Article

Distance or location? How the geographic distribution of kin networks shapes support given to single mothers in urban Kenya

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Abstract

With increasing urbanisation and mobility underway across sub-Saharan Africa, kin groups are becoming spatially dispersed. The extent of support provided by kin to one another is likely to vary with this geospatial positioning. Because most data collection is restricted to the co-residential household, we have little knowledge of the geospatial dimensions of kin groups of which a large part is beyond household boundaries, and even less insight into how spatial variation might impact on intra-familial support patterns. Drawing on recently collected data on single mothers and their kin in Nairobi, Kenya, we describe the geospatial positioning of non-residential kin; examine the relationship between objective and subjective measures of distance and location of kin and support for single mothers; and analyse the relationship between kin clustering and receipt of support. Our results show several important findings. First, financial support from non-residential kin is geographically quite dispersed but emotional support is more concentrated among kin living near the mother. Second, whereas there is no effect of the objective measures on financial or emotional support, we find strong effects of subjective measures. Third, we find that the clustering of kin around the mother by distance has no effect on either outcome but having the majority of kin living in rural areas has a negative effect on emotional support even after controlling for distance between kin and kin location.

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... The wider geographic distribution of the social networks of more religious women might also help to explain why they receive emotional support from more relatives as geographic distance is expected to be less disruptive for emotional connections between kin than it is for non-kin 83 . A study of single mothers in urban Kenya, for example, showed that the road distance to their own mother had no effect on the amount of emotional support they received 84 , and other studies have suggested that it is less costly to maintain emotionally close relationships with relatives [85][86][87] . If religion increases social cohesion 53,54 and strengthens social networks overall 56 , then it may also make it easier to maintain emotional connections with increasingly physically distant relatives. ...
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Human social relationships, often grounded in kinship, are being fundamentally altered by globalization as integration into geographically distant markets disrupts traditional kin based social networks. Religion plays a significant role in regulating social networks and may both stabilize extant networks as well as create new ones in ways that are under-recognized during the process of market integration. Here we use a detailed survey assessing the social networks of women in rural Bangladesh to examine whether religiosity preserves bonds among kin or broadens social networks to include fellow practitioners, thereby replacing genetic kin with unrelated co-religionists. Results show that the social networks of more religious women are larger and contain more kin but not more non-kin. More religious women’s networks are also more geographically diffuse and differ from those of less religious women by providing more emotional support, but not helping more with childcare or offering more financial assistance. Overall, these results suggest that in some areas experiencing rapid social, economic, and demographic change, religion, in certain contexts, may not serve to broaden social networks to include non-kin, but may rather help to strengthen ties between relatives and promote family cohesion.
... Costs associated with migration (e.g., transportation to new community, time without income as a woman seeks new employment and housing, etc.) may prohibit a woman from taking her child to be vaccinated on the recommended schedule and instead delay doses until she can finance indirect vaccination costs [14,16]. Additionally, moving away from friends and family who provide childrearing advice, including information about where and when to vaccinate, emotional support, financial assistance, and help with childcare may hinder a woman's ability to access vaccination services in a timely fashion [17][18][19]. Given these potential disruptions, a period of adaptation to a new environment may be necessary before a woman can effectively navigate her community and the healthcare system [15,20]. ...
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Introduction Timely receipt of recommended vaccines is a proven strategy to reduce preventable under-five deaths. Kenya has experienced impressive declines in child mortality from 111 to 43 deaths per 1000 live births between 1980 and 2019. However, considerable inequities in timely vaccination remain, which unnecessarily increases risk for serious illness and death. Maternal migration is a potentially important driver of timeliness inequities, as the social and financial stressors of moving to a new community may require a woman to delay her child’s immunizations. This analysis examined how maternal migration to informal urban settlements in Nairobi, Kenya influenced childhood vaccination timeliness. Methods Data came from the Nairobi Urban Health and Demographic Surveillance System, 2002–2018. Migration exposures were migrant status (migrant, non-migrant), migrant origin (rural, urban), and migrant type (first-time, circular [previously resided in settlement]). Age at vaccine receipt (vaccination timeliness) was calculated for all basic vaccinations. Accelerated failure time models were used to investigate relationships between migration exposures and vaccination timeliness. Confounding was addressed using propensity score weighting. Results Over one-third of the children of both migrants and non-migrants received at least one dose late or not at all. Unweighted models showed the children of migrants had shorter time to OPV1 and DPT1 vaccine receipt compared to the children of non-migrants. After accounting for confounding only differences in timeliness for DPT1 remained, with the children of migrants receiving DPT1 significantly earlier than the children of non-migrants. Timeliness was comparable among migrants with rural and urban origins and among first-time and circular migrants. Conclusion Although a substantial proportion of children in Nairobi’s informal urban settlements do not receive timely vaccination, this analysis found limited evidence that maternal migration and migration characteristics were associated with delays for most doses. Future research should seek to elucidate potential drivers of low vaccination timeliness in Kenya.
... During pregnancy, women especially rely on family support for responsibilities related to childcare and other areas that are considered female domains [52]. Therefore, being away from family significantly reduces family support for women [53]. The increased need for support may, therefore, promote the success of novel interventions where maternal health clients are brought together to offer group support with the direction of a trained health care provider, as seen in the study by Patel et al [38]. ...
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Background: The growth of mobile technology in developing countries, coupled with pressing maternal health care challenges, has led to a widespread implementation of maternal mobile health (mHealth) innovations. However, reviews generating insights on how the characteristics of the interventions influence use are scarce. Objective: This study aims to review maternal mHealth interventions in Kenya to explore the influence of intervention design and implementation characteristics on use by maternal health clients. We also provide a starting inventory for maternal mHealth interventions in the country. Methods: Using a systematic approach, we retrieved a total of 1100 citations from both peer-reviewed and gray sources. Articles were screened on the basis of an inclusion and exclusion criterion, and the results synthesized by categorizing and characterizing the interventions presented in the articles. The first phase of the literature search was conducted between January and April 2019, and the second phase was conducted between April and June 2021. Results: A total of 16 articles were retrieved, comprising 13 maternal mHealth interventions. The study highlighted various mHealth design and implementation characteristics that may influence the use of these interventions. Conclusions: In addition to elaborating on insights that would be useful in the design and implementation of future interventions, this study contributes to a local inventory of maternal mHealth interventions that may be useful to researchers and implementers in mHealth. This study highlights the need for explanatory studies to elucidate maternal mHealth use, while complementing existing evidence on mHealth effectiveness.
... Migration can also disrupt a migrant's social and economic networks. Extended family members may provide emotional, financial and logistical support crucial to child health that may be compromised by distance and isolation from family Madhavan et al., 2018). This disruption may directly influence vaccination by impeding maternal knowledge of vaccination programming or the ability to finance indirect costs (e.g., transportation), resulting in decreased vaccination of migrant children compared to their non-migrant peers (Kiros and White, 2004;Kusuma et al., 2010). ...
Article
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Objectives Kenya has substantially improved child mortality between 1990 and 2019, with under-five mortality decreasing from 104 to 43 deaths per 1,000 live births. However, only two-thirds of Kenyan children receive all recommended vaccines by one year, making it essential to identify under-vaccinated sub-populations. A potentially vulnerable group is internal migrants, who are at risk of decreased access to healthcare. This analysis explored how maternal migration within Kenya influences childhood vaccination. Methods Data were from the 2014 Kenya Demographic and Health Survey, a nationally representative cross-sectional survey. Logistic regressions assessed relationships between maternal migration and full and up-to-date child vaccination using inverse probability of treatment weighting. Two exposure variables were examined: migration status and stream (e.g. rural-urban). Multiple imputation was used to impute up-to-date status for children without vaccination cards to reduce selection bias. Results After accounting for selection and confounding biases all relationships between migration status and migration stream and both full and up-to-date vaccination became statistically insignificant. Conclusions Null findings indicate that, in Kenya, characteristics enabling migration, rather than the process of migration itself, drive differential vaccination behavior between migrants and non-migrants. This is an important deviation from previous literature that did not rigorously address important biases.
... During pregnancy, women especially rely on family support for responsibilities related to childcare and other areas that are considered female domains [52]. Therefore, being away from family significantly reduces family support for women [53]. The increased need for support may, therefore, promote the success of novel interventions where maternal health clients are brought together to offer group support with the direction of a trained health care provider, as seen in the study by Patel et al [38]. ...
Preprint
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... Proximity to parents-in-law has a substantial effect on the childcare support (Compton & Pollak, 2014). The low feelings of solidarity that women tend to experience with their in-laws because of geographic proximity (Gillespie & van der Lippe, 2015;Silverstein & Bengtson, 1997) contribute to emotional detachment in intergenerational relationships (Madhavan, Clark, Araos, & Beguy, 2018). The low level of identity as a unified family shared by daughters-in-law with her in-laws (Song & Zhang, 2012) reflects the weak connection between daughters-and parents-in-law. ...
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In post-apartheid South Africa, there has been a significant rise in women's out-migration from rural areas and across its territorial borders for economic purposes resulting in gender reconfiguration of migration streams. Alongside, there has been a simultaneous increase in the participation of women in the labor force. However, this has mostly grown in the informal sector,¹ which is often associated with low earnings and insecure working conditions. One consequence has been the increasing reliance of migrant women on survivalist activities such as informal sexual exchanges that increase their risk of contracting HIV infection. Insecure working environments also expose migrant women to sexual abuses. This article is based on the author's work in South Africa's major urban centers and examines the nature of the relationship between the increased migration of black African women in South Africa, the nature of their work, and their resultant vulnerability to HIV/AIDS.
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Single mothers often turn to their extended kin for financial assistance and to help with child care. Such support may be especially important in areas of high poverty and poor environmental conditions. Using novel kinship data, this article assesses the extent of support given by more than 3,000 relatives to 462 single mothers living in a slum area of Nairobi, Kenya. Contrary to stereotypes about families in sub-Saharan Africa, the active kin network of single mothers is relatively small, and nearly a fifth of mothers do not receive any financial or child-care assistance. Different types of kin offer different kinds of support according to culturally proscribed roles. However, support also depends heavily on kin's employment status, geographic proximity, and age. These findings offer a nuanced picture of how single women living in slum areas draw on their kin network to cope with their daily demands as mothers.
Article
Across settings, it has been shown that the co-residential household is an insufficient measure of family structure and support. However, it continues to be the primary means of population data collection. To address this problem, we developed a new instrument, the Kinship Support Tree (KST), to collect kinship structure and support data on co-residential and non-residential kin and tested it on a sample of 462 single mothers and their children in a slum community in Nairobi, Kenya. This instrument is unique in four important ways: (1) it is not limited to the co-residential household; (2) it distinguishes potential from functional kin; (3) it incorporates multiple geospatial measures; and (4) it collects data on kin relationships specifically for children. In this paper, we describe the KST instrument, assess the data collected in comparison to data from household rosters, and consider the challenges and feasibility of administration of the KST.
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City Life from Jakarta to Dakar focuses on the politics incumbent to this process - an "anticipatory politics" - that encompasses a wide range of practices, calculations and economies. As such, the book is not a collection of case studies on a specific theme, not a review of developmental problems, nor does it marshal the focal cities as evidence of particular urban trends. Rather, it examines how possibilities, perhaps inherent in these cities all along, are materialized through the everyday projects of residents situated in the city and the larger world in very different ways.
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Recent urban studies in western Europe and the United States have shown the continued importance of kinship ties, contrary to the hypothesis that they tend to disappear in the city. To test this hypothesis on different types of societies, an examination of research done in the West African cities of Brazzaville, Congo; Dakar, Senegal; Lagos, Nigeria; and Leopoldville and Stanleyville, The Congo, was made. It showed that here too kinship ties continued to exist. The extended family served as a source of shelter as well as providing for the economic, religious, legal and recreational needs of its urban members.
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The article examines the determinants of children's school enrollment and completion of primary grade four--one of UNICEF's key indicators of social progress--in seven countries of sub-Saharan Africa, focusing on the role of parents and other household members in providing children with educational and residential support. While in most of these countries a substantial majority of 10-14-year-old children are currently enrolled in school, many fewer children by this age have attained a minimum of a fourth grade education, primarily due to late ages of entry into school and slow progress from grade to grade. The resources of a child's residential household--in particular the education of the household head and the household standard of living--are determining factors in explaining variations among children in these aspects of schooling. By contrast, a child's biological parents appear to play a less critical role, as demonstrated by comparing the educational record of orphans with that of children whose parents are still living. Furthermore, children living in female-headed households have better school outcomes than children living in male-headed households, when households with similar resources are compared.
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The internet has become a major research focus across disciplines and studies report both risks and benefits of use. However, less research explores family technology dynamics from an ecological perspective and how internet use occurring within and outside the family microsystem relates to individual and family well-being. This study explores parents’ and adolescents’ use of the internet and other technology in terms of family connectedness and parent–child dynamics. Data are derived from the Pew Internet & American Life Project’s Networked Families 2008 surveys (n = 386) and Parents & Teens 2006 (n = 696). Results illustrate how social media technology has the potential to strengthen family bonds. In addition, how parents and adolescents negotiate the role of the internet in their families has implications for adolescent exposure to potential harm from outside the family system. Future directions are offered for exploring families and technology from a dynamic and multisystemic perspective.
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Like many African rural-to-urban migrants, Igbo-speaking migrants to cities in Nigeria maintain close ties to their places of origin. 'Home people' constitute a vital core of most migrants' social networks. The institution of kinship enables migrants to negotiate Nigeria's clientelistic political economy. In this context, dichotomous distinctions between rural and urban can be inappropriate analytical concepts because kinship obligations and community ties that extend across rural and urban space create a continuous social field. This paper presents ethnographic data to suggest that fertility behavior in contemporary Igbo-speaking Nigeria cannot be understood without taking into account the ways in which rural and urban social and demographic regimes are mutually implicated and dialectically constituted (anthropological demography; migration; kinship; reproductive behavior; Nigeria).
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By focusing on old people in sub-Saharan Africa, the author illustrates the need for comparative analyses of how culture, sociopolitical systems, and sweeping social change shape lives, interconnections, opportunities, and constraints among older people. In such work, gender contrasts are critical. Because of their position in reproduction and marital patterns, women in sub-Saharan Africa have tended to use lineal strategies, focused on children and grandchildren, in contrast to the more lateral, partner-oriented strategies followed by men. Migration into urban areas and the AIDS pandemic have left many older women in charge of grandchildren in rural areas with inadequate resources and infrastructure. Shaped by traditional values, norms, and roles in their early lives, they currently find many expectations unmet. Indeed, some of the traditional norms that ensured respect, support, reciprocity, and embeddedness may now leave many older people, especially women, isolated, weakened, and victims of illness and violence.
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This essay uses a 1977 survey of social networks to describe "modern" California kinship. Respondents' active relations with kin outside the household— relations involving existing or likely exchanges-tend to be geographically dispersed and focused on immediate kin, especially parents and adult children; extended kin ties are largely latent. The degree of dispersion varies systematically with respondent characteristics; notably, the more educated respondents tended to have the most dispersed networks and to be least dependent on kin. Assuming that this pattern is indeed a "modern" development, the article examines alternative explanations for its appearance and speculates that it may have been most stimu lated by twentieth-century developments in space-transcending technologies.
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Just as the beginning of Western civilization is marked by the permanent settlement of formerly nomadic peoples in the Mediterranean basin, so the beginning of what is distinctively modern in our civilization is best signalized by the growth of great cities. Nowhere has mankind been farther removed from organic nature than under the conditions of life characteristic of great cities. The contemporary world no longer presents a picture of small isolated groups of human beings scattered over a vast territory, as Sumner described primitive society1. The distinctive feature of the mode of living of man in the modern age is his concentration into gigantic aggregations around which cluster lesser centers and from which radiate the ideas and practices that we call civilization.
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Ethnographic studies in West Africa show that the practice of sending children away to be raised by relatives and non-relatives is widespread among many ethnic groups. Attempts to explore the demographic relevance of the practice. The results are indicative of high incidence of child fosterage in Ghana, Sierra Leone, Liberia, and Nigeria. Child fostering facilitates female labour force participation, and may affect the fertility decisions of both natural and foster parents, mainly because it serves to reallocate the resources available for raising children within the society. It may also have consequences for child survival, depending partly on how the culture treats children outside of their maternal homes.-from Author
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Building on African migration as a household survival strategy; urban–rural linkages as critical for migrants' continued engagement with origin communities; reintegration in case of return; and safety net for supplementing precarious urban incomes; we examine the role of family ties in rural origin linkages among 1,693 older migrants living in Nairobi informal settlements. Despite the grim of slum residence, 80% of older migrants in Nairobi slums maintained contact with their rural origin homes during a full year of observation. Family-related factors, especially members of the nuclear family residing in rural origin, explained 45% of explained linkages. Religion, ethnicity, land ownership at origin, and current health and economic statuses are other key predictors. The patterns and reasons of linkages are consistent with migrants' positive contributions to the upkeep of rural origin households. Our findings are well-anchored in the larger continental literature that has shown the urban migrant as not a ‘disembedded individual’ but instead part of rural origin collectives. Against the weakness of state safety net system, the study sheds crucial light on the enduring importance of sociocultural networks in people's everyday lives, particularly the importance of family ties for older migrants. To the extent that poor health status, being aged 60 years or older, and long duration of residence in the slums, which are predictors of low propensities to maintain contacts with rural origin, are also indicators of diminished social engagement, policy interventions among the urban poor may need to include efforts to enhance rural origin reintegration of the most-aged individuals. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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Using a representative national sample of personal networks, this article explores how the spatial dispersion of networks, residential mobility and social support are linked. Three issues will be addressed here. Firstly, how is the spatial dispersion of personal networks related to individuals’ social characteristics, network composition and residential mobility? Secondly, how do the spatial dispersion of networks, residential mobility and their combined effect influence the number and (thirdly) the structure of emotional support ties? Results showed that the extent of the support was affected neither by the geographical distribution of the networks nor by residential mobility. Living far from one's birthplace, however, exerted two distinct, and opposite effects on the support network structure. On the one hand, mobility led to high spatial dispersion of personal contacts, which in turn favored a sparsely knit network centered around the mobile individual. On the other hand, by controlling for the effect of distance between the contacts, we found that individuals that cited long-distance ties tended to be part of more transitive support networks than those that cited local ties. We interpreted the latter effect as evidence that transitive ties may survive greater spatial distances than intransitive ones. These findings are discussed in view of spatial mobility and social network research.Highlights► Residential mobility increases spatial dispersion of personal networks. ► Degree of personal support is not affected by network spatial dispersion. ► Residential mobility exerted two opposite effects on support network structure. ► Distance between personal contacts fosters sparsely knit and centralized networks. ► Distance from the mobile individual and personal contacts fosters transitive networks.
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Abstract The welfare of rural families in many African countries depends on their solidarity ties with urban kin. These ties often channel remittances from urban workers and support the education and economic mobility of children from rural families through fosterage into urban families. The continued operation of these rural-urban solidarity networks, however, is challenged by recent economic downturns and increased urban poverty. Using Cameroon as a case study, we examine the effects of economic downturns on child fosterage as a component of changes in rural-urban solidarity. Results show a net decline in rural outfosterage rates during the years of economic decline. Such findings raise concern for the economic mobility prospects for children from rural families, especially in a climate of increased competition for limited formalsector employment.
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This paper examines the spatial arrangement of social and economic networks among villages in Nang Rong district, Thailand. We use spatial information from a geographic information system (GIS) for the district to help interpret the patterns of movement of agricultural equipment (large tractors) between villages, of people into villages for temporary labor, and of people to village temples and to elementary and secondary schools within the district. Once social networks have been incorporated into the GIS they can be mapped in relation to geographic features of the district, such as topography, landcover, and locations of roads, rivers, and villages. Not only does geographic information about village locations allow us to properly orient the graphs of these networks, but the resulting visual displays reveal strikingly different spatial arrangements for the five networks. Networks of shared temples and elementary schools link small sets of villages in close geographic proximity whereas tractor hiring, labor movement, and secondary school networks bring together larger sets of villages and span longer distances. Information on landcover from satellite digital data provides insights into the patterns of network ties throughout the district and shows a clear relationship between tractor hiring networks and type of agricultural activity in the district. The spatial analytic capabilities of the GIS also allow us to assess the impact of the administratively defined district boundary on our measured relations and to evaluate whether rivers and perennial streams create barriers to network ties between villages.
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In the last few decades physical mobility has become one of the key elements of contemporary societies. This centrality of mobility also means the development of a new kind of social exclusion caused by the problems of living in a social context in which one has to be increasingly “on the move” to access goods and services. In this article, based on fieldwork conducted with 20 low-income family inhabitants of the city of Santiago, Chile, we study the role that mobile phone usage has in relation to physical mobility in the everyday lives of these individuals. Through an analysis of the pattern of usage and mobility of these devices, we arrive at the conclusion that rather than giving rise to an experience of constant mobility and “anytime–anywhere” availability, the individuals studied face limitations and exclusions that profoundly constrict the potential “mobility” afforded by these devices.
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Since recording its first AIDS cases in 1983, Tanzania has reported nearly 90,000 more to the World Health Organization—more than any other country in Africa. As AIDS spread, the devastating syndrome came to be known simply as ugonjwa huo: "that disease." The AIDS epidemic has forced Africans to reflect upon the meaning of traditional ideas and practices related to sexuality and fertility, and upon modernity and biomedicine. In A Plague of Paradoxes, anthropologist Philip Setel observes Tanzania's Chagga people and their attempts to cope with and understand AIDS—the latest in a series of crises over which they feel they have little, if any, control. Timely and well-researched, A Plague of Paradoxes is an extended case study of the most serious epidemic of the twentieth century and the cultural circumstances out of which it emerged. It is a unique book that brings together anthropology, demography, and epidemiology to explain how a particular community in Africa experiences AIDS.
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Despite being told that we now live in a cosmopolitan world, more and more people have begun to assert their identities in ways that are deeply rooted in the local. These claims of autochthony—meaning “born from the soil”—seek to establish an irrefutable, primordial right to belong and are often employed in politically charged attempts to exclude outsiders. In The Perils of Belonging, Peter Geschiere traces the concept of autochthony back to the classical period and incisively explores the idea in two very different contexts: Cameroon and the Netherlands. In both countries, the momentous economic and political changes following the end of the cold war fostered anxiety over migration. For Cameroonians, the question of who belongs where rises to the fore in political struggles between different tribes, while the Dutch invoke autochthony in fierce debates over the integration of immigrants. This fascinating comparative perspective allows Geschiere to examine the emotional appeal of autochthony—as well as its dubious historical basis—and to shed light on a range of important issues, such as multiculturalism, national citizenship, and migration.
Article
Although changing in size, structure and function, the African family has persistently maintained its place as the central human social unit. Beyond the traditional African family--whether in the nuclear or the extended form--is a network of people, most of whom are connected by kin or blood relationships, termed the clanship system. Patterns of family treatment and care are deeply embedded in this wider kinship system. The AIDS epidemic has caused adverse psychosocial and economic consequences leading to change in the family structure, and thus disturbed the capacity of the nuclear and extended family to respond to the needs of members afflicted by HIV and AIDS. Hence, the clanship system could become the locus of AIDS activity designed to ensure the well-being and continuity of the family where its leadership undertakes to sustain, to reorganize, or to create wholly new families or structures among populations being devastated by AIDS. New associations based on common emotional bonds of caring beyond kinship ties will be necessary to support some vulnerable members. However, for such to prove durable in the troubled socio-economic context of Sub-Saharan Africa, these will need strong links to or derive their legitimacy from the resilient traditional social network, the African kinship system.
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I use data on the hiring practices and spatial location of firms in four cities to model the process of interfirm racial segregation. When I control for the spatial location of the firm, the use of employee referrals reduced the probability of hiring a black worker by 75% in firms that are less than 10% black. Among all firms, the results suggest that employee referrals are just as important as the geographic location of the firm in generating employment segregation: both increase the predicted level of interfirm racial segregation among blue-collar workers in the cities studied by about 10%.
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Much of the authors' knowledge of kin interaction and exchange in Britain is partial, in that it is based on studies of co-resident groups and excludes consideration of kin "beyond the household". It is known that there have been large declines in intergenerational co-residence, raising fears that family bonds have weakened. It is also commonly assumed that family members are less likely to live in close proximity than in the past. In this paper the authors examine one important aspect of kin relationships--proximity of adult children to their parents--using nationally representative data from 1986, 1995, and 1999. The analyses presented focus on: differences between 1986, 1995, and 1999 in proximity of adults to their parents; sociodemographic characteristics associated with variations in proximity, and temporal differences in the pattern of these variations. The paper concludes with an assessment of some of the policy implications of the findings.
In 1912 it was provisionally arranged between the Development Commission and the Scottish Education Department that an Institute for Research in Animal Nutrition should be established in Scotland under the supervision of a Joint Committee representing the North of Scotland College of Agriculture and the University of Aberdeen. This Joint Committee was constituted in 1913 and research in animal nutrition was begun in April 1914, when Dr J. B. Orr—now Lord Boyd-Orr, the first official appointed by the Committee—commenced work in temporary accommodation obtained in the Agricultural and Physiological Departments of the University, surely a fitting cradle. Since 1946 the Governing Body has been expanded to include persons nominated by the Secretary of State for Scotland, the Royal Society, the Royal Society of Edinburgh, the Agricultural Research Council and the Medical Research Council. Its chairman is the Principal and Vice-Chancellor of the University of Aberdeen. Under the direction of Orr the work grew, and through the generosity of the late Dr John Quiller Rowett there were erected central buildings thereafter called the Rowett Research Institute, which were opened in 1922. The Duthie Experimental Stock Farm, which extends to over 500 acres, was also made possible through a benefaction to commemorate a world-famous Shorthorn breeder.
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Contemporary empirical literature on family resource flows in developing countries focuses on vertical flows between parents and children. Using data from the 1999 Family Transfers Project in Malawi this article examines a broader set of flows between adult respondents and their surviving parents, and paternal and maternal aunts and uncles. It compares the frequency and value of material and monetary flows, and the frequency of provision of other services, among these relatives. It also explores variation on these parameters across three ethnic groups, each of which has discrete normative patterns of descent, inheritance and postmarital residential arrangements. Results suggest that: (i) intergenerational support networks in Malawi are both vertical and lateral; (ii) in their transfer relationships, working aged adults have a net loss to parents, but a net gain to uncles and aunts, implying the existence of an institutionalized network for the transfer of resources among branches of the family; and (iii) lineal structures privilege kin of certain gender for certain roles. Maternal and paternal aunts are the largest source of material transfers among the matrilineal Yao, and paternal and maternal uncles are the largest source among the patrilineal Tumbuka.