ArticlePDF Available

Nutritional and Phytochemical Screening of Aloe barbadensis

Authors:
Article

Nutritional and Phytochemical Screening of Aloe barbadensis

Abstract and Figures

The aim of this research study is to analyse qualitatively and quantitatively the Aloe barbadensis for Proximate, Anti-Nutrient and Phytochemical composition. The Proximate, Anti-Nutrient composition and Phytochemical screening of Aloe barbadensis were determined. The Proximate composition involves the Moisture content, Crude protein, Crude fibre, Crude Fat, Ash content and Carbohydrate. The Anti-Nutrients involved Oxalate, Tannins and Phytate while the Phytochemicals determined were the Saponins, Phenols, Alkaloids and Flavonoids. Aloe barbadensis was found to be rich in Carbohydrate (73.07%), so it can be used as a good source of Carborhydrate. The Protein and Fat content were found to be relatively low, (4.73 and 0.27%) respectively. But Aloe barbadensis can still be used as a source of Protein and Fat. Qualitatively, Tannin, Oxalate and Phytate were found in trace amount. Tannin, Phytate and Oxalate contents were 0.155 g/100 g, 0.683 g/100 g, and 0.524 g/100 g, respectively. This could affect the availability of Minerals in Aloe barbadensis. It was also discovered that Phytochemicals are present in quantities of 0.232 g/100 g, 5.651 g/100 g, 2.471 g/100 g and 3.246 g/100 g for Phenols, Saponins, Alkaloids and Flavonoids, respectively. This is an indication of Cosmetic and medicinal Value of Aloe barbadensis. The Sample was also found to be a rich source of minerals. Sodium and Potassium content (5280 and 10670 PPM), respectively indicates the tendency of Aloe barbadensis to be able to regulate or control the osmotic balance of the body fluid as well as body pH. Aloe barbadensis is also found to be rich in Phosphorus (6657 PPM), which is essential for bone formation. Lead occur in traces. Magnesium (325.8 PPM) is also present, which could help to lower the blood pressure. The overall data suggest that Aloe barbadensis has some Nutritional and Medicinal Properties.
Content may be subject to copyright.
Current Research of Journal Biological Science 4(1): 4-9, 2012
ISSN: 2041-0778
© Maxwell Scientific Organization, 2012
Submitted: June 21, 2011 Accepted: November 10, 2011 Published: February 20, 2012
Corresponding Author: A.O. Adesuyi, Department of Chemical and Enviromental Sciences, School of Science and Technology,
Babcock University, Ilishan-Remo, Nigeria
4
Nutritional and Phytochemical Screening of Aloe barbadensis
A.O. Adesuyi, O.A. Awosanya, F.B. Adaramola and A.I. Omeonu
Department of Chemical and Environmental Sciences, School of Science and Technology,
Babcock University, Ilishan-Remo, Nigeria
Abstract: The aim of this research study is to analyse qualitatively and quantitatively the Aloe barbadensis for
Proximate, Anti-Nutrient and Phytochemical composition. The Proximate, Anti-Nutrient composition and
Phytochemical screening of Aloe barbadensis were determined. The Proximate composition involves the
Moisture content, Crude protein, Crude fibre, Crude Fat, Ash content and Carbohydrate. The Anti-Nutrients
involved Oxalate, Tannins and Phytate while the Phytochemicals determined were the Saponins, Phenols,
Alkaloids and Flavonoids. Aloe barbadensis was found to be rich in Carbohydrate (73.07%), so it can be used
as a good source of Carborhydrate. The Protein and Fat content were found to be relatively low, (4.73 and
0.27%) respectively. But Aloe barbadensis can still be used as a source of Protein and Fat. Qualitatively,
Tannin, Oxalate and Phytate were found in trace amount. Tannin, Phytate and Oxalate contents were 0.155
g/100 g, 0.683 g/100 g, and 0.524 g/100 g, respectively. This could affect the availability of Minerals in Aloe
barbadensis. It was also discovered that Phytochemicals are present in quantities of 0.232 g/100 g, 5.651
g/100 g, 2.471 g/100 g and 3.246 g/100 g for Phenols, Saponins, Alkaloids and Flavonoids, respectively. This
is an indication of Cosmetic and medicinal Value of Aloe barbadensis. The Sample was also found to be a rich
source of minerals. Sodium and Potassium content (5280 and 10670 PPM), respectively indicates the tendency
of Aloe barbadensis to be able to regulate or control the osmotic balance of the body fluid as well as body pH.
Aloe barbadensis is also found to be rich in Phosphorus (6657 PPM), which is essential for bone formation.
Lead occur in traces. Magnesium (325.8 PPM) is also present, which could help to lower the blood pressure.
The overall data suggest that Aloe barbadensis has some Nutritional and Medicinal Properties.
Key words: Aloe barbadensis antinutrients, mineral medicinal, nutritional, phytochemicals, proximate
INTRODUCTION
Plants have been of importance to medicine for
thousands of years. Even today the World Health
Organization (WHO) estimates that up to 80% of people
still rely on traditional remedies such as herbs for their
medicine (Arunkumar and Muthuselvam, 2009).One of
such herbs is Aloe barbadensis which has caught the
global commercial interest in the world of Science,
particularly medical science for their proposed health
benefits despite little or no scientific evidence justifying
the anecdotal claims accompanying many of its products
(Botes et al., 2008). Aloe barbadensis, also known asAloe
verais part of the Liliaceaeor asphodelaceae plant family.
It is cactus like plant with green dagger-shaped leaves that
are fleshy, tapering, spiny, marginated and filled with a
clear viscous gel. It has thick leaves that grow in a rosette
shape. Many species of Aloe appear to be stem-less, with
the rosette growing directly at ground level; other
varieties may have a branched or unbranched stem from
which the fleshy leaves spring. They vary in color from
grey to bright-green and are sometimes striped or mottled.
Some Aloe natives to South Africa are arborescent. The
parenchyma cells of the leaves contain large quantities of
pulp. It is a monocotyledon and a member of the lily
family. It is an evergreen plant. Aloe barbadensis can
grow up to three feet tall, although most specimens are
between one and two feet tall. It is native to East and
South Africa and is grown in most subtropical and
tropical locations, including Latin America and the
Caribbean. The plant has many common names and is
often referred to as burn plant, first-aid plant, or medicine
plant. Its name is most likely derived from the Arabic
word “Alloeh”, meaning “shining bitter substance”. It is
cultivated almost everywhere in the world, both as a
houseplant and for its medicinal qualities. It grows best in
full sunshine and does not require much water. It does not
grow well at temperatures below 32ºF (0ºC).
Aloe species primarily inhabit relatively dry, warm
climates, but has been introduced successfully in the
southern United States and Australia as well. These
climates tend to have warm, dry summers and cool, moist
winters, with more precipitation occurring during the
winter. Fires occur frequently in summers, and the species
Curr. Res. J. Biol. Sci., 4(1): 4-9, 2012
5
that survive are those that tolerate fire and drought well.
Nutrient density is low in these regions, and thus the
habitat cannot support large predators. Smaller animals
and especially plants predominate. These habitats have a
wide variety of species that have adapted to these unique
ecological conditions, such species of Aloe, are endemic.
Aloe albida, for example, is found in the wild only in
South Africa. Aloe is a perennial and takes 4-5 years to
mature. Plants can live and reproduce for up to 25 years.
Its tubular flowers, yellow to red in color, grow in arrow-
shaped clusters on spikes that are up to 3 feet tall. It
flowers in springtime. Its fruits are small and not
particularly significant. In addition to propagating via
seeds, it can reproduce by offsets, which may take root
pto 6 feet away from the plant and grow into new plants
There are over 500 species ofAloe, including Aloe perryi
from Socotra Island or Zanzibar and Aloe ferox from
Africa.
Aloe veraleafcontains more than 200 different
constituents. Some constituents are:
CAcemannan
CAloe-Emodin
CAloins
CEnzymes
CMucopolysaccharides
CGalactomannans
Acemannan: This is a D-isomer mucopolysaccharide that
is extracted from aloe vera leaves with mannoacetate as
the monomer linked by $-1,4- glycosidic linkages
Glycosidic bond (3,6). This polymer is hydrophilic: 50
hydrogen bond acceptors, 19 hydrogen bond donors and
log P of -3.27. Therefore, its permeability (and hence
bioavailability) has been scored to be 1 according to
Lipinsky’s rule of five. Acemannan as an
immunostimulant has been demonstrated to induce
macrophages to secrete interferon (INF), tumor necrosis
factor- (TNF-") and interleukins (IL-1) - which might
help in preventing or abrogating viral infection. These
three cytokines are known to cause inflammation and
interferon is released in response to viral infections and
other polysaccharides boost T-lymphocyte cells which
help promote skin healingand neutralize many of the
enzymes responsible for damaging the mucosal wall
Aloe-emodin: of IUPAC nomenclature of 1,8-dihydroxy-
3-(hydroxymethyl)-9,10-anthracenedione and chemical
formula, C15H10O5, is an anthraquinone present in aloe
latex, an exudate from the aloe plant which has a strong
stimulant-laxative action.
Aloins: also known as “Barbaloin” is a bitter, yellow-
brown colored compound noted in the exudates of at least
68 Aloe species at levels from 0.1 to 6.6% of leaf dry
weight making between 3 and 35% of the total exudates,
and in another 17 species at indeterminate levels
(Reynolds, 1995). It is used as a stimulant-laxative,
treating constipation by inducing bowel movements. The
compound is present in what is commonly referred to as
the aloe latex that exudes from cells adjacent to the
vascular bundles, found under the rind of the leaf and in
between it and the gel. When dried, it has been used as a
bittering agent in alcoholic beverages.
Enzymes: They act as biochemical catalysts that break
down the proteins we eat into amino acids. The enzymes
turn the food we eat into fuel for every cell in our body,
enabling the cells to function and work efficiently. “The
main enzymes found in Aloe vera include Amylase
(breaks down sugars and starches), Bradykinase
(stimulates immune system, analgesic, anti-
inflammatory), Catalase (prevents accumulation of water
in the body), Cellulase (aids digestion-cellulose), Lipase
(aids digestion-fats), Oxidase, Alkaline Phosphatase,
Proteolytiase (hydrolyses proteins into their constituent
elements), Creatine Phosphokinase (aids metabolism), and
Carboxypeptidase.
Galactomannans: (Long chain sugars derived from
plants), are polysaccharides consisting of a mannose
backbone with galactose side groups (more specifically,
a (1-4)-linked "-D-mannopyranose backbone with branch
points from their 6-positions linked to "-D-galactose, i.e.
1-6-linked "-D-galactopyranose)
Minerals: Some minerals like Sodium, potassium,
calcium, magnesium, manganese, copper, zinc, chromium
and iron are also Constituents of Aloe barbadensis
Vitamins: Vitamins like B1, B2, B6, C, $-carotene,
choline, folic acid, "-tocopherol are also Aloe
Constituents
Mucopolysaccharides [MPS] (Long-chain sugars):
Mucopolysaccharides [MPS] or glycosaminoglycans
(GAGs) are long unbranched polysaccharides consisting
of a repeating disaccharide unit. The repeating unit
consists of a hexose (six-carbon sugar) or a hexuronic
acid, linked to a hexosamine (six-carbon sugar containing
nitrogen). They are found in every single cell in the body.
The human body stops manufacturing its own
mucopolysaccharides around puberty and from then on
must rely on outside sources.Some examples of
glycosaminoglycan uses in nature include heparin as an
anticoagulant, hyaluronan as a component in the synovial
fluid lubricant in body joints, and chondroitins, which can
be found in connective tissues, cartilage, and tendons.
Curr. Res. J. Biol. Sci., 4(1): 4-9, 2012
6
Mucopolysaccharides work in the body in the following
ways:
CAs an anti-coagulant, heparin
CBy facilitating absorption of water, electrolytes and
nutrition in the gastrointestinal tract and maintaining
fluid movement
CBy lining the colon to keep out toxic waste from the
body
CBy lubricating the joints, hyaluronan which act as a
component in the synovial fluid lubricant in body
joints, and chondroitins, which can be found in
connective tissues, cartilage, and tendons
CBy protecting teach cell from microbial invasion
(especially viruses)
Aloe latexcontains:
CAnthraquinone glycosides (these molecules are split
by the normal bacteria in the large intestines to form
other molecules called aglycones), the main one
beingaloin.
Usage of aloe vera: The bitter yellow juice found
between the gel and the outer skin of the leaf is dried and
used as a laxative.
Medicinal part used: The leaves, the fresh leaf gel and
latex:
CAloe latexis the sticky residue left over after the
liquid from cutAloe leaveshas evaporated.
CAloe vera extractis made by pulverizing the
wholeleavesof the plant.
CAloe juiceandgelis made from the inner leaf (most
commonly used for minor cuts and burns).
Proximate analysis: Proximate analysis, also known as
Weende analysis is a chemical method of assessing and
expressing the nutritional value of a feed, which reports
the moisture, ash (minerals), crude fibre, crude fat and
crude protein (total nitrogen) present in a fuel as a
percentage of dry fuel weight. Carbohydrate (nitrogen-
free extract) is determined by difference. The proximate
analyses gives the overall nutritional composition of the
sample in question, this is briefly complemented by
Antinutrient and Mineral composition of the sample.
Phytochemicals: Phytochemicals (from the Greek word
“phyto”, meaning plant) are biologically active
compounds, found in plants in small amounts, which are
not established nutrients but which nevertheless seem to
contribute significantly to protection against degenerative
disease (Dreosti, 2000). The term does not apply to
compounds used in relation to treating an established
acute disease, but rather to substances that are protective
at low levels against the development of degenerative
diseases over a lifetime (Dreosti, 1998). They are natural
bioactive compounds found in plant foods that interplay
with nutrients and dietary fibre to protect against diseases.
It is also well known that plants produce these chemicals
to protect themselves, but recently research demonstrates
that they can protect humans against diseases as well as
assisting in risk reduction for a variety of chronic and
inflammatory conditions.
Objectives of the study:
CTo investigate qualitatively the Nutritional content of
Aloe barbadensis.
CTo investigate quantitatively the Nutritional content
of Aloe barbadensis.
CTo investigate quantitatively the photochemical
content of Aloe barbadensis.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Aloe barbadensis leaves, nutritional and phytochemical
analyses: This research study was carried out in April,
2011 at the Department of Chemical and Enviromental
Sciences. School of science and technology, Babcock
University, Ilishan-Remo, Nigeria.
Aloe barbadensis plant were obtained from a local
garden in Lagos, Shomolu District, who grows them for
individual use and as an ornamental plant. The plant leaf
was identified by Mr. Odewo, a herbarium caretaker at
university of Lagos, Akoka. The leaves were plucked off
the stem, rinsed, cut at the lateral section to have a larger
surface area and placed on clean polythene Bag. The plant
materials were air dried under the sun for one week and
were later pulverized into fine powder using a kitchen
blender and stored in a clean Polythene bag and was kept
in a cool place prior to Laboratory Analyses.
Nutritional property analyses:
Proximate analysis of aloe barbadensis powder:
Proximate analysis is a system of analysis of nutrients
also termed “conventional analysis”, in which the gross
components rather than the individual nutrients amino
acids, fatty acids, monosaccharides e.t.c. are determined
(Onyeike and Osuji, 2003). The following are constituent
parameter: moisture, ash, crude protein, fat, crude fibre
and carbohydrate.
All of these were carried out using the Method of
analyses described by Onyeike and Osuji (2003).
Mineral analyses: The atomic Absorption
spectrophotometer (AAS) was used for the analyses of the
following metals: Mg, Zn, Fe, Mn, Cu, Pb and P while the
Flame Photometer was used in the analyses of K & Na.
Curr. Res. J. Biol. Sci., 4(1): 4-9, 2012
7
Using AAS, a known amount of the sample was placed in
a dish and heated with burnsen burner in a fume cupboard
until there was no smoke emitted. This was transferred to
the dessicator in other for it to cool after which 0.1m HCl
solution was added to the ash. The resulting solution was
filtered and diluted. Suitable salts of the metals in
questions were used to make their standards, lamps were
fixed and the analyses was done. Using the flame
photometer, the Diluents of sample was aspirated into
the jenway Digital flame photometer using the filter
corresponding to each mineral element. All of these were
carried out using the method of analyses described by
Oshodi (1992).
Phytochemical analyses: Phytochemical analyses
includes the Phenol determination, determination of
Saponin, determination of Alkaloids and Flavonoids
determination. All of these were determined based on
methods of analyses described by AOAC (1990).
RESULTS
The Proximate composition of the Sample is shown
in Table 1. The values represent the Mean triplicates +
Standard error.
The qualitative Anti-Nutrient Screening of Aloe
barbadensis is shown in Table 2.
The quantitative Anti-Nutrient Screening of Aloe
barbadensis is shown in Table 3. Values are Mean
Triplicate + Standard Error.
0.683+0.00
The quantitative Phytochemical Screening is shown
in Table 4. Values are Mean Triplicate + Standard Error.
Table 5 shows the Mineral Composition of Aloe
barbadensis.
DISCUSSION
Table 1 shows the proximate analysis of Aloe
barbadensis. The average carbohydrate content (73.08%),
which is the highest parameter will be a good source of
Carbohydrate. Carbohydrates provide readily accessible
fuel for physical performance and regulate nerve tissue
(Whitney and Rolfes, 2005).
Average moisture content (11.71%) was the second
highest Parameter noted. To much of moisture in any
sample has been proved to cause caking especially in
flour and can also determine the Storage/Shelve life and
the viability of microorganisms’ growth (Adeyeye and
Ayejuyo, 2000). Average crude fibre (7.84%) was the
third highest parameter noted, this implies that they can
serve as a source of dietary fibre (Agostoni et al ., 2001)
and can be employed in the treatment of diabetes, obesity
and gastrointestinal tract diseases. Its also an indication
Table 1: Proximate composition of Aloe barbadensis
Parameters (%)
Moisture Content 11.71+0.02
Crude Protein 4.73+0.01
Crude Fibre 7.84+0.01
Ash 2.36+0.01
Crude Fat 0.27+0.01
Carbohydrate 73.08+0.04
Table 2: Qualitative anti-nutrient screening
Parameters
Tannin +
Oxalat +
Phytate +
(+): Trace Amount Present; (+)(+): Abundant Amount Present; (-): No
Amount Present
Table 3: Quantitative anti-nutrient screening
Parameters (g/100g)
Tannin 0.155+0.00
Oxalate 0.448+0.04
Phytate
Table 4: Quantitative phytochemical screening
Parameters (g/100g)
Phenol 0.232+0.00
Saponin 5.651+0.00
Alkaloids 2.471+0.00
Flavonoids 3.246+0.00
Table 5: Mineral composition
Elements (PPM) (%)
Mg 325.7 0.033
Zn 71.5 0.007
Fe 28.8 0.003
Mn 128 0.013
Cu 15.3 0.002
Pb 1.7 0.00017
P 6650.1 0.665
Na 5170 0.517
K 10615 1.062
that it contains a proportion of Cellulose, Hemicellulose
and Lignin (Saldanha, 2003).
The lowest parameter noted was average crude fat
content (0.27%), which are universally stored forms of
energy in living organisms. They are major structural
elements of biological membranes as phospholipids and
sterols (Nelson and Cox, 2008).
Average ash content (2.36%) is a reflection of the
mineral contents preserved in the leaves. Minerals are
essential for the proper functioning of tissues and act as
second messengers in some sbiochemical cascade
mechanisms (Antia et al., 2006).
Average crude protein (4.73%), would serve as
enzymatic catalyst, mediate cell responses, control growth
and cell differentiation (Whitney and Rolfes, 2005).
Table 2 and 3 show qualitative and quantitative anti-
nutrients of A. barbadensis. Tannins (0.155 g/100 g),
which were found in the plant, are known to be effective
in the treatment of sore throat, diarrhoea and
haemorrhage.
Curr. Res. J. Biol. Sci., 4(1): 4-9, 2012
8
Tannins are known for their abilities to precipitate
with iron and other metals, thereby reducing their
absorption.
Oxalates (0.448 g/100 g) affects calcium and
magnesium metabolism and react with proteins to form
complexes which have an inhibitory effect in peptic
digestion (Akande et al., 2010).
Phytic acid (0.683 g/100 g) (inositol hexaphosphate)
in plants binds calcium in the intestinal lumen, preventing
its absorption as well other minerals, including zinc, are
also chelated by phytate.
Table 4 shows phytochemical screening of Aloe
barbadensis indicating the amount of saponins, alkaloids,
phenols and flavonoids. These compounds are known to
be biologically active and therefore aid the antimicrobial
activities of Aloe barbadensis (Igbinosa et al., 2009).
Alkaloids (2.471 g/100 g), a secondary metabolite
compound observed in the extract of Aloe barbadensis
has the biological property of toxicity against cells of
foreign organisms. It activities have been widely studied
for their potential use in the elimination and reduction of
human cancer cell lines (Nobori et al., 1994). Alkaloids
which are one of the largest groups of phytochemicals in
plants have amazing effects on humans and this has led to
the development of powerful pain killer medications
(Kam and Liew, 2002).
Saponin (5.651 g/100 g) found to be present in Aloe
barbadensis extracts and has supported the usefulness of
this plant in managing inflammation. Just et al. (1998)
revealed the inhibitory effect of saponins on inflamed
cells.
Flavonoids (3.246 g/100 g), another constituent of
Aloe barbadensis extracts are large compounds occurring
ubiquitously in food plants. They at times occur as
glycosides and contain several Phenolic hydroxyl groups
on their ring structure. Some flavonoids are antioxidants
and has been proved to exhibit a wide range of biological
activities like antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, anti-
angionic, analgesic, anti-allergic, cytostatic and
antioxidant properties (Hodek et al., 2002).
Phenols (0.232 g/100 g) also found present in plant
sources are major group of compounds acting as primary
antioxidants or free radical scavenger.
Table 5 shows a great deal of mineral composition of
Aloe barbadensis. It’s a proved fact that Potassium is the
most abundant mineral in Nigerian agricultural products
(Oshodi et al., 1999).This is shown in the table. The next
mineral to Potassium in terms of value is Phosphorus,
which is vital in bone formation (Adetuyi and
Akpambang, 2005), followed by sodium. Aloe
barbadensis can be used as a source Sodium and
Potassium. Since High amount of Potassium and
Magnesium may help to lower blood pressure
(Otsuki et al., 2010), Aloe barbadensis can be used as a
source of these minerals. Iron is vital in the formation of
haemoglobin and normal functioning of central nervous
system (Otsuki et al., 2010), this sample contain
considerable amount of iron and can therefore be used as
a source. The presence of lead could be due to
bioaccumulation. Micro minerals like copper,
Manganense and Zinc are present too
CONCLUSION
The analyses carried out on Aloe barbadensis
indicates its Nutritional and Phytochemical composition.
The Proximate analysis shows a high level of
Carbohydrate and crude fibre with a little bit of Protein.
The mineral analysis indicates that Aloe barbadensis
contain macro/major elements which are needed in high
quantity in meals, Potassium been the highest. Sodium
and Magnesium were also found to be abundant in this
sample. Micro elements were also found to be present.
These are all good indication of high nutritive value.
Despite the presence of some Anti-nutrient that could
serve as mineral inhibitors, Aloe barbadensis can still be
used as sources of these minerals. The Phytochemical
content also is an indication that this sample has potential
protective vices against degenerative diseases.
REFERENCES
Adetuyi, A.O. and O.E. Akpambang, 2005. The
Nutritional value of Sorghum Bicolor L. Stem Flour
used for infusion Drinks in Nigeria. Pak. J. Sci.
Indus. Res., 49: 276.
Adeyeye, E.I. and O.O. Ayejuyo, 2000. Chemical
composition of Cola Gluminate and Garcinia kola
seeds grown in Nigeria. J. Food Sci., 45: 223-230.
Agostoni, C., B. Carratu, C. Boniglia, E. Riva and
E. Sanzini, 2001. Free amino acid content in standard
infant formulas: Comparison with human milk. J.
Am. College Nutr., 19: 434-438.
Akande, K.E., U.D. Doma, H.O. Agu and H.M. Adamu,
2010. Major anti-nutrients found in plant protein
sources: Their effect on nutrition. Pak. J. Nut. 9: 827-
832.
Antia, B.S., E.J. Akpan, P.A. Okon and I.U. Umoren,
2006. Nutritive and anti-nutritive evaluation of sweet
potatoes (Ipomoea batatas) leaves. Pak. J. Nut., 5:
166-168.
AOAC, 1990. Official Methods of Analysis.15th Edn.,
Association of Official Analytical Chemistry.
Washington D.C., USA.
Arunkumar, S. and M. Muthuselvam, 2009. Analysis of
phytochemical constituents and antimicrobial
activities of Aloe vera L. against clinical pathogens.
World J. Agric. Sci., 5: 572-576.
Curr. Res. J. Biol. Sci., 4(1): 4-9, 2012
9
Botes, L., F.H., Van der Westhuizen and D.T. Loots,
2008. Phytochemical contents and antioxidant
capacities of two Aloe greatheadii variants davyana.
Extracts, 13: 2169-2180.
Dreosti, I.E., 2000. Recommended dietary intake levels
for phytochemicals: Feasible or Fanciful? Asia
Pacific J. Clin. Nut. 9: 119-122.
Dreosti, I.E., 1998. An antioxidant RDI:Feasible or
fanciful? Nutr. Soc., 22: 26-28.
Hodek, P., P. Trefil and M. Stiborova, 2002. Flavonoids-
Potent and versatile biologically active compounds
interacting with cytochrome P450. Chemico-Biol.
Inter. J., 139: 1-21.
Igbinosa, O.O., E.O. Igbinosa and O.A. Aiyegoro, 2009.
Antimicrobial activity and phytochemical screening
of stem bark extracts from Jatropha curcas (Linn).
Afr. J. Pharm. Pharmacol., 3: 58-62.
Just, M.J., M.C. Recio, R.M., Giner, M.J., Cueller,
S., Manez, A.R. Bilia, et al., 1998. Anti-
inflammatory activity of unusual lupine saponins
from Bupleurum Fruticescens. Planta Med., 64:
404-407.
Kam, P.C. and A. Liew, 2002. Traditional Chinese
herbal medicine and anaesthesia. Anaesthesia,
57: 1083-1089.
Nelson, D.L. and M.M. Cox, 2008. Lehninger Principles
of Biochemistry. 5th Edn., W.H. Freeman and
Company. Madison Avenue, New York, pp: 343.
Nobori, T., K. Miurakm, D.J. Wu, L.A. Takabayashik and
D.A. Carson, 1994. Deletion of the cyclin-dependent
kinase-4 inhibitor gene in multiple human cancers.
Nature, 368: 753-756.
Onyeike, E.N. and J.O. Osuji, 2003. Research Techniques
in Biological and Chemical Sciences. Springfield
Publishers Ltd., Owerri, Nigeria. pp: 403.
Oshodi, A.A., 1992. Proximate Consumption,
Nutritionally valuable Minerals and Functional
properties of Adenopus breviflorus benth seed and
Protein concentrate. Food Chem. 45: 79-83.
Oshodi, A.A., H.N. Ogungbenle and M.C. Oladimeji,
1999. Chemical composition, nutritionally valuable
minerals and functional properties of benni seed
(Sesamum radiation). Peal millet (Pennisetum
typhoides) and guninoa (Chenopodium quinoa)
flours. Int. J. food Sci. Nutrition, 50: 325-331.
Otsuki, N., N.H. Dang, E. Kumagai, A. Kondo, S. Iwata
and C. Morimoto, 2010. Aqueous extract of Carica
papaya leaves exhibit anti-tumor activity and
Immunomodulatory effects. J. Ethnopharmacol., 127:
760-767.
Reynolds, T. 1995. Comparative chromatographic
patterns of leaf exudate components from shrubby
aloes. Botanical. J. Linnean Soc. 102: 273-285.
Saldanha, L.G., 2003. Fibre in Diet of U.S Children:
Results of National Survey. Pediatrics, 96: 994-996.
Whitney, E.N. and S.R. Rolfes, 2005. Understanding
Nutrition. 10th Edn.,Thomson/Wadsworth Publishing
Company, Belmont, CA., pp: 132-137.
... Traditional medicines are used by about 60% of the world population in both developing and developed countries where modern medicines are predominantly used while an estimated 60-80% Africa's population depends solely on herbal remedies for its primary health care needs [23]. This shows that at higher concentration (30 µg), more impairments occur in the organs especially in the liver. ...
Article
Full-text available
A histopathological assessment of organ impairment of Rattus albus treated with selected plant extracts: (Napleonaea imperalis, Sida acuta and Vernonia amygdalina) was studied from October 2014 to March 2016. The aim of the study was to determine the histopathological effects of the plant extracts on Rattus albus. The Rattus albus were treated with 3 selected plant extracts: Vernonia amygdalina, Sida acuta and Napoleonae imperialis and observed for 3 weeks. A total of 22 male and 23 female laboratory animals were selected and treated with plant extracts and reference drugs. The different treatment groups and controls were selected for histopathological studies using paraffin wax embedding method.They were sacrificed and examined histopathologically for pathological features. The results showed that, all 3 selected plant extracts contain Tanins, Saponins, Alkaloids, Flavonoids, Cardiac Glycosides, Phytate, Oxalate, Phenol, Original Research Article Uduchi et al.; JOCAMR, 18(2): 37-50, 2022; Article no.JOCAMR.86610 38 Steroids, Terpenoids and Cyanide. Out of 4 laboratory animals in each group treated with 10µg of crude Napoleonea imperialis,Sida acuta and Vernonia amygdalina extracts, no feature of impairment was observed in the intestine, kidneys and liver of all the laboratory animals used. Out of 4 laboratory animals in each group treated with 20µg of crude Napoleonea imperialis extract, the intestine and liver of one each showed features of impairment. Out of 4 laboratory animals treated with 20µg of crude Sida acuta extract, the intestine, kidney and liver of one animal each showed features of impairment. Out of 4 laboratory animals treated with 20 µg of crude Vernonia amygdalina extract, no impairment was observed in the intestine, kidneys and liver of all laboratory animals used. Out of 4 laboratory animals treated with 30 µg of crude Napoleonea imperialis extract, the intestine of 1, the kidney of 1 and livers of 2 showed features of impairment. Out of 4 laboratory animals treated with 30 µg of crude Sida acuta extract, the intestine of 2, kidney of 1 and livers of 2 showed features of impairment. Out of 5 laboratory animals treated with 30 µg of crude Vernonia amygdalina extract, the intestine of 1, the kidneys 1 and livers of 2 showed features of impairment.Organ impairment on laboratory animals due to plant extract shows that, out of 12 animals (6 males and 6 female laboratory animals) treated with Napoleoneae imperialis 10 (83.3%) had normal intestine and 2 (16.7%) had abnormal intestine, 11 (91.7%) had normal kidneys, 1 (8.3%) had abnormal kidney, 9 (75%) had normal liver and 3 (25%) had abnormal liver (Table 2). Out of 12 laboratory animals (6 male and 6 female laboratory animals) treated with Sida acuta 9 (75%) had normal intestine and 3 (25%) had abnormal intestine, 10 (83.3%) had normal kidneys, 2 (16.7%) had abnormal kidney, 9 (75%) had normal liver and 3 (25%) had abnormal liver. Out of 13 laboratory animals (6 male and 7 female laboratory animals) treated with Vernonia amygdalina, 12 (92.3%) had normal intestine and 1 (7.7%) had abnormal intestine, 12 (92.3%) had normal kidneys, 1 (7.7%) had abnormal kidney, 11 (84.6%) had normal liver and 2 (15.4%) had abnormal liver. Analysis of the data using chi square showed significant difference (p < 0.05) in the frequency of organ impairments between the different organs of the laboratory animals. The highest frequency of impairment was observed on the liver followed by intestine and the least impairment was on the kidneys. Three types of impairment: inflammatory changes, degenerative changes and distortions were observed on the intestine of the laboratory animals. On the kidneys, 5 types of impairment: lymphocytic infiltration, degenerative changes, necrosis, vacuolation, and distortion of stroma and glomerulus were observed. On the liver, 4 types of impairment: inflammatory changes, hepatocytic degernerative changes, necrosis and distortion of hepatocytes were observed. Whereas the frequency of impairment was higher in liver organs 9 (20.0%) than kidneys 4 (8.9%), the types of impairment observed were higher in kidneys than liver organs. This study has shown that Napoleonae imperialis, Sida acuta and Vernonia amygdalina extracts at higher concentration, exhibit pathologic effects on host organs: intestine, kidney and liver.
... The identified secondary metabolites such as alkaloids, saponins, flavonoids, glycosides and tannins have been previously identified in A. barbadensis leaf gel and concentrate [13,[61][62][63], leaf extracts [64][65][66][67] and leaf skin extracts [16]. Moreover, the identified metabolites have been also detected in aqueous leaf extracts of other Aloe species such as Aloe ferox Mill. ...
Article
Full-text available
Aims: Aloe barbadensis Miller (A. barbadensis) is one of the most treasured species from the Aloe genus that has been used in management of various ailments. However, there are few reports on the secondary metabolites, total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC) and antioxidant activities of its leaf latex and gel. This study aimed at comparing the phytochemicals and antioxidant activity of phosphate buffered saline (PBS) and distilled water extracts of latex and gel of A. barbadensis leaves from Kisumu, Elgeyo Marakwet and Baringo Counties of Kenya, East Africa. Study Design: The study employed quantitative and qualitative research designs. Methodology: Leaf samples were extracted by maceration using distilled water and PBS. Phytochemical screening was performed following standard screening procures while TPC, TFC and antioxidant activity were determined using Folin-Ciocalteau method, Aluminum Chloride colorimetric assay and DPPH radical scavenging assay, respectively. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed with Tukey post hoc test at P = .05. Correlations among TPC, TFC and antioxidant activity of the extracts were assessed using Pearson's bivariate correlation. The analyses were performed using GraphPad Prism for windows (v9.0, GraphPad Software, California, USA). Results: Phytochemical screening results indicated the presence of alkaloids, phenols, saponins, flavonoids, cardiac glycosides, tannins, steroids, terpenes and quinones as the main secondary metabolites in the extracts. TPC and TFC were found to be highest for the aqueous extracts, with the highest contents (102.393 ± 0.121 mg GAE/ g DW and 47.228 ± 0.248 mg QE / g DW) being for dry latex of leaves from Baringo. The highest antioxidant activity (IC 50 = 21.900 ± 0.0594 mg/mL) was for aqueous extract of fresh latex of leaves from Baringo, followed by those from Elgeyo Marakwet and then Kisumu. Conclusion: This study established that dry and fresh latex and gel extracts of A. barbadensis leaves possess therapeutic phytochemicals with antioxidant activities, which support their use in traditional phytomedicine in Kenya.
... Growth performance and feed utilization parameters were also improved in At present, there is limited information on how medicinal plant extracts improve growth and feed utilization in fish. Some studies explain that the enhancement of growth performance following the supplementation of medicinal herbal extracts in fish is ascribed by their broad range of nutritional constituents including proteins, lipids, vitamins, enzymes, minerals, sugar, saponin, and salicylic acids (Adesuyi et al. 2012;Gabriel 2019). In addition, their complex sugar such as polysaccharides are known to act as prebiotics that have the ability to sustain the homeostasis of the gut microbial community as well as the host's health (Zahran et al. 2018;Foysal et al. 2019), either by reducing the bacterial and viral infection levels (Chen et al. 2003) or by directly affecting pathogenic gut microflora (Sohn et al. 2000;Citarasu 2010;Yu et al. 2018). ...
... Growth performance and feed utilization parameters were also improved in At present, there is limited information on how medicinal plant extracts improve growth and feed utilization in fish. Some studies explain that the enhancement of growth performance following the supplementation of medicinal herbal extracts in fish is ascribed by their broad range of nutritional constituents including proteins, lipids, vitamins, enzymes, minerals, sugar, saponin, and salicylic acids (Adesuyi et al. 2012;Gabriel 2019). In addition, their complex sugar such as polysaccharides are known to act as prebiotics that have the ability to sustain the homeostasis of the gut microbial community as well as the host's health (Zahran et al. 2018;Foysal et al. 2019), either by reducing the bacterial and viral infection levels (Chen et al. 2003) or by directly affecting pathogenic gut microflora (Sohn et al. 2000;Citarasu 2010;Yu et al. 2018). ...
Chapter
The elaboration of therapeutic protocols using natural compounds can help in improving the outcomes of many human conditions such as malignant disorders, neurodegenerative diseases, and systemic disorders. Recently, the attention of scientists was more focused on nutraceuticals as potential candidates that can be administered in the management strategy of various pathologies. This rise in nutraceutical applications is due to their relative safety and their pleiotropic effects. Several studies suggest the use of dietary regimens and food-derived substances for the prevention and treatment of many metabolic disorders that affect the central nervous system. The neuroprotective actions offered by these substances are mediated by their pertinent antiapoptotic, antiinflammatory, and antioxidative potentials. Some compounds may also intervene in the promotion of individuals’ health via the regulation of the process of autophagy and via the enhancement of the functionality of intracellular organelles such as mitochondria. Furthermore, healthy diet and the use of dietary supplements can directly influence the functions and the progeny of neural stem cells and the metabolism of microglial cells and can influence the polarization of macrophages in the nervous tissue resulting in better outcomes in some pathologic situations. In this chapter, we review the different roles and applications of nutraceuticals in the treatment of the major brain disorders that can affect human beings.
Chapter
Metabolic diseases are devastating abnormalities that address human lives toward death if they are not correctly managed. Obesity and diabetes mellitus are the prime factors that induce insulin resistance to signaling pathways and increase the risk of cardiovascular diseases. Phytonutrients are the biologically active agents derived from natural sources such as vegetables, fruits, grains, cereals, and medicinal plants, and present the ability to boost the immune system of patients with metabolic disease and also enhance the conditions by the management of lipid profiles, insulin resistance and glucose homeostasis, and chemopreventive events in case of cancer disease. This chapter highlights some phytonutrients that may have issues with the gene and produce healthy and unhealthy interactions. However, the interaction between genetic and environmental factors such as intake of particular healthy and sufficient diet plans with a good lifestyle encourages the development and pathogenesis of diseases of polygenic dietary components. Phytonutrients are critical tools for the modulation of gene expressions involved in signaling pathways and phenotypes linked with metabolic diseases. It is also noted that human health is also affected by dietary nutrients having carcinogens and aflatoxin attached with them and influence the genetic variants. As the knowledge of carcinogen and anticarcinogen increases, nutritional science leads to promising therapeutics for cancer management by healthy diet plans. This chapter has depicted essential aspects of phytonutrients and their interactions with genes in metabolic disease prevention and treatments.
Chapter
In spite of the advanced researches, preventive measures, and treatment options, cancer remains a growing ailment all over the world and its prevalence is estimated to increase in future. Cellular metabolic alterations have been documented as a hallmark of cancer. Metabolic regulation is an intricately coupled process whose deregulation leads to tumor progression as well as metastasis. In order to thrive in the living system, cancer cells adapt different metabolic pathways (bioenergetics and biosynthesis). They replenish their metabolic demands by switching from normal metabolism to cancer metabolism by the process of metabolic rewiring. Recent researches suggest that starving cancer cells by the use of nontoxic chemical entities can give promising results regarding cancer proliferation. Natural products, especially those of plant origin, offer different chemical scaffolds to target cancer via modulation of multiple cell signaling cascades. Phytonutrients, the secondary metabolites from the plants, constitute edible phytochemicals which are abundantly found in vegetables, whole grains, and fruits. The growing numbers of evidences suggest that phytonutrients exhibit anticancer as well as chemopreventive activities of these bioactive molecules against several cancers by targeting the various significant enzymes of glycolysis, the PPP pathway, TCA cycle, and serine metabolism. This book chapter presents an update for the scientific community about targeting the cancer metabolism by phytonutrients. The alterations in the cancer metabolism in the context of bioenergetics, biosynthesis, and mitochondrial functions have been discussed while presenting the impact of phytonutrients as modulators of potential metabolic effectors in the cancer metabolism.
Chapter
Mitochondria are the main organelles responsible for generating cellular energy. The common symptom of mitochondrial disorders is extreme fatigue. The lowered mitochondrial activity owing to lack of chemical transmembrane capacity, changes in the electron transport chain’s function, the maintenance of the inner mitochondrial membrane’s electrical and decrease in essential metabolites transport to the mitochondria. The change in mitochondrial activity is brought about by the reduction of adenosine-5′-triphosphate (ATP) and oxidative phosphorylation. The mitochondrial activity needs regular replacement of natural phytochemicals and supplementations that help to maintain the energy level. The efficacy of oral alternative nutrients like reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH), alpha-lipoic acid, coenzyme Q10, alpha-lipoic acid carnitine, membrane phospholipids, and other supplements was evaluated in clinical studies and were found effective against mitochondrial disorders. Combinations of these supplements can substantially alleviate weakness and other symptoms associated with mitochondrial disorders in patients. The frequent intake of these nutrients can also help to reduce the onset of various neurological disorders along with mitochondrial dysfunction. These results have significant effects on the welfare of both the civilian and military communities.
Article
Plants have a high concentration of biologically active molecules. Aloe plants tend to store water and important chemical constituents in their swollen and succulent leaves due to their ability to survive in hot and dry conditions, which makes them a unique source of phytochemicals. The Aloe leaf contains more than 200 nutritional substances, including vitamins, minerals, amino acids, and active enzymes. These constituents are analyzed as phytochemical screening (qualitative analysis) or proximate and mineral content analyses (quantitative analysis). Aloe is used as a food product and beverage ingredient. Functional and nutraceutical foods, edible coatings/films, Aloe species as cooked vegetables, and raw eating of Aloe species are how the Aloe plant is considered in food applications. The researchers reported edible Aloes for several species. However, it is not mean that all species of Aloe are edible. It is not only the leaves of Aloe that have nutritional values also other parts of the plant do. The study evaluated the nutritional value of Aloe flowers and their possible use as edible flowers. Aloe species are increasingly being incorporated into different health drinks, foods, and beverages due to the beneficial biological activities of the phytochemicals.
Article
Full-text available
The proximate analysis and the determination of the minerals of Cola acuminata and Garcinia kola were carried out. Both types of seed have comparable values for dry matter, crude protein, ether extract and carbohydrate. High levels of crude fibre and total ash were observed in Cola acuminata. Mg, Na, K and P were higher in values in Cola acuminata and therefore can serve as a better source for such minerals. Cr was not detected in both samples. Pb was present in both samples probably as a result of environmental pollution. Since man does not require Pb in the body, consumers of the seeds should avoid large consumption of them. Garcinia kola substantially induces gastric acid secretion; it is therefore advisable that peptic ulcer patients should not eat Garcinia kola seeds.
Article
Full-text available
The in vitro antimicrobial activity of crude ethanolic, methanolic and water extracts of the stem bark of Jatropha curcas were investigated. The extracts exhibited antimicrobial activities with zones of inhibition ranging from 5 to 12, 8 to 20 and 0 to 8 mm for ethanol, methanol and water extracts respectively. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the ethanol extract was between 0.5 and 6.25 mgml-1 while that of methanol extract ranged from 0.5 to 10 mgml-1. The minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) for ethanol extract ranged between 2.0 and 12.50 mgml-1, while that of methanol ranged from 2.0 to 20 mgml-1. Again all the extracts exhibited appreciable activity against all the fungal species investigated. The zones of inhibition exhibited by the extracts against the test fungal species ranged between 15 and 18, 15 and 20 and 5 and 10 mm for ethanol, methanol and water extracts respectively. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of saponin, steroids, tannin, glycosides, alkaloids and flavonoids in the extracts. The ability of the crude stem extracts of J. curcas to inhibit the growth of bacteria and fungi is an indication of its broad spectrum antimicrobial potential which may be employed in the management of microbial infections.
Article
Full-text available
The aim of the study was to investigate the Aloe vera phyto chemical compounds and antimicrobial activity of different extracts. The phytochemical compound screened by qualitative and GC-MS method. Qualitatively analyzed Tannin, Saponin, Flavonoids and Terpenoids gave positive results and phlobactanins and Steriods and Steriods gave negative results. In the GC-MS analysis, 26 bioactive phytechemical compounds were identified in the ethanolic extract of Aloe vera. Three different solvents such as aqueous, ethanol and acetone were used to extract the bioactive compounds from the leaves of Aloe vera to screen the antimicrobial activity selected human clinical pathogens by agar diffusion method. The maximum antibacterial activities were observed in acetone extracts (12±0.45nm, 20±0.35nm, 20±0.57nm and 15±0.38nm) other then aqueous extracts and ethanol extract. Antifungal activity of Aloe vera was analyzed gains Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus niger. The maximum antifungal activity was observed in acetone extracts (15±0.73nm and 8±0.37nm) when compared other extracts. Aloe vera plant extract with acetone can be used as antimicrobial agents.
Article
Full-text available
Compounds or substances which act to reduce nutrient intake, digestion, absorption and utilization and may produce other adverse effects are referred to as antinutrients or antinutritional factors. Seeds of legumes and other plant sources contain in their raw state wide varieties of antinutrients which are potentially toxic. The major antinutrients includes: toxic amino acids, saponins, cyanogenic glycosides, tannins, phytic acid, gossypol, oxalates, goitrogens, lectins (phytohaemagglutinins), protease inhibitors, chlorogenic acid and amylase inhibitors. These antinutrients pose a major constraint in the use of plant protein sources in livestock feeds without adequate and effective processing. The level or concentration of these anitnutrients in plant protein sources vary with the species of plant, cultivar and post-harvest treatments (processing methods). This paper reviews the nutritional effect of major antinutrients present in plant protein sources.
Book
A practical and engaging introduction to the core principles of nutrition. A thorough introductory guide, this text will equip students with the knowledge and skills required to optimise health and well-being. With its focus on Australasia, the text incorporates current nutrition recommendations and public health nutrition issues relevant to those studying and working in nutrition in this region of the world. The text begins with core nutrition topics, such as diet planning, macronutrients, vitamins and minerals, and follows with chapters on diet and health, fitness, life span nutrition and food safety. With a consistent level and readability, careful explanations of all key topics (including energy metabolism and other complex processes), this is a book that connects with students; engaging them as it teaches them the basic concepts and applications of nutrition.
Article
The black purple sheath (stem) of Sorgum bicolor, used locally as colour additive in cooked meals and infusion drinks taken as beverages, was examined for its nutritive value. The stem made into flour, was found to be rich in energy (1121.3 kJ/100 g), and in some micronutrients (mg/100 g), such as Mg (185.33), Ca (151.70), K (138.87), Na (127.61), and Fe (10.98). High Mg content of stem may be useful for overcoming Mg deficiency. The Fe content was sufficient to meet the daily-required intake (DRI) value for human beings. The presence of Cu, Zn and Mn was also observed. The content of crude fibre (32.0%) and carbohydrates (44.50%) were useful for making the stem a fodder for animal consumption. However, the protein content of the stem was low (3.20%). The functional properties observed for the stem compared favourably with those already reported for some other plants such as pigeon pea flour, African yam bean, and wheat flour.
Article
As an aid to taxonomic discussions, patterns of leaf exudate compounds separated by two-dimensional thin-layer chromatography and revealed by staining with Fast Blue B have been obtained for all but one of the Aloe species in Reynolds' Group 19 and Series Arborescentes. Plants in these two subdivisions of the genus are linked by their affinity to A. Arborescens, a widespread species which occurs in both groupings. Three types of compounds can be distinguished by their staining reactions and u.v.fluorescence, the anthrone C-glycosides (yellow, green, blue, grey to brown colour reaction), the chromones (orange colour reaction) and a large mixed group of phenolic compounds, including phenylpyrones (staining various shades of purple).On the basis of patterns containing these chromatographic zones, the shrubby aloes were divided into four arbitary divisions although at this stage no taxonomic implications are claimed, the classification being purely chemical and reflecting differences in their biosynthetic constitution. One species, A.pluridens was peculiar in having an exudate with none of the staining compounds present, although the supposedly secretory ‘aloin’ cells were prominent in the leaveS. Determination of the partition coefficients of the three main anthrone C-glycosides demonstrates that homonataloin is more lipophilic than barbaloin and might be expected to accumulate in more hydrophobic regions of the cell.
Article
Phytochemicals are biologically active compounds, found in plants in small amounts, which are not established nutrients but which nevertheless seem to contribute significantly to protection against degenerative disease. At present, most interest in phytochemicals is focused on the polyphenolic flavonoids and on the carotenoids, although allium compounds, glucosinolates, indoles and coumarins have also received attention, especially with respect to cancer. Mechanistically, phytochemicals are thought to act in many ways, which include their activity as anti-oxidants, antibacterial/viral agents, phytoestrogens and as inducers or inhibitors of a variety of key enzymes. Recommended dietary intakes (RDI) are the levels of intakes of essential nutrients considered adequate to meet the known nutritional needs of practically all healthy persons. To be regarded as an essential nutrient, a dietary component must be a single identified compound or a close derivative. It should have a demonstrated key biological role and characteristic deficiency syndrome, both of which should respond to nutritional manipulation and are used as a basis for setting an RDI. In these terms, allocating RDI to phytochemicals is problematic, due in part to the large number of chemically different phytochemicals and the lack of a distinctive deficiency syndrome or inherent physiological role in almost all cases. Accordingly, allocation of a single RDI to a general class of phytochemicals would be impracticable, although for an individual phytochemical it may be feasible if acceptable justification for an RDI is extended to include optimum health and evidence is forthcoming of a key inherent role for that compound in maintaining optimum physiological function. However, a distinction will need to be drawn between phytochemicals that participate as integral components of an essential biological system and become recognized as nutrients and those that act as valuable non-nutrient health-promoting agents. Both classes of phytochemicals occur in foods and both could be incorporated into functional foods. Both could be addressed in recommendations such as dietary guidelines, but at present only established nutrient phytochemicals would be eligible for an RDI.
Article
The proximate analysis of Adenopus breviflorus benth seeds showed that the whole seed flour, dehulled full-fat seed flour and protein concentrate had crude protein contents of 28.6, 30.2 and 76.5% while fat contents were 47.7, 54.2 and 1.4%, respectively. The ash content ranged from 3.49% in samples with hull to 2.06% for the protein concentrate. The results also showed that potassium and calcium are evenly distributed in the seed while sodium, magnesium, iron, phosphorus and manganese are more concentrated in the cotyledon. The water absorption capacity of the flours varied from 112.5% for sample without hull to 201.5% for the protein concentrate while the oil absorption capacity varied from 125.9% to 206.7% depending on the sample under consideration. The least gelation concentrations and emulsion capacity were relatively good. The foaming capacity was low but relatively stable. Protein solubility studies showed that the protein of the protein concentrate was soluble at both acidic and basic pH.