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Boosting physical and psychological well-being in rehabilitation through cognitive technologies preliminary results

Boosting physical and psychological well-being in
rehabilitation through cognitive technologies
Preliminary results
Raffaella Folgieri
Department of Philosophy
Università degli Studi di Milano
Milan, Italy
Claudio Lucchiari
Department of Philosophy
Università degli Studi di Milano
Milan, Italy
Abstract-Orthopaedic rehabilitation is a hot topic since the
increasing age of the population in western countries implies that
more and more people require invasive and inabilitating
orthopaedic surgery, such as knee substitution, in order to
recover physical functionality, autonomy and quality of life.
Consequently, it’s fundamental to test rehabilitation treatment
able to increase efficacy and reliability of treatment, both with
the aim to improve outcomes and decrease days of hospital stay.
In this sense, Neuro-cognitive driven technology may have a great
impact in this field. Starting by the paradigm of Action
Observation Treatment, we have designed a pilot study using a
3D environment and wearable bio-sensors to boost rehabilitation
in collaboration with an important orthopaedic hospital in Milan,
Italy. We hypothesized that the use of a 3D environment would
decrease the time required for the recovery of motor
functionality with respect to a 2D environment or to a standard
treatment. We sampled 26 patients who accepted to participate in
the study. They were randomly assigned to one of the three arms
of the study. Preliminary data suggest that actually the Action
Observation Treament has the power to boos rehabilitation when
matched with a traditional treatment. Furthermore, the 3D video
stimulation seems to have a higher impact on cognitive and
physical variables, thus suggesting that the use of 3D stimulation
may constitute a cognitive tool to be used in hospital settings,
while 2D videos might be considered an at-home tool to be used
autonomously to maintain and further boost outcomes.
KeywordsRehabilation; 3d environment; BCI; Orthopedics;
Cognitive Science
The ICF (International Classification of Functioning)
standard, published in 2001 by WHO (World Health
Organization), has been transposed by 191, including Italy. The
cultural revolution introduced by ICF consists in considering a
person with a disability not as the result of anatomic damage
(menomation) followed by a functional limitation (disability)
transforming him/her in a handicapped individual, but in
focusing on the individual. The ICF evaluation process
considers, for the first time, contextual environment factors
(social roles, cultural natural or not - environment, political
factors, Insitutions, and so on) and person-related factors
(genre, age, health conditions, adaptability, social background,
education, profession, past experience, behaviours styles),
systematically classifying them through common criteria
comparable in an interdisciplinary way. The model of Health
and of disability presented by ICF is biopsychosocial model,
involving all the contexts of public policies and, particularly,
the welfare, health, education and job ones. Only an
intersectorial cooperation, jointly with an integrate approach
allow to detect solutions which reduce the disability in a
population. The focus is on the terms “health” and “function”,
not on disability. This vision of an individual, even if
introduced in 2001, the ICF actually is in contrast with the
classification systems currently used in rehabilitation. The
Major Diagnostic Category system (MDC), currently in use,
divides rehabilitation areas in orthopaedic, neurologic,
cardiology and pulmonary, strongly in cultural contrast with
the ICF vision.
Moreover, considering the Italian scenario, there is also an
evident epidemiologic datum:
“In 2010, the total number of hospitalizations in
rehabilitation has been about 321,000 patients, the 82% of
which in ordinary regimen and the remaining 18% in daily
regimen, with an incidence of the private offer component of
69%. The rehabilitation in hospitals, in Italy, is a phenomenon
involving mainly elder patients: the over 65 represent the 61%
of the total number (value constant from 2007 to 2010)
(Metodologia per la definizione dei criteri/parametri di
appropriatezza ed efficienza dei ricoveri di riabilitazione
ospedaliera - febbraio 2013 Ministero della Salute). If most of
the patients of rehabilitation are elder people, there is another
datum to consider: when over 65, we register the coexistence in
the same individual of multiple pathologies related to the age,
especially in chronic pathologies. It has been demonstrated, in
fact, that most of the people aged between 65 and 79 show 4,9
pathologies, while in individuals over 80 the number is 5,4.
The association of specific chronic pathologies such as the
organic cardiopathy and the osteoarthritis increases the relative
risk of disability of 13,6 times if compared to an isolated risk of
4,4 for the osteoarthritis and 2,3 for the organic cardiac disease.
With age, the presence of comorbidity increases due to the
increasing of frequency of the chronic pathologies.”
Considering that most of the patients are, so, mainly older
people with a variety comorbidity, the possibilities to apply the
ICF are various and, following the trends, they will be more
and more in future.
We focused specifically on orthopaedic rehabilitation,
starting from the assumption that an older patient needs not
only traditional physical therapies, but also neurological
treatments. The hypothesis, discussed with Doctors of the
Gaetano Pini Orthopaedic Institute in Milan, is that, using
cognitive technologies, we could reduce the risk of other
physical traumas possible in dispensing traditional physical
rehabilitation exercises proposing a double approach:
traditional and virtual, as better described in the following
paragraph. In this way the influence of other pathologies,
making often difficult the physical rehabilitation therapy (such
as, for example, cardiac diseases), is reduced and, at the same
time, also the pain suffered by patients is reduced. It is also
important to underline that the use of cognitive-driven
technologies may also help the patient engagement in the the
therapeutic journey with potential important reflexes on
perceived quality of life and psychological well-being.
At the Orthopaedic Rehabilitation Institute Gaetano Pini, in
Milan, we constituted an interdisciplinary group composed of
Doctors specialized in Orthopaedic (but also with the
contribution of other medical specialities), Cognitive
Psychologists, Information Technology specialized in Brain
Computer Interface and Virtual reality. The group designed
and realized a virtual room where a patient can follow a special
rehabilitation program reinforced by the immersive 3D
The reasons why we chose to realize the implemented
systems come from literature and medical experience.
In neurophysiology it is now a well-accepted that the
observation of actions performed by others activates in the
perceiver the same neural circuits of the actual execution of the
same actions [1]. In fact, observing a person performing a
meaningful motor task activates the so-called mirror neuron
system [2]. This means that the brain of a person observing
someone performing everyday actions activates the same areas
involved in the actual execution of those actions, opening
opportunity to develop Neuro-cognitive tools in a wide range
of domains. In particular, a number of studies shown that
action observation is an effective way to enhance (or even to
learn) the performance of specific motor skills [3]. For
instance, in a study, participants put in unusual environment
were required to perform a reaching task after watching a video
depicting a person learning to reach in the same environment or
in a different one. In the first condition, participant performed
better than participant in the second condition, suggesting that
what was learned about the environment through the actions of
others (by the video) was easily transferable to their own action
in a true environment [4]. Moreover, action observation has
been shown to help motor learning in both normal adults and
patients after stroke [5]. It also reported that observing action
may increase the force of performing a giving movement in a
similar way that actually training that movement does [6].
More recent studies also revealed that action observation is a
powerful cognitive tool for learning a novel complex motor
task that in some condition may be better than motor imagery
[7, 8]. All this evidence established the basis for a
rehabilitative technique known as “Action Observation
Treatment”, already applied in several clinical settings, e.g. the
rehabilitation of motor deficit after stroke [9, 10], Parkinson’s
disease [11] and motor performance in elderly people [12].
However, a few studies tested this rehabilitation technique in
orthopaedics. Among these, Bellelli et al. [1] successfully
tested the possibility to couple a conventional physiotherapy
with the Action Observation Treatment in post-surgical (hip
and knee) orthopaedic patients reporting a faster improvement
in functional measures (Tinetti scales [13]). Park et al. [3]
found that treatment based on action observation may have a
positive effect symptoms such as pain and stiffness in patients
undergoing total knee arthroplasty. Finally, Villafañe and
colleagues [14] found significant improvements in knee
mobility adding an action observation to a conventional
physiotherapy after primary total knee replacement with
respect to a conventional physiotherapy. In particular, in this
study authors used a self-administration protocol in which
patients were trained to watch autonomously some
rehabilitation-related video clips. This protocol in interesting
since it show that is also possible to provide patients tools that
they can use at-home. However, we argue that using a more
immersive and guide environment during hospitalization may
be more effective in helping patients to develop motor skills
that they could be able to boost at-home by the use of not
immersive devices.
Moreover, if the motor representation is realized through
immersive 3D technologies, the result is a greater effectiveness
in therapy, thanks to the stronger identification process [15, 16,
We created a virtual room where each patient is provided of
a specific rehabilitation virtual protocol, following a 3D
immersive reproduction of the movement done during the
traditional rehabilitation therapy.
To allow freedom of movement for the patient and the
therapist who follows the rehabilitation session, the immersion
is carried out by screen projection made with double Epson
projectors in passive mode. This kind of choice allows, while
preserving the advantages of the immersivity, not to
completely isolate the patients so that they can interact with the
The first step, currently in progress, requires that a group of
patients carries out the treatment in a traditional mode and then
revise, in passive mode, the movements performed during the
traditional rehabilitation therapy, through 3D videos made with
external, lateral, front and subjective shooting.
Virtual sessions have a duration of about 20 minutes total,
and during this time, the patient wears an EEG-based BCI
(Brain Computer Interface) to detect brain responses to visual
and motor stimuli. We opted for an EEG-based BCI for greater
freedom of movement allowed by the device, compared to a
traditional EEG.
Thanks to the introduction in research of EEG-based Brain
Computer Interfaces (BCIs) [18], currently we can measure the
attention level of a participant in an experiment in a
comfortable situation, if compared to medical EEG devices. In
fact, BCI devices, such as the Emotiv Epoch we used, allow
freedom of movement (communicates with the server, using a
bluethoot dongle) and reduce individuals’ anxiety, thanks to
wireless collection of the EEG signal and to the ergonomy of
the device. BCIs process brainwaves into digital signals and it
is used extensively in neuroscience [16, 19], cognitive science
[20, 21, 22, 23] and cognitive psychology [24, 25] research, as
well as in games and education [26, 27] and some other
applications, such as attention training [28, 29] music training
and analysis [30, 31].
We must recall that BCIs collect several cerebral frequency
rhythms: the alpha band (7 Hz14 Hz), related to relaxed
awareness, contemplation, etc.; the Beta band (14 Hz30 Hz),
associated with active thinking, active attention, solving
concrete problems; the Delta band (3 Hz7 Hz), frontally in
adults, posteriorly in children with high amplitude waves,
found during some continuous attention tasks [32, 33]; the
Theta band (4 Hz7 Hz), usually related to emotional
processing [34]; the Gamma band (30 Hz80 Hz), generally
related to cognitive processing of multi-sensorial signals. The
considered commercial BCI, the Emotiv Epoc, collects all the
listed signals and also myographic signals, allowing the use of
facial expressions and head movements (as a gyroscope).
In addition to the group of the ten patients following the
sperimental virtual therapy, we chose also a second group
composed by patients who will watch the same videos but in a
traditional 2D version, and a control group of patients who
only follow the traditional therapy, in order to compare, at the
end of the experiment, the results obtained in terms of
efficiency and recovery of motor functions.
We conducted a pilot study. Informed consent was obtained
from all participants and procedures were conducted according
to the Declaration of Helsinki. The protocol was approved by
the Local Ethical Committee. The study was performed at the
Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine department of “G. Pini”
Hospital in Milan. Patients recovered for rehabilitation after
elective primary total knee replacement were invited to
participate in the present study. Exclusion criteria were 1) age
18 years or younger and 90 years or older, 2) bilateral knee
replacement or previous total knee replacement; 4) pre-existing
motor impairment; 5) Mini-Mental State Examination score
lower than 21; 6) severe vision impairment; 8) delirium on the
admission; 9) unwillingness to participate.
All eligible patients signed written informed consent before
they entered the study. All the eligible patients who agreed to
participate in the present study were randomly assigned either
to the experimental group or to the control group.
From September 2016 and January 2017 we found 31
patients eligible for the study. Three patients refused to
participate stating that they were not interested in experimental
treatments. Other two elegible patients stopped participating
after the first video clip experience, since they found the 3D
stimulation “confusing”. The present study was then conducted
on 26 participants (mean age = 68.5; female = 16), who met the
eligibility criteria and agreed to participate, they were
randomized to the experimental group I (n=9), experimental
group II (9) or control (n=8).
All study variables were measured at baseline and after
intervention. Each patient received 30 minutes of rehabilitation
once a day, 5 days a week for 10 days. The first 30 minutes
were conventional exercises done with a physiotherapist. In the
second part of the program (some hours after the physical
therapy), patients watched a video comfortably seat on an
ergonomic chair in a dedicated room. The experimental group
1 watched a 3D video related to rehabilitation exercised
(similar to the exercised performed before with the
physiotherapist); the second group watched the same video, but
in a traditional 2D version; the control group watched a video-
clip containing relaxing images of landscapes or documentaries
in 2D format.
Data on pain intensity, active and passive range of motion,
functional status, comorbidity burden, psychological distress
and quality of life were recorded at the admission and soon
after the treatment.
The following scales were administered: Visual Analogue
Scale, active range of motion, passive range of motion, Barthel
index [35], Tinetti scale [13], Tellegen Absorption Scale [36],
Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale (HADs; [37]). We also
recorded EMG(The mean EMG activity was then computed as
a percentage of the mean EMG activity recorded from the same
muscles during a five-second maximal isometric contraction of
the knee extensor muscles) and frontal EEG (we sampled 30
seconds of the EEG signal at the beginning of the video and
each 5 minutes and we compared the band power with a
baseline condition).
We didn’t find any significant difference in psychological
distress between groups, though we find improvements in
anxiety F (1,24) = 3.125; p = 0.34) and depression (F (1,24) =
7.339; p =.022) as measured by the HAD in all conditions. This
trend may be due to a normal adjustment process, potentially
boosted by the engagement in the study and/or the video
stimulation. Though the pain, as measured by the visual
analogical scale, was significantly reduced in all subjects
independent of the group, other subjective variables measured
by analogical scales after the completion of the study (during
the debriefing) showed significant differences. In particular,
patients in group 1 and 2 reported higher values than patients in
group 3 on self-perceived physical and emotional well-being.
They also reported to be more confident in their ability to
completely recovering their functionality after discharge from
the hospital.
From a psychological point of view, it is interesting to
report that the absorption trait as measure by the TAS
positively correlates with motor improvements only in group 1
(r = .398, p = 0.041).
All the groups, as expected, reported significant
improvements in knee mobility (flexion and extension) and
functional state with respect to baseline conditions. However,
experimental groups reported significant better results after 10
days of treatment in active flexion (F (1,24) = 8.819; p =.007)
and extension (F (1,24) = 6.914; p =.012) as well as on Tinetti
scale (gait assessment).
In particular, we found a significant difference between
experimental groups and the control group. The difference
between group I and group II, instead, was not statistical
However, interesting data come from EMG data. In fact,
we found that 3D rehab-related video-clips are able to recruit
involved muscle in a higher way than 2D stimulation. At the
same time, we found a higher activation in gamma band in
frontal area during 3D stimulation. These final data suggest
that 3D videos may have a higher physical and cognitive
impact on patients, potentially boosting their rehabilitation
Our findings suggest that action observation treatment, in
addition to conventional physiotherapy is a safe, usable and
effective tool to improve rehabilitative outcomes after surgery.
In fact, preliminary data show that experimental groups had a
faster recovery as detected by a significant different between
active flexion and extension of the knee. We didn’t find any
other differences between groups about the other variables
considered here. However, we didn’t analyze yet follow-up
data about functional, psychological and physical conditions
after discharge from hospital. Consequently, we cannot
comment long-term consequences of the different treatments
These data suggest that the use of a 3D video stimulation
may be more effective in supporting rehabilitation than 2D
Preliminary data of this pilot study are very promising. In
fact, we showed that Action Observation Treatment, as an
addition to conventional physiotherapy, might have a positive
effect on rehabilitation since it significantly improved clinical
outcomes in a short time.
If the preliminary results may seem encouraging, however,
we need a wider study, in order to consolidate the results of the
investigation and provide a clear picture about the specific
(motor function) and general (pain, quality of life, autonomy
functional and so on) impact of the treatment.
After a more extensive testing, it could be possible, in
future, for experienced staff who assists the patient during
exercises, to customize the level of difficulty and the type of
therapy, to achieve greater progress, reducing the patient's
frustration. Other tools to measure biofeedback signals will be
assessed in order to collect information for personalization of
individual therapeutic program.
In the future, through specific tools to be developed, the
same exercises could be offered by PC or tablet, so that the
intervention can also continue autonomously, at the patient's
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... For instance, innovations in eHealth technologies enable new streams of data that can enhance a patient's capabilities or help mitigate problems such as medication non-adherence (Dasgupta et al. 2016;Toboso 2011). In addition, machine learning (ML) technologies are offering more reliable and efficient ways to diagnose illnesses such as Alzheimer's (Ding et al. 2018), and developments in virtual reality/augmented reality (VR/AR) technology and braincomputer interfaces are providing new research avenues for physical rehabilitation (Folgieri and Lucchiari 2017), while also offering novel treatment methods in cognitive behavioural therapy (Pot-Kolder et al. 2018). At the same time, some articles argue that digital technologies may also cause harm to user's mental health or, possibly, contribute to behavioural addiction (Grubbs et al. 2018;Szablewicz 2010). ...
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This paper reports results obtained from a set of experiments aiming to compare the behaviour and cerebral rhythms in response to the vision of images related to different types of disgust: core, animal nature and moral. The approach combines Information Technology methods and cognitive technologies (specifically Brain Computer Interfaces) as well as behavioural study methods, especially referring to FACS. The presented experiment has been designed with the intent to define the use of images instead of videos in eliciting a disgust response from participants. A sample of individuals has been involved in a process during which they received visual stimuli based on disgust. The stimuli concerned both core/animal nature disgust and moral disgust. The obtained results show the interesting effects of the reaction of participants, abstracted from freeze framed images, as well as EEG correlates.
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The reliability of commercial non-invasive BCI (brain computer Interface) devices and the lower cost of these EEG-based systems, as well as the equipment's portability, determined the increasing interest in their application in different research fields. The latter feature makes BCI devices particularly suited for entertainment applications, especially given the possibility to detect the mental state of the users. The relationship between emotions and entertainment is obvious, as is the influence ofmusic in human emotional states. While BCI devices represent a challenge in gaming motion control, they have been successfully applied in music production [Dan et al. 2009] and composition [Hamadicharef et al. 2010]. In our previous work [Conscious and unconscious music from the brain in press] we focused on conscious production of music notes with the aim of developing a prototype for applications in entertainment. In this work we trace the state-of-the art of our research and present our opinion on possible applications of the preliminary results.
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The purpose of this study is to investigate that effect of action observation training (AOT) on knee joint function and balance in total knee replacement (TKR) patients. The subjects consisted of eighteen post-TKR patients. All participants underwent conventional physical therapy. In addition, patients in the AOT group (n= 9) were asked to observe video clips showing daily actions and to imitate them afterward. Patients in the control group (n= 9) were asked to execute the same actions as patients in the AOT group. Outcome measures Western Ontario and Mc-Master Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) included pain, stiffness, function and Timed Up and Go (TUG) test. After intervention, patients in the AOT group score better than patients in the control group. After TUG test, patients in the AOT group and control group were no significant difference between two groups. In addition to conventional physical therapy, AOT is effective in the rehabilitation of post-TKR patients. Action observation training is considered conducive to improving knee functions and ameliorating pain and stiffness, of patients who underwent TKR.
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The structure of absorption was examined through factor analysis (N=352) of a modified absorption questionnaire MODTAS. A coherent single latent trait was not predicted by response expectancy theory. The Likert scaled MODTAS had 5 oblique rotated (i.e. inter correlated) primary factors (Synesthesia, ASC, Aesthetic Involvement, Imaginative Involvement, ESP) and a single higher order factor. In an independent sample (N=110) all MODTAS subscales significantly predicted high versus low hypnotisability. Contrary to predictions from response expectancy theory a comparison of multiple regression models showed these relationships were mediated by common variance with the single latent trait. Absorption is placed in the context of central and somatic psychophysiology of self regulation. MODTAS should be adopted in future absorption research. It is presented in Appendices along with normative item response data.
Objective: We hypothesized that self-administered action observation treatment can increase the effectiveness of inpatient rehabilitation of patients after a primary total knee replacement. Design: A pilot randomized controlled trial. Setting: Thirty-one inpatients, admitted to our Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine Department. Subjects: After a primary total knee replacement were randomly assigned to either an experimental (n=14) or control (n=17) group. Intervention: All subjects received conventional physiotherapy and were required to perform additional self-administered exercises explained in a written informative brochure. Subjects in the experimental group were asked to watch a video showing a person exercising whilst the control group watched a nature video without exercises being shown. Main outcomes measure: Changes in Visual Analogue Scale, active and passive range of motion of knee, Barthel index, Short Form-36 Health Survey, Tinetti scale, Lequesne index measurements. Results: At the end of the intervention period, the increase of the active range of motion over the active flexion and extension in the experimental group was higher than in the control group; the difference between groups was 15.6° (95%CI 5.3-24.8) and 3.4° (95%CI 1.1-5.6), for active flexion and active extension respectively; between-group effect sizes were large at post-treatment period (d>1.3). Conclusions: adding action observation training to conventional inpatient physiotherapy is associated with a greater degree of recovery in patients who have undergone a primary total knee replacement.
Conference Paper
How to evaluate users’ attention level in a video task is a challenge. One of the conventional methods is to link users’ focus of attention to their performance undertaken in a video. However, this is not always true in a video environment, as users’ poor performance may be resulted from some other reasons rather than a lack of focus of attention. In this article, we demonstrated our assumption by using an Electroencephalography (EEG) sensor, which measured the users’ attention level in a video task. Our results showed one case that some of the users with a poor performance in the video task had the same level of attention compared to those users with a good performance. In particular, an interference object in the video, aimed for distracting the users’ attention, had no impact on some of the users’ focus when they were already involved in the video task.
Lapses of attention can have negative consequences, including accidents and lost productivity. Here we used closed-loop neurofeedback to improve sustained attention abilities and reduce the frequency of lapses. During a sustained attention task, the focus of attention was monitored in real time with multivariate pattern analysis of whole-brain neuroimaging data. When indicators of an attentional lapse were detected in the brain, we gave human participants feedback by making the task more difficult. Behavioral performance improved after one training session, relative to control participants who received feedback from other participants' brains. This improvement was largest when feedback carried information from a frontoparietal attention network. A neural consequence of training was that the basal ganglia and ventral temporal cortex came to represent attentional states more distinctively. These findings suggest that attentional failures do not reflect an upper limit on cognitive potential and that attention can be trained with appropriate feedback about neural signals.