. Such links within peri-urban ecosystems are scanty due to methodological and expertise challenge, and data limitation. The study applies the 'ES matrix approach' to spatially display potentials for regulating ES in mainly overlooked data-scarce peri-urban areas, whereby LULC classes and qualitative ES values are the main data inputs. The LULC maps are based on LANDSAT satellite images from the years 1990, 2000 and 2010. ES potentials were assessed qualitatively on a relative scale ranging between 0 and 5 by use of interview data from local people. Results show that with exception of settlements, the area for all LULC classes decreased between 1990 and 2010. The 'matrix approach' successfully generated ES potential maps for the different LULC classes. Grasslands, forests and wetlands have comparatively high potentials for regulating ES, whereas settlements and 'otherlands' showed lower potentials. The main uncertainties of the study relate to study area selection, data accuracy and reliability, and 'matrix approach' adaptability. Results indicate that the potential of the area to provide regulating ES is declining over time. To realize suitable and reliable results, it is necessary to conduct data accuracy-check during and after the fieldwork exercise. ARTICLE HISTORY
... The processes and consequences of anthropogenic activities in the area also relate to the views by Adeloye andRustum (2011), Pauleit et al. (2005). Other articles have applied biophysical approaches to assess potentials for selected regulating ES Kaiser et al. 2013;Larondelle et al. 2014;Andersson-Sköld et al. 2018). ...
Article
Full-text available
Recent scientific developments are advancing to link land use and land cover (LULC) change with ecosystem service (ES) potentials. Such links within peri-urban ecosystems are scanty due to methodological and expertise challenge, and data limitation. The study applies the ‘ES matrix approach’ to spatially display potentials for regulating ES in mainly overlooked datascarce peri-urban areas, whereby LULC classes and qualitative ES values are the main data inputs. The LULC maps are based on LANDSAT satellite images from the years 1990, 2000 and 2010. ES potentials were assessed qualitatively on a relative scale ranging between 0 and 5 by use of interview data from local people. Results show that with exception of settlements, the area for all LULC classes decreased between 1990 and 2010. The ‘matrix approach’ successfully generated ES potential maps for the different LULC classes. Grasslands, forests and wetlands have comparatively high potentials for regulating ES, whereas settlements and ‘otherlands’ showed lower potentials. The main uncertainties of the study relate to study area selection, data accuracy and reliability, and ‘matrix approach’ adaptability. Results indicate that the potential of the area to provide regulating ES is declining over time. To realize suitable and reliable results, it is necessary to conduct data accuracy-check during and after the fieldwork exercise.
... Half of the total benefits in Table 3 come from cultural services through the increased supply of recreational amenities. This result goes in line with prior studies like Andersson-Sköld et al. (2018) who observed that the UES perceived as most important by the public were cultural services, especially the 'perceived well-being' generated by visiting green areas. Bolund and Hunhammar (1999) emphasised the crucial importance for cities to provide green spaces for recreation to decrease the level of stress of urban citizens. ...
Article
Urban environments provide opportunities for greater resource efficiency and the fostering of urban ecosystems. Brownfield areas are a typical example of underused land resource. Brownfield redevelopment projects that include green infrastructure allow for further ecosystems to be accommodated in urban environments. Green infrastructure also deliver important urban ecosystem services (UES) to local residents, which can greatly contribute to improving quality of life in cities. In this case study, we quantify and assess the economic value of five UES for a brownfield redevelopment project in Antwerp, Belgium. The assessment is carried out using the “Nature Value Explorer” modelling tool. The case includes three types of green infrastructure (green corridor, infiltration gullies and green roofs) primarily intended to connect nature reserves on the urban periphery and to avoid surface runoff. The green infrastructure also provides air filtration, climate regulation, carbon sequestration and recreation ecosystem services. The value of recreation far exceeds other values, including the value of avoided runoff. The case study raises crucial questions as to whether existing UES valuation approaches adequately account for the range of UES provided and whether such approaches can be improved to achieve more accurate and reliable value estimates in future analyses.
... 5) Determining what social and economic values are attributed to the ecosystem benefits [12,13]. Many studies are based on this theory for organizing the evaluation ecosystem values [14][15][16]. However, there is little research on urban parks. ...
Article
Full-text available
Urbanization has brought about a substantial increase in population growth, and a considerable amount of park green space has been exposed to urban construction land, which has greatly affected the natural and social value of the urban natural capital. Although this problem is serious in developing countries such as China, few studies have been conducted on the basis of a comprehensive evaluation of urban natural areas. This study evaluates the ecological services value of urban wetland parks from two perspectives: 1) the urban economic development brought by urbanization has an obvious artificial influence on an urban park’s economic value and 2) the wetland ecosystem plays an important role in regulating and improving the surrounding urban environment. A flexible evaluation step model and a series of quantitative evaluation methods was constructed and used in a case study of Aha Lake National Wetland Park in Guiyang, China, based on a comprehensive analysis of the social, economic, and ecological values of the park. The results show that the total ecosystem service value of Aha Lake National Wetland Park is 1.92×10 ⁹ yuan. This article has two main purposes: 1) serving as an innovative quantitative evaluation method of key indicators and 2) establishing a framework of ecosystem services value evaluation for urban parks based on the cascade model.
... In the urban context, trees cope with environmental constraints such as air pollution and high evaporative demand driven by the urban heat island (Kabisch et al., 2016;Marando et al., 2019), facing very different growing conditions from those in natural areas. As a consequence, functional traits of UF (physiological, chemical and morphological), that influence its ability to provide multiple Ecosystem Services Andersson-Sköld et al., 2018), can differ substantially from those reported for the same species in natural areas, thus increasing the need for specific studies (McCarthy and Pataki, 2010). A trait-based approach has therefore been proposed as a mechanistic and cost-effective way to address the management of urban vegetation, targeted at maintaining and improving the provision of multiple Ecosystem Services (Manes et al., 2012;Calfapietra et al., 2015;Goodness et al., 2016). ...
Article
Phenotyping for functional traits associated with photosynthetic machinery could be a promising approach for studying the performance of green infrastructures in metropolitan areas. Trait-based indicators hold important information about ecosystem processes and how environmental constrains may influence the provisioning of services. This work aims to apply a high-throughput phenotyping approach to an urban and a peri-urban forest, in order to evaluate the functionality of vegetation through direct measures of photosynthetic traits such as spectroscopy indices, chlorophyll a fluorescence (ChlF) and leaf chemistry (nitrogen and carbon content). Quercus ilex L. was chosen as the target species for its wide distribution in natural and urban greening, sampled at two distances from a high traffic road (urban forest) and in a natural preserved area (peri-urban forest). The reflectance index most related to the general functionality of photosynthetic machinery was the Fluorescence Ratio Indices FRI740/800, whereas the highest informative indicator traits to differentiate the functionality of Q. ilex in different periods of the year in the urban and peri-urban forest were Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Structure-Insensitive Pigment Index (SIPI) and Normalized Difference Nitrogen Index (NDNI). Interestingly, Photochemical Reflectance Index (PRI) was not only correlated to functional parameters connected to PSII light absorption side, but also with ChlF parameters related to carbon assimilation such as regeneration capacity of the end acceptors. ChlF parameters are effective indicators for highlighting differences between sites, pointing out that the urban forest sites have lower functionality compared to peri-urban one.
... We use five clusters of land in and around the urban areas of Knox County, TN, as a case study (see Figure 2). A local community, instead of a larger area, is used as a case study because local communities are under increasing pressure to adopt innovative strategies to increase or sustain carbon storage Agricultural and Resource Economics Review 6 2020 (Elmqvist et al. 2015;Miller Hauer, and Werner 2015;Andersson-Sköld et al. 2018). The clusters are chosen for having large tracts of undeveloped contiguous land. ...
Article
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We analyze optimal budget allocations to acquire protected areas for carbon storage while balancing risk and return from protection under economic growth uncertainty in a local community. Our study is the first to explore how risk of uncertain economic growth affects cost of protected area acquisition using real estate values at the parcel level, enabling us to estimate the site-specific opportunity cost of carbon storage. The Pareto optimal trade-off frontier between the expected carbon storage benefit and its variance provides a continuum of risk-return combinations. The pattern of the trade-off relationship implies that risk mitigation is less costly in terms of foregone expected benefit when risk is higher than when it is lower. Our results also find that the difference in cluster-specific budget allocations between the strong economic growth scenario and the weak economic growth scenario subsequently decreases between the point of expected benefit maximization and the point of variance minimization. Our findings of optimal hectares of land for protected area acquisition for carbon storage and corresponding benefits and costs serve as an empirically informed knowledge base to help a local community prioritize acquisition of potential protected areas for carbon storage under economic growth uncertainty.
... Secondly, both cities aim for densification to address the housing shortage [86] and preserve agricultural land [14]. Moreover, both cities include sustainability and nature-based solutions in their official strategies to address water-related hazards [87][88][89][90]. Green areas already make up c. 64% of the total urban land area in Gothenburg and 46% in Malmö [91]. ...
Article
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Social learning, especially triple-loop social learning involving institutional and governance changes, has great potential to address urban water issues such as flooding, drought, and pollution. It facilitates urban transition and the adoption of more systemic approaches and innovations. Social learning in water governance is a growing field, but the triple-loop learning concept remains vague and underexplored. Additionally, the focus is often on how social learning can contribute to progress with little attention being paid to barriers to learning. The aim of this paper is to increase understanding of triple-loop social learning to improve the “learning infrastructure”. It investigates key learning barriers for realizing green (livable) and adaptive cities in Malmö and Gothenburg, Sweden. Integration of nature-based solutions in spatial planning and development of these cities has been slow. The results found three types of barriers contributing to this: systemic (disconnecting parts with the whole); opacity (reducing communication between error detection and correction); and process-related (reducing the adoption of innovations). The paper contributes to understanding the social learning barriers for implementing planning. These insights could help overcome “adaptation inertia” and speed up policy learning towards sustainability and resilience.
... Also, the criteria for GI allocation have often involved aims of space beautification, property value enhancement, public health and recreation (Young 2010). Most recently, balancing the supply and demand of ecosystem services (ES) (Andersson-Sköld et al. 2018) and attempting climate change adaptation (Dittrich et al. 2019) have supported the discourse behind GI allocation. About the latter, the Urban Forest Effects Model (Nowak et al. 2006), and more recently, the work of Huera-Lucero et al. (2020) have provided elements to estimate the capacity of green space to store and sequestrate carbon and plan accordingly. ...
Book
The book presents governance with a particular focus on the social and spatial aspects of climate responsiveness and reads the practice of governance across different scales. It conceptualizes a framework of scale composed of three main categories including (i) scientific knowledge, (ii) plans and policies, and (iii) authorities of action. This framework presents ‘practice’ as the social context in which these three can interplay adaptively. Within this framework, the book presents case studies from Turkey, Italy, Ecuador, Chile and the UK, that reach meaningful planning and design solutions at national, city, and neighbourhood scales in the face of climate change. It offers implementation clues that are transferable to ever-increasing climate action around the globe. The book will be of interest to both professionals and scholars involved in urban design, urban planning and architecture, especially those in the field of climate responsive urbanism. It will also be a valuable resource for non-governmental organizations and social enterprises dealing with sustainability and climate change policies.
... A comparison of four Western European cities (Berlin, Stockholm, Rotterdam and Salzburg) by Bertram and Rehdanz(2015)showed that urban parks are considered more important for providing regulating ES than most cultural ES. Other studies from Western countries (Sweden, USA, Spain) also demonstrate greater preferences for primarily regulating ES followed by a suite of cultural ES(Andersson-Sköld et al., 2018;Castro et al., 2016;Julian et al., 2018;Martin-Lopez et al., 2012).Our result of provisioning ES having the lowest preference values is supported by previous studies. Provisioning ES, which relate to the basic needs of people, are often perceived as less important in an urban environment where people have commercial options to acquire basic resources and are thus less reliant on local ES ...
Article
Growing urban populations are increasing the demand for ecosystem services (ES) in cities. Urban green spaces, such as parks and natural areas, provide many of these ES, and thus there should be an increasing demand for them as well. The aim of this study is to assess resident demand for urban green spaces and their ES in one of the few growing cities in Eastern Europe. Using questionnaire surveys from 444 residents of Vilnius (Lithuania), we answered the following questions: (i) Which of nature’s ES and benefits are in greatest demand in Vilnius city? (ii) Do preferences for urban ES and their benefits depend on the visitation frequency to urban green spaces? and (iii) What are the pull and push factors for the use of green spaces that contribute in shaping social demand for and ultimately the flow of urban ES and their benefits? We found that the most valued urban ES were the regulating services of air quality improvement and noise reduction. Provisioning services, like food and medicinal herbs, had the lowest mean importance values. A statistically significant difference was found in urban ES values based on the respondents’ visitation frequency to the green areas. Those who visit green spaces frequently (several times per week) valued ES significantly more compared to those who visit green spaces less often. Our study showed that the most important pull factors attracting people to the green spaces were the same for frequent and rare visitors. These pull factors included leisure walking, enjoying fresh air, observing nature, relaxing, and recreation via physical activities. Push factors differed for those who visit the green areas very often and rarely. Distance and safety concerns were the strongest push factors for both groups. Our results provide empirical evidence that provisioning services are perceived as less important in urban setting where people have more commercial options to acquire basic resources, while regulating and cultural ES are highly valued as long as they are in a safe environment that is close.
... Potential to capture and remove air pollutants. The reduction is primarily caused by foliage filtering pollution and particles from the air, which can be measured with Leaf Area Index (Bolund and Hunhammar 1999, Maes et al. 2011, Andersson-Sköld et al. 2018 Leaf Area Index in year 50a higher value indicates a greater potential to remove pollutants. **** note: this number can be less than zero due to export of water stored previously in soil water pool. ...
Thesis
Ecosystem services (ES) are the physical goods and associated benefits that are provided to humans by ecological systems. Assessment of ES requires knowledge of ecology and ecosystem processes, and ES estimates can be improved when they include knowledge of nonlinearities, feedbacks, and interactions within ecosystems. A variety of assessment tools have been proposed to estimate the provision of ES. However, they fail to acknowledge interconnectedness of services or connections between ecosystem processes and services. This dissertation examines connections of ecosystem processes and ES with the assumption that knowledge of ecosystem ecology and ecosystem processes can be applied to improve estimates of ES capacity over time and under a variety of management scenarios. To investigate this connection, I modified the ecosystem process model Biome-BGC to simulate the provision of ES in exurban Southeastern Michigan. The modification resulted in a new version of the model, Biome-BGC-Ex, and involved detailed changes to the source code. The modified model included the ability to model competition between turfgrass and open grown trees in a single grid cell, to incorporate residential management practices, and to translate model outputs into well-defined, quantitative estimates of ES. My research was conducted as part of a larger collaboration, the SLUCE (Spatial Land Use Change and Ecological Effects) project and addresses the exurban residential landscape as a coupled human-natural system. It references and builds on previous elements of the SLUCE project including an empirical ecological field study, developer and homeowner interviews, web-based surveys, and modeling in a coupled human-natural system framework. My contributions to the project, specifically modifying Biome-BGC and linking it to ES, can be applied to future research on coupled human-natural systems in exurban residential landscapes. Chapter two describes how Biome-BGC was modified for the exurban landscape and then calibrated and parameterized for Southeastern Michigan. It examined which yard management practices have the greatest effect on carbon sequestration and model results suggested N fertilization was the strongest driver across three major vegetation types. Chapter three describes how Biome-BGC-Ex was modified to estimate ES capacity of ten services and evaluated the impact of yard management practices on ES capacity. Model simulations showed trade-offs between ES relating to high amounts of carbon or biomass and freshwater recharge. Chapter four took a broader approach and evaluated ecosystem process models as a potential tool for ES assessment and discussed how the integration of Biome-BGC-Ex with other tools could improve ES assessment. I found that while process models can improve understanding of interconnected ecosystem processes and biophysical feedbacks that affect the production of ES, they require more detailed data and complex knowledge to run. These chapters also discuss limitations of Biome-BGC-Ex and its ability to adequately address ecological complexities of exurban landscapes. One major limitation was accurately modelling N dynamics of exurban tree cover and model simulations likely overestimating C sequestration under high levels of fertilization. My dissertation research is the first to modify Biome-BGC to measure ES in a residential ecosystem. It is also novel because the work focuses on how human management of the landscape affects ES production as opposed to land use or land cover change. My dissertation research can likely be replicated in similar ecosystems to inform more complex ES modelling frameworks that rely on ES production modelling grounded in the understanding of ecosystem processes and their feedbacks.
... In addition to socioeconomic impacts, adaption measures may result in positive environmental synergies as well as unwanted environmental impacts. Accordingly, various studies have investigated the environmental gain of planning for adaptation measures that could also mitigate climate change [10,13,19,[24][25][26]. Despite the existence of several methods to either assess risks, or the costs related to adaption measures, there is a lack of methods facilitating well-informed decisions among authorities or operators on risk and prioritization of adaption measures. ...
Article
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Severe accidents and high costs associated with weather-related events already occur in today’s climate. Unless preventive measures are taken, the costs are expected to increase in future due to ongoing climate change. However, the risk reduction measures are costly as well and may result in unwanted impacts. Therefore, it is important to identify, assess and prioritize which measures are necessary to undertake, as well as where and when these are to be undertaken. To be able to make such evaluations, robust (scientifically based), transparent and systematic assessments and valuations are required. This article describes a framework to assess the cause-and-effect relationships and how to estimate the costs and benefits as a basis to assess and prioritize measures for climate adaptation of roads and railways. The framework includes hazard identification, risk analysis and risk assessment, identification, monetary and non-monetary evaluation of possible risk reduction measures and a step regarding distribution-, goal- and sensitivity analyses. The results from applying the framework shall be used to prioritize among potential risk reduction measures as well as when to undertake them.
... Current attempts at quantifying cultural ES do not seem to account for the social structures and processes involved in the creation of these services. For instance, Andersson-Sköld et al. [69] related cultural ES to abundance indicators (e.g., leaf area) through the cascade model, but social parameters were not specifically assessed. In this sense, quantifying the benefits and values that result from cultural ES is not straightforward. ...
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Evapotranspiration (ET) plays an important role in surface-atmosphere interactions. Remote sensing has long been identified as a technology that is capable of monitoring ET. However, spatial problems greatly affect the accuracy of ET retrievals by satellite. The objective of this paper is to reduce the spatial-scale uncertainty produced by surface heterogeneity using Chinese HJ-1B data. Two upscaling schemes with area-weighting aggregation for different steps and variables were applied. One scheme is input parameter upscaling (IPUS), which refers to parameter aggregation, and the other is temperature sharpening and flux aggregation (TSFA). Footprint validation results show that TSFA is more accurate and less uncertain than IPUS, and additional analysis shows that TSFA can capture land surface heterogeneities and integrate the effect of overlooked land types in the mixed pixel.
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Ecosystem services (ES) approaches to biodiversity conservation are currently high on the ecological research and policy agendas. However, despite awealth of studies into biodiversity’s role in maintaining ES (B–ES relationships) across landscapes, we still lack generalities in the nature and strengths of these linkages. Reasons for this are manifold, but can largely be attributed to (i) a lack of adherence to definitions and thus a confusion between final ES and the ecosystem functions (EFs) underpinning them, (ii) a focus on uninformative biodiversity indices and singular hypotheses and (iii) top-down analyses across large spatial scales and overlooking of context-dependency. The biodiversity–ecosystem functioning (B–EF) field provides an alternate context for examining biodiversity’s mechanistic role in shaping ES, focusing on species’ characteristics that may drive EFs via multiple mechanisms across contexts. Despite acknowledgements of a need for B–ES research to look towards underlying B–EF linkages, the connections between these areas of research remains weak. With this review, we pull together recent B–EF findings to identify key areas for future developments in B–ES research. We highlight a means by which B–ES research may begin to identify howand when multiple underlying B–EF relationships may scale to final ES delivery and trade-offs. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.
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A decision support tool aiming to facilitate discussion and transparency in land-use planning processes has been developed. It includes process steps initiating with an analysis of the current situation, identification of relevant actions and sustainability analysis steps. The sustainability was subdivided into human health and environment, resources, and social and economic impacts. The main difference between this risk analysis tool and others is the allowance of comparisons of present risks and consequences of measures early in the process. It also includes assessments from short- and long-term perspectives, such as taking into account climate change. It combines classic risk analysis with life-cycle assessment procedure. It has been developed and tested in co-operation with municipalities. The tests show that the tool is applicable and can be relevant in the planning process. It offers an iterative discussion framework that is systematic, condensed and yet a simplistic way of describing consequences. The criticism is that it is regarded as time demanding, but this can be managed by preparatory work.
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An important ecosystem service provided by urban trees is the cooling effect caused by their transpiration. The aim of this study was to quantify the magnitude of daytime and night-time transpiration of common urban tree species in a high latitude city (Gothenburg, Sweden), to analyse the influence of weather conditions and surface permeability on the tree transpiration, and to find out whether tree transpiration contributed to daytime or nocturnal cooling. Stomatal conductance and leaf transpiration at day and night were measured on mature street and park trees of seven common tree species in Gothenburg: Tilia europaea, Quercus robur, Betula pendula, Acer platanoides, Aesculus hippocastanum, Fagus sylvatica and Prunus serrulata. Transpiration increased with vapour pressure deficit and photosynthetically active radiation. Midday rates of sunlit leaves ranged from less than 1 mmol m(-2) s(-1) (B. pendula) to over 3 mmol m(-2) s(-1) (Q. robur). Daytime stomatal conductance was positively related to the fraction of permeable surfaces within the vertically projected crown area. A simple estimate of available rainwater, comprising of precipitation sum and fractional surface permeability within the crown area, was found to explain 68 % of variation in midday stomatal conductance. Night-time transpiration was observed in all studied species and amounted to 7 and 20 % of midday transpiration of sunlit and shaded leaves, respectively. With an estimated night-time latent heat flux of 24 W m(-2), tree transpiration significantly increased the cooling rate around and shortly after sunset, but not later in the night. Despite a strong midday latent heat flux of 206 W m(-2), a cooling effect of tree transpiration was not observed during the day.
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Cities are a key nexus of the relationship between people and nature and are huge centers of demand for ecosystem services and also generate extremely large environmental impacts. Current projections of rapid expansion of urban areas present fundamental challenges and also opportunities to design more livable, healthy and resilient cities (e.g. adaptation to climate change effects). We present the results of an analysis of benefits of ecosystem services in urban areas. Empirical analyses included estimates of monetary benefits from urban ecosystem services based on data from 25 urban areas in the USA, Canada, and China. Our results show that investing in ecological infrastructure in cities, and the ecological restoration and rehabilitation of ecosystems such as rivers, lakes, and woodlands occurring in urban areas, may not only be ecologically and socially desirable, but also quite often, economically advantageous, even based on the most traditional economic approaches.
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The urban environment is a complex structure with interlinked social, ecological and technical structures. Global warming is expected to have a broad variety of impacts, which will add to the complexity. Climate changes will force adaptation, to reduce climate-related risks. Adaptation measures can address one aspect at the time, or aim for a holistic approach to avoid maladaptation. This paper presents a systematic, integrated approach for assessing alternatives for reducing the risks of heat waves, flooding and air pollution in urban settings, with the aim of reducing the risk of maladaptation. The study includes strategies covering different spatial scales, and both the current climate situation and the climate predicted under climate change scenarios. The adaptation strategies investigated included increasing vegetation; selecting density, height and colour of buildings; and retreat or resist (defend) against sea-level rise. Their effectiveness was assessed with regard to not only flooding, heat stress and air quality but also with regard to resource use, emissions to air (incl. GHG), soil and water, and people’s perceptions and vulnerability. The effectiveness of the strategies were ranked on a common scale (from -3 to 3) in an integrated assessment. Integrated assessments are recommended, as they help identify the most sustainable solutions, but to reduce the risk of maladaptation they require experts from a variety of disciplines. The most generally applicable recommendation, derived from the integrated assessment here, taking into account both expertise from different municipal departments, literature surveys, life cycle assessments and publics perceptions, is to increase the urban greenery, as it contributes to several positive aspects such as heat stress mitigation, air quality improvement, effective storm-water and flood-risk management, and it has several positive social impacts. The most favourable alternative was compact, mid-rise, light coloured building design with large parks/green areas and trees near buildings.
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We are at a key juncture in history where biodiversity loss is occurring daily and accelerating in the face of population growth, climate change, and rampant development. Simultaneously, we are just beginning to appreciate the wealth of human health benefits that stem from experiencing nature and biodiversity. Here we assessed the state of knowledge on relationships between human health and nature and biodiversity, and prepared a comprehensive listing of reported health effects. We found strong evidence linking biodiversity with production of ecosystem services and between nature exposure and human health, but many of these studies were limited in rigor and often only correlative. Much less information is available to link biodiversity and health. However, some robust studies indicate that exposure to microbial biodiversity can improve health, specifically in reducing certain allergic and respiratory diseases. Overall, much more research is needed on mechanisms of causation. Also needed are a re-envisioning of land-use planning that places human well-being at the center and a new coalition of ecologists, health and social scientists and planners to conduct research and develop policies that promote human interaction with nature and biodiversity. Improvements in these areas should enhance human health and ecosystem, community, as well as human resilience. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2212041614001648#
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Scenario planning continues to gain momentum in the United States as an effective process for building consensus on long-range community plans and creating regional visions for the future. However, efforts to integrate more sophisticated information into the analytical framework to help identify important ecosystem services have lagged in practice. This is problematic because understanding the tradeoffs of land consumption patterns on ecological integrity is central to mitigating the environmental degradation caused by land use change and new development. In this paper we describe how an ecosystem services valuation model, i-Tree, was integrated into a mainstream scenario planning software tool, Envision Tomorrow, to assess the benefits of public street trees for alternative future development scenarios. The tool is then applied to development scenarios from the City of Hutto, TX, a Central Texas Sustainable Places Project demonstration community. The integrated tool represents a methodological improvement for scenario planning practice, offers a way to incorporate ecosystem services analysis into mainstream planning processes, and serves as an example of how open source software tools can expand the range of issues available for community and regional planning consideration, even in cases where community resources are limited. The tool also offers room for future improvements; feasible options include canopy analysis of various future land use typologies, as well as a generalized street tree model for broader U.S. application.
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Urban forests provide important ecosystem services, such as urban air quality improvement by removing pollutants. While robust evidence exists that plant physiology, abundance, and distribution within cities are basic parameters affecting the magnitude and efficiency of air pollution removal, little is known about effects of plant diversity on the stability of this ecosystem service. Here, by means of a spatial analysis integrating system dynamic modeling and geostatistics, we assessed the effects of tree diversity on the removal of tropospheric ozone (O 3) in Rome, Italy, in two years (2003 and 2004) that were very different for climatic conditions and ozone levels. Different tree functional groups showed complementary uptake patterns, related to tree physiology and phenology, maintaining a stable community function across different climatic conditions. Our results, although depending on the city-specific conditions of the studied area, suggest a higher function stability at increasing diversity levels in urban ecosystems. In Rome, such ecosystem services, based on published unitary costs of externalities and of mortality associated with O 3, can be prudently valued to roughly US$2 and $3 million/year, respectively. © 2012 by the Ecological Society of America.
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Trees play an important role in mitigating heat stress on hot summer days, mainly due to their ability to provide shade. However, an important issue is also the reduction of solar radiation caused by trees in winter, in particular at high latitudes. In this study, we examine the transmissivity of total and direct solar radiation through crowns of single street trees in Göteborg, Sweden. One coniferous and four deciduous trees of species common in northern European cities were selected for case study. Radiation measurements were conducted on nine clear days in 2011–2012 in foliated and leafless tree conditions using two sunshine pyranometers— one located in shade of a tree and the other one on the roof of an adjacent building. The measurements showed a significant reduction of total and direct shortwave radiation in the shade of the studied trees, both foliated and leafless. Average transmissivity of direct solar radiation through the foliated and defoliated tree crowns ranged from 1.3 to 5.3 % and from 40.2 to 51.9 %, respectively. The results confirm the potential of a single urban tree to reduce heat stress in urban environment. However, the relatively low transmissivity through defoliated trees should be considered while planning street trees in high latitude cities, where the solar access in winter is limited. The results were used for parameterisation of SOLWEIG model for a better estimation of the mean radiant temperature (Tmrt). Measured values of transmissivity of solar radiation through both foliated and leafless trees were found to improve the model performance.
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People depend on benefits provided by ecological systems. Understanding how these ecosystem services - and the ecosystem properties underpinning them - respond to drivers of change is therefore an urgent priority. We address this challenge through developing a novel risk-assessment framework that integrates ecological and evolutionary perspectives on functional traits to determine species' effects on ecosystems and their tolerance of environmental changes. We define Specific Effect Function (SEF) as the per-gram or per capita capacity of a species to affect an ecosystem property, and Specific Response Function (SRF) as the ability of a species to maintain or enhance its population as the environment changes. Our risk assessment is based on the idea that the security of ecosystem services depends on how effects (SEFs) and tolerances (SRFs) of organisms - which both depend on combinations of functional traits - correlate across species and how they are arranged on the species' phylogeny. Four extreme situations are theoretically possible, from minimum concern when SEF and SRF are neither correlated nor show a phylogenetic signal, to maximum concern when they are negatively correlated (i.e., the most important species are the least tolerant) and phylogenetically patterned (lacking independent backup). We illustrate the assessment with five case studies, involving both plant and animal examples. However, the extent to which the frequency of the four plausible outcomes, or their intermediates, apply more widely in real-world ecological systems is an open question that needs empirical evidence, and suggests a research agenda at the interface of evolutionary biology and ecosystem ecology.
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While technological progress has fostered the conception of an urban society that is increasingly decoupled from ecosystems, demands on natural capital and ecosystem services keep increasing steadily in our urbanized planet. Decoupling of cities from ecological systems can only occur locally and partially, thanks to the appropriation of vast areas of ecosystem services provision beyond the city boundaries. Conserving and restoring ecosystem services in urban areas can reduce the ecological footprints and the ecological debts of cities while enhancing resilience, health, and quality of life for their inhabitants. In this paper we synthesize knowledge and methods to classify and value ecosystem services for urban planning. First, we categorize important ecosystem services and disservices in urban areas. Second, we describe valuation languages (economic costs, socio‐cultural values, resilience) that capture distinct value dimensions of urban ecosystem services. Third, we identify analytical challenges for valuation to inform urban planning in the face of high heterogeneity and fragmentation characterizing urban ecosystems. The paper discusses various ways through which urban ecosystems services can enhance resilience and quality of life in cities and identifies a range of economic costs and socio‐cultural impacts that can derive from their loss. We conclude by identifying knowledge gaps and challenges for the research agenda on ecosystem services provided in urban areas.
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Diversity and abundance of wild-insect pollinators have declined in many agricultural landscapes. Whether such declines reduce crop yields, or are mitigated by managed pollinators such as honey bees, is unclear. Here, we show universally positive associations of fruit set with wild-insect visits to flowers in 41 crop systems worldwide, and thus clearly demonstrate their agricultural value. In contrast, fruit set increased significantly with visitation by honey bees in only 14% of the systems surveyed. Overall, wild insects pollinated crops more effectively, because increase in their visitation enhanced fruit set by twice as much as an equivalent increase in honey bee visitation. Further, visitation by wild insects and honey bees promoted fruit set independently, so high abundance of managed honey bees supplemented, rather than substituted for, pollination by wild insects. Our results suggest that new practices for integrated management of both honey bees and diverse wild-insect assemblages will enhance global crop yields.
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To properly manage urban forests, it is essential to have data on this important resource. An efficient means to obtain this information is to randomly sample urban areas. To help assess the urban forest structure (e.g., number of trees, species composition, tree sizes, health) and several functions (e.g., air pollution removal, carbon storage and sequestration), the Urban Forest Effects (UFORE) model was developed. Data collection variables and model methods are detailed and urban forest structure results are compared among 14 United States cities with average tree density ranging between 22.5 trees/ha (9.1 trees/ac) in Casper, Wyoming, U.S. to 275.8 trees/ha (111.6 trees/ac) in Atlanta, Georgia, U.S. Advantages and disadvantages of this ground-based method of assessing urban forest structure, functions, and values are discussed.
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Based on human-biometeorological measurements at two different sites within a street canyon in the city of Freiburg (southwest Germany), the shading influence of the canopy of street trees on human thermal comfort was investigated for a typical Central European summer day within the scope of the joint research project KLIMES. The physiologically equivalent temperature PET was used to quantify the level of human thermal comfort. The lower PET values under the tree canopies point out the lower level of thermal stress compared to an adjacent site, which was not directly shaded. The total radiation heat aggregated in the mean radiant temperature T mrt mainly determined the PET conditions at both sites, which is typical of Central European cities on summer days. To a considerable extent, T mrt was influenced by the long-wave radiative fluxes from the four main horizontal directions. The mean contribution of the total short-wave radiation on T mrt amounted to 10 % under the tree canopies and 29 % at the not directly shaded site.
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1. Spatially explicit understanding of the delivery of multiple ecosystem services (ES) from global to local scales is currently limited. New studies analysing the simultaneous provision of multiple services at landscape scale should aid the understanding of multiple ES delivery and trade-offs to support policy, management and land planning. 2. Here, we propose a new approach for the analysis, mapping and understanding of multiple ES delivery in landscapes. Spatially explicit single ES models based on plant traits and abiotic characteristics are combined to identify ‘hot’ and ‘cold’ spots of multiple ES delivery, and the land use and biotic determinants of such distributions. We demonstrate the value of this trait-based approach as compared to a pure land-use approach for a pastoral landscape from the central French Alps, and highlight how it improves understanding of ecological constraints to, and opportunities for, the delivery of multiple services. 3. Vegetative height and leaf traits such as leaf dry matter content were response traits strongly influenced by land use and abiotic environment, with follow-on effects on several ecosystem properties, and could therefore be used as functional markers of ES. 4. Patterns of association among ES were related to the dominant traits underlying different ecosystem properties. The functional decoupling between height and leaf traits provided alternative pathways for high agronomic value, as well as determining hot and cold spots of ES. Traditional land uses such as organic fertilization and mowing or altitude summer grazing were also linked with ES hot spots, because functional characteristics supporting fodder production and quality are compatible with species and functional diversity. 5. Synthesis. Analyses of ES using plant functional variation across landscapes are a powerful approach to understanding the fundamental ecological mechanisms underlying ES provision, and trade-offs or synergies among services. Sustainable management of species and functionally diverse grassland could simultaneously aim at conserving biodiversity and locally important ES by taking advantage of correlations and trade-offs among different plant functional traits.
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Vegetation and building morphology characteristics are investigated at 19 sites on a north-south LiDAR transect across the megacity of London. Local maxima of mean building height and building plan area density at the city centre are evident. Surprisingly, the mean vegetation height (zv3) is also found to be highest in the city centre. From the LiDAR data various morphological parameters are derived as well as shadow patterns. Continuous images of the effects of buildings and of buildings plus vegetationon sky view factor (Ψ) are derived. A general reduction of Ψ is found, indicating the importance of including vegetation when deriving Ψ in urban areas. The contribution of vegetation to the shadowing at ground level is higher during summer than in autumn. Using these 3D data the influence on urban climate and mean radiant temperature (T mrt ) is calculated with SOLWEIG. The results from these simulations highlight that vegetation can be most effective at reducing heat stress within dense urban environments in summer. The daytime average T mrt is found to be lowest in the densest urban environments due to shadowing; foremost from buildings but also from trees. It is clearly shown that this method could be used to quantify the influence of vegetation on T mrt within the urban environment. The results presented in this paper highlight a number of possible climate sensitive planning practices for urban areas at the local scale (i.e. 102- 5 × 103m). KeywordsLiDAR–Shadow patterns–Mean radiant temperature–Sky view factor–Urban vegetation–Urban morphology–SOLWEIG–Spatial variability–Urban trees
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A heated discussion has arisen over the “best” priorities derivation method. Using a Monte Carlo simulation this article compares and evaluates the solutions of four AHP ratio scaling methods: the right eigenvalue method, the left eigenvalue method, the geometric mean and the mean of normalized values. Matrices with different dimensions and degree of impurities are randomly constructed. We observe a high level of agreement between the different scaling techniques. The number of ranking contradictions increases with the dimension of the matrix and the inconsistencies. However, these contradictions affect only close priorities.
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Leaf area of urban vegetation is an important ecological characteristic, influencing urban climate through shading and transpiration cooling and air quality through air pollutant deposition. Accurate estimates of leaf area over large areas are fundamental to model such processes. The aim of this study was to explore if an aerial LiDAR dataset acquired to create a high resolution digital terrain model could be used to map effective leaf area index (Le) and to assess the Le variation in a high latitude urban area, here represented by the city of Gothenburg, Sweden. Le was estimated from LiDAR data using a Beer-Lambert law based approach and compared to ground-based measurements with hemispherical photography and the Plant Canopy Analyser LAI-2200. Even though the LiDAR dataset was not optimized for Le mapping the comparison with hemispherical photography showed good agreement (r² = 0.72, RMSE = 0.97) for urban parks and woodlands. Leaf area density of single trees, estimated from LiDAR and LAI-2200, did not show as good agreement (r² = 0.53, RMSE = 0.49). Le in 10 m resolution covering most of Gothenburg municipality ranged from 0 to 14 (0.3% of the values >7) with an average Le of 3.5 in deciduous forests and 1.2 in urban built-up areas. When Le was averaged over larger scales there was a high correlation with canopy cover (r² = 0.97 in 1 × 1 km² scale) implying that at this scale Le is rather homogenous. However, when Le was averaged only over the vegetated parts, differences in Le became clear. Detailed study of Le in seven urban green areas with different amount and type of greenery showed a large variation in Le, ranging from average Le of 0.9 in a residential area to 4.1 in an urban woodland. The use of LiDAR data has the potential to considerably increase information of forest structure in the urban environment.
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Air pollution levels (NO2, PAHs, O3) were investigated, before (BLE) and after (ALE) leaf emergence, in the urban landscape of Gothenburg, Sweden. The aims were to study the 1) spatial and temporal variation in pollution levels between urban green areas, 2) effect of urban vegetation on air pollution levels at the same distance from a major emission source (traffic route), 3) improvement of urban air quality in urban parks compared to adjacent sites near traffic, 4) correlation between air pollution and noise in a park. O3 varied little over the urban landscape. NO2 varied strongly and was higher in situations strongly influenced by traffic. Four PAH variables were included: total PAH, total particle-bound PAH, the quantitatively important gaseous phenanthrene and the highly toxic particle-bound benzo(a)pyrene. The variation of PAHs was similar to NO2, but for certain PAHs the difference between highly and less polluted sites was larger than for NO2. At a vegetated site, NO2 and particulate PAH levels were lower than at a non-vegetated site at a certain distance from a busy traffic route. This effect was significantly larger ALE compared to BLE for NO2, indicating green leaf area to be highly significant factor for air quality improvement. For particulate PAHs, the effect was similar BLE and ALE, indicating that tree bark and branches also could be an important factor in reducing air pollution. Parks represented considerably cleaner local environments (park effect), which is likely to be a consequence of both a dilution (distance effect) and deposition. Noise and air pollution (NO2 and PAH) levels were strongly correlated. Comparison of noise levels BLE and ALE also showed that the presence of leaves significantly reduced noise levels. Our results are evidence that urban green spaces are beneficial for urban environmental quality, which is important to consider in urban planning.
Article
Neighbourhood green space serves an important function for the urban population, and provides valuable ecosystem services for human well-being. In this article, we investigate the effects of naturalness, gender, and age on the activities, aesthetics, and self-reported well-being associated with urban green space. Our findings are based on a postal survey of residents living in close proximity to six different green spaces in the city of Gothenburg, Sweden. It is shown that higher perceived naturalness generated more activities and higher aesthetic values and self-reported well-being for residents living close to urban green spaces. The results also indicated that, regardless of the type of naturalness, women were more active in urban green spaces than were men. Women also saw greater aesthetic value in green spaces than men did, and had higher self-reported well-being associated with the urban green spaces. Finally, older residents were shown to participate in a greater number of nature-related activities than younger residents. Older residents also saw greater aesthetic values and had higher self-reported well-being associated with urban green spaces than younger people did. Seemingly, this poses a considerable planning challenge if areas of perceived naturalness are to be retained in cities, since the present trend is for reduced green spaces in cities and a ‘parkification’ of surviving natural areas. Further, because of the importance of perceived natural areas to the elderly, and in particularly women, distances to urban green areas should not be too great.
Article
Economic valuation of ecosystem services is widely advocated as being useful to support ecosystem management decision-making. However, the extent to which it is actually used or considered useful in decision-making is poorly documented. This literature blindspot is explored with an application to coastal and marine ecosystems management in Australia. Based on a nation-wide survey of eighty-eight decision-makers representing a diversity of management organizations, the perceived usefulness and level of use of economic valuation of ecosystem services, in support of coastal and marine management, are examined. A large majority of decision-makers are found to be familiar with economic valuation and consider it useful - even necessary - in decision-making, although this varies across groups of decision-makers. However, most decision-makers never or rarely use economic valuation. The perceived level of importance and trust in estimated dollar values differ across ecosystem services, and are especially high for values that relate to commercial activities. A number of factors are also found to influence respondent's use of economic valuation. Such findings concur with conclusions from other studies on the usefulness and use of ESV in environmental management decision-making. They also demonstrate the strength of the survey-based approach developed in this application to examine this issue in a variety of contexts.
Article
Functional traits have been proposed as a more mechanistic way than species data alone to connect biodiversity to ecosystem processes and function in ecological research. Recently, this framework has also been broadened to include connections of traits to ecosystem services. While many links between traits and ecosystem processes/functions are easily and logically extended to regulating, supporting, and provisioning services, connections to cultural services have not yet been dealt with in depth. We argue that addressing this gap may involve a renegotiation of what have traditionally been considered traits, and a targeted effort to include and expand upon efforts to address traits-cultural ecosystem services links in traits research. Traits may also offer a better way to explore the recognition and appreciation of biodiversity. Drawing upon examples from outside the explicit traits literature, we present a number of potential connections between functional traits and cultural ecosystem services for attention in future research. Finally, we explore considerations and implications of employing a traits approach in urban areas, and examine how connections between traits and ecosystem services could be developed as indicators in a research and management context to generate a robust and resilient supply of ecosystem services.
Chapter
The seven pillars of the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) are presented. These include: (1) ratio scales derived from reciprocal paired comparisons; (2) paired comparisons and the psychophysical origin of the fundamental scale used to make the comparisons; (3) conditions for sensitivity of the eigenvector to changes in judgements; (4) homogeneity and clustering to extend the scale from 1–9 to 1-℞; (5) additive synthesis of priorities, leading to a vector of multi-linear forms as applied within the decision structure of a hierarchy or the more general feedback network to reduce multi-dimensional measurements to a uni-dimensional ratio scale; (6) allowing rank preservation (ideal mode) or allowing rank reversal (distributive mode); and (7) group decision making using a mathematically justifiable way for synthesising individual judgements which allows the construction of a cardinal group decision compatible with individual preferences. These properties of the AHP give it both theoretical support and broad application.
Article
The aim of this study was to provide a better understanding of how vegetation and building geometry influence the spatial distribution of air temperature and nocturnal cooling rates (CR) in a high-latitude city. Intra-urban thermal variations were analysed in two seasons (May–September and November–March) and in different weather conditions (clear, calm and cloudy, windy) in Gothenburg, Sweden. Simultaneous air temperature measurements were conducted for 2 years (2012–2013) at ten fixed park and street sites characterized by varying type and amount of vegetation, building geometry, openness and surface cover. Several spatial characteristics, including sky view factor (SVF) as well as the cover and volume of buildings and trees, were calculated within circular areas of radii ranging from 10 to 150 m. Spatial characteristics were found to explain air temperature distribution in the studied area to a large extent throughout the day and year, in both clear, calm as well as cloudy, windy conditions. The highest correlations were found for weighted calculation areas accounting for the influence of both nearest (10 m) and wider (25–150 m) surroundings. Park sites remained cooler than built-up areas, with the most pronounced cooling effect (0.8 °C) on clear, calm days of the warm season. The most important factor governing CR around sunset was SVF. However, on clear, calm nights of the warm season, they were also enhanced by vegetation, indicating the influence of evapotranspiration. Minimum night-time air temperature was governed mostly by the presence of buildings. Within the street canyon, a daytime cooling and night-time warming effect of a street tree was observed, particularly in the warm season. The study shows the importance of various spatial characteristics describing openness, amount of vegetation and building geometry in analysing intra-urban variations in daytime and night-time air temperature.
Article
Abstract Vegetation and trees in particular play a key role in mitigating thermal load in urban areas. The goals of this study were to analyse species-specific microclimatic effects and to identify the role of leaf-area-density, transpiration, and stomatal conductance for cooling effects at urban sites. Air temperature, relative humidity and surface temperature were used to study the effects of six tree species with similar age structure in a residential area with comparable site conditions. Transpiration, stomatal conductance and leaf-area density were measured during the summer months in 2013. Air temperatures and relative humidity were monitored for four trees per street in hourly intervals, and surface temperatures were recorded in the afternoon for three hot days on the shaded and unshaded asphalt surfaces beneath the trees. Species differ significantly in their ability to reduce air and surface temperatures, as well as to increase relative humidity. Trees showing both a high leaf-area density and a high rate of transpiration are more effective in cooling the air temperatures. Differences in the surface temperatures of the tree shaded areas are more pronounced compared to the air temperatures. Thus, the surface temperatures of the full sun exposed areas are up to 15.2 K warmer than that in the tree shaded areas. The results provide information to decrease thermal load in urban areas for future tree planting by choosing species with high cooling potential. The highest cooling potential was measured for Corylus colurna and Tilia cordata ‘Greenspire’ and the lowest for Ulmus × hollandica ‘Lobel’.
Article
The article presents a multicriteria assessment framework for the qualitative estimation of regional potentials to provide ecosystem services as a prerequisite to support regional development planning. We applied this approach to a model region in Saxony, Eastern Germany. For the estimation of the potentials of the model region to provide ecosystem services, we used a modified approach compared to the Millenium Ecosystem Assessment (2005). We then employed a benefit transfer and a purely expert driven approach to assess contribution of the land cover classes in our model region to the provision of ecosystem services. In a subsequent step, the services in our set were combined to ecosystem services groups that were designed together with regional actors, while considering their ideas, concerns and experiences in regional decision making. The latter was analyzed in a weighting experiment, in which different weighting approaches were tested. Based upon this, we analyzed the performance of the model region to provide ecosystem services and generated ecosystem services distribution maps. We could show that the different data gathering methods “benefit transfer” and “expert-based assessment” have a considerable impact on the evaluation outcomes. The results of our study show that the combination of selected services and land cover data can contribute to regional planning by communicating the effect of land cover change on ecosystem services groups, especially when applied as an evaluation basis in the tool Pimp Your Landscape (PYL). The approach supports also the assessment of the performance of a region to provide ecosystem services and the comparison of regions towards this aspect. Finally, we discuss the limitations of our approach that are related to coarse land cover data, lacking knowledge on the provision of ecosystem services at a landscape scale, and the difficulty to make relevant the ecosystem services concept in regional planning processes.
Article
Scientific papers on landscape planning underline the importance of maintaining and developing green spaces because of their multiple environmental and social benefits for city residents. However, a general understanding of contemporary human–environment interaction issues in urban green space is still incomplete and lacks orientation for urban planners. This review examines 219 publications to (1) provide an overview of the current state of research on the relationship between humans and urban green space, (2) group the different research approaches by identifying the main research areas, methods, and target groups, and (3) highlight important future prospects in urban green space research.
Article
In this article, I argue that the relationship between place and self can be accounted for by recent theoretical work on autobiographical memory. The link between place and self is conceptualized as a transitory mental representation that emerges as a “place of mine” (personal autobiographical experience) from a “place” (declarative knowledge). The function of “place of mine” is to guide personal memory and self-knowing consciousness of periods of our lives. I combine inquiries of memory, self, and place in a triadic relationship, a synthesis, suggesting a conceptual model for the phenomenon of place-related self as a sub-system of the self. This is formed by a causal progression from a physical place across time via emotional and cognitive bonds, components of the autobiographical information grounding the self, apportioned across declarative memory. Finally, using the methods of factor analysis and structural equation modeling, I show that the proposed model accounts for previous and new data on place-related identity.
Article
Studies of evapotranspiration (ET) processes in forests often only measure one component of total ET, most commonly interception. This study examined all three components of annual ET (interception, evaporation from the forest floor and transpiration) and the correlations between them at 18 plantation forest sites in two species. All plantations had closed-canopies, and sparse or no understorey. Single-sided leaf area index averaged 3.5 (standard deviation ±0.5) in Eucalyptus globulus Labill. and 6.1 (±0.8) in Pinus radiata D.Don.Measurements included annual totals of rainfall in the open and under the canopy, stem flow (4 sites only), evaporation from the forest floor and transpiration by the overstorey. Interception (I) averaged 19% (±4.9) of annual rainfall in E. globulus compared with 31% (±11.1) in P. radiata. However, higher annual interception in P. radiata did not result in higher total ET because annual evaporation from the forest floor (E) averaged 29% (±4.9) of rainfall in E. globulus but only 15% (±3.5) in P. radiata. Hence, the relative contribution of annual I plus E to evapotranspiration (ET) did not differ significantly between the two species, averaging 48% (±7.3) of annual rainfall in E. globulus compared with 46% (±11.8) in P. radiata. As reported previously, transpiration did not differ significantly between the two species either, but was strongly related to depth-to-groundwater. In closed-canopy plantations, mean annual ET did not differ between the two species.We conclude that when grown in plantations under similar soil and climatic conditions, conifer and broad leaved tree species can have similar annual ET, once the canopy of the plantation has closed. Lower average annual interception in broad leaved trees was offset by higher soil evaporation. These results highlight the importance of measuring all components of ET in studies of vegetation water use. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Article
Landslide risk is a function of the probability of the event and its consequences. Previous research has shown that preventive measures to reduce the risk are preferred over reactive measures but, especially in developing countries, rarely undertaken. A contributing factor is the lack of evidence that preventive measures pay. This study includes a brief overview of landslide risk management in general and an investigation of the present risk management situation in Sweden based on interviews in 11 municipalities complemented with interviews in Norway. The result shows that climate change has become part of the general awareness and started to be taken into account in the municipal spatial planning. Landslide susceptibility maps and databases are useful tools in the complex spatial planning. The results indicate that the application of landslide susceptibility and risk maps as previously applied for preventive measures and spatial planning in the landslide prone area Göta älv river valley have been cost effective. Improved documentation and more active communication among different stakeholders would, however, contribute to more effective landslide management.
Article
The main objective of this paper is to present an assessment approach for ecosystem services in an urban context covering the local and the regional scale. It was applied to different European cities. A set of indicators representing important urban ecosystem goods and services – local climate regulation, air cooling and recreation – was tested using spatial data along an urban–rural gradient. The results show that there is neither a typical rural–urban gradient in terms of urban ecosystem service provisioning nor a uniform urban spatial pattern of service provisioning that can serve as a generic model for cities. The results demonstrate that (1) core cities do not necessarily provide fewer ecosystem services compared to their regions and (2) there were no patches found within the four case study cities where all of the indicators report very high performance values. The analysis further shows that a high degree of imperviousness does not necessarily entail low ecosystem service provisioning if an urban structure contains a considerable amount of mature trees which support carbon storage and biodiversity. The results of the present paper provide insights into potentials and trade-offs between different urban ecosystem services that should be considered during urban planning when setting targets and establishing thresholds to protect environmental resources, ecosystem services and biodiversity for residents.
Article
We measured air temperature in an urban green area that includes forest and grassland and in the surrounding urban area for a full year in Nagoya, central Japan, to elucidate seasonal variations of the difference in air temperature between urban and green areas. We determined the range of the “cool-island” effect as well as the relationship between vegetation cover and air temperature throughout the year. The temperature difference between urban and green areas was large in summer and small in winter. The maximum air temperature difference was 1.9°C in July 2007, and the minimum was −0.3°C in March 2004. The difference was larger during the day than during the night in summer, whereas in winter the opposite relationship was true. However, winter diurnal variation was not particularly noticeable, a behaviour thought to be related to reduced shading by deciduous trees in the green area. During the night, the cooling effect of the green area reached 200–300 m into the urban area. During the day, the cooling effect between August and October 2006 exceeded 300m and varied widely, although there was no correlation beyond 500m. The correlation between air temperature and forest-cover ratio within a radius of 200m from each measurement site was significant from 16:00 to 19:00. There was also a correlation during the night; this correlation was weakest in the early morning. The effect of the forest-cover ratio on air temperature was most pronounced in August 2006 and June 2007.
Article
Among the main effects of human activities on the environment are land use and resulting land cover changes. Such changes impact the capacity of ecosystems to provide goods and services to the human society. This supply of multiple goods and services by nature should match the demands of the society, if self-sustaining human–environmental systems and a sustainable utilization of natural capital are to be achieved. To describe respective states and dynamics, appropriate indicators and data for their quantification, including quantitative and qualitative assessments, are needed. By linking land cover information from, e.g. remote sensing, land survey and GIS with data from monitoring, statistics, modeling or interviews, ecosystem service supply and demand can be assessed and transferred to different spatial and temporal scales. The results reveal patterns of human activities over time and space as well as the capacities of different ecosystems to provide ecosystem services under changing land use. Also the locations of respective demands for these services can be determined. As maps are powerful tools, they hold high potentials for visualization of complex phenomena. We present an easy-to-apply concept based on a matrix linking spatially explicit biophysical landscape units to ecological integrity, ecosystem service supply and demand. An exemplary application for energy supply and demand in a central German case study region and respective maps for the years 1990 and 2007 are presented. Based on these data, the concept for an appropriate quantification and related spatial visualization of ecosystem service supply and demand is elaborated and discussed.
Article
The social and ecological processes impacting on urban forests have been studied at multiple temporal and spatial scales in order to help us quantify, monitor, and value the ecosystem services that benefit people. Few studies have comprehensively analyzed the full suite of ecosystem services, goods (ESG), and ecosystem disservices provided by an urban forest. Indicators, however, are one approach that could be used to better understand the structure of an urban forest, the suite of ESG provided by urban forests, and their influence on human well-being using a simple, innovative and repeatable metric. This study presents a framework for developing indicators using field data, an urban forest functional model, and the literature. Urban tree and soil indicators for groups of ecosystem functions were used to statistically analyze the effects of urban morphology and socioeconomics on urban forest ESG. Findings show that the most influential ESG indicators were tree cover, soil pH, and soil organic matter. Indicators were significantly influenced by land use and time since urbanization, while analyses of property values and household income did not yield any particularly significant results. The indicators presented in this paper present a first approach to non-monetary valuation of urban forest ESG and can be used to develop urban forest structure management goals and to monitor the effects of urban greening policies on human well-being. Research highlights▶ Urban forest ecosystem services and goods are dependent on tree cover. ▶ Indicators for ecosystem services and goods are influence by land use and time since urbanization. ▶ Indicators presented in this study are the first approach for a non-monetary valuation of urban forest ecosystem services and goods. ▶ Indicators can be used as a tool for evaluation of policies or management regimes.