Kappos, L. et al. Induction of a non-encephalitogenic type 2 T helper-cell autoimmune response in multiple sclerosis after administration of an altered peptide ligand in a placebo-controlled, randomized phase II trial. The Altered Peptide Ligand in Relapsing MS Study Group. Nat. Med. 6, 1176-1182

Nature Medicine (Impact Factor: 27.36). 10/2000; 6(10). DOI: 10.1038/80525
Source: OAI


In this ‘double-blind’, randomized, placebo-controlled phase II trial, we compared an altered peptide ligand of myelin basic protein with placebo, evaluating their safety and influence on magnetic resonance imaging in relapsing–remitting multiple sclerosis. A safety board suspended the trial because of hypersensitivity reactions in 9% of the patients. There were no increases in either clinical relapses or in new enhancing lesions in any patient, even those with hypersensitivity reactions. Secondary analysis of those patients completing the study showed that the volume and number of enhancing lesions were reduced at a dose of 5 mg. There was also a regulatory type 2 T helper-cell response to altered peptide ligand that cross-reacted with the native peptide.

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    ABSTRACT: Two clinical trials testing an altered peptide ligand (APL) in multiple sclerosis report seemingly contradictory results. Immunologic analysis shows that the biological effects of APLs extend far beyond what was initially envisioned, raising important issues for the development of this type of therapy (pages 1167-1175 and 1176-1182).
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2000 · Nature Medicine
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    ABSTRACT: T cell recognition of autoantigens is critical to progressive immune-mediated destruction of islet cells, which leads to autoimmune diabetes. We identified a naturally presented autoantigen from the human islet antigen glutamic acid decarboxylase, 65-kDa isoform (GAD65), by using a combination of chromatography and mass spectrometry of peptides bound by the type I diabetes (insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, IDDM)-associated HLA-DR4 molecule. Peptides encompassing this epitope-stimulated GAD65-specific T cells from diabetic patients and a DR4-positive individual at high risk for developing IDDM. T cell responses were antagonized by altered peptide ligands containing single amino acid modifications. This direct identification and manipulation of GAD65 epitope recognition provides an approach toward dissection of the complex CD4(+) T cell response in IDDM.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2001 · Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
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    ABSTRACT: A large body of immunologic, epidemiologic, and genetic data indicate that tissue injury in multiple sclerosis (MS) results from an abnormal immune response to one or more myelin antigens that develops in genetically susceptible individuals after exposure to an as-yet undefined causal agent. The genetic component of MS etiology is believed to result from the action of several genes of moderate effect. The incomplete penetrance of MS susceptibility alleles probably reflects interactions with other genes, post transcriptional regulatory mechanisms, and significant nutritional and environmental influences. Equally significant, it is also likely that genetic heterogeneity exists, meaning that specific genes influence susceptibility and pathogenesis in some affects but not in others. Results in multiplex MS families confirm the genetic importance of the MHC region in conferring susceptibility of MS. Susceptibility may be mediated by the class II genes themselves (DR, DQ or both), related to the known function of these molecules in the normal immune response, e.g. antigen binding and presentation and T cell repertoire determination. The possibility that other genes in the MHC or the telomeric region of the MHC are responsible for the observed genetic effect cannot be excluded. The data also indicate that although the MHC region plays a significant role in MS susceptibility, much of the genetic effect in MS remains to be explained. Some loci may be involved in the initial pathogenic events, while others could influence the development and progression of the disease. The past few years have seen real progress in the development of laboratory and analytical approaches to study non-Mendelian complex genetic disorders and in defining the pathological basis of demyelination, setting the stage for the final characterization of the genes involved in MS susceptibility and pathogenesis. Their identification and characterization is likely to define the basic etiology of the disease, improve risk assessment and influence therapeutics.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2001 · Journal of Neuroimmunology
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