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Yews of Nepal

  • Plant Research Centre Jumla Nepal

Abstract and Figures

Nepal’s rich biodiversity has tremendous potential for economic development of the country. To materialize the national policy of development through the optimum and sustainable utilization of natural resources, the Government of Nepal has prioritized 33 plant species for further research and agro-technology development. Being one of the species included in the list and having high medicinal value in traditional as well as modern health care systems, Yew (Taxus), that has extensive distribution in Nepal offers unlimited prospects of economic development and social prosperity. This plant is globally renowned natural source of Taxol. Taxol is a chemotherapy drug to treat cancer having generic name as Paclitaxel, which is extracted mainly from the leaves of the yew trees. Taxol is widely used in the treatment of breast, ovarian, lung, bladder, prostate, melanoma, esophageal as well as other types of solid tumor cancers. Yews are slow growing evergreen dioecious trees, with trunk sizes reaching more than 5m and a height of up to 30m in Nepal. Traditionally yew is highly valued to make household tools, religious artifacts and construction of suspension bridge and buildings. In the last two decades, the pressure on the natural population of Yew along the Himalaya has increased severely due to commercial exploitation. This plant is not only in the pressure of indiscriminate felling for taxol production but is also suffering from intensified human activities like habitat destruction and global climate change impacts. Although Forest Act of Nepal has recognized this species as a threatened plant and is giving highest priority for its protection, few gaps about number of species in Nepal, their distribution range and nomenclature have been identified which has caused discrepancies in the existing conservation efforts and its trade. Based on extensive field visits and review of literature and herbarium records, an actual distribution range of Taxus species in Nepal has been thoroughly assessed. Morphologically, ecologically and genetically distinct three species were found distributed into three different eco-climatic zones of Nepal. Taxus contorta, a west Himalayan temperate species is spreading from Darchula District of West Nepal to the northern belt of Gorkha District in Central Nepal. Taxus mairei is found scattered in relatively low lying areas of Kavrepalanchok, Makwanpur and Sindhuli Districts of Central Nepal, while Taxus wallichiana, being an east Himalayan species covers the temperate regions of east to central Nepal extending from Taplejung to the south east part of Baglung District to the west. Improved management practices needed to restore natural population and appropriate cultivation techniques necessary for extensive farming of all three species in the respective geographic and eco-climatic zones of Nepal are discussed. Recommendations are provided to revise existing policies and carry out interdisciplinary research on natural population restoration, farming and commercialization for economic prosperity.
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Yews of Nepal
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Citation: Bhatt G.D., Poudel R.C., Pandey T.R. and Basnet R. (2017). Yews of Nepal.
National Herbarium and Plant Laboratories (NHPL), Godawari, Lalitpur.
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ISBN: 978-9937-0-2459-4
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- 1 _
g]kfnsf jfg:klts ;|f]tsf] ;+/If0f, ;Dj4{g / lbuf] pkof]u dfkm{t\ b]zsf] cfly{s ljsf; ug{] p2]Zosf
;fy ;/sf/n] ## cf}ifwf]kof]uL jg:klt k|hfltnfO{ cg';Gwfg tyf v]tL k|ljlw ljsf;sf] nflu
k|fyldstfdf /fv]sf] 5 . log} dxTjk"0f{ cf}ifwLo jg:kltx¿ dWo]sf] Ps nf}7;Nnf g]kfndf k/Dk/fut
?kdf cf]vtLd"nf]b]lv sfi7 Pj+ u}x|sfi7 k|of]hgdf k|of]u x'Fb} cfO/x]sf] 5 . cfw'lgs lrlsT;f k4ltdf
nf}7;Nnfsf] ;f/tTj -6\ofS;f]n_ kf7]3/, :tg, kmf]S;f], cGggnL, 5fnf / 6fpsf]sf] SofG;/ lgsf] kfg{
k|of]u ul/G5 . nf}7;Nnfsf] k/Dk/fut k|of]u ;+u} ljut s]xL bzsb]lv cs:dft\ cfsfl;Psf] o;sf]
Joj;foLs/0fn] o; jg:kltsf] k|fs[lts af;:yfgdf /x]sf] df}Hbftdf k|ltlbg x|f; cfpgfsf ;fy}
cJojl:yt ;+sngsf sf/0f sltko If]qaf6 of] k|hflt nf]k x'g] l:yltdf /x]sf] ;d]t :yfgLon] dx;';
u/]sf 5g\ . nf}7;Nnf h:tf] ax'pkof]uL / cTolws Joj;flos ;DefJotf af]s]sf] jg:kltsf af/]df
:yfgLo pkef]Qmf / ;/f]sf/jfnfx¿df o;sf] ;+/If0f / ;b'kof]usf af/]df ljz]if rf;f] ePsf] kfOP
tfklg g]kfndf o;sf slt k|hfltx¿ kfOG5g\ / ltgsf] j}1flgs tyf Jofkfl/s klxrfg s] xf] eGg]df
obfsbf cGof}ntf b]lvPsf]n] g]kfndf /x]sf k|hfltsf] ;+Vof olsg ug{] / ltgsf] jf:tljs ef}uf]lns
lj:tf/sf] af/]df lj:t[t hfgsf/L lbg'kg{] cfjZostf b]lvof] . nf}7;Nnfdf ul/Psf cWoog–cg';Gwfgsf
tYox¿sf] ljZn]if0faf6 / o; k':tssf n]vsx¿n] ljleGg ldltdf u/]sf ;+o'Qm tyf Psn e|d0faf6
g]kfndf # k|hfltsf nf}7;Nnfsf] pkl:ylt /x]sf] b]lvG5 . # k|hfltsf nf}7;Nnfx¿ dWo] 6\ofS;;
sG6f]6f{sf] pkl:ylt g]kfnsf] klZrdL e"–efu bfr'{nfb]lv dWo g]kfnsf] uf]/vf;Dd /x]sf] 5 . 6\ofS;;
dfO/]O{ dWo g]kfnsf] ;Lldt e"–efu dsjfgk'/, sfe|]knf~rf]s / l;Gw'nL lhNnfdf kftnf] cj:yfdf
5l/P/ /x]sf] 5 . 6\ofS;; jflnlrofgf afUn'ªsf] k"jL{ If]qb]lv k"jL{ g]kfnsf] tfKn]h'ª;Ddsf] e"–efudf
kfOG5 .
nf}7;Nnfsf] a9\bf] Joj;flos dfu / o;sf] ;+/If0fdf b]lvPsf cg]sf}+ r'gf}tLx¿sf sf/0f k|fs[lts
jghËndf o:fsf] ;+Vof 36\bf] cj:yfdf 5 . g]kfnsf ljleGg e"–efusf] xfjfkfgL nf}7;Nnfsf] tLg}
k|hfltsf nflu pko'Qm ePsf]n] o;sf] j}1flgs v]tL k|ljlwsf] ljsf; dfkm{t j[xt ?kdf j[Iff/f]k0f
u/L lbuf] ;+/If0f / pkef]uaf6 k|fKt k|ltkmnn] cfd hgtf / /fi6«sf] ;d[l4 / k|ultdf 7"nf] 6]jf k'Ug
hfg] lglZrt 5 .
- 2 _
Nepal’s rich biodiversity has tremendous potential for economic development of the country. To materialize
the national policy of development through the optimum and sustainable utilization of natural resources,
the Government of Nepal has prioritized 33 plant species for further research and agro-technology
development. Being one of the species included in the list and having high medicinal value in traditional as
well as modern health care systems, Yew (Taxus), that has extensive distribution in Nepal offers unlimited
prospects of economic development and social prosperity. This plant is globally renowned natural source
of Taxol. Taxol is a chemotherapy drug to treat cancer having generic name as Paclitaxel, which is extracted
mainly from the leaves of the yew trees. Taxol is widely used in the treatment of breast, ovarian, lung,
bladder, prostate, melanoma, esophageal as well as other types of solid tumor cancers.
Yews are slow growing evergreen dioecious trees, with trunk sizes reaching more than 5m and a height of
up to 30m in Nepal. Traditionally yew is highly valued to make household tools, religious artifacts and
construction of suspension bridge and buildings. In the last two decades, the pressure on the natural
population of Yew along the Himalaya has increased severely due to commercial exploitation. This plant is
not only in the pressure of indiscriminate felling for taxol production but is also suffering from intensified
human activities like habitat destruction and global climate change impacts. Although Forest Act of Nepal
has recognized this species as a threatened plant and is giving highest priority for its protection, few gaps
about number of species in Nepal, their distribution range and nomenclature have been identified which
has caused discrepancies in the existing conservation efforts and its trade.
Based on extensive field visits and review of literature and herbarium records, an actual distribution range
of Taxus species in Nepal has been thoroughly assessed. Morphologically, ecologically and genetically
distinct three species were found distributed into three different eco-climatic zones of Nepal. Taxus contorta,
a west Himalayan temperate species is spreading from Darchula District of West Nepal to the northern belt
of Gorkha District in Central Nepal. Taxus mairei is found scattered in relatively low lying areas of
Kavrepalanchok, Makwanpur and Sindhuli Districts of Central Nepal, while Taxus wallichiana, being an
east Himalayan species covers the temperate regions of east to central Nepal extending from Taplejung to
the south east part of Baglung District to the west. Improved management practices needed to restore
natural population and appropriate cultivation techniques necessary for extensive farming of all three species
in the respective geographic and eco-climatic zones of Nepal are discussed. Recommendations are provided
to revise existing policies and carry out interdisciplinary research on natural population restoration, farming
and commercialization for economic prosperity.
- 3 _
!= kl/ro
?v tyf emf8Lbf/ :j?kdf k|fs[lts cj:yfdf x'ls{/xg] ;Nnf ju{ leqsf] Pp6f hflt nf}7;Nnf xf]
h;nfO{ c+u|]hLdf o" (Yew) elgG5 . o;sf] j[l4 lj:tf/} x'G5 / k|s[ltdf nfdf] ;do;Dd aFfRg ;S5 .
xfn;Dd ePsf cWoognfO{ s]nfpg] xf] eg] of] jg:kltsf @))) jif{ k'/fgf ?vx¿ afFr]sf k|df0fx¿
k]mnf k/]sf 5g\ . g]kfndf kfOg] nf}7;Nnfsf ?vx¿ #) ld6/ ;Dd cUnf] / % ld6/;Dd uf]nfO{ ePsf
klg e]§fOPsf 5g\ . o; k|hfltsf xfFufljuf sf]0fwf/L ?vx¿sf h:tf geO{ 5l/P/ em'ln/x]sf x'G5g\ .
o;sf] af]qmf kftnf] v}/f] /+usf] x'G5 eg] sf08 v}/f]–/ftf] x'G5 . kftx¿ ! b]lv $ ;]G6Lld6/ ;Dd
nfDrf] / @ b]lv $ ldnLld6/ ;Dd rf}8fO{ ePsf] nfDrf]–l;wf jf s]xL aflËPsf uf9f xl/of] /+usf
x'G5g\ . of] k|hfltsf efn] / kf]yL af]6x¿ km/s–km/s x'G5g\ / o;sf dl;gf ;–;fgf k"mnx¿ (Cones)
kftsf] sfvLaf6 knfpF5g\ . k/fu;]rg ePsf] ^ b]lv ( dlxgfsf] cGt/fndf kmn kfSb5 . o;sf] kmn
(Cone) kl/kSj gx'Fbfsf avt xl/of] /Ësf] x'G5 eg] kl/kSj ePkl5 /ftf], g/d / af6'nf] cfsf/sf]
Pl/nn] 9flsPsf] x'G5 . kmn aflx/sf] /ftf] Pl/n :yfgLon] vfg] u/]sf] klg kfOG5 . k|To]s kmn leq
Pp6f dfq aLp x'G5 / xfn;Ddsf] s]xL cWoogn] pQm aLp cToGt ljiffn' x'g] b]vfPsf 5g\12,45 .
lhDgf]:kd{ (Gymnosperm) cGtu{t /x]sf k|hfltx¿df ;fdfGotof l;D6f jf z+s' nfUg] ub{5 t/
nf}7;Nnfsf] l;D6f ;Nnf k|hflt cGtu{tsf] cGo k|hfltx¿ h:t} ;Nnf], w'kL, b]jbf/, lyª\u|];Nnf],
uf]a|];Nnf] / tfln;kqsf] eGbf km/s lsl;dsf] x'G5 . dfly pNn]lvt k|hfltx¿sf] h:tf] l;D6f of]
k|hfltdf gkfOg] / kmn leq Pp6f dfq aLp nfUg] sf/0fn] ubf{ sltko nf}7;Nnf k|hfltsf cWo]tfx¿n]
t o;sf]] l;D6f x'Fb}g eGg] dfGotf ;d]t /fv]sf] kfOG5 . To;}n] lhDgf]:kd{ leq o;nfO{ cnUu} :yfg
lbOg' kg]{ ljrf/ ;d]t k|an /x]sf] 5 .
nf}7;Nnfsf] efn] k"mn (Cone)
© ;GhLj s'df/ /fO{
- 4 _
@= nf}7;Nnf klxrfg tyf cGj]if0fsf] ljsf;qmd
@=! cGt/f{li6«o kl/j]z
jg:klt k|hfltx¿sf] vf]h, cGj]if0f tyf klxrfg ug]{ qmddf jfg:klts gfdfs/0fsf] ;'?jft ug]{
d"w{Go JolQmTj sfn{ lnlgo; (Carl Linnaeus) n] ;g\ !&%# df o'/f]kdf kfOg] nf}7;Nnf]nfO{ 6\ofS;;
asf6f (Taxus baccata) gfdfs/0f u/L lbP . pgnfO{ jg:klt gfdfs/0f tyf juL{s/0fsf lktf eg]/
klg dflgG5 . jg:kltsf] gfdfs/0f tyf j0f{g Nofl6g efiffdf ug{] rng 5 . Nofl6g efiffdf Taxus
sf] ;xL pRrf/0f
x'G5 . nf}7;Nnfsf] P]ltxfl;s, k/Dk/fut / cfw'lgs dxTjsf sf/0f
hglha|f]df o;sf] c+u]|hL pRrf/0f …6\ofS;;Ú rng rNtLdf /x]sf]n] cfd kf7sx¿nfO{ s'g} e|d gxf];\
eGg] x]t'n] o; k'l:tsfdf lbOPsf] nf}7;Nnfsf k|hfltx¿sf] j}1flgs ljj/0f afx]ssf cg'R5]bx¿df
6\ofS;; g} /flvPsf] 5 . 6\ofS;; asf6f gfdfs/0f ug'{ k"j{ o'/f]kdf o; jg:kltsf] k|hfltnfO{ o;sf]
:yfgLo c+u|]hL gfd Yew n] lrGg] ub{y] . klxnf] k6s o'/f]k If]qaf6 gfdfs/0f x'g uPsf]n] o;nfO{ kl5
o'/f]lkog o" (European Yew) elgg yflnof]]41 .
6\ofS;; k|hfltsf klxnf] cWo]tf sfn{ lnlgo; g} x'g\ / pgL kl5 cGo jg:kltlj1x¿n] klg
cWoogsf] sfo{nfO{ cufl8 a9fpb} uP . sfn{ lnlgo;sf lzio sfn{ y'gju{ (Carl Thunberg) n] ;g
!&&%–&^ sf] ;dofjlwdf hfkfgdf kfOg] nf}7;Nnfsf] cWoog u/] / pgn] hfkfgdf kfOg] nf}7;Nnf
klg 6\ofS;; jsf6f g} xf] eg] t/ ;g\ !*$^ df l;jf]N8 (Siebold) / h'sfl/gL (Zuccarini) n] pQm
jg:kltsf] gfd 6\ofS;; s'l:k8f6f (Taxus cuspidata) ePsf] ls6fg u/]8,41 .
ptf xDk|]m df;{n (Humphrey Marshall) n] Sofg8fdf kfOg] nf}7;Nnfsf] cWoogsf] qmddf s]xL leGgtf
kfP . Sofg8fdf kfOg] k|hflt ?v geO{ emf8Lbf/ lyof] / cln leGg lsl;dsf] ePsf]n] of] sfn{
lnlgo;n] gfdfs/0f u/]sf] k|hflt 6\ofS;; asf6f x'g ;Sb}g eGg] lgSof{}ndf df;{n k'Ug uP / ;g\
!&*% df pgn] pQm nf}7;Nnfsf] gfd 6\ofS;; Sofgf8]lG;; (Taxus
canadensis) gfdfs/0f u/]
h;nfO{ :yfgLo ?kdf Sofg]l8og o" eGg yflnof]40,41 .
ef/t a]nfotL pklgj]z cGtu{t /x]sf] a]nf O{i6 OlG8of sDkgLsf 8]lg; jg:kltljb\ gyflgon
jflnr (Nathaniel Wallich) n] ;g !*@!–@@ sf] ;dofjlwdf g]kfnsf] e|d0f u/]sf lyP / pgsf] p2]Zo
g]kfndf kfOg] jg:klt k|hfltx¿sf] af/]df hfgsf/L k|fKt ug'{ lyof] . sf7df8f} a;fO{sf] Ps jif{sf]
cjlwdf sf7df8f} pkTosf / glhssf lhNnfx¿af6 y'k|} jg:kltsf k|hfltx¿sf] gd"gfx¿ ;+sng
ug]{ qmddf pgn] sf7df8f}sf] lzjk'/Laf6 nf}7;Nnfsf] xj]{l/od gd"gf ;+sng u/] / ef/tsf] snsQf
x'Fb} a]nfot k'¥ofP . nf}7;Nnfsf] gd"gf afx]s pgn] y'k|} cGo jg:kltsf gd"gfx¿ ;d]t ;+sng
u/]sf lyP, h;sf] ljj/0f jflnrn] ;g\ !*@$–!*@^ df n]v]sf k':tsx¿
ˆnf]/f OlG8sf
(Flora Indica)
6]G6fd]g ˆnf]/f g]kfn]lG;; On':6]«6
(Tentamen Florae Napalensis Illustrate) df lbPsf] kfOG535 . pQm
k':tsdf lzjk'/Laf6 ;+sng u/]sf] ;Nnf] ju{sf] k|hfltnfO{ 6\ofS;; g'l;km]/f (Taxus nucifera) xf] egL
pNn]v u/]sf] kfOG5 . cyf{t\ pgsf] o; cWoogn] g]kfnaf6 ;+sng ul/Psf] nf}7;Nnf o'/f]kdf kfOg]
k|hflt eGbf km/s /x]sf] lyof] eGg] k'li6 x'g hfG5 .
- 5 _
gyflgon jflnrn] g]kfnsf] lzjk'/Laf6 ;+sng u/]sf] ;f]xL nf}7;Nnfsf] xj]{l/od gd"gfsf] lj:t[t
cWoog ug]{ qmddf hd{g jg:kltlj1\ hf];]km h'sfl/gL (Joseph Zuccarini) n] ;g\ !*$# df 6\ofS;;
g'l;km]/fsf] ;§f gofF gfd 6\ofS;; jflnlrofgf (Taxus wallichiana Zucc.) gfdfs/0f u/] . jflnrn]
jfg:klts ;j]{If0fdf k'¥ofPsf] of]ubfgsf] sb/ :j?k pQm k|hfltsf] gfdfs/0f 6\ofS;; jflnlrofgf
/xg uPsf] xf]8 .
Isolectotype of Taxus wallichiana ( accessed on 2017/04/01)
gyflgon jflnrn] g]kfnsf] lzjk'/Laf6 ;g\ !*@)–!*@! tfsf ;+sng u/L xfn l:j8]gsf] xj{]l/oddf ;+u|lxt 6\ofS;;
jflnlrofgfsf] 6fOk gd"gfsf] tl:j/
- 6 _
ljZj kl/j]zdf 6\ofS;; k|hfltsf] vf]h tyf cGj]if0fsf] sfo{n] lg/Gt/tf kfO{ g} /Xof] . 8]le8 8un;
(David Douglas) n] ;g\ !*@% df nf}7;Nnf cd]l/sL dxfb]zsf] pQ/–klZrddf kfOg] hfgsf/L lbP .
;g\ !*## df xf8L{ qm'd (Hardy Croom) n] nf}7;Nnf cd]l/sfsf] ˆnf]l/8fdf kfOG5 eGg] tYo cufl8
NofP eg] ;g\ !*#& df lqmli6ofg Ox/]gju{ (Christian Ehrenberg) n] d]lS;sf]df klg 6\ofS;; kfOg]
k'li6 u/] . pQ/–klZrd k|zfGt dxf;fu/sf] l;dfgf If]qdf kfOg] nf}7;NnfnfO{ yf]d; g6n (Thomas
Nuttall) n] ;g\ !*$( df 6\ofS;; a|]lekmf]lnof (Taxus brevifolia) egL gfdfs/0f u/] . ;g\ !*%$ df
ljlnod lu|lkmy (William Griffith) n] klZrd lxdfnodf kfOg] nf}7;Nnf 6\ofS;; sG6f]6f{ xf] egL l/kf]6{
u/] . o:f} u/L ;g\ !*^) sf] ;]/f]km]/f]df 6fdg t]hdfg (Taman Teysmann) n] ;'dfqfdf / ;g\ !**%–
*^ tfsf cu:6fOg x]g/L (Augustine Henry) sf] cWoogn] nf}7;Nnf rLgdf kfOg]] hfgsf/L aflx/
cfof] 41 .
Lectotype of Taxus contorta ( accessed on 2017/04/01)
a]nfotsf] So" xj{]l/oddf ;+u|lxt 6\ofS;; sG6f]6f{sf] 6fOk gd"gfsf] tl:j/
- 7 _
;dosf] cGt/fn;+u} jg:kltljb\x¿n] gofF gofF If]qsf] :ynut e|d0f u/L nf}7;Nnfsf xj{]l/od
gd'gfx¿ ;+sng ug{] / ltgsf] uxg cWoog ug{] qmdn] lg/Gt/tf kfOg} /Xof] / 6\ofS;; asf6f,
6\ofS;; Sofg]8]lG;;, 6\ofS;; a|]lekmf]lnof / 6\ofS;; jflnlrofgfsf cnfjf cGo k|hfltx¿ ylk+b}
uP . ;+sng ul/Psf gd"gfx¿sf] ljleGg jg:kltljbx¿n] cfˆg} tj/n] klxrfg / juL{s/0f ug{
yfn] . gofF–gofF 7fpFaf6 nf}7;Nnfsf gd"gfx¿ k|fKt eP ;+u} gofF gfdfs/0f ul/Psf k|hfltx¿sf]
j}wtfdf ;d:of b]lvg yfNof] . s]xL lj1x¿n] k|hfltx¿sf] ef}uf]lns ;dfgtf / lj:tf/sf cfwf/df
j}1flgs klxrfg / gfdfs/0fnfO{ cfwf/ agfP2,3,10,21 eg] s]xLn] la?jfsf efux¿df b]vf kg{] cfsf/k|sf/,
u'0fx¿ / ;Lldt ljz]iftfx¿nfO{ dfkg ug{] ljlw cjnDag u/]sf] b]lvG58,40 . t;y{, ljutdf nf}7;Nnfsf
k|hfltx¿sf] klxrfg / j}1flgs gfdfs/0fdf jg:kltljb\x¿ aLr w]/} dtleGgtfx¿ b]lvG5g\ .
nf}7;Nnfsf k|hfltx¿sf] gfdfs/0fsf ;jfndf jg:kltljb\x¿ aLr olt w]/} dtleGgtfx¿ 5g\ ls
;g\ !()# df lkNu/n] ;+;f/ el/df nf}7;Nnfsf] Ps j6f dfq k|hflt 6\ofS;; asf6f 5 / cGo ;a}
o;sf pkk|hfltx¿ x'g\ / s]xL e]/fO6Lx¿ 5g\ egL pNn]v u/]sf 5g\ eg] ;g\ @))& df :Ko'6n]
nf}7;Nnf hflt leq @$ k|hflt / %% e]/fO{6Lx¿sf] j0f{g u/]sf 5g\39,40 .
ljZjdf /x]sf nf}7;Nnfsf k|hfltsf] cWoogdf cfk'mnfO{ ;dlk{t u/]sf 6\ofS;; ljwfsf Ps k|d'v
cWoo]tf x'g l/rf8{ 8An' :Ko'6 (Richard W. Spjut) . pgn] nf}7;Nnfsf] kftsf] afXo efu (Epidermal
layer) / l5b| ;+/rgf (Stomatal structure) sf cfwf/df xfn;Dd j0f{g ul/Psf nf}7;Nnfsf k|hfltx¿nfO{
# j6f ;d"xdf juL{s/0f u/]sf 5g\ . pgn] juL{s/0f u/]sf # j6f nf}7;Nnf ;d"xdf asf6f ;d"x
(Baccata Group), ;'dfqf ;d"x (Sumatra Group) / jflnlrofgf ;d"x (Wallichiana Group) /x]sf 5g\40 .
PSsfO;f+} ztfAbLdf lj1fg / k|ljlwsf] ljsf; ;+u}, jg:kltsf k|hfltx¿sf] gfdfs/0fdf klg pNn]Vo
k|ult ePsf] b]lvG5 . k|hflt klxrfgdf gofF k|ljlwx¿sf] k|of]u u/L pknAw jg:kltsf cfFs8fx¿nfO{
;"Id / lj:t[t tj/n] ljZn]if0f ug{] k4ltsf] ljsf; eO{ ;s]sf] 5 . jt{dfg cj:yfdf pknAw gofF
ljlwsf] k|of]un] lxhf] jg:klt zf:qLx¿ dfem ljleGg jg:kltsf k|hfltx¿sf gfdfs/0fdf b]lvPsf
dtleGgtfx¿ w]/} xb;Dd ;dfwfg eO;s]sf] cj:yf klg /x]sf] 5 . gofF k|ljlw / ljz]if dfkb08x¿sf]
cjNfDag u/L ljZje/sf nf}7;Nnfx¿sf k|hfltsf] ;+Vof klg lgWf{f/0f ul/Psf] 5 h; cg';f/
xfn;Dd nueu !# k|hflt (species) / s]xL pk–k|hfltx¿ (subspecies) /x]sf] olsg eO;s]sf]
52,3,8,10,21,22,25 . lj1fgsf] ljsf;;Fu} jg:kltsf k|hfltx¿sf] klxrfg / gfdfs/0f ug{] sfo{ klg Ps
ultzLn k|lqmof xf] . cfw'lgs k|ljlwx¿sf] ljsf;n] cg';Gwfgsf k4ltx¿df klg qmdfut ;'wf/ /
kl/dfh{g x'b} hfFbf jg:kltsf k|hfltx¿sf] klxrfg / gfdfs/0fdf ;'wf/ x'g' ca gf}nf] ljifo /x]g h'g
xfd|f] h}ljs ljljwtfsf] ;+/If0f / lbuf] pkof]usf nflu clt cfjZos sfo{ /lxcfPsf] 5 .
- 8 _
Isotype of Taxus mairei ( accessed on 2017/04/01)
a]nfotsf] So" xj{]l/oddf ;+u|lxt 6\ofS;; dfO/]O{sf] 6fOk gd"gfsf] tl:j/
- 9 _
@=@ /fli6«o kl/j]z
g]kfnsf jg:kltx¿sf] j}1flgs cWoog cGj]if0f / klxrfgsf] sfo{ a]nfotL jg:kltlj1, k|mflG;;
a'vfgg–x]ldN6g (Francis Buchanan-Hamilton) sf] ;g\ !*)@ df ul/Psf] g]kfn e|d0faf6 ;'? ePsf]
b]lvG5 . pgn] e|d0f u/]sf] em08} @) jif{sf] cGt/fn kl5 ;g\ !*@)–!*@! lt/ gyflgon jflnr
(Nathaniel Wallich) n] g]kfnsf] cWoog e|d0f u/]35 . oL b'O{sf] Pp6} p2]Zo g]kfnsf jg:klt k|hfltx¿sf]
hfgsf/L lng] lyof] . o;} qmddf jflnrn] sf7df8f}sf] lzjk'/Laf6 nf}7;Nnfsf] gd"gf ;+sng u/L
pQm gd"gfx¿sf] clen]vLs/0f ug]{ qmddf pgn] ;g\ !*@^ sf] Tentamen
Nepalensis df
lzjk'/Laf6 ;+slnt nf}7;Nnfsf] gd"gfsf] gfdfs/0f 6\ofS;; g'l;km]/f u/]40 . g]kfndf 6\ofS;;
kfOG5g\ eGg] ;DaGwL cflwsfl/s hfgsf/Lsf] z'?jft oxLaf6 ePsf] xf] . pQm gd"gfsf] cWoog ug]{
qmddf hf];]km h'sfl/gLn] lzjk'/Lsf] nf}7;Nnf 6\ofS;; g'l;km]/f geO{ 6\ofS;; jflnlrofgf xf] egL
gfdfs/0f u/]sf] o; cl3s} cGt/f{li6«o kl/j]z zLif{sdf pNn]v eO;s]sf] 5 .
jg:klt ljwfsf ljb]zL hfgsf/x¿n] g]kfnsf jg:klt k|hfltx¿sf] cWoog ug]{ l;nl;nfnfO{
lg/Gt/tf lb+b} uP . cWoogs} qmddf g]kfnsf ljleGg :yfgx¿af6 la?jfsf gd"gfx¿ ;+sng ug]{ /
tL gd"gfx¿ cfˆgf] b]zsf xj]{l/odx¿df ;+/lIft ub}{ ug{ yflnof] . ;g\ !(@* df a]nfotL cWo]tf
kl;{en NofG8g (Perceval Landon) n] 'Nepal' zLif{sdf @ j6f k':ts k|sfzg u/] h;df Flora of Nepal
zLif{s cGtu{t Appendix XIV df !#! kl/jf/ cGtu{tsf &%* hflt / 6\ofS;; asf6f ;lxt !&)@
k|hfltsf jg:kltx¿sf] gfd ;dfj]z ul/Psf] 520 . a]nfotLsf ;fy;fy} ;g\ !(%) kl5sf ;dodf
hfkfgL jg:klt 6f]nLn] g]kfnsf jg:kltx¿sf] uxg cWoog u/]sf] kfOG5 . g]kfnsf jg:klt
k|hfltsf] cWoog ug{ ljb]zLx¿sf] nfdf] ;do cl3b]lvsf] rf;f] xfn;Dd klg sfod} /x]sf] 5 . ;g\
!($* b]lv !(*@ sf] ;dofjlwdf g]kfnsf jg:klt k|hfltx¿sf] klxrfgsf] qmd tLj| ?kdf cufl8
a9\of] / pQm ;donfO{ jg:kltlj1 8f= s]zj /fh /fhe08f/Ln] g]kfnsf] jg:klt k|hfltsf] klxrfgsf]
;jf{lws ;lqmo ;do Efg]sf 5g\35 .
;g\ !(%% df H. Kihara åf/f ;Dkflbt k':ts Fauna and Flora of Nepal Himalaya, Vol.1 hfkfgaf6
k|sflzt eof] . pQm k':tsdf Pp6f Flowering Plants and Ferns zLif{s /x]sf] 5, h;df /;'jf lhNnfsf]
ltndfg -;d'b|L ;txb]lv @*)) ld6/_ / yf]Ë] r/g If]q -;d'b|L ;txb]lv @^$% ld6/_ af6 ;g\ !(%@
sf] cS6f]j/ !# tfl/vdf 6\ofS;; jflnlrofgfsf] gd"gf ;+sng u/]sf] /]s8{ kfOG517 .
k|fWofks lx/f];L xf/fåf/f ;Dkflbt k':ts
b ˆnf]/f ckm O:6g{ lxdfnof
(The Flora of Eastern Himalaya)
;g\ !(^^ df hfkfgaf6 k|sflzt eof] . pQm k':tsdf 6\ofS;];L kl/jf/ cGtu{tsf k|hfltx¿sf]
cWoog of];L;fs] ;f6fs] (Yoshisake Satake) n] u/]sf lyP / pQm k':tsdf ;g\ !(^# df hfkfgL
cg';Gwfgstf{sf] 6f]nLn] k"jL{ g]kfnsf] ljleGg :yfgx¿ ldlGrg wfk–dfOkf]v/L, ;]nfk–jnfªr'ªuf]nf,
laAnf6] eGHofªaf6 ;+slnt nf}7;Nnfsf gd"gfx¿sf] cfwf/df 6\ofS;; asf6f pk–k|hflt jflnlrofgf
(Taxus baccata L. subsp. wallichiana (Zucc.) Pilger) g]kfnsf] k"jL{ efudf kfOg] pNn]v ul/Psf] 536 .
- 10 _
6\ofS;; jflnlrofgfsf] 6fOk :yfg lzjk'/Laf6 ;g\ !(^) df ;+slnt /fli6«o xj{]l/oddf ;+/lIft gd"gf -@%*) ld=_
- 11 _
;g\ !(^( df hfkfgL jg:kltlj1sf] 6f]nLn] g]kfnsf jg:klt k|hfltx¿sf] cWoog ug]{ qmddf h'g
!% tfl/vsf lbg sf7df8f}+sf] lzjk'/L -@&)) ld6/ prfO{_ af6 nf}7;Nnfsf] gd"gf ;+sng u/L
cWoog u/]sf] hfgsf/L ;g\ !(&! df hfkfgaf6 k|sflzt
ˆnf]/f ckm O:6g{ lxdfno
bf];|f] ;+:s/0fdf
pNn]v 5 h;df lzjk'/Laf6 ;+slnt gd"gfnfO{ klg 6\ofS;; asf6f pk–k|hflt jflnlrofgf elgPsf]
536,37 . o;}u/L lx/f]zL xf/f ;lDdlnt lj1 ;d"xn] ;g\ !(&* df
Pg Og'd]/];g ckm ˆnfjl/Ë KnfG6;\
ckm g]kfn
efu !
k|sflzt u/] / pQm k':tsdf klg 6\ofS;; asf6f pk–k|hflt jflnlrofgf g} xf]
eg]sf] kfOG513 .
lj=;+= @)!^ ;fndf jg:klt ljefusf] :yfkgf ePkl5 ;d/ axfb'/ dNn / ;dg axfb'/ /fhe08f/Ln]
sf7df8f+} pkTosfaf6 xj]{l/odsf gd"gfx¿ ;+sng ug]{ qmddf ;g\ !(^) sf] h'nfO{ dlxgfdf
lzjk'/Laf6 nf}7;Nnfsf] gd"gf ;+sng u/]sf lyP -cg';"rL $_ . ;g\ !(^# df ;dg axfb'/ /fhe08f/L
/ Pshgf hfkfgL sfh'lx/f] O6f]x (Kajuhiro Itoh) ;lxt klZrd g]kfnsf] d'u', h'Dnf, 8f]6L / a}t8L
lhNnfsf] ;j]{If0f e|d0f ug]{ qmddf pgLx¿n] vKt8af6 ;+sng u/]sf] nf}7;Nnfsf] xj]{l/od gd"gf
/fli6«o xj]{l/oddf NofO{ ;'/lIft /flvPsf] kfOG515,33 .
o;}u/L ;g\ !(^# df jg:klt ljefudf sfo{/t jg:kltljb\ tLy{ axfb'/ >]i7 / dw';'bg lji6n]
d':tfË lhNnfaf6 / ;g\ !(^% df tLy{ axfb'/ >]i7n] x'Dnf lhNnfaf6 nf}7;Nnfsf] gd"gf ;+sng
u/]sf lyP . oL dfly pNn]lvt xj]{l/odsf gd"gf /fli6«o xj]{l/od tyf jg:klt k|of]uzfnf uf]bfj/Ldf
;'/lIft g} 5g\ . o;kl5sf] ;dodf klg jg:klt ljefu / cGtu{tsf cg';Gwfgstf{x¿n] b]zsf
ljleGg :yfgx¿sf] cWoog e|d0f u/L nf}7;Nnfsf] gd"gf ;+sng tyf cWoogsf] sfo{nfO{ tLa|tfsf]
;fy xfn;Dd klg lg/Gt/tf lbOPsf] 5 -cg';"rL $_ .
8f= tLy{ axfb'/ >]i7n] g]kfndf kfOg] ;Nnf] hfltsf] ljz]if cWoog ug]{ qmddf ;g\ !(&$ df pxfFaf6
lnlvt s[lt
lhDgf]:kd{ ckm g]kfn
df ^ kl/jf/, !# hflt / !( k|hfltsf ;Nnf] ju{sf jg:kltsf] ljj/
0f j}1flgs k'i6\ofO{sf ;fy k|sflzt ul/Psf] 5 . ;fy} pQm k':tsdf nf}7;Nnfsf] a}1flgs gfd
6\ofS;; jflnlrofgf lbg'sf] ;fy} g]kfnsf] s'g s'g 7fpFdf kfOGf] egL ;d]t ls6fgL ;fy pNn]v
ul/Psf] 538 . jg:klt ljefu (tTsfnLg Department of Medicinal Plants) n] ;g\ !(&^ df
ckm g]lKnh ef:s'n/ KnfG6;\, ˆnf]/f ckm nfª6fª P08 qm; ;]S;g e]lh6]zg ;e]{
/ ;g\ !(*^ df
ˆnf]/f ckm sf7df8f}+ EofnL
k|sfzgdf Nofof]4,5,6 . oL tLgj6} k':ts xj]{l/odsf gd"gfx¿ ;+sng u/L
ltgLx¿sf] cWoog kZrft\ k|sflzt ul/Psf x'g\ . oL tLg}} k':tsx¿df nf}7;Nnf -6\ofS;; jflnlrofgf_
;DaGwL hfgsf/L ;dfj]z ul/Psf] 5 .
kl5Nnf] ;dodf g]kfnL tyf ljb]zL jg:kltljb\ / jg:kltzf:qsf :gftsf]Q/ / ljBfjfl/lwsf
ljBfyL{x¿n] gofF k|hfltsf] klxrfg / gfdfs/0fdf pNn]Vo of]ubfg lbPsf] kfOG5 . g]kfn nufot
lxGb's'z lxdfnodf x'g;Sg] nf}7;Nnfsf k|hfltx¿sf] jf:tljs ;+Vof / ltgsf] ef}uf]lns ljt/0fdf
cGof]ntf /x]sf] kl/k|]Iodf cfw'lgs ljlw / kl/dflh{t cg';Gwfg k4ltsf] cjnDag u/L ;g\ @)!@ df
lxGb's'z lxdfnodf tLg k|hfltsf nf}7;Nnf /x]sf] tYo cGt/f{li6«o hg{ndf k|sflzt eof] . pQm
- 12 _
cWoogdf lxGb's'z lxdfno If]qdf lj:t[t ;j{]If0f u/L ;+slnt &() xj{]l/odsf gd"gfx¿sf] cfFs8fnfO{
kl/dflh{t ljlwaf6 ljZn]if0f ug{'sf ;fy} Tolt g} ;+Vofsf gd'gfx¿sf] l8=Pg=P= k/LIf0f ul/Psf] 5 .
o;} cg';Gwfgn] klxnf] k6s l;Gw'nL / sfe|]knf~rf]s lhNnfx¿df kg{] dxfef/t kj{t >[ª\vnfsf
s]xL jgx¿df tNnf] prfOdf x'g] nf}7;Nnfsf] k|hflt 6\ofS;; dfO/]O{ (Taxus mairei) kfOg] tYo
phfu/ u/]sf] lyof]27,29,32,34 . jg:klt ljefu cGtu{t /fli6«o xj]{l/od tyf jg:klt k|of]uzfnfn]
Sof6nu ckm g]lKnh ˆnfj/LË KnfG6\;–!
qmdzM ;g\ @)!) / ;g\ @)!% dfkm{t\
g]kfndf # k|hfltsf 6\ofS;; -6\ofS;; sG6f]6f{, 6\ofS;; dfO/]O{ / 6\ofS;; jflnlrofgf_ kfOg]
hfgsf/L ;lxt tYofÍ cWofjlws u/]sf] 532,34 .
k"jL{ g]kfnsf] tLgh'/] If]qdf 6\ofS;; jflnlrofgfsf] af;:yfgsf] dgf]/d b[Zo
- 13 _
#= nf}7;Nnf klxrfgdf b]lvPsf] ;d:of
g]kfndf kfOg] nf}7;Nnfsf] j}1flgs klxrfg tyf gfdfs/0fsf] qmddf ljutdf s]xL låljwf b]lvPsf]
lyof] . xfn;Dd klg nf}7;Nnfsf] jfg:klts gfd s] xf] eGbf 6\ofS;; jsf6f eg]/ t'?Gt} hgaf]nL
tyf ljleGg k|sfzgx¿df pNn]v ;d]t ug]{ u/]sf] kfOG5 . jg:kltsf k|hfltsf] cWoog cg';Gwfgsf]
k|lqmof lg/Gt/ rln g} /xG5 . of] Ps ultzLn cjwf/0ff xf] . To;df klg h}ljs, ch}ljs sf/s
tTjsf] ;lDd>0fsf] pkh jg:klt k|hfltx¿df t o; lsl;dsf] ;Defjgf /xL g} /xG5 tyflk o;
lsl;dsf låljwfx¿nfO{ oyf;So lg/fs/0f u/L cfdhgdfg;df ;xL ;"rgf ;Dk|]if0f ug'{ ;DalGwt
j}1flgs lgsfo / af}l4s ;d'bfosf] st{Jo x'g cfpF5 .
;g\ !()# df jg:kltlj1 /f]j6{ lkNu/n] g]kfn nufot lxdfnodf kfOg] nf}7;Nnf 6\ofS;; jflnlrofgf
cfkm}df k|hflt geO{ of] 6\ofS;; asf6fsf] Pp6f pk–k|hflt x'g ;S5 eGg] ts{ k|:t't u/] /
To;kl5sf sltko cWo]tfx¿n] g]kfndf kfOg] nf}7;Nnfsf] jfg:klts gfd Taxus baccata subsp.
n]Vg] u/]sf] kfOG5 . t/ jg:klt ljefun] k|sflzt u/]sf]
Sof6nu ckm g]lKnh ef:s'n/
KnfG6;\ -!(&^_, ˆnf]/f ckm nfª6fª P08 qm; ;]S;g e]lh6]zg ;e]{ -!(&^_
ˆnf]/f ckm sf7df8f}+
EofnL -!(*^_
df g]kfndf kfOGf] nf}7;Nnf 6\ofS;; asf6f geO{ 6\ofS;; jflnlrofgf g} xf] elg
pNn]v u/]sf] 54,5,6 . hf];]km 8fN6g x's/n] Flora of British India k|sfzg ug]{ qmddf vfl;of kxf8 b]lv
adf{sf] dflyNnf] efu x'Fb} o"/f]k / cd]l/sf;Dd km}lnPsf] k|hfltnfO{ 6\ofS;; asf6f eg]sf 5g\14 .
hals jg:klt ljefun] k|sfzg u/]sf dfly pNn]lvt k':tsx¿df g]kfndf kfOg] nf}7;Nnf 6\ofS;;
jflnlrofgf g} xf] / hf];]km 8fN6g x's/n] Flora of British India df pNn]v u/]sf] k|hflt 6\ofS;; asf6f
g]kfndf kfOg] k|hflt x}g egL pNn]v u/]sf] kfOG54,5,6 cyf{t\ Taxus baccata Sensu Hook f. -o;y{,
x's/n] eg]sf] 6\ofS;; asf6f g]kfndf kfOg] k|hflt x}g egL :ki6 ub{5_ .
;g\ !()# df /f]j6{ lkNu/ / ;g\ !*** df hf];]km 8fN6g x's/n] lbPsf] gfdnfO{ sltko
cg';Gwfgstf{x¿n] c+uLsf/ u/]sf] kfOG514 . ;g\ !()# df lkNu/n] lbPsf] gfd Taxus baccta
clxn] klg kof{ojfrL gfdsf] ?kdf dfGotf k|fKt 5 . w]/} ;do;Dd of] gfd rNtLdf
cfO/Xof] t/ sltkon] k5fl8 kl§sf] pk–k|hfltnfO{ n]Vg] cEof; gu/L 6\ofS;; asf6f dfq} n]v]sf]
x'g'k5{ / of] gfdn] g} g]kfnL cWoogstf{ aLr nf]slk|otf xfl;n u¥of], hals g]kfndf dfq geO{
lxGb's'z lxdfno If]qsf] ;Dk"0f{ e"–efudf g} 6\ofS;; asf6f gkfOg] tYo k|dfl0ft eO;s]sf] 527,28 .
;g\ !(^@ tfsf cd]l/sf l:yt g]zgn SofG;/ Ogl:66\o"6df sfo{/t jg:kltlj1 cy{/ afSn{] ;lxtsf]
6f]nLn] k|f0f3fts /f]u SofG;/ lgsf] kfg{ ;xof]uL x'g ;Sg] /;fogsf] vf]lhsf] qmddf 6\ofS;;
a|]lekmf]lnof k|hfltsf] af]qmfdf pQm u'0f e]§fP . 6\ofS;; k|hfltdf SofG;/ /f]u lgsf] kfg]{ /;fog
e]l§Psf sf/0f pQm /;fogsf] gfd 6\ofS;f]n /flvPsf] xf]44,48 .
g]kfndf kfOg] nf}7;Nnfsf] pkof]u k/Dk/fut ?kdf t x'Fb} u/]sf] lyof] t/ SofG;/ lgsf] kfg]{ ;kmn
cf}ifwL aG5 egL k'li6 eP kZrft\ ;g\ !(() sf] bzs b]lv g]kfnsf] nf}7;Nnfdf /fli6«o tyf
cGt/f{li6«o ;+3 ;+:yf Pj+ Jofkf/Lx¿sf] rf;f] a9\b} uof] . ljZjdf kfOGf] ;a}h;f] nf}7;Nnfsf
- 14 _
k|hfltx¿df SofG;/ lgsf] kfg{ ;Sg] s]xL g s]xL u'0f /x]sf] x'G5 t/ k|hflt cg';f/ cf}ifwLo cjoj
10-Deacetylbaccatin-III (10-DAB-III) sf] dfqf km/s km/s x'g] ub{5 . g]kfnaf6 6\ofS;; asf6fsf]
gfddf lgof{t ePsf] nf}7;Nnf / ljb]zL nf}7;Nnf -6\ofS;; asf6f_ sf] u'0f:t/df leGgtf cfPsf
sf/0f cGt/f{li6«o ahf/df g]kfnaf6 k7fPsf] nf}7;Nnfsf] cflwsfl/stf af/] lh1f;f p7\g yfNof] .
nf}7;Nnfaf6 k|fKt ;f/tTjsf] lgof{t x'Fbf g]kfnsf] ;a} If]qaf6 kft ;+sng u/L k|zf]wg ul/Psf] x'g]
ul/Ptf klg lgsf;L ubf{ Pp6} gfd 6\ofS;; asf6fsf] ?kdf hfGYof] . ef}uf]lns km}nfj6 / xfjfkfgLsf
sf/0f u'0f:t/df cfpg] km/skg Pp6f kIf xf] eg] g]kfndf kfOg] nf}7;Nnf o"/f]kdf kfOGf] nf}7;Nnfsf]
gfddf lgof{t x'g' cs}{ kIf x'g hfG5 . To;df klg g]kfnsf] klZrdb]lv k"j{;Ddsf] e"–efudf kfOg]
nf}7;Nnf Pp6} k|hflt xf] jf leGg leGg k|hfltx¿ x'g\ egL olsg ePsf] cj:yf lyPg . g]kfnsf
nf}7;Nnf k|hfltx¿sf] ;Gbe{df ljleGg ldltdf k|sflzt k':ts tyf ;fdu|Lx¿df Ps?ktf g/x]sfn]
:yfgLo ;d'bfo, h8La'6Lsf Jofkf/L / ;+/If0fsdL{x¿ dfem nf}7;Nnfsf] k|hfltsf af/]df cGof}n /xg
uof] . ;d:of ;dfwfgfy{ jg:klt ljefu, /fli6«o xj{]l/od tyf jg:klt k|of]uzfnfn] ;g\ @)!) df
/ @)!% df k|sflzt Sof6nudf g]kfndf kfOg] nf}7;Nnfsf k|hfltx¿ 6\ofS;; sG6f]6f{, 6\ofS;;
jflnlrofgf / 6\ofS;; dfO/]O{sf] hfgsf/L cWofjlws u¥of]32,34 . afXo ;+/rgfsf] cfwf/df nf}7;Nnf
gfdfs/0f ul/+b} cfPsf]df rfO{gLh Psf8]dL ckm ;fOG;];, s'lGdg OlGi6Ro"6 ckm af]6fgLdf g]kfnsf
nf}7;Nnfaf/] ljBfjfl/lw ug]{ qmddf /fd rGb| kf}8]nn] kl/dflh{t k/Dk/fut dkmf]{nf]lhsn ljlw,
kof{j/0fLo cfFs8fsf] ljZn]if0f / cfw'lgs h}ljs k|ljlwsf] k|of]u -l8=Pg=P= cWoog_ u/L ;g\ @)!@
df g]kfndf tLg k|hfltsf nf}7;Nnf ePsf] tYo yk k'li6 u/]27 . /fli6«o / cGt/f{li6«o :t/sf
k|sfzgx¿df g]kfndf kfOg] nf}7;Nnf k|hflt af/]df k|i6 hfgsf/L cfP kZrft klg nf}7;Nnfsf
k|hfltsf] gfdsf] k|of]udf g]kfnleq Ps?ktf cfPsf] kfOPg . o;} ;Gbe{df jg tyf e"–;+/If0f
dGqfnon] ldlt @)&!÷)%÷)# ut] g]kfn ;/sf/ ;lrj :t/Lo lg0f{ofg';f/ æg]kfnsf nf}7;Nnfsf
k|hfltx¿ / ltgsf] ef}uf]lns lj:tf/sf] olsg ug]{Æ egL dGqfnosf tTsfnLg ;x–;lrj 8f= v]d/fh
e§/fO{sf] ;+of]hsTjdf lqe'jg ljZjljBfno, jg:kltzf:q s]lGb|o ljefusf ;x–k|fWofks 8f= ;'/]z
s'df/ l3ld/], jg ljefusf pk–;lrj ab|L axfb'/ sfsL{, jg:klt ljefu, /fli6«o xj]{l/od tyf
jg:klt k|of]uzfnfsf ;xfos cg';Gwfg clws[t u+uf bQ e§ ;b:o / g]kfn lj1fg tyf k|ljlw k|1f–
k|lti7fgsf jl/i7 j}1flgs clws[t Pj+ nf}7;Nnfsf lj1 8f= /fd rGb| kf}8]n cfdlGqt ;b:o
;lDdlnt sfo{bn u7g ul/Psf] lyof] / pQm sfo{bnn] g]kfndf tLg k|hfltsf nf}7;Nnf -6\ofS;;
sG6f]6f{, 6\ofS;; dfO/]O{ / 6\ofS;; jflnlrofgf_ /x]sf] egL k|ltj]bg jg tyf e"–;+/If0f dGqfnodf
k]z u/]sf] lyof]55 . To:fsf] cfwf/df dGqfnon] dftxtsf sfof{nox¿df ;f]xL cg'?k ug{ u/fpg
kl/kq hf/L u¥of] . tyflk xfn;Dd klg sltko lgsfox¿n] k'/fg} cfwf/df g]kfndf kfOg] nf}7;Nnfsf]
?kdf 6\ofS;; jflnlrofgfnfO{ dfq} pNn]v ug]{ u/]sf 5g\ eg] afFsL b'O{ k|hfltx¿ 6\ofS;; sG6f]6f{
/ 6\ofS;; dfO/]O{ cem} klg cf]em]ndf g} k/]sf 5g\ . To;sf/0f nf}7;Nnfsf] klxrfgsf] ;Gbe{df
ef}uf]lns ljt/0f tyf cGo ljz]iftfnfO{ ;d]t cfwf/ agfO{ k|hflt olsg ubf{ ljBdfg cGof}n x6\g
uO{ o:fsf] Joj;foLs/0fdf d2t k'Ub5 .
- 15 _
$= nf}7;Nnf klxrfg ljlw
jg:kltsf ljleGg k|hfltx¿sf] klxrfg / hfgsf/Ln] :yfgLo ;d'bfonfO{ km/s k|hfltdf x'g ;Sg]
u'0fx¿ / ljz]iftfx¿sf af/]df 1fg x'g uO{ k|hfltsf] Jojl:yt pkof]u tyf lbuf] ;+/If0f ug{ ;xof]u
ldNb5 . h}ljs ljljwtfsf] clen]vLs/0fsf] qmddf k|fs[lts af;:yfgdf kfOg] jg:kltsf ljleGg
k|hfltx¿sf] klxrfg tL af]6lj?jfx¿sf k|fs[lts tyf ef}uf]lns ljt/0f, la?jfsf ljleGg efux¿sf]
cfsf/ k|sf/, km/s u'0fx¿ / k|d'v ljz]iftfx¿sf cfwf/df ul/g] k/Dk/fut k4lt /lxcfPsf] 5 .
jg:kltsf kft, kmn, k"mn, h/f tyf sf08df b]lvg] km/sx¿ cfd hgdfg;n] klg ;xh ?kdf
5'6\ofpg ;S5g\ . To;sf/0f log} ljljwtfsf cfwf/df ul/g] k|hfltsf] klxrfg ;+/If0f / lbuf]
;b'kof]usf b[li6n] cToGt Jojxfl/s dflgG5 . nf}7;Nnfsf k|hfltx¿sf] klxrfg klg k/Dk/fut
?kdf ul/b} cfPsf] k|0ffnLsf] cjnDagsf ;fy} ;doqmd ;+u} pknAw j}1flgs k|ljlw / kl/is[t
ljlwsf] cfwf/df ul/Psf] b]lvG5 . nf}7;Nnfsf cg';Gwfgstf{x¿n] cjnDag u/]sf ljlwx¿ / To;sf
glthfx¿ ljZj:fgLo tyf Jojxfl/s k|dfl0ft eO;s]sf 5g\, h'g b]xfo adf]lhd 5g\ .
$=! ef}uf]lns ljt/0fsf] cfwf/df
k|s[ltsf] ;fdfGo lgod cg'?k s'g} klg km/s k|hfltsf k|f0fL tyf jg:kltx¿sf] k|fs[lts af;:yfgdf
cf–cfk\mgf] kfl/l:yltsLo tyf j+zf0f'ut cGt/;DaGwx¿ x'g] ub{5 . sd prfO{df kfOg] jg:kltsf
kfl/l:yltsLo kl/j]z (Ecological Niche) / dWo tyf pRr lxdfnL e]udf kfOg] k|hfltsf] kfl/l:yltsLo
kl/j]z cToGt km/s x'g] ub{5 . log} sf/0fn] ubf{ hnjfo' kl/jt{gsf] c;/ h}ljs ljljwtfsf] lbuf]
;+/If0fdf 7"nf] r'gf}tLsf] ?kdf b]vfk/]sf] 5 . jg:klt zf:qLx¿n] k|hfltsf] klxrfg ubf{ To;
k|hfltsf] d'Vo af;:yfgsf ;fy} To;sf] kfl/l:yltsLo cGt/;DaGwx¿nfO{ ljz]if Wofg lbg] ub{5g\ .
lxdfnodf kfOg] nf}7;Nnfdf ul/Psf] cWoogdf klg km/s k|hfltx¿sf] k|i6 km/s kfl/l:yltsLo
kl/j]z, km/s af;:yfg / ef}uf]lns lj:tf/ /x]sf] tYo hfgsf/Ldf cfPsf] 527 . h; cg';f/ 6\ofS;;
sG6f]6f{ ckmuflg:tfgb]lv pQ/L kfls:tfg, pQ/ klZrd ef/t, klZrd g]kfnsf] bfr{'nf x'Fb} /;'jf;Fu}
hf]l8Psf] rLgsf] hLnf]Ë pkTosf;Dd k}mlnP/ /x]sf] / ljz]if u/]/ lxdfnosf] pQ/kl§ kms{]sf] kfvfdf
o;sf] kfl/l:yltsLo ljlzi6tfo'Qm af;:yfg ljBdfg 5 . bf];|f] k|hflt 6\ofS;; jflnlrofgf afUn
lhNnfsf] blIf0fL e]uaf6 k"jL{ g]kfn, pQ/ k"jL{ ef/t, blIf0f ltAat, Dofgdf/sf] pQ/ efu xF'b} rLgsf]
o'gfg k|fGtsf] klZrd efu;Dd 5l/P/ /x]sf] 5 . ;fy} of] k|hflt lxdfnosf] k"j{kl§ kms{]sf] kfvfdf
t'ngfTds ?kdf km:6fPsf] b]lvG5 . g]kfnsf] klZrddf 6\ofS;; sG6f]6f{ / k"j{df 6\ofS;; jflnlrofgfsf]
cf–cfˆgf] 5'§} af;:yfg /x]tf klg dWo g]kfnsf] u08sL If]qdf cGgk"0f{ lxdfn >[+vnfn] ubf{ 6\ofS;;
sG6f]6f{ kf/L / 6\ofS;; jflnlrofgf jf/L /x]sf 5g\ . oL b'j} k|hflt @))) b]lv #%)) ld6/;Ddsf
pRr lxdfnL efudf kfOG5g\ . t];|f] k|hflt 6\ofS;; dfO/]O{ dWo g]kfnsf] l;ldt e"–efu dxfef/t
>[ª\vnfdf 5l/P/ /x]sf] 5 . k|fs[lts cj:yfdf st} klg oL tLg hftsf nf}7;Nnfsf k|hfltx¿ ;Fu}
x's{]sf] kfOPsf] 5}g\ .
- 16 _
$=@ afXo ;+/rgfsf] cfwf/df
afXo ;+/rgfsf] cfwf/df k|hfltsf] klxrfg ubf{ jg:klt k|hfltsf] ?k/]vf -?v, emf8Lbf/, nx/f,
emf/ju{_ k"mn, kmn -k|hgg\ c+u_, kft, h/f, af]qmf, xfFufljFuf / cGo efusf] agfj6 tyf u'0fdf /x]sf
leGgtfnfO{ ljz]if dxTj lbOG5 . nf}7;Nnf klxrfgdf klg dfly pNn]lvt dfkb08nfO{ Gf} k|d'v ?kdf
cËLsf/ ul/Psf] 5 .
xfn;Dd s'g} klg k|hfltsf] aflx/L efusf] cfsf/ k|sf/sf] cfwf/df ul/g] klxrfg k|d'v /x]tf klg
slxn]sfxL+ pko'Qm dfkb08 cg';f/ afXo ;+/rgfsf] cWoog x'g g;Sbf sltko k|hfltx¿sf] ;xL
klxrfg x'g g;s]sf pbfx/0fx¿ klg /x]sf]n] pko'Qm dkmf]{nf]lhsn ljz]iftfx¿sf] klxrfg lgSof}{n
ubf{ ljz]if Wofg k'¥ofpg' cfjZos 5 . o;} ;Gbe{df nf}7;Nnfsf k|hflt klxrfg ubf{ a9LeGbf a9L
af]6sf c+usf dkmf]{nf]lhsn ljz]iftfx¿ -xfFufdf kft knfpg] tl/sf, xfFufdf x'g] :s]N;sf] ;+Vof,
kftsf] cfsf/ k|sf/, kftdf x'g] g;fsf] lsl;d cflb_ nfO{ cfFs8fx¿sf] ?kdf ;+sng u/L ltgsf]
tYofÍL ljZn]if0f (Statistical Analysis) u/]/ tYout ?kdf g]kfn nufotsf] lxdfno If]qdf tLg
k|hfltsf nf}7;Nnf /x]sf] k|dfl0ft ul/Psf] 527 . h; cg';f/ ljutsf] dfGotf ljk/Lt lxdfno If]qdf
/x]sf nf}7;Nnfx¿ kft / xfFufdf b]lvg] k|d'v u'0fsf cfwf/df ;lhn} 5'6\ofpg ;lsG5 . 6\ofS;;
sG6f]6f{sf kftx¿ l;wf cfsf/sf / 8fF7af6 5l/P/ kNffPsf x'G5g\ . 6\ofS;; dfO/]O{df kftx¿
kftnf / km/flsnf] cfsf/sf x'gfsf ;fy} kftsf] tNnf] ;txsf] k|d'v gzf / kftsf lsgf/fx¿ lrNnf]
x'g] ub{5g\ . o;}u/L 6\ofS;; jflnlrofgfdf kftx¿ xl;of cfsf/sf / 8fF7af6 b'j}lt/ ;dfg ?kdf
cfPsf x'G5g\ . 6\ofS;; dfO/]O{ / 6\ofS;; jflnlrofgfdf kftsf cfsf/ em§ x]bf{ p:t} b]lvP klg
xfFufdf b]lvg] sTnfx¿ 6\ofS;; jflnlrofgfdf w]/} / e'mKk k/]sf x'G5g\ eg] 6\ofS;; dfO/]O{df
t'ngfTds ?kdf sd b]lVfG5g\ jf k|i6 ?kdf b]lv+b}gg\ .
$=# cfGtl/s ;+/rgfsf] cfwf/df
afXo ;+/rgfsf] cfwf/df klxrfg olsg x'g g;s]sf k|hfltx¿sf] cfGtl/s ;+/rgfsf] agfj6
(Xylem, Phloem, Parenchyma, Stomata) df ePsf] cfsf/, ;+Vof / gfkdf leGgtf ePsf] cfwf/df klg
klxrfg ug]{ ul/G5 . nf}7;Nnfsf] xsdf kftsf] tNnf] efudf b]lvg] /Gw| (Stomatal Band) x¿sf] ;+Vof
tLg} k|hfltdf km/s kfOPsf] 5 .
$=$ l8=Pg=P= af/sf]l8ªsf] cfwf/df
of] k|0ffnL Ps csf{ k|hflt aLr /x]sf] leGgtf / u'0fsf] ;xL klxrfg ug]{ gjLgtd / cfw'lgs h}ljs
k|ljlw xf] . of] k|ljlwsf] k|of]un] k|hflt aLr cfg'jf+lzs leGgtfnfO{ klxrfg ub{5 .
k|s[ltsf] lgod cg';f/ x/]s k|f0fL jf jg:kltx¿sf] ljsf; qmddf cfg'j+lzs, ef}uf]lns tyf
jftfj/0fLo ptf/r9fjx¿sf] cxd\ e"ldsf /xg] ub{5 . Ps} 7fpFdf /x]sf ljlEfGg jg:kltsf hftx¿n]
To:tf lsl;dsf c;/x¿ k|lt km/s tl/sfn] ;xg / k|lt/f]w ug{] Ifdtf /fVb5g\ . To;sf/0f km/s
/ Ps} hftsf klg ljleGg k|hfltx¿df cfj/0fLo / kof{j/0fLo leGgtfx¿ kfpg ;lsG5 . o:tf
- 17 _
k|sf/sf ljz]iftf / ljljwtfx¿nfO{ ;+/rgfut nrstf (Phenotypic Plasticity) elgG5 . o;sf/0fn]
ljleGg :yfgaf6 ;+sng ul/Psf jg:kltsf gd"gfx¿ klg km/s gfdn] gfdfs/0f x'Gf ;Sg] ;Defjgf
/xG5 . t/ k|To]s k|hfltsf] cfg'j+lzs ljljwtfsf] cWoog klg ul/g] xf] eg] k|hfltdf /x]sf] jf:tljs
leGgtf / xfjfkfgL jf kof{j/0fLo leGgtfx¿sf sf/0f jg:kltsf efusf] cfsf/k|sf/, ;+Vof /
:j?kdf b]lvg] leGgtfnfO{ 5'6\ofpg d2t k'Ub527,29,30 .
jg:klt tyf k|f0fLsf k|hfltsf] klxrfg cfg'jf+lzs ljlwaf6 ug{] sfo{sf] z'?jft ePsf] b'O{ bzseGbf
a9L eO;s]sf] 5 . hLjsf] l8=Pg=P=df /xg] ljljwtfnfO{ k|hfltsf] klxrfgdf k|of]u ug{] ljlwsf]
ljsf; clxn] b'|t ultdf eO/x]sf] 5 / o; ljlwaf6 ljutdf k|hflt klxrfgdf cToGt} sl7g b]lvPsf
;d:ofx¿sf] ;xh};+u lg/fs/0f eO;s]sf] 5 . k|hflt aLr l8=Pg=P= l;Sj]G;df b]lvg] ljljwtfnfO{
k|of]u ul/g] o; ljlwnfO{ l8=Pg=P=af/sf]l8ª eGg] ul/G5 . k|hfltsf] klxrfgdf l8=Pg=P= l;Sj]G;sf]
k|of]u ljleGg j}1flgsx¿n] u/]sf] ePtf klg o; ljlwsf] j}1flgs Joj:yfkg tyf ljsf;sf] >]o eg]
Sofgf8fsf k|f0fLlj1 kfpn x]a6{nfO{ hfG5 . o; ljlwsf] ljsf;n] k/Dk/fut ljlwnfO{ k"0f{ ?kdf
lj:yfkg u/]sf] geP/ k/Dk/fut ljlwsf] ;'wf/sf ;fy} o;sf] ;xh pkof]lutf tyf ljZj;gLotf
a9fpg cToGt} 7"nf] e"ldsf v]n]sf] b]lvG5 . cfw'lgs ;dodf df]lns'n/ afof]nf]hL / h]g]l6S;
-cfg'jf+lzs lj1fg_ df eO/x]sf] b|'t ljsf;n] l8=Pg=P= af/sf]l8ªsf] nf]slk|otf / dxTj XjfQ} a9]/
uPsf] 5 . of] k|ljlwsf] k|of]un] xfn;Dd ljleGg jg:klt tyf k|f0fLx¿df b]lvPsf k|hflt klxrfgsf
sl7gfO{ / låljwfnfO{ ;dfwfg ul//x]sf] 5 . o;} ;Gbe{Dff g]kfn nufot lxdfnosf nf}7;Nnfdf klg
oxL ljlwsf] k|of]u u/L o; If]qdf k|i6 ?kdf nf}7;Nnfsf tLg k|hfltx¿ 6\ofS;; sG6f]6f{, 6\ofS;;
dfO/]O{ / 6\ofS;; jflnlrofgf /x]sf] tYo k|dfl0ft eO;s]sf] 5
. g]kfnsf ljleGg lhNnfx¿af6
nf}7;Nnfsf xj{]l/od ;lxt kftsf gd"gfx¿ ;+sng u/L l8=Pg=P= af/sf]l8ª ubf{ ;+slnt k|hfltsf
DNA trnL-F gene df k|:6 ?kdf lrq g+= ! df b]vfP adf]lhdsf] km/s kfOG527,29,30 .
cfg'jf+lzs cWoogsf nflu nf}7;Nnfsf] gd"gf ;+sng ul/+b}
- 18 _
lrq g+= !M g]kfnsf ljleGg lhNnfx?af6 ;+slnt nf}7;Nnfsf k|hfltx¿sf] af/sf]l8ªdf leGgtf
- 19 _
%= nf}7;Nnf k|hfltx¿sf] ef}uf]lns ljt/0f
%=! cGt/f{li6«o kl/j]z
ljZje/sf nf}7;Nnfsf k|hfltx¿ d'Votof pQ/L uf]nf4{df dfq 5l/P/ /x]sf kfOG5g\ . ljBdfg gofF
k|ljlw / kl/dflh{t cg';Gwfg ljlwx¿sf] cjNfDag u/L xfn;Dd ljZje/sf nf}7;Nnfsf k|hfltx¿sf]
;+Vof !# lgwf{/0f ul/Psf] kfOG5 . h;df pQ/L / blIf0f cd]l/sfdf $ j6f, o"/f]kdf ! j6f / Pl;ofdf
;a}eGbf a9L * j6f k|hfltx¿ /x]sf] b]lvG58,10,22 . xfn lgwf{/0f ul/Psf nf}7;Nnfsf k|hfltx¿sf]
ef}uf]lns ljt/0f lrq g++= @ sf] ljZj dfglrqdf b]vfOPsf] 5 .
k|mfG;sf] gd{]G8Ll:yt s/La !^)) jif{ k'/fgf] nf}7;Nnf -6\ofS;; asf6f_ sf] ?v
(By Emgaol - Own work, CC BY-SA 3.0,
accessed on 2017/04/08)
- 20 _
lrq g+= @M nf}7;Nnfsf ljleGg k|hfltx¿sf] ef}uf]lns ljt/0f
- 21 _
%=@ Pl;of / lxGb's'z lxdfno
nf}7;Nnfsf k|hfltsf] ljt/0f ;+Vofsf] cfwf/df Pl;of dxfb]z cufl8 cfpFb5 . ljz]if u/]/ rLgsf]
x]ªb'jfË kj{t / l;r'jfg pkTosf j/k/ nf}7;Nnfsf ljleGg k|hfltx¿ 5l/P/ /x]sf 5g\ . h}ljs
ljljwtfsf] b[li6n] klg of] If]q u'/fF;, afF; / rfFk h:tf jg:kltx¿ / cGo w]/} jg:klt k|hfltx¿sf]
ljsf;sf] pb\ud If]qsf] (Centre of Origin) ?kdf dflg+b} cfPsf] 5 . Pl;of tyf lxGb's'z lxdfnodf
kfOg] nf}7;Nnfsf] ef}uf]lns ljt/0f lrq g+= # df b]vfOPsf] 5 .
g]kfnsf] lxdfnL If]q n'Snfaf6 b]lvg] b[Zo / 6\ofS;; jflnlrofgfsf ´'ln/x]sf xfFuf
- 22 _
lrq g+= #M Pl;ofdf kfOg] nf}7;Nnfsf ljleGg k|hfltx¿sf] ef}uf]lns ljt/0f
- 23 _
%=# g]kfndf kfOg] k|hfltx?
xfn;Dd ul/Psf] cWoog cg';Gwfgn] g]kfndf # k|hfltsf nf}7;Nnf -6\ofS;; sG6f]6f{, 6\ofS;;
dfO/]O{, 6\ofS;; jflnlrofgf_ kfOg] tYo k'li6 eO;s]sf] 5
27,30,32,34 . lxdfnodf 5l/P/ /x]sf tLg}}
k|hfltsf nf}7;Nnfx¿sf] km/s af;:yfg / ljlzi6 ef}uf]lns lj:tf/ /x]sf] b]Vg ;lsG5 . h; cg';f/
6\ofS;; sG6f]6f{ g]kfnsf] klZrdL e"–efu bfr{'nfb]lv dWo g]kfnsf] uf]/vf;Dd ljz]if u/]/ lxdfnosf]
pQ/kl§ kmls{Psf] kfvfdf kfOG5 . bf];|f] k|hflt 6\ofS;; jflnlrofgf afUn'Ë lhNnfsf] blIf0fL e]uaf6
k"jL{ g]kfnsf] tfKn]h'ª lhNnf;Dd g} lxdfnosf] k"j{kl§ kms{]sf] kfvfdf kfOg] u/]sf] 5 . oL b'O{ j6f
k|hfltsf] 5'§f5'§} ef}uf]lns lj:tf/ b]lvPtf klg dWo If]qsf] lxdfnkf/Lsf lhNnfx¿ d':tfª, dgfª /
pQ/L uf]/vfdf 6\ofS;; sG6f]6f{ / To;s} jf/L kl§ 6\ofS;; jflnlrofgfn] cf–cfˆgf] cl:tTj
b]vfPsf 5g\ . o;dWo] Pp6} lhNnf uf]/vfleq klg pQ/L / blIf0fL If]qdf qmdzM 6\ofS;; sG6f]6f{ /
6\ofS;; jflnlrofgf cjl:yt /x]sf 5g\ . t];|f] k|hflt 6\ofS;; dfO/]O{ eg] g]kfndf l;Gw'nL,
sfe|]knfGrf]s / dsjfgk'/sf] dxfef/t >[ª\vnf jl/kl/ k}mlnPsf] kfOPsf] 5 . cGo b'O{ k|hflteGbf
sd prfO{, !^%) b]lv @#)) ld6/df e]l6g] dfO/]O{ k|hflt dfgj a:tLx¿sf] aLrdf /x]sf ;+/lIft
h+un / af/L sfGnfx¿df klg obfsbf e]l6G5 . sfe|]knf~rf]s lhNnfsf s]xL h+unL kfvfx¿sf tNnf]
prfO{df 6\ofS;; dfO/]O{ / To;s} dflyNnf] e]udf 6\ofS;; jflnlrofgf /x]sf] klg b]Vg ;lsG5 .
/fli6«o xj{]l/od tyf jg:klt k|of]uzfnf uf]bfj/L / g]kfn lj1fg tyf k|ljlw k|1f k|lti7fg v'dn6f/sf]
;+o'Qm cWoog 6f]nLn] @)&# df3df dsjfgk'/ / sfe|]knf~rf]ssf ljleGg k|fs[lts h+unaf6 6\ofS;;
dfO/]O{ / 6\ofS;; jflnlrofgfsf ;–;fgf h+unLv08x¿sf] lj:t[t ?kdf clen]vLs/0f u/]sf] lyof] .
xfn;Dd ul/Psf cWoogsf cfwf/df Gf]kfndf kfOg] tLg} k|hfltsf nf}7;Nnfx¿sf] ef}uf]lns ljt/0f
lrq g+= $ df b]vfOPsf] 5 .
d':tfªdf nf}7;Nnfsf] k|fs[ lts af;:yfg
- 24 _
lrq g+= $M g]kfnsf] ljleGg efudf kfOg] nf}7;Nnfsf k|hfltx¿sf] ef}uf]lns ljt/0f
- 25 _
%=$ g]kfnsf nf}7;Nnfsf] ef}uf]lns cGt/;DaGw
g]kfndf kfOg] cGo jg:kltx¿ h:t} oxfF /x]sf nf}7;Nnfsf tLg k|hfltx¿ xfn Ps} If]qdf 5l/P/
/x]sf] b]lvPtf klg jf:tjdf oL k|hfltx¿n] km/s e"uf]nsf] k|ltlglwTj u/]sf] kfOG5 . k"jL{ lxdfnosf]
x]Ëb'jfª pRr kxf8L If]qdf pb\ud s]Gb| ePsf] 6\ofS;; jflnlrofgf lxdfno p7\g] qmddf pko'Qm
xfjfkfgL / pj{/ af;:yfgsf] pknAwtfsf sf/0f xhf/f}+ jif{sf] ;dofjlwdf k"j{af6 g]kfnsf] dWo
lxdfnL efutk{m k|fs[lts ?kdf k|;f/0f ePsf] b]lvG5 . rLgsf] blIf0f k"jL{ If]qdf k|r'/ dfqfdf kfOg]
dfO/]O{ k|hfltsf] nf}7;Nnf blIf0fL leotgfd, OG8f]g]l;of, dn]l;of, Dofgdf/, d]3fno h:tf If]qsf
sd prfO{ ePsf kxf8L efuaf6 qmdzM klZrdtk{m, lxdfnosf] blIf0fdf /x]sf] dxfef/t kj{tdf
k}mlnPsf] kfOG5 . klZrdL lxdfnosf] /}yfg] 6\ofS;; sG6f]6f{ eg] k"jL{ ckmuflg:tfgb]lv dWo g]kfnsf]
pRr lxdfnL If]q;Dd k}mlnPsf] 5 . of] k|hflt klZrd lxdfnsf] sxfFaf6 stftk{m lj:tf/ ePsf] xf]
eGfL olsg ug{ ce}m lj:t[t cg';Gwfg x'g h?/L 5 . k"j{tk{maf6 g]kfndf k}mlnPsf k|Hffltx¿
6\ofS;; dfO/]O{ / 6\ofS;; jflnlrofgfsf] afXo / cfGtl/s ;+/rgfx¿ rLgdf /x]sf cGo k|hfltx¿;Fu
d]n vfPsf] kfOG5 eg] klZrd lxdfnsf] k|hflt 6\ofS;; sG6f]6f{ o'/f]kdf /x]sf] 6\ofS;; afs6f;Fu
s]xL xb;Dd glhs ePsf] ljleGg cg';Gwfgx¿n] b]vfPsf 5g\22,39,40,41 .
g]kfndf k}mlnPsf tLg} k|hfltx¿sf] ef}uf]lns lj:tf/df o; If]qdf /x]sf] ef}uf]lns ;+/rgf / o;}
cg'?k pknAw kfl/l:yltsLo cj:yfn] cxd\ e"ldsf v]n]sf] k|:6;Fu a'‰g ;lsG5 . e"–kl/lw :t/af6
;'Id cWoog ug{] xf] eg] dWo g]kfnsf] pQ/df 5l/Psf 6\ofS;; sG6f]6f{ / 6\ofS;; jfnLlrofgfnfO{
wjnflu/L–cGgk"0f{–dgf:n' lxd>[vnfn] qmdzM pQ/ / blIf0fdf 5'§fO{ b'O{ jg:klt Ps} 7fpFdf ;Fu}
x's{]/ k|hgg\ ug{ ;Sg] kl/l:yltdf cj/f]w (phytogeographic barrier) k'¥ofPsf] b]lvG5 . o;}u/L dWo /
k"jL{ g]kfndf 6\ofS;; jflnlrofgf / 6\ofS;; dfO/]O{nfO{ klg ;'gsf]zL / tdf]/ gbLx¿n] pQ/ /
blIf0ftk{m k|fs[lts ?kdf 5'§fO{ dfO/]O{nfO{ dxfef/t >[+vnfdf / jflnlrofgfnfO{ pQ/ tk{msf] pRr
kxf8L tyf lxdfnL e]udf k}mng] cj:yf l;h{gf u/]sf] b]lvG5 . g]kfndf /x]sf nf}7;Nnfsf tLg
k|hfltx¿sf] k|fs[lts ljt/0fdf b]lvg] csf{] cToGt} /f]rs kIf eg]s} s]xL e]udf b'O{ k|hfltx¿ km/s
prfOdf e]l6g' xf] . sfe|]knf~rf]s lhNnfdf dfly jflnlrofgf / tn dfO/]O{ / uf]/vfdf pkNnf] e]udf
sG6f]6f{ / tNnf] e]udf jflnlrofgf kfOG5g\ . nf}7;Nnfsf k|hfltx¿ aLr ;xh ?kdf k|hgg\ x'g]
ePsfn] g]kfndf klg k|fs[lts ?kdf ljsl;t l7dfxfx¿ dWojtL{ If]q (introgression zone) df b]vfkg{]
;Defjgf k|an /x]sf] 525,27,30 .
%=% g]kfndf kfOg] tLg k|hflt aLr b]lvg] leGgtf
6\ofS;; sG6f]6f{ k|hfltsf kftx¿ l;wf / ;fFu'/f] cfsf/sf, 8fF7af6 5l/P/ cyjf 3'd]/ kNffpF5g\ .
6\ofS;; dfO/]O{ k|hfltsf kft r]K6f k/]sf / uf9f xl/of] /Ësf xFl;ofsf/ tyf kftsf] tn kl§sf]
d"n gzf (Midrib) / b'O{ lsgf/ (leaf margin) lrNnf] x'G5g\ / o;sf] xfFuf 5'l§g] 7fpFaf6 lg:sg]
sTnfx¿ k|i6 x'Fb}gg\ .
- 26 _
6\ofS;; jflnlrofgf k|hfltsf xfFufdf kftx¿ b'j}kl§ ;dfg ?kdf ldn]sf x'G5g\ / kftx¿
xFl;of h:t} jf /f]dg cIf/sf] ‘S’ cfsf/sf x'g] ub{5g\ . o;sf] xfFuf 5'l§g] 7fpFaf6 lg:sg]
sTnfx¿ k|i6 b]lvG5g\ .
6\ofS;; sG6f]6f{sf 8fF7df rf/}lt/af6 5l/P/ /x]sf kftx? 6\ofS;; dfO/]O{sf d"n gzf / lsgf/f lrNnf] b]lvPsf kftx?
6\ofS;; dfO/]O{sf 8fF7 knfpg] 7fpFdf :ki6 gePsf sTnfx?
6\ofS;; jflnlrofgfsf 8fF7 knfpg] 7fpFdf :ki6;Fu b]lvPsf sTnfx?
- 27 _
%=%=! j}1flgs gfd M Taxus contorta Griff. -6\ofS;'; sG6f]6f{_
kof{ojfrL gfd:Taxus fuana Nan Li & R.R. Mill
c+u|]hL gfd M Western Himalayan Yew -klZrdL lxdfno nf}7;Nnf]_
:yfgLo gfd M n'Ot, n'O7, h]Da/l;Ë, ;fËfl;Ë, 6f]Ëfl;Ë, 9]Ë], nf}7;Nnf, sfF8]nf]6L, l;ËL,
tfln;kq, ‰ofDa/l;ª
6\ofS;; sG6f]6f{ demf}nf sb ePsf] ;bfaxf/ ?v k|hflt xf] . g]kfndf o;sf @% b]lv #) ld6/;Dd
cUnf ?vx¿ e]§fOPsf 5g\ . o;sf xfFufljª\uf d'Vo sf08sf] jl/kl/ 5l/P/ e'mln/x]sf x'G5g\ /
kftx¿ l;wf / ;fF3'/f] cfsf/sf 8fF7af6 5l/P/ knfpF5g\ . kftx¿ km]bb]lv 6'Kkf];Dd ;dfg rf}8fO{
ePsf x'G5g\ . kftdf b]lvg] /Gw| (Stomatal band) sf] ;+Vof k|foh;f] ^ b]lv ( /x]sf] x'G527 . of]
k|hfltsf] efn] / kf]yL la?jf cnu cnu x'g] x'Fbf efn] ?vdf k'mNg] k"mnx¿ ;fgf] / dl;gf] cfsf/df
£o' /Ësf x'G5g\ eg] kf]yL ?vdf k'mNg] k"mn 8Nnf] cfs[ltdf xl/of /Ësf x'G5g\ . kf]yL k"mndf
k/fu;]rg kZrft\ ljsl;t x'g] ;fgf] u]8f h:tf] kmn k"0f{ ljsl;t ePkl5 /ftf] /Ësf] sk cfsf/sf]
Pl/nn] cfwfeGbf a9L efu 9flsPsf] cj:yfdf x'G5 .
ef}uf]lns lj:tf/
lxdfno If]qM k"jL{ ckmuflg:tfg, pQ/L kfls:tfg, pQ/–klZrd ef/t, klZrdb]lv dWo g]kfn /
ltAatsf] lhnf]Ë pkTosf ;Dd .
g]kfnM bfr'{nf, a}t8L, aemfË, 8f]6L, c5fd, afh'/f, x'Dnf, d'u', h'Dnf, sfnLsf]6, hfh/sf]6,
;Nofg, ?s'd, /f]Nkf, 8f]Nkf, afUn'Ë -pQ/ klZrdL e]u_, d':tfË, dgfË / uf]vf{ -pQ/L
e]u_ .
k|fs[lts af;:yfg
@))) b]lv #%)) ld6/sf] prfO ;Ddsf h+unx¿df kfOg] tfln;kq, lkm/lkm/], ;Nnf], u'/fF;, v;|' /
lyª\u|];Nnfx¿;+u} ldl;P/ /x]sf] x'G5 . of] k|hflt ljz]if u/]/ pQ/L df]xf8fdf /fd|f];Fu x's{]sf] kfOG5 .
k"mn nfUg] ;doM kmfu'g—j}zfv
kmn nfUg] ;doM >fj0f—d+l;/
g]kfndf ;+/If0f l:yltM g]kfnsf /fli6«o lgs'~h / ;+/If0f If]qx¿ -clk–gfDkf, vKt8, /f/f, 9f]/kf6g_
df of] k|hflt s]xL ;Gtf]ifhgs ;+Vofdf /x] klg ;+/If0f If]q aflx/ kmf6\k'm6\ kfOG5 . kfl/l:yltsLo
k|0ffnLdf cfPsf] kl/jt{gsf ;fy;fy} sf7 / kftsf nflu x'g] s6fgL, cj}1flgs ;+sng, k|fs[lts
af;:yfgsf] ljgfz, cJojl:yt r/Lr/g / o;sf] aLpsf] sd c+s'/0f Ifdtfsf sf/0f o:fsf] ;+Vof
36\bf] 5 .
ljZj ;+/If0f ;+3sf] vt/fsf] ;"rL (IUCN Red List Categories)
ljZj kl/j]z ;+s6fkGg (Endangered, EN A2acd)
g]kfn ;+s6fkGg (Endangered, EN A2acd)27
- 28 _
6\ofS;; sG6f]6f{sf] kmn -l;D6f_ ;lxtsf] xfFuf
dgfªsf] ;'sL{df kfOPsf] 6\ofS;; sG6f]6f{sf] ljzfn ?v, @,&#) ld= -lj=;+= @)&# j}zfv &_
d'Vo sf08af6 km}lnPsf 6\ofS;; sG6f]6f{sf xfFufx?, dgfª,
lj=;+= @)&@÷)^÷!(
© 8f= ;'/]z s'df/ l3ld/]
- 29 _
/fli6«o xj{]l/od tyf jg:klt k|of]uzfnfdf l8lh6fOh];g u/]/ /flvPsf] 6\ofS;; sG6f]6f{sf] xj{]l/od gd"gf
- 30 _
%=%=@ j}1flgs gfd M Taxus mairei (Lemée & H. Léveillé) S.Y. Hu ex T.S. Liu -6\ofS;'; dfO/]O{_
kof{ojfrL gfd:Tsuga mairei Lemée & H. Léveillé; Taxus chinensis (Pilger) Rehder var. mairei
(Lemée & H. Léveillé) W.C. Cheng & L.K. Fu; Taxus wallichiana var. mairei
(Lemée & H.Léveillé) L.K. Fu & Nan Li
c+u|]hL gfd M South China Yew or Mairei Yew -dfO/]O{ nf}7;NNff]_
:yfgLo gfd M 9]Ë], nf}7;Nnf, ad{];Nnf, kft];Nnf, tfln;kq, dl5Gb|kftL, l;ËL
;bfaxf/ ?v 6\ofS;; dfO/]O{ s/Lj %–@% ld6/;Dd cUnf] x'G5 . g]kfndf kfOg] cGo k|hfltsf
nf}7;Nnf eGbf o:sf kft s]xL a9L rf}8f, kftnf / uf9f xl/of] /Ësf xFl;ofsf/ x'G5g\ . dl;gf
xfFufsf sTnfx¿ 6\ofS;; jflnlrofgfeGbf w]/} sd cyjf c:ki6 x'G5g\ . o;sf xfFuflaËf d'Vo
sf08sf] jl/kl/ em'ln/x]sf x'G5g\ . kftsf] k5fl8 kl§sf] d'Vo gzf / kftsf lsgf/sf efux¿ lrNnf
x'G5g\ . kftdf b]lvg] /Gw|sf] ;+Vof k|foh;f] !! b]lv !^ /x]sf] x'G527 . o:fsf] kmn xl/of] / kfs]kl5
/ftf] /Ësf] r]K6f], uf]nfsf/ cfs[ltsf] x'G5 . kmnnfO{ /ftf] /Ësf] sk cfsf/sf] Pl/nn] 9fs]sf] x'G5 .
ef}uf]lns lj:tf/
lxdfno If]qM blIf0f–k"jL{ rLg, blIf0f leotgfd, OG8f]g]lzof, ;'dfqf, blIf0f Dofgdf/, ef/tsf] d]3fno
k|fGt / g]kfn .
g]kfnM l;Gw'nL, sfe]|knf~rf]s / dsjfgk'/ .
k|fs[lts af;:yfg
dxfef/t If]qsf] ;fd'bflos jgx¿df ;NNff], plQ;, v;|', nfnLu'/fF;, lrnfpg], s6';, sfkmn, c+u]/L;+u
ldl;P/ x'ls{/fv]sf] x'G5 .
k"mn nfUg] ;doM kmfu'g–h]i7
kmn nfUg] ;doM c;f]h–d+l;/
g]kfndf ;+/If0f l:ylt
xfn;Dd dWo g]kfnsf] dsjfgk'/, sfe|]knf~rf]s / l;Gw'nL lhNnfsf ljleGg ;fd'bflos jgx¿ tyf
lghL jgx¿df kfOPsf] 5 . cGo b'O{ k|hfltx¿eGbf sd prfOdf kfOg] o; k|hfltsf] k|fs[lts
af;:yfg s[lif e"ld / afSnf] dfgj a:tL / o;af6 x'g] lqmofsnfkx¿ h:t} jg km8fgL, 89]nf]sf
sf/0fn] cltqmd0f ePsf] / cj}1flgs ;+sngaf6 o;sf] hg;f+lVos cfsf/df x|f; cfO{ k|fs[lts
df}h'bf kl/df0f 36\bf] 5 .
ljZj ;+/If0f ;+3sf] vt/fsf] ;"rL (IUCN Red List Categories)
ljZj kl/j]z ;+j]bgzLn (Vulnerable, A2d)
g]kfn clt ;+s6fkGg (Critically Endangered, CR A2acd, B1ab (iii))27
- 31 _
6\ofS;; dfO/]O{sf] ?v, r'nLk|fg ;fd'bflos jg l6:6'ª, dsjfgk'/
- 32 _
/fli6«o xj{]l/od tyf jg:klt k|of]uzfnfdf l8lh6fOh];g u/]/ /flvPsf] 6\ofS;; dfO/]O{sf] xj{]l/od gd"gf
- 33 _
%=%=# j}1flgs gfd M Taxus wallichiana Zucc. -6\ofS;'; jflnlrofgf_
kof{ojfrL gfdM Taxus baccata L. subsp. wallichiana (Zucc.) Pilger; Taxus contorta var. mucronata
Spjut; Taxus wallichiana var. yunnanensis (W.C. Cheng & L.K. Fu) C.T. Kuan;
Taxus yunnanensis W.C.
c+u|]hL gfd M Eastern Himalayan Yew -k"jL{ lxdfno nf}7;Nnf]_
:yfgLo gfd M l;lnËL, l;nl6Ë, ;fËf l;Ë, 6f]Ëf l;Ë, 9]Ë], nf}7;Nnf, ;flng, n:jfFg,
lyªu|], tfln; kq, ad{] ;Nnf .
;bfaxf/ k|hflt 6\ofS;; jflnlrofgfsf g]kfndf #) ld6/;Dd cUnf ?vx¿ e]§fOPsf 5g\ . cGo
k|hflt h:t} o;sf klg xfFufljªuf e'mn]sf x'G5g\ . dl;gf] xfFufsf :s]nx¿ g]kfndf kfOg] cGo k|hflt
eGbf 7"nf] cfsf/sf x'G5g\ / 8fF7 /ftf]–v}/f] /Ësf] x'G5 . kftdf /Gw|sf] ;+/rgf k|foh;f] !# b]lv !&
sf] ;+Vofdf /x]sf] x'G5g\27 . xfFufdf kftx¿ b'j} kl§ ;dfg ?kdf ldn]sf x'G5g\ / kftx¿ xl;of h:t}
jf c+u|]hLsf] æSÆ cfsf/sf x'g] ub{5g\ . efn] k"mnx¿ ;fgf / £o" /Ësf x'G5g\, kf]yL ?vdf kmNg] kmn
sfFRff]df xl/of] / kfs]kl5 /ftf] x'G5 . kmnsf] aflx/L cfj/0fnfO{ g/d /ftf]] /Ësf] sk cfsf/sf] Pl/nn]
cfwf eGbf a9L 9fs]sf] x'G5 .
ef}uf]lns lj:tf/
lxdfno If]q M rLgsf] pQ/–klZrd o'gfg / blIf0f–klZrd ltAat, pQ/L Dofgdf/, pQ/–k"jL{ ef/t,
e'6fg, g]kfn .
g]kfn M uf]/vf -tNnf] e]u_, wflbË, ndh'Ë, sf:sL, kj{t, DofUbL / afUn'Ë -k"jL{ e]u_, sf7df8f},
g'jfsf]6, /;'jf, sfe|]knf~rf]s, l;Gw'kfNrf]s, bf]nvf, ;f]n'v'Da', /fd]5fk, ef]hk'/, wgs'6f,
;+v'jf;ef, vf]6fË, cf]vn9'Ëf, Onfd, kfFry/, t]x|y'd / tfKn]h'Ë .
k|fs[lts af;:yfg
;d'b|L ;txaf6 @@)) b]lv #%)) ld6/sf] prfOdf tfln;kq, lkm/lkm/], ;Nnf], u'/fF;, v;|', lyª\u|];Nnf
/ afF; ePsf], pQ/–k"jL{ / blIf0fL df]x8f ePsf] h+undf /fd|f];+u x'ls{/x]sf] kfOG5 .
k"mn k"mNg] ;doM kmfu'g—r}q
kmn nfUg] ;doM efb|—sflt{s
g]kfndf ;+/If0f l:yltM of] k|hflt g]kfnsf ;+/lIft If]qx¿ -sGrgh+3f, dsfn'–j?0f, tLgh'/] ldNs],
;u/dfyf, lzjk'/L–gfufh'{g, dgf:n' / cGgk"0f{ ;+/If0f If]q_ sf cltl/Qm ;fd'bflos Pj+ /fli6«o
jgx¿df ;d]t kfOG5 .
ljZj ;+/If0f ;+3sf] vt/fsf] ;"rL (IUCN Red List Categories)
ljZj kl/j]z ;+s6fkGg (Endangered)
g]kfn ;+s6fkGg (Endangered, EN A2acd)27
- 34 _
sfe|]knf~rf]ssf] u}/LeGHofª If]qdf 6\ofS;;
jflnlrofgfsf] gfkhfFr ul/+b} -lj=;+= @)&#÷!)÷@%_ v}/f] /ftf] /+usf] sf08
6\ofS;; jflnlrofgfsf xfFufx? 6\ofS;; jflnlrofgfsf] kfs]sf] kmn
- 35 _
/fli6«o xj{]l/od tyf jg:klt k|of]uzfnfdf l8lh6fOh];g u/]/ /flvPsf] 6\ofS;; jflnlrofgfsf] xj{]l/od gd"gf
- 36 _
^= nf}7;Nnfsf] pkof]u
^=! sfi7 Pj+ u}/sfi7
of] k|hfltsf] sf7 alnof] x'G5 . ejg lgdf{0fsf
sfo{ -3/sf blng / rf}sf]z_ x¿df, kmlg{r/,
s[lif cf}hf/ / o;sf la+8x¿, k'nsf kmNofs,
b"w, bxL / dxL /fVg] 7]sL / j:t'efp afFWg]
lsnf agfpg of] sf7sf] k|of]u ul/Psf] kfOPsf]
5 . o;sf] cnfjf k/Dk/fut ?kdf o;sf xfFuf
Pj+ kft 3/ 5fpg] / ;f]Q/sf] ?kdf ;d]t
k|of]u ul/+b} cfPsf] kfOG528,46 . ;'Gb/ cfs[ltsf]
?v x'g] x'Fbf ufpF3/df v]taf/Lsf] 5]p5fpdf
5]saf/sf] ?kdf /f]k0f ul/Psf] kfOG5 . alnof]
sf7 ePsf sf/0f afB pks/0f -9\ofË|f]_ agfpg
;d]t o;sf] k|of]u ul/G511 . nf}7;Nnfsf] sf7nfO{ kxf8sf] ;fnsf] gfdn] klg lrlgG5 .
^=@ cf}ifwLo dxTj
^=@=! k/Dk/fut
k/Dk/fut ?kdf nf}7;Nnfsf] k|of]u ljleGg pkrf/ k4ltx¿
cfo'j]{b, xf]ldof]KofyL, o'gfgL / :yfgLo:t/df cf}ifwLd"nf]sf] ?kdf
k|of]u x'Fb} cfPsf] kfOG52,3,28 . k"jL{ g]kfnsf z]kf{, tfdfË, /fO{ /
u'?ª ;d'bfosf dflg;x¿n] o;sf] kft hlG8; / SofG;/ lgsf]
kfg{ k|of]u u/]sf] kfOG59 . g]kfnsf lxdfnL If]qsf afl;Gbfx¿n]
k]6, Zjf;k|Zjf; / xf8hf]gL{sf] ;d:ofaf6 5'6sf/f kfpg o;sf]
k|of]u u/]sf] kfOG528 . g]kfnsf sltko :yfgx¿df vf;u/L
a|fXd0f ;d'bfosf dflg;x¿n] o;sf] af]qmfsf] n]bf] agfO{ lgwf/df
nufpg] l6sfsf] ?kdf k|of]u u/]sf] klg b]lvG519,28 .
g]kfnsf] cfo'j{]b ;DaGwL k'/fgf] b:tfj]h
jL/ lg306'
df Nofl6g
gfd 6\ofS;; a]s]6f, g]kfnL gfd tfln;kq pNn]v ePsf] /
pQm jg:kltn] skm, jfo'gfz, vf]sL, lxSsf, Ifo/f]u, bd, adg
cflb /f]unfO{ gfz ug{] egL j0f{g u/]sf] kfOG557 .
o'gfgL k4ltaf6 lgdf{0f ul/Psf] hg{j elgg] cf}ifwLsf] ;lDd>0fdf nf}7;Nnfsf] kft / af]qmfsf] dfqf
/x]sf] x'G516 . cfo'j]{lbs k4ltaf6 pTkfbg ul/Psf cf}ifwLx¿ tfln;fbL r"0f{, tfln;fbLa6L, ;'bz{g
nf}7;Nnfsf] k/Dk/fut cf}ifwLo
pkof]u ;DaGwL hfgsf/L ljleGg
;Gbe{ ;fdu|Lx¿df pNn]v eP
cg';f/ lbOPsf] xf] . k|zf]wg gu/L
o;sf kft tyf af]qmfx¿ l;w} k|of]u
ubf{ :jf:Yodf uDeL/ c;/ kg{
;Sb5 . o;sf/0f k/Dk/fut ljlw
cyjf cfo'j{]lbs k4ltaf6 o;sf]
k|of]u ubf{ dfGotf k|fKt lrlsT;ssf]
;Nnfx cg';f/ dfq k|of]u ug{
pko'Qm x'g hfG5 .
nf}7;Nnfsf bfp/f, dgfª
- 37 _
r"0f{, nj0fef:s/r"0f{df nf}7;Nnfsf] ;lDd>0f /x]sf] x'G52,3 . nf}7;Nnfsf kft tyf af]qmfsf] k|of]u
3fF6L b'Mv]sf], vf]sL, bd, ckr, kvfnf nfu]sf], k]6 b'Mv]sf] ;d:ofaf6 5'6sf/f kfpgsf ;fy} 5f/]/f]u,
Zjf;gnL ;'lGgPsf] / lx:6]l/of cflbdf ;d]t kftsf] ;f/tTj nfesf/L dflgG51,7,18,24,31 .
rLlgofF k4ltdf 5fnf, k]6 / lk;fa ;DaGwL /f]usf cf}ifwLsf] ;lDd>0fdf o;sf] k|of]u u/]sf] kfOG5 .
ltAatLo cf}ifwL k4ltdf Hj/f] lgsf] kfg{ / z/L/sf] b'vfO{ sd ug{ agfOGf] cf}ifwLsf] ;lDd>0fdf dWo]
nf}7;Nnf klg Ps k|d'v /x]sf] pNn]v ul/Psf] 528 .
ef/tsf] ljleGg 7fpFx¿df nf}7;Nnfsf] kft xj{n lrofsf] ?kdf k|of]u ul/g'sf ;fy} ul7ofafyaf6
5'6sf/f kfpg, Hj/f] tyf z/L/sf] b'vfO{ sd ug{ / vf]sL lgsf] kfg{ k|of]u ul/G5 . skfndf nufpg]
cfo'j]{lbs t]ndf ;d]t nf}7;Nnfsf] ;lDd>0f /x]sf] kfOG5 . kfls:tfgdf nf}7;Nnfsf] xfFufsf] sf9f
-Sjfy_ Ifo/f]u lgjf/0fdf nfesf/L dflgG516,18,42,43 .
^=@=@ cfw'lgs
;g\ !(^) b]lv ;g\ !(*! sf] aLrdf cd]l/sfl:yt g]zgn SofG;/ O{lG:6Ro"6 / s[lif ljefu (United
States Department of Agriculture-USDA) aLrsf] ;xsfo{sf] kmn:j?k SofG;/ lj?4 k|efjsf/L b]lvg]
/;fog 6\ofS;; la|lekmf]lnofaf6 k|fKt x'g uof] . tt\ kZrft ;g\ !(*@ b]lv cfw'lgs lrlsT;f
k4ltdf nf}7;Nnfn] 7"nf] :yfg kfof] . nf}7;Nnfdf kfOg] ;f/tTj 10-DAB III nfO{ k|zf]wg u/L
Paclitaxel (Generic Name) gfds SofG;/ lj?4sf] cf}ifwLo u'0f ePsf] /;fog pTkfbg sfo{ ul/g
yfNof] / oxL /;fognfO{ Jofkfl/s efiffdf 6\ofS;f]n (Taxol) elgG5 . nf}7;Nnfsf kft k|zf]wg u/L
6\ofS;f]n pTkfbg ug]{ sfo{sf] yfngL ;g\ !(() af6 z'? eO{ lg/Gt/ hf/L 5 . pQm cf}ifwL kf7]3/,
:tg, kmf]S;f], 6fpsf], k|f]i6]6, 5fnf / cGggnL nufotsf] SofG;/sf] pkrf/df k|of]u ul/G5g\ . 6\ofS;f]nn]
SofG;/ sf]ifx¿sf] ljefhg k|lqmofnfO{ cj?4 ul/lbG5 . sf]if ljefhgsf qmddf sf]if leq Ps vf;
lsl;dsf] k|f]l6g æ6\o"j'lngÆ aG5 . o:fn] sf]if ljefhg k|lqmofdf dxTjk"0f{ e"ldsf lgjf{x u/]sf] x'G5 .
6\ofS;f]nn] 6\o"j'lngnfO{ lgis[o agfOlbG5 / o:fn] sfd ug{ g;s]kl5 sf]if ljefhg k|lqmofn]
6\ofS;f]n (Paclitaxel) sf] /;folgs agfj6 nf}7;Nnfaf6 agfOPsf] cf}ifwL
- 38 _
lg/Gt/tf kfpg ;Sb}g h;sf sf/0f SofG;/ lgoGq0f ug{ ;lsG5 ( .
o;} sf/0f SofG;/ /f]usf] nIf0f ;'?df g} yfxf kfpg ;lsPdf of] /f]u lgsf] kfg{ ;lsG5, t/ z/L/ leq
SofG;/ sf]if k'/} km}lnO;s]sf] cj:yfdf lgoGq0f ug{ ufx|f] kb{544,48,49 .
^=# ;f+:s[lts dxTj
;lbof}+b]lv nf}7;Nnfsf] kft / dl;gf xfFufljufsf] dxTj g]kfnL ;+:s[ltdf /x+b} cfPsf] 5 . dsjfgk'/
lhNnfsf] l6:6'Ë If]qdf 6\ofS;; dfO/]O{nfO{ dl5Gb|kftLsf] gfdn] lrGg] ul/G5 . x/]s tLg jif{df nfUg]
ah|af/fxLsf] hfqfdf dlR5Gb|kftLsf] 7"nf] dxTj /xL cfPsf] 5 . :yfgLo g]jf/ ;d'bfosf sdf{rfo{ y/sf
k'hf/Lsf cg';f/ j}zfv k"l0f{dfdf nfUg] ah|af/fxLsf] hfqfdf dlR5Gb|kfTfLnfO{ clgjfo{ ?kdf r9fpg'
k5{ . dlR5Gb|kftLsf] ;+sngsf] Joj:yf ug]{ sfo{ kf]8] ;d'bfosf] /xL cfPsf] 5 . o;n] s] b]vfpF5 eg]
k/Dk/fb]lv nf}7;Nnf -dlR5Gb|kftL_ n] ;fdflhs ;lxi0f'tf / ;b\efjnfO{ ;d]t ;+of]hg u/]sf] kfOG5 .
dsjfgk'/sf] l6:6'Ë, b]p/fnL, gf}v08] If]qsf tfdfË ;d'bfodf ;–;fgf s]6fs]6Lx¿n] df3 ! ut]sf] lbg
cfˆgf dfGohgx¿nfO{ dlR5Gb|kftLsf] kftn] 9f]uL cfzLjf{b lng] rng /xL cfPsf] / o;} sf/0fn]
wfld{s:yn glhs} nf}7;Nnf /f]Kf0f tyf ;+/If0f u/]sf] klg kfOG5 . o;}u/L dsjfgk'/ lhNnfs} cfu/f
If]qdf a;f]af; ug]{ uf]n] -tfdfË_ ;d'bfon] dgfpFb} cfPsf] gfDsf -sfn e}/jsf] :j?k_ k"hfdf nf}7;Nnf
-l;ËL_ geO{ gx'g] x'G5 . pQm l;ËLsf] kftn] gfDsfnfO{ rf/}lt/af6 l;+ufg]{ ul/G5 .
nf}7;Nnf ;DaGwL csf{] pNn]vgLo kIf t o'/f]ksf ljleGg rr{x¿df ToxfF kfOGf] 6\ofS;; asf6f
k|hfltnfO{ ;+/If0f u/]em}+ g]kfnsf] klZrdL lhNnf bfr{'nfb]lv DfWodf /x]sf lhNnfx¿ / k"j{df ;d]t
nf}7;Nnfsf] ?vsf] k]mbdf k'hfcfhf ug{] / o; k|hfltnfO{ dlGb/ / u'Daf kl/;/df ;+/If0f ul/Psf]
kfOG5 . k/fk"j{ sfnb]lv wfld{s kljq :ynx¿df ;+/lIft nf}7;Nnfsf ?vx¿n] To; If]qsf] nf}7;Nnfsf]
cfg'jf+lzs ;|f]t (Gene Pool) ;+/If0f ug]{ sfo{df dxTjk"0f{ of]ubfg lbPsf 5g\ .
wfld{s :yndf x'ls{/fv]sf] nf}7;Nnf -6\ofS;; sG6f]6f{_ sf] ?v, dgfª
- 39 _
dsjfgk'/, l6:6'ªl:yt ah|af/fxLsf] k"hfdf dlR5Gb|kftL -6\ofS;; dfO/]O{_ -lj=;+= @)&!÷)!÷!)_
© k|tfk nfdf
tfdfª ;d'bfosf] gfDsf k"hfdf l;ËL -nf}7;Nnf–6\ofS;; dfO/]O{_
sf] k|of]u, cfu/f If]q, dsjfgk'/ -lj=;+= @)&#÷!)÷@!_
© k|df]b hf]zL
© k|tfk nfdf
© k|tfk nfdf
- 40 _
&= lbuf] ;+sng / v]tL k|ljlw
&=! lbuf] ;+sng tyf Joj:yfkgsf pkfox?
lbuf] ;+sngsf] d"n dd{ eg]sf] cfhsf] cjZostf kl/k"lt{ ub}{ ef]lnsf] ;Gtltsf] nflu ;d]t ;|f]t
;'lglZrt ug]{ eGg] a'lemG5 . o; ;Gbe{df k|fs[lts cj:yfdf x'ls{/fv]sf] nf}7;Nnfsf] k'g{pTkfbg /
;+sng aLrsf] ;Gt'ng x'g' h?/L x'G5 . o;sf] nflu ;|f]t ;j]{If0f (Inventory) u/L ;+sng ug{ ;lsg]
kl/df0f olsg u/]/ dfq ;DalGwt lgsfox¿af6 ;+sng Ohfht lbOg' k5{ . jgh+unaf6 k|fKt x'g]
;|f]tsf] ;+sng ljlw Pj+ kl/df0fsf] ;DaGwdf jg ljefun] lj=;+= @)^( df u}/sfi7 jg k}bfjf/sf]
;|f]t ;j]{If0f dfu{bz{g tof/ u/L sfof{Gjogdf NofPsf] 554 . ;f]xL dfu{bz{gdf nf}7;Nnfsf dl;gf
xfFuf tyf kftsf] ;+sng ug'{ k"j{ ;|f]t ;j]{If0f ug'{kg]{ / To;sf] nflu ckgfpg' kg]{ ljlw, k|lqmof,
dfkb08 Pj+ ;"rsx¿ af/] :ki6;+u pNn]v u/]sf] 5 . tyflk ;f] dfu{bz{g sfof{Gjogsf] ;Gbe{df
To:fdf pNn]lvt kIfx¿sf] cltl/Qm yk ljifox¿ h:t} nf}7;Nnfsf] j[l4 ljsf;sf] nflu rflxg]
xfjfkfgL, kfl/l:yltsLo k|0ffnL Pj+ k|fs[lts ?kdf Go"g k'gM pTkfbg Ifdtfsf] sf/0fsf] ;d]t lj:t[t
?kdf yk cWoog x'g' h?/L 5 . v]tL k|ljlwsf] ljsf; vf; u/L ljZj :jf:Yo ;+u7gsf] c;n v]tL
tyf ;+sng cEof; (Good Agriculture and Collection Practice-GACP) sf] dd{ cg';f/ u'0f:t/Lo
dfkb08 ckgfpg' k5{ .
nf}7;Nnfsf] ;|f]t ;j]{If0fsf] qmddf ;+sng ug'{kg]{ kftsf] kl/df0fsf] ;Gbe{df klg olsg tYofÍ
pknAw 5}g . dfly pNn]lvt dfu{bz{gdf kft ;+sng ubf{ jo:s ?vsf] @%Ü ;Dd ;+sng ug]{ l;df
tf]lsPsf]df :ynut cWoogsf] qmddf s;}n] klg o;NffO{ sfof{Gjogdf NofOPsf] kfOPg . ;fd'bflos
jgsf kbflwsf/L :jod\n] klg s/La &) b]lv &%Ü ;Dd kft ;+sng ug{] u/]sf] cEof; klg kfOof] .
ljleGg cWoog k|ltj]bgx¿df pNn]v eP cg';f/ / nf}7;Nnf v]tL tyf ;+sngdf k|ToIf ?kdf
;+nUg ls;fgx¿ ;+usf] cGt{lqmofsf] cfwf/df x]bf{ dfp ?vnfO{ c;/ gkg]{ u/L k|To]s $ jif{sf]
rqmdf ?vnfO{ $ efudf ljefhg u/L k|ltjif{ @% k|ltztsf b/n] ;+sng ug'{ pko'Qm x'g] b]lVfG5, t/
Jojxf/df Pp6f ?vaf6 Ps}jif{ *) k|ltzt ;Dd ;+sng ug]{ / # jif{sf] cGt/fn kl5 ;f]xL k|lqmof
bf]xf]¥ofOPsf] kfOG5 h;sf sf/0fn] ?vx¿sf] pTkfbsTjdf x|f; cfpg'sf] ;fy} ?vsf] cl:tTj g}
;+s6df kl//x]sf] cj:yf 5 .
h+unsf 7"nf ?vx¿sf xsdf ;fgf–;fgf dl;gf xfFuf sf6\g'sf] ;§f 7"N7"nf xfFufx¿ sf6]sf] kfOG5 .
o;n] ubf{ ?vx¿nfO{ gsf/fTds c;/ kg{ uO{ sltko cj:yfdf ;'s]/ d/]sf] klg b]Vg ;lsG5 .
g]kfnsf ljleGg lhNnfx¿af6 nf}7;Nnfsf la?jfx¿ nf]k x'gfsf] d'Vo sf/0f g} ljutdf kft ;+sng
ubf{ ?v g} 9fNg] / sltko ?vnfO{ k"0f{ ?kdf gfËf] x'g] u/L kft ;+sng ul/Psf sf/0fn] ePsf] xf]
eGg] :yfgLo ;d'bfo / ;+snsx¿sf] cg'ej 5 . t;y{, kftsf] ;+sng ubf{ j}1flgs ljlwsf] ljsf;
ul/ j:t'ut cfFs8fx¿sf cfwf/df ;+sng ljlw ckgfP/ ;DalGwt lgsfox¿sf] /f]xj/df ljz]if
;fjwfgL -lg/Gt/ cg'udg tyf d"NofÍg_ sf ;fy ;+sng sfo{ ;+rfng ul/g' kb{5 . ;fy} ;+snsx¿nfO{
j}1flgs ;+sng ljlwsf af/]df cfjZos 1fg / tflnd lbg' h?/L 5 .
- 41 _
dsjfgk'/df sf7sf] nflu sfl6Psf]
nf}7;Nnf -6\ofS;; dfO/]O{_ sf] ?v
hyfefjL kft ;+sng ubf{ gflËPsf] 6\ofS;; jflnlrofgfsf]
?v, sfe]|knf~rf]s
nf}7;Nnf -6\ofS;; sG6f]6f{_ sf] ?v km8fgL, afUn
hyfefjL kft ;+sng ubf{ ;'Sg] cj:yfdf /x]sf] 6\ofS;;
sG6f]6f{sf] ?v, afUn
- 42 _
&=@ v]tL k|ljlw
jftfj/0fLo ;Gt'ng, lg/Gt/ sRrf kbfy{sf] cfk"lt{ / cfly{s ljsf;sf nflu :yfg ;'xfpFbf] v]tL
k|ljlwsf] ljsf; / lj:tf/ x'g' h?/L 5 . o;sf] nflu pko'Qm hUufx¿ h:t} l;dfGts[t e"ld, af/L
kv]/fsf] 5]p5fp, ;fd'bflos jg, sa'lnolt jg / lghL jgx¿ nf}7;Nnf j[Iff/f]k0f ug{ pko'Qm
b]lvG5 . o;sf] k|;f/0f aLp / sl6Ëaf6 a]gf{ tof/ ul/G5 .
aLpaf6 a]gf{ pTkfbg ug{ lgDg r/0fx¿df ljz]if Wofg lbg' kb{5 .
s_ Aof8 tof/L
kfl/nf] -blIf0fL df]xf]8f ePsf]_, l;+rfO{ ;'ljwf ePsf] t/ jiff{t\sf] enn] c;/ gug]{ / j:t'efpaf6
;'/lIft :yfgdf Aof8sf] nflu :yfg 5gf}6 ug'{ kb{5 . Aof8sf] rf}8fO{ ! ld6/ t/ nDafO :yfg
/ cfjZostfg';f/ !) b]lv !% ld6/;Dd agfpg ;lsG5 . Aof8df % O~r cUnf] x'g] u/L
rflnPsf] ;kmf afn'jfn] eg'{ kb{5 . Aof8af6 pQm afn'jf aUg glbg :yfgLo pknAwtf cg';f/
9'Ëf, df6f], sf7 tyf afF;n] 5]saf/ ug'{ kb{5 . vf;u/L of] Aof8 kf]nLxfp; leq agfOg] ul/G5 .
v_ aLp tof/L
!= c;f]h–sflt{s dlxgfdf k"0f{ ?kdf kfs]sf] aLp ;+sng
ug]{ .
@= aLpsf] aflx/kl§sf] /ftf] efu x6fO{ /fd|f];+u lkpg of]Uo
lr;f] kfgLn] wf]P/ ;kmf u/L 5fofFdf k"0f{ ?kdf ;'sfpg] .
#= s/Lj $ dlxgf cyf{t\ kmfu'g;Dd pQm aLpnfO{ lr;f] tyf
;'Vvf, 9';L, ls/f, d';f cflb gnfUg] u/L e08f/0f ug]{ .
u_ g;{/L tof/L
!= nf}7;Nnfsf] aLp pdfg{sf] nflu kf]nLxfp;sf] cfjZostf kb{5 .
@= rfn]sf], ;kmf / dl;gf] afn'jfsf] Aof8 nf}7;Nnfsf] aLp c+s'/0fsf] nflu ;j}eGbf pko'Qm
dflgG5 .
#= Aof8 tof/ ubf{ hldg /fd|f] ;+u ;Dofpg] / hldgsf] rf/}lt/ :yfgLo pknAwtf cg';f/
afF;, sf7, 9'Ëf jf O{6fn] 5]saf/ nufpg] .
$= Aof8df df6f]eGbf dfly % OGr hlt kfgLn] wf]P/ ;kmf u/]/ rfn]sf] dl;gf] afn'jf /fVg] .
%= Aof8 tof/ eO{ ;s]kl5 kmfNu'gb]lv r}q dlxgfsf] dWolt/ @ ;]=dL= afn'jf d'lg sl/j !%
;]=dL=sf] km/sdf aLp /f]Kg' kb{5 .
^= laxfg a]n'sf cyjf s]xL lbg la/fP/ lr:ofgsf] dfqf x]/L Aof8df kfgL /fVg' kb{5 .
&= kf]nL xfp; leq @% l8u|L ;]G6Lu|]8sf] tfkqmd x'g' pko'Qm dflgG5 .
*= aLp pd|]sf] Ps dlxgf kl5 kf]nLAofudf ;fg'{ kb{5 .
nf}7;Nnfsf] l;D6f tyf aLp
- 43 _
(= kf]nLJofudf /fVg] df6f]sf] ;lD>0fdf %) k|ltzt df6f], @% k|ltzt dn / @% k|ltzt afn'jf
/fVg' pko'Qm x'G5 cyf{t -@M!M!_ sf] cg'kftdf /fVg'kb{5 .
!)= aLpnfO{ kf]nLAofudf ;f/L;s]kl5 Ps jif{ hlt kf]nLAofud} /fVg] / To; kZrft\ lkmN8df
/f]Kg pko'Qm dflgG5 .
!!= o;/L pTkfbg u/]sf] a]gf{ aLp /f]k]sf] ;dob]lv 8]9 jif{df /f]Kg nfos x'G5 .
3_ sl6ªaf6 a]gf{ tof/L
sl6ªaf6 a]gf{ tof/ ug]{ l;nl;nfdf lgDg r/0fx¿df ljz]if Wofg lbg' h?/L x'G5 .
!= nf}7;Nnfsf] aLpaf6 a]gf{ tof/L ug{sf] nflu agfPsf] Aof8df g} sl6ª /fVg ;lsG5 .
@= sl6ªsf] nflu dfp lj?jfsf] 5gf}6 ubf{ jo:s, lg/f]uL / :j:y ?vsf] 5gf}6 ug'{ kb{5 .
#= ?vsf] xfFufsf] 5gf}6 ubf{ ! b]lv @ jif{ k'/fgf dl;gf xfFufx¿sf] 5gf}6 ug'{ kb{5 . t/ @
jif{eGbf k'/fgf xfFuf sl6ªsf] nflu pko'Qm dflg+b}gg\ .
$= 5gf}6 ul/Psf xfFufx¿af6 snd cfsf/sf s/La !% ;]=dL=nDafO{sf 6'qmfx¿ agfpg' kb{5 .
%= ?6]S; # g+= h/f lgsfNg] xdf]{gsf] emf]n cyjf kfp8/df 8'afO{ Aof8df clnslt 58\s] kf/L
sl6ªsf] sl/j # ;]=dL= efu afn'jf leq / cGo efu aflx/ /fVg' kb{5 .
^= df3 dlxgfdf sl6ª /fVg' pko'Qm x'G5 / ^ dlxgfkl5 h/f lg:sG5 .
&= /fd|f];+u h/f lgl:s;s]kl5 Ps jif{ hlt kf]nLAofudf /fVg] / To;kl5 dfq v]taf/L cyjf
jgh+undf /f]k0f ug{ pko'Qm x'G5 .
*= lj?jf /f]Kbf ! lkm6 ulx/f] vf8n vlg To;df pj{/ df6f] / dn /fvL lghL hldgdf jufgsf]
?kdf v]tL ubf{ #–# ld6/sf] km/sdf ;fg'{ pko'Qm dflgG5 eg] jgh+unsf] xsdf %–%
ld6/sf] km/sdf ;fg'{ pko'Qm x'G5 .
-b|i6JoM sl6Ësf nflu tof/ kfl/Psf xfFufx¿nfO{ oyf;So l56f] tof/L Aof8df /f]Kg' k5{_
Aof8 tof/L
- 44 _
sl6Ëdf ?6]S; /fv]sf]sl6Ë tof/L
Aof8df /f]lkPsf sl6Ëx? sl6Ë /fv]sf] $ dlxgfkl5 h/f knfpg z'?
u/]sf] cj:yf
- 45 _
h/f lgl:sPkZrft\ #×& OGrsf] kf]lnAofudf ;f/]kl5sf] ! jif{sf] a]gf{
h/f lgl:sPkZrft\ #×& OGrsf] kf]lnAofudf ;f/]kl5sf] @ jif{sf] a]gf{
Aof8df a]gf{x?sf] lgoldt :ofxf/ ul/+b}
h/f lgl:s;s]kl5 qmdzM @ / ! jif{sf]
:yfgM jg:klt ljefusf] ;b'kof]u tyf kfOn6 zfvf, uf]bfj/L,
h/f lg:s]sf] a]gf{
- 46 _
*= ;+/If0fsf] l:ylt
*=! k|fs[lts af;:yfg
g]kfnsf] k|fs[lts h+undf kfOg] tLgj6} k|hfltsf nf}7;Nnf ;bfjxf/ ?v ju{sf jg:klt x'g\ . tLg
k|hfltsf nf}7;Nnf dWo] 6\ofS;; dfO/]O{ dWo g]kfnsf] sfe|]knf~rf]s, l;Gw'nL / dsjfgk'/ lhNnfsf
pkf]i0f (Sub-Tropical) b]lv ;d–lztf]i0f (Temperate) xfjfkfgL ePsf ;]lknf / lr:ofgo'Qm dxfef/t
If]qsf ;fd'bflos jgx¿df kftnf] cj:yfdf, kmf§k'm§ 5l/P/ nfnLu'/fF;, ;Nnf], lrnfpg], c+u]/L,
wl;ª\u|] / sfkmn ePsf] 7fpFdf x's]{sf] kfOG5 .
cGo b'O{ k|hflt 6\ofS;; sG6f]6f{ / 6\ofS;; jflnlrofgf ;d–lztf]i0f, lztf]i0f / lxdfnL xfjfkfgL
ePsf] ;]lknf] / lr:ofgo'Qm jftfj/0fdf uf]a|];Nnf], lkm/lkm/], /fO{;Nnf], v;|', lyË|];Nnf] / u'/fF; ;+u;+u}
x's{g dg k/fpF5g\ . nf}7;Nnfsf] 3gfh+un lj/Nf} b]lvG5 . ;fdGotof nf}7;Nnfsf af]6x¿ cf]:ofg
ePsf] t/ kfgL ghDg] vf;–vf; df]x8f ePsf] kfvfdf 5l/P/ /x]sf x'G5g\ . h+un leq x's{g] hflt
ePsf]n] o;sf 5]p5fpsf af]6x¿sf] km8fgL ePdf klg o;sf] x's{g] Ifdtfdf x|f; cfpg] cg';Gwfgn]
b]vfPsf] 521 . 6\ofS;; dfO/]O{ dxfef/t kj{t >[ªvnfsf] sd prfOdf hxfF cTolws dfgja:tLsf]
cltqmd0f / k|fs[lts ;|f]t dflysf] rfksf sf/0f klg clt ;+s6fkGg jf nf]k x'g] cj:yfdf /x]sf]
523,30,47 . o;} u/L pRr kxf8L / lxdfnL e]udf kfOg] 6\ofS;; sG6f]6f{ / 6\ofS;; jflnlrofgfdf klg
dfgj l;lh{t af;:yfg ljgf;, cfunfuL, cTolws r/Lr/g / rf]/L s6fgLsf sf/0fn] oLgsf] k|fs[lts
hg;+Vofdf sdL cfO/x]sf] 523,30,47 . of] hftsf k|hfltx¿sf] aLp k|fs[lts ?kdf r/f jf cGo ;fgf
hLjhGt'n] vfP/ lj:6\ofP jf lbzf u/]kl5 dfq lj:tf/ x'g] xF'bf o:tf lsl;dsf r/f jf hLjhGt'sf]
;+Vof 36\of] eg] klg jgdf nf}7;Nnfsf] lj:tf/ x'g kfpFb}g . nf}7;Nnfdf ul/Psf ljleGg cg';Gwfgn]
o;sf] aLpsf] k'gpTkfbg Ifdtf clt Go"g b]vfPsf 5g\21 . cem aNnaNn pd|]sf a]gf{x¿ klg k|fs[lts
af;:yfgdf x'g] r/Lr/gn] ;vfk x'g] xF'bf g]kfnsf tLg} k|hfltsf nf}7;Nnfsf] k|fs[lts j[l4b/
;Gtf]ifhgs kfOPsf] 5}g23,30 . dWo / k"jL{ g]kfnsf kxf8L lhNnfx¿df sl6ªaf6 k|;f/0fsf nflu
o;sf xfFufx¿ sf6\g] b/ a9\bf] 5, h;n] ubf{ jgdf kmf§k'm§ cj:yfdf kfOg] ?vx¿ klg x/fpFb} uPsf
5g\ . s]xL hfu?s ls;fgx¿n] jgdf e]l6g]
nf}7;Nnfsf a]gf{x¿nfO{ v]taf/Ldf /f]Kg nUg]
kl/kf6Ln] klg jgdf gofF af]6x¿ x's{g] cj:yf
clt Go'g b]lvPsf] 5 . plrt 1fg / ;Lksf]
cefjdf jgaf6 NofO{ af/Ldf /f]lkPsf w]/}
h:tf] af]6x¿ d/]sf] :yfgLo ls;fgx¿sf]
u'gf;f] 5 . g]kfnsf sltko 7fpFdf k|fs[lts
af;:yfgdf /x]sf nf}7;Nnfx¿nfO{ ljz]if
If]qsf] ?kdf ;+/If0fsf] k|of; eO/x]sf]
kfOG5 . k~rf;] If]q, sf:sLdf ;+/If0fsf] k|of;
- 47 _
h+unaf6 af/Ldf /f]Kg NofOFb} u/]sf] nf}7;Nnfsf] a]gf{h+unaf6 NofO{ af/Ldf x'sf{OPsf] nf}7;Nnf
Cif]Zj/ ;fd'bflos jg, dsjfgk'/df ;+/If0fsf] k|of; c5fdsf] /fdf/f]zg If]qdf ;+/If0fsf] k|of;
- 48 _
lv/f}n], kmnfd6f/ -sfe|]knf~rf]s_ l:yt 6\ofS;; jflnlrofgfsf] ;j{]If0f ub{}
r'nLk|fg ;f=j=p=;=sf cWoIf ;ljtf ;'j]bL;+usf] cGt/lqmof
nf}7;Nnfsf] :ynut cWoog ul/+b}
l6:6'ª, b]p/fnLsf OGb| axfb'/ tfdfª -jif{ *)_ ;+u
nf}7;Nnf ;DaGwL hfgsf/L ln+b}
/f/f /fli6«o lgs'~hdf 6\ofS;; sG6f]6f{
- 49 _
*=@ sfg"gL tyf gLltut Joj:yf
g]kfn ;/sf/n] ;+/lIft jg:kltsf] ;"rLdf ;"rLs[t u/]sf k|hfltx¿dWo] nf}7;Nnf klg Ps xf] .
/fHo:t/af6 jg:klt k|hfltsf] ;+/If0f tyf ;Dj4{gdf d"ntM b'O{j6f sfg"g /x]sf] kfOG5 . /fli6«o
sfg"g / cGt/f{li6«o sfg"g .
/fli6«o:t/sf] sfg"gsf] ;Gbe{df b]zsf] d"n sfg"g eg]sf] ;+ljwfg g} xf] . g]kfnsf] ;+ljwfg @)&@ sf]
efu $ /fHosf lgb]{zs l;4fGt, gLlt / bfloTj cGtu{t wf/f %! df /fHosf gLltx¿ cGtu{t k|fs[lts
;fwg ;|f]tsf] ;+/If0f, ;Dj4{g / pkof]u ;DaGwL gLlt c+lusf/ u/]sf] kfOG5 . wf/f %! 5 -!_ df
/fli6«o lxt cg's"n tyf cGt/k':tf ;dGofosf] dfGotfnfO{ cfTd;fy ub}{ b]zdf pknAw k|fs[lts ;|f]t
/ ;fwgsf] ;+/If0f, ;Dj4{g / jftfj/0f cg's"n lbuf] ?kdf pkof]u ug]{ / :yfgLo ;d'bfonfO{
k|fyldstf / cu|flwsf/ lb+b} k|fKt k|ltkmnsf] Gofof]lrt ljt/0f ug]{ k|:6 Joj:yf /x]sf] 558 . jg gLlt,
@)&! df lghL If]qnfO{ jg ljsf; tyf lj:tf/df ;+nUg u/fp+b} jghGo pBdsf] k|j4{g, pTkfbgsf]
ljljwLs/0f / ahf/Ls0faf6 d"No clej[l4 / xl/t /f]huf/L l;h{gf ug]{ gLlt /x]sf] 552 . h8La'6L Pjd\
u}/sfi7 jg k}bfjf/ ljsf; gLlt, @)^! df lbuf] Joj:yfkgsf nflu jg k|df0fLs/0f (Forest Certification)
/ h}ljs v]tL (Organic Farming) sf] k|df0fLs/0fsf] Joj:yf ul/g] pNn]v 550 .
jg lgodfjnL @)%! df ePsf] Joj:yf cg';f/ cJojl:yt / cj}1flgs ;+sng tyf pkef]uaf6
hf]ufpg] p2]Zosf ;fy jg P]g @)$( sf] bkmf &) -s_ n] lbPsf] clwsf/ k|of]u u/L h}ljs ljljwtf
/ jftfj/0f ;+/If0fsf] k|of]hgsf] nflu tf]lsPsf] jg k}bfjf/sf] ;+sng, s6fg, pkef]u, cf];f/k;f/,
laqmL ljt/0f jf ljb]z lgsf;Lsf] lglDt ljleGg zt{x¿ ckgfP/ k|ltaGw ug]{ ;"rgfx¿ g]kfn
/fhkqdf k|sflzt u/L g]kfnsf nf]kf]Gd'v jg:kltsf] ;+/If0f ug{ sfg"gL Joj:yf u/]sf] 551 . oxL
sf/0f nf}7;Nnfsf] ;+sng ug{ Ohfht k|fKt sDkgL jf JolQmn] dfq ;+sng ug{ kfpg] k|fjwfg
/flvPsf] 5 . /fli6«o lgs'~h tyf jGohGt' ;+/If0f P]g @)@( / ;f]sf] lgodfjnL cg';f/ lgs'~h /
;+/lIft If]qleq :j–:yfgLo ;+/If0f eO/x]sf] 561 . jg:klt ljefusf] ;lqmotfdf g]kfn ;/sf/n]
lj=;+= @)&# df ## k|hfltsf jg:kltx¿nfO{ g]kfnsf] cfly{s ljsf;sf] nflu k|fyldstf k|fKt
h8La'6Lsf] ;"rLdf /fv]sf] 5 h;dWo]sf] Ps nf}7;Nnf klg xf] 53 . kl5Nnf] ;"rgf -g]kfn /fhkq,
@)&!÷#÷#) / @)&@÷&÷!&_ cg';f/ qmdzM o;sf a]gf{sf] /fhZj k|ltaf]6 ? !)÷– / kft k|lt
s]=hL=? #)÷– tf]lsPsf] 559,60 .
jftfj/0f ;+/If0f P]g @)%# sf] lgod # df k|f/lDes jftfj/0fLo k/LIf0f (Initial Environmental
Examination-IEE) jf jftfj/0fLo k|efj d"NofÍg (Environmental Impact Assessment-EIA) ug'{kg]{ :ki6
Joj:yf u/]sf] 5 . pQm Joj:yf cg'?k jftfj/0f ;+/If0f lgodfjnL @)%$ sf] lgod %$ cGtu{t
ljleGg cg';"rLx¿sf] Joj:yf u/]sf] 5 . h; cGtu{t jg If]qsf] xsdf cg';"rL ! sf] a'Fbf g+ !@ df
k|rlnt sfg"g cg';f/ k|zf]wg u/L ;f/tTj lgsfnL lgsf;L ug{ kfOg] k|hfltx¿sf] xsdf Pp6}
jgIf]qdf, w]/} jgIf]q jf Ps jf w]/} l;hgdf Ps k6s jf k6s k6s u/L Ps lhNnfdf k|lt k|hflt
% b]lv %) 6g;Dd jg k}bfjf/ ;+sng ug{ k/]sf] v08df IEE ug'{kg]{ / olb %) 6geGbf dflysf] xsdf
EIA ug'{kg]{ :ki6 Joj:yf u/]sf] 5 . IEE tyf EIA sf] d"n dd{ eg]s} lbuf], e/kbf]{ / ;b'kof]u ub}{
- 50 _
jfg:klts ;|f]tsf] kl/rfng ug]{ g} xf]56 . o; k4ltn] cfly{s, jftfj/0fLo / ;fdflhs kIfnfO{ cufl8
a9fpg vf]h]sf] b]lvG5 .
/fli6«o lgs'~h tyf jGohGt' ;+/If0f P]g / ;f] cGtu{t ag]sf lgodfjnLdf ;d]t ePsf] Joj:yf
cg'?k ;+/lIft If]q leqsf jg:klt k|hfltx¿sf] ;+/If0f eO/fv]sf] 561 .
jg ljefun] lj=;+= @)^( df u}x|sfi7 jg k}bfjf/sf] ;|f]t ;j]{If0f dfu{bz{g nfu" u/]sf] 5, h;df lbuf]
;+sng tyf Joj:yfkgsf dfkb08 pNn]v u/]sf] kfOG554 .
cGt/f{li6«o sfg"g ;fOl6; -;+s6fkGg jGohGt' tyf jg:kltsf] cGt/f{li6«o Jofkf/ dxf;lGw, !(&#_
cGtu{t 6\ofS;; jflnlrofgf cg';"rL @ df ;"rLs[t 5 . o; cg';"rLdf ;"rLs[t k|hfltsf] ;dodf
g} Jofkf/ lgoGq0f x'g g;s] k|fs[lts af;:yfgdf cl:tTj g} vt/fhgs cj:yfdf k'Ug ;Sb5 . t;y{
o; cg';"rLdf Jofkf/ lgoGq0f tflnsfdf k/]sf / lgoGq0fsf] nflu cg'udg tyf ;+/If0f sfo{ ul/b}+
cfPsf k|hfltx¿ ;dfj]z ul/Psf x'G5g\ .
ljZj ;+/If0f ;+3 (IUCN) n] nf}7;NnfnfO{ ;+s6fkGg ;"rLdf /flvPsf] 5 . o;} ;Gbe{df g]kfndf kfOg]
tLg} k|hfltsf nf}7;Nnfsf] ;+/If0f l:yltsf] n]vfhf]vf (Conservation Assessment) ul/Psf] cWoogaf6
6\ofS;; sG6f]6f{ / 6\ofS;; jflnlrogfnfO{ ;+s6fkGg ;fy} 6\ofS;; dfO/]O{nfO{ clt ;+s6fkGg
jg:kltsf] ;"rLdf /fv]sf] 527 .
*=# Jofkf/
;fwf/0ftof nf}7;Nnfsf] kftdf 6\oflS; cNsfnfO{8, 6\oflS;lgg, 6\oflgg / 6\ofS;f]n gfdsf /;folgs
tTjx¿ kfOG5g\ . k|f0f3fts /f]u cj'{b /f]u -SofG;/_ lgsf] kfg{ ;Sg] u'0f ePsf sf/0f lbg k|ltlbg
/fli6«o tyf cGt/f{li6«o :t/df o;sf] Jofkf/ a9\bf] 5 . o;sf dl;gf xfFuf / kftsf] k|zf]wg u/L
;f/tTj 10-Deacetylbaccatin- III (10-DAB-III) lgsfnL ljb]zL d'n'sdf lgof{t ul/G5 . lgof{t ug]{ a]nf
;fO{l6; k|df0fkq cfjZos kb{5 . jg ljefu ;fOl6; zfvfsf] clen]v cg';f/ ljut $ jif{df o;sf]
lgof{t d'Vou/L ;+o'Qm c/j O{ld/]6\;, ef/t / hfkfgdf ePsf] b]lvG5 . ;g\ @)!#, @)!$, @)!% /
@)!^ df qmdzM $=%, @!=&%, #) /
@) lsnf]u|fd 10-DAB-III lgof{t ePsf]
b]lvG5 . g]kfndf Ps 6g -!) lSjG6n_
kft k|zf]wg kZrft\ ;/b/ %##=## b]lv
%^^=^^ u|fd 10-DAB-III k|fKt ug{ ;lsg]
hfgsf/L jg ljefu ;fOl6; zfvfsf]
clen]vdf b]lvG5 .
*=$ r'gf}tL
;+/If0f / ljsf;nfO{ ;+u;+u} cufl8
a9fpg ;Sg' g} cfhsf] h}ljs ljljwtf v'nf rl/r/0f M nf}7;Nnf ;+/If0fdf r'gf}tL
- 51 _
;+/If0fdf b]lvPsf] k|d'v r'gf}tL xf] . a9\bf] hg;+Vofsf] rfk / ljZj ahf/df 6\ofS;f]nsf] clws dfu,
k|fs[lts af;:yfgdf cfO/fv]sf] x|f; -89]nf], cToflws rl/r/0f_ / rf]/L lgsf;Lsf sf/0f k|fs[lts
af;:yfgdf cfˆgf] cl:tTj hf]ufpg nf}7;NnfnfO{ klg xDd] xDd] kl//fv]sf] cj:yf 5 . nf}7;Nnfn]
cfk"mdf ePsf] SofG;/ k|lt/f]wL /;fog dfgj cl:tTjsf] nflu pknAw u/fpg' 5 eg] dfgjn] Tof]
k|f0f3fts /f]u lgsf] ug{ ;Sg] jg:kltsf] ;+/If0f / j[l4 ljsf;df cfjZos Wofg lbg'5 . ;fdflhs,
cfly{s / kof{j/0fLo ;+efjgfx¿ af]s]sf] o; ax'–pkof]uL jg:kltsf] af/]df rrf{ / rf;f] ls;fg,
Jofkf/L, cg';Gwfgstf{, ;+/If0fsdL{, gLlt lgdf{tfx¿b]lv ;/f]sf/jfnfx¿;Dd lgoldt x'g] ePtf klg
o; jg:kltsf] k|fs[lts af;:yfgdf /x]sf af]6x¿sf] ;+/If0f / v]tL lj:tf/sf nflu cfjZos 1fgsf]
sdL cem} 68\sf/f] ?kdf /x]sf] 5 . k|fs[lts af;:yfgdf o;sf] k'gp{Tyfg / k'gM pTkfbg Ifdtfdf
s;/L ;'wf/ Nofpg] af/]df / jt{dfgdf b]lvPsf ;d:ofx¿sf] ;dfwfgsf nflu 7f]; sfo{qmd ;+rfng
ug{ cj l9nf] ug{ x'Fb}g . To;}u/L ;DalGwt lgsfon] nf}7;Nnfsf] Joj;flos v]tL ug{ pTk|]l/t
ul//xFbf eljiodf o:sf] afnLdf b]lvg ;Sg] /f]u, ls/f tyf u'0f:t/df cfpg ;Sg] ptf/ r9fj /
ahf/Ls/0fsf] af/]df klg ls;fgx¿nfO{ cfjZos 1fg, ;Lk / x'g;Sg] ;Dk"0f{ cfly{s tyf k|fljlws
;xof]u k|bfg u/L h:tf];'s} kl/l:yltsf] ;xh ?kdf ;dfwfg ug{ ;Ifd tyf ;an agfO/fVg' kb{5 .
Pp6f l;Ssfsf b'O{j6f kf6f eg]em} ;+/If0f / ljsf;sf] cjwf/0fnfO{ bL3{sfnLg ;f]rsf ;fy Ps
csf{sf] kl/k"/s agfO{ cfly{s ;Dj[l4 xfl;n u/L cufl8 a9\g cfjZos 5 .
g]kfndf # k|hfltsf nf}7;Nnf /x]sf 5g\ tLdWo] 6\ofS;; jflnlrofgfn] sfg"gL ;+/If0f kfPsf] cj:yf
5 eg] @ y/Lsf nf}7;Nnfsf] klxrfgsf] cfwf/df plrt ;+/If0f / ljsf;df b[li6 k'Ug ;s]sf] 5}g .
o;sf] k|d'v sf/0f eg]sf] klxrfgdf /x]sf] cGof}ntf g} xf] . o:tf] cj:yfdf 6\ofS;; jflnlrofgf
gfds nf}7;Nnf / cGo nf}7;Nnf -6\ofS;; dfO/]O{ / 6\ofS;; sG6f]6f{_ sf] gfdn] cj}w ?kdf ;+sng
tyf lgsf;L x'g] k|an r'gf}tL b]lvG5 . cj oL # k|hfltsf nf}7;Nnf -6\ofS;; sG6f]6f{, 6\ofS;;
dfO/]O{ / 6\ofS;; jflnlrofgf_ sf] klxrfg eO;s]sf sf/0f ;a} k|hfltx¿n] ;dfg x}l;ot kfpg'
h?/L 5 . jg ljefun] sfof{Gjogdf NofPsf] u}x|sfi7 jg k}bfjf/ ;|f]t ;j]{If0f dfu{bz{g @)^( n]
lglb{i6 u/] cg';f/ o;sf] lbuf] ;+sng / ;+/If0fsf] nflu kof{Kt k|of; ePsf] kfOFb}g . h:fsf sf/0f
cj}1flgs / cJojl:yt ;+sng eP/ ?v g} ;'s]/ hfg] x'Fbf ;DalGwt lgsfox¿n] lg/Gt/ cg'udg
/ k|efjsf/L sfof{Gjogdf Wofg lbg' h?/L 5 . ;fO{l6;sf] cg';"rL @ df g]kfndf kfOg] @ k|hflt
6\ofS;; jflnlrofgf / 6\ofS;; km'jfgf ;"rLs[t 5g\ . 6\ofS;; km'jfgfsf] cflwsfl/s gfd 6\ofS;;
sG6f]6f{ xf] / h'g g]kfndf klg kfOG5 .
;fdfGotof nf}7;Nnfsf] s[ifs tyf g;{/L ;+rfnsn] sl6Ë ln+bf glhssf] Ps jf b'O{ ?vaf6 dfq
xfFufx¿ ;+sng u/L a]gf{ tof/ u/]/ ljt/0f u/]sf] kfOof] . o;/L tof/ ul/Psf a]gf{sf] k|hflt klxrfg
klg s[ifs / g;{/L Joj:yfksnfO{ gePsf] b]lvG5 . sfe|]sf s]xL g;{/Ldf t 6\ofS;; jflnlrofgf /
6\ofS;; dfO/]O{sf sl6Ëaf6 ;+u} a]gf{ agfP/ ljt/0f klg ul/Psf] 5 . o; k|sf/sf] cEof;n] d'Votof
tLg k|sf/sf uDeL/ ;d:of cfpg ;S5g\ . klxnf] t k|hfltsf] klxrfg geOsg a]gf{ nu]/ v]tL
lj:tf/ ubf{ /f]k]sf] k|hflt Tof] 7fpFdf kfOg] xfjfkfgLdf pko'Qm 5 ls 5}g yfxf x'Fb}g . h;n] ubf{
- 52 _
eljiodf v]tL ;k|g g;s]/ nufgL / >d v]/ hfg ;S5 . g]kfndf kfOg] tLg} k|hflt km/s km/s
xfjfkfgLdf k|fs[lts ?kdf ;k|]sf 5g\ . pgLx¿sf] /}yfg] af;:yfgeGbf km/s af;:yfgdf /f]Kbf s]xL
;do x's{g] eP klg afnL g;k|g ;S5 . o;sf af/]df lj:t[t cWoog x'g h?/L 5 . bf];|f] ;d:of
eg]sf] v]tLsf] cfg'jf+lzs ljljwtfdf cfpg ;Sg] ;Defljt x|f; xf] . xfn k|rngdf /x]sf] Ps} ?vaf6
;of}+ jf xhf/f}+ sl6Ë tof/ u/L a]gf{ tof/ ubf{ v]tL ug{] 7fpFdf Ps} cfg'jf+lzs ljz]iftfx¿ ePsf
af]6x¿ x's{G5g\ . h'g af]6x¿ ;dfg hflto (Monoculture) x'g] x'Fbf eljiodf x'g;Sg] /f]u, ls/f, cGo
k|sf]k / hnjfo' kl/jt{gsf c;/x¿nfO{ k|lt/f]w ug{ g;sL afnL g} ;vfk x'g ;S5 . To;sf/0f
nf}7;Nnfsf] a]gf{ pTkfbsn] ;se/ sl6Ë ln+bf Ps} k|hfltsf] ljleGg 7fpFsf af]6af6 lng] u/]df
afnLdf cfg'jf+lzs ljljwtf sfod x'g uO{ hd{KnfHd (Germplasm) sf] ;+/If0fdf ;xof]u ldNb5 .
t];|f] ;d:of eg]sf] km/s k|hfltsf] k|hgg\af6 ljsf; x'g ;Sg] l7dfxf (Hybrid) sf af/]df xfdL;Fu
cfjZos hfgsf/L gx'g' xf] . g]kfndf kfOg] k|hfltx¿af6 l7dfxf ag]df To;sf] x's{g] Ifdtf / To;df
x'g] 6\ofS;f]nsf] u'0f:t/ tyf dfqfdf ;sf/fTds kl/jt{g eP t /fd|f] t/ olb gsf/fTds c;/ ePdf
nufgL hf]lvddf kg{] ;Defjgf x'G5 . To;sf/0f o; ;DaGwL klg cg';Gwfg cfjZos 5 .
*=% ;Defjgf
lxGb's'z lxdfno If]qdf # k|hfltsf nf}7;Nnf -6\ofS;; jflnlrofgf, 6\ofS;; dfO/]O{ / 6\ofS;;
sG6f]6f{_ /x]sf 5g\ . oL tLgj6} k|hfltsf] pkl:ylt g]kfnsf] lxdfno If]qdf klg /x]sf] 5 . nf}7;Nnfsf]
;a}eGbf dxTjk"0f{ / ;'vb\ kIf eg]sf] g]kfndf tLg k|sf/sf k|hfltx¿ k"j{b]lv klZrd;Dd /
lxdfnb]lv dWo kxf8;Dd k}mlnP/ /xg' xf] . h;sf sf/0f g]kfnsf] k"j{b]lv klZrdsf lxdfnL tyf
kxf8L / sd prfO{df /x]sf dxfef/t >[ª\vnfdf klg pko'Qm xfjfkfgLsf] pknAwtfsf sf/0f oL tLg}
k|hfltsf] v]tL lj:tf/ ug{ ;lsg] k|r'/ ;Defjgfx¿ /x]sf 5g\ . o;af6 k|fKt x'g] ax'–pkof]uL
cf}Bf]lus /;fogaf6 b]zleq kmdf{:o'l6sn pBf]ux¿sf] :yfkgf ug{ ;s]df :yfgLo:t/df /f]huf/Ldf
clej[l4, ljb]zL d'b|f cfh{g, /fhZj j[l4, Jofkf/ 3f6fdf sdL, o'jf knfogdf sdL x'g uO{ /fHonfO{
cfly{s ?kdf ;Da[4 agfpg ;xof]u k'U5 . ljZj Jofkf/ ;+u7gsf] ;b:o /fi6« g]kfnn] o;sf]
afof]k|f]:k]lS6Ë -cGj]if0ffTds ;j]{If0f_, k|f];]; / Kof6]lG6Ë -Kf]jf clwsf/ cyf{t\ af}l4s ;DklQ dflysf]
clwsf/ ;'lglZrt ug{_ kof{Kt nufgL ug{ ;s] /f]oN6Ldf j[l4 x'g hfg] lglZrt 5 .
nf}7;Nnfsf kftdf b]lvPsf] ls/f tyf /f]usf] k|sf]k -l;Gw'nL_
- 53 _
(= ;'emfjx¿
(=! gLltut
!= g]kfndf /x]sf # k|hfltsf nf}7;Nnfx¿sf] k|fs[lts af;:yfgdf ;+/If0f cj:yf ;Gtf]ifhgs
gb]lvPsf]n] # j6} k|hfltsf] eljiodf ug{ ;lsg] gZn;'wf/ sfo{qmdsf nflu cfjZos kg]{
cfg'jf+lzs ;|f]tsf] ;+/If0fsf nflu ;+/lIft k|hfltx¿sf] ;"rLdf ;"rLs[t ug{ pko'Qm x'g] .
@= nf}7;Nnfsf k|hfltx¿sf] k|fs[lts af;:yfgdf k'g?Tyfg u/L eO/x]sf] hg;f+lVos cfsf/ (Population
Size) df ;'wf/ Nofpgsf nflu # j6} k|hfltnfO{ ;fOl6;sf pko'Qm cg';"rLdf /fVg kxn ug'{kg]{ .
#= jg lgodfjnLdf g]kfndf kfOg] nf}7;NnfnfO{ 6\ofS;; jflnlrofgfsf] gfdn] ;+/If0f / ;+sngsf]
nflu cg'dlt lbg] sfo{ eO/x]sf]df k|To]s lhNnfdf kfOg] km/s k|hfltx¿sf] hg;f+lVos cfsf/
/ df}h'bf kl/df0fsf] j}1flgs tj/af6 olsg u/L jf:tljs cf+s8fsf] cfwf/df a9L 3gTj, /fd|f]
hg;f+lVos cfsf/ / ;Gtf]ifhgs k'g?Tkfbg Ifdtf ePsf jg If]qaf6 dfq k|hflt klxrfg u/L
;+sng cg'dlt k|bfg ug]{ Joj:yf x'g'kg]{ .
$= 6\ofS;; dfO/]O{ h:tf] ;fgf] hg;f+lVos cfsf/ ePsf] jg:kltsf k|fs[lts af;:yfgdf ePsf
?vx¿af6 kft ;+sng ul/g] sfo{nfO{ lbuf] ul/g'kg]{ / o;sf] k|fs[lts af;:yfgdf k'g?Tkfbg
Ifdtf a9fpgsf] nflu ah]6 tyf sfo{qmdx¿sf] Joj:yf ug]{ .
%= nf}7;Nnf nf]k x'g nfu]sf ljleGg If]]qx¿ / xfn k|fs[lts ?kdf /fd|f] hg;f+lVos cfsf/ ePsf
If]qsf nf}7;Nnfsf k|hfltx¿sf] cWoog, ;+/If0f / lbuf] pkof]usf] nflu, ænf}7;Nnf ;+/lIft
If](Yew Protected Area) 3f]if0ff ug{ l;kmfl/; ug]{ .
^= km/s km/s If]q / xfjfkfgLdf k|fs[lts ?kdf kfOg] tLg k|hfltsf nf}7;NnfnfO{ g]kfn ;/sf/n]
h8La'6Lsf] lbuf] ljsf; / Joj:yfkgsf nflu k|fyldstfsf] ;"rLdf clgjfo{ ?kdf ;+nUg u/fO{
;+/If0f, v]tL lj:tf/ / Jofkf/sf nflu l;kmfl/; ug]{ .
&= ;|f]t ;j{]If0f (Inventory) u/L tf]lsPsf] ;do / kl/df0fdf dfq ;+sng ug{] cg'dlt lbg] Joj:yf
ug{] .
*= xfn g]kfndf nf}7;Nnfsf] kft k|zf]wg u/L 10–DAB III lgsf;L ug]{ ul/Psf]df b]zleq} yk
k|zf]wg u/L 6\ofS;f]n pTkfbg ug'{kg]{ Joj:yf ldnfpg' kg]{ .
(= ;bfaxf/ ;'Gb/ cfs[ltsf] j[If ePsf] sf/0f ;x/L pBfg (Urban Garden) tyf ;8s xl/t k]6L
(Green Belt) sf nflu /f]k0f ug{ k|f]T;fxg ug{'kg{] .
!)= jg lgodfjnL @)%! sf] kfrf}+ ;+zf]wg @)&@ df ePsf] Joj:yf cg';f/ @# k|hfltsf ?v s6fg
ug{ lghL jg wgLn] cg'dlt lng'kg{] / sf7 bfp/f cf];f/k;f/ ug{ 5f]8k"hL{ lng gkg{] / o;}u/L
!# k|hfltsf h8La'6Lsf] cf];f/k;f/ ug{ 5f]8k"hL{ lng' gkg{] Joj:yf eP cg'?k nf}7;Nnf
k|hfltsf] v]tL k|ljlw dfkm{t lghL jg tyf v]taf/Ldf /f]lkPsf la?jfaf6 kft ;+sngsf] xsdf
dfq dfly pNn]lvt cg';f/ g} ug{ pko'Qm x'g] .
- 54 _
(=@ cg';Gwfg
!= nf}7;Nnf k|hfltx¿sf] cfwf/e"t ;j{]If0f (Baseline Inventory) tof/ ug{] . ;fy} k'/fgf ljzfn
?vx¿sf] nut lnO{ k|fs[lts ;Dkbf (Natural Heritage) sf] ?kdf ;+/If0f ug{] .
@= nf}7;Nnfdf kfOg] Taxol sf] kl/df0f / u'0f:t/, lnË -efn] / kf]yL_, pd]/, k|fs[lts af;:yfg,
df6f]sf] cDnLo / Iff/Lo dfkg, df6f]sf] ulx/fO{ / ;+sng ;do km/s km/s x'Gf;Sg] ;Defjgfn]
ubf{ k|To]s k|hfltx¿sf] j}1flgs ljlwaf6 gd'gfx¿ ;+sng u/L ltgdf kfOg] Taxol sf] dfqf /
u'0f:t/ dfkg u/L l;kmfl/; ug{] .
#= g]kfndf nf}7;Nnfsf]] k|fs[lts ?kdf k'g?Tkfbg clt sd b]lvG5 . o;sf/0f g]kfnsf nf}7;Nnfsf
k|hfltx¿sf] lj:t[t ?kdf Population Dynamics / Ecological Modelling sf] cWoog u/L b]lvPsf
ljleGg k|sf/sf hf]lvdx¿sf] Go"gLs/0f / j}1flgs Joj:yfkgsf nflu cg';Gwfg z'? ug{] .
$= nf}7;Nnfsf] kft ;+sng s;/L ug{], s'g ;dodf ug{] / kft ;+sngsf] pko'Qm ljlw ljsf; u/L
pd]/ cg';f/sf] af]6af6 cfpg ;Sg] kftsf] jf:tljs kl/df0f (Biomass) cg'dfg nufpg ;Sg]
ljlw tof/ u/]/ nf}7;Nnfsf s[ifs, kft ;+sns ;fy} ;+sng cg'dlt lbg] lgsfonfO{ pknAw
u/fpg' kg{] .
(=# v]tL k|ljlw
!= g]kfnsf tLg} k|hfltx¿ cfg'jf+lzs u'0fdf km/s (Genetically different) ePsf]n] v]tL lj:tf/ ubf{
cnu cnu ?kdf ug{' kb{5 . oL k|hfltx¿ ;Fu} /f]lkPsf] cj:yfdf cGt/ k|hflt k|Hfgg\
(Hybridization) ;xh} x'g ;Sg] ;+efjgf x'G5 . o;/L cGt/ k|hfltaf6 j0f{z+s/ (Hybrid) ljsl;t
ePdf / xfnsf] cj:yfdf o:tf j0f{z+s/sf] ljsf; / k|hgg\df b]lvg ;Sg] b'j} gs/fTds /
;s/fTds c;/x¿sf af/]df j[xt cg';Gwfg e} g;s]sf]n] km/s k|hfltx¿ ld;fP/ v]tL ug{'
pko'Qm xF'b}g . o;sf/0f k|hfltsf] klxrfg ;'lglZrttf u/]/dfq v]tL ljsf; / lj:tf/ ug'{
kb{5 .
@= dfp ?vaf6 sl6ªsf nflu xfFuf ;+sng ubf{ af]6nfO{ sd eGbf sd Iflt kg]{ u/L ;+sng ug{] .
#= g]kfnsf ljleGg 7fpFdf nf}7;Nnfsf] v]tL lj:tf/ ubf{ ;xh / ;lhn} pknAw glhssf] Ps jf
b'O{ ?vaf6 w]/} ;+Vofdf sl6Ë lnO{ g;{/L :yfkgf u/L la?jf x'sf{pg] / gofF If]qdf v]tLsf nflu
a]gf{ ljt/0f ug{] sfo{af6 cfg'jf+lzs k|antfdf x|f; cfpg] ePsfn] o:tf sfo{x¿nfO{ lg?T;flxt
ug{] .
$= Ps} k|hflt leqsf km/s :yfg tyf Ps} If]qdf ePsf leGbfleGb} ?vx¿af6 sl6ª lnO{ v]tL
lj:tf/ ubf{ afnLdf cfg'jf+lzs ljljwtf sfod x'guO{ eljiodf x'g;Sg] /f]u, ls/fsf] k|sf]ksf]
hf]lvdnfO{ Go'lgs/0f ug{ ;xh x'g] x'Fbf oxL cg';f/ ug{ ;DalGwt lgsfo tyf s[ifsx¿nfO{
k|f]T;fxg ug{] .
- 55 _
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46. PG;fj -@))#_= u}x|sfi7 jg k}bfjf/x¿, sf7df8f}+ .
47. sdn dfb]g -@)^(_= SofG;/sf] pkrf/df k|of]u x'g] ;Nnf] ;+s6df, sflGtk'/, /fli6«o b}lgs
-@)^(÷#÷@^_ .
48. sdn dfb]g -@)&)_= kxf8L h+undf SofG;/sf] cf}ifwL, cGgk"0f{ kf]i6, /fli6«o b}lgs -@)&)÷!÷&_ .
49. sdn dfb]g -@)&#_= sf}8Lsf] efpdf SofG;/sf] cf}ifwL, cGgk"0f{ kf]i6, /fli6«o b}lgs -@)&#÷%÷$_
sf7df8f}+ .
50. h8La'6L Pjd\ u}/sfi7 jg k}bfjf/ ljsf; gLlt -@)^!_= jg:klt ljefu, yfkfynL, sf7df8f}+ .
51. jg P]g -@)$(_ tyf lgodfjnL -@)%!_= jg ljefu, aa/dxn sf7df8f}+ .
52. jg gLlt -@)&!_= jg tyf e"–;+/If0f dGqfno, l;+xb/jf/ sf7df8f}+ .
53. jg:klt ljefu -@)&#_= jg:klt ;|f]t jif{ !( c+s $, jg:klt ljefu yfkfynL, sf7df8f}+ .
54. jg ljefu -@)^(_= u}x|sfi7 jg k}bfjf/sf] ;|f]t ;j]{If0f dfu{bz{g @)^( . jg ljefu, aa/dxn
sf7df8f}+ .
55. jg tyf e"–;+/If0f dGqfno -@)&!_= nf}7;Nnfsf k|hfltx¿ / ltgsf] ef}uf]lns lj:tf/sf] olsg
ug{ agfOPsf] sfo{bnsf] k|ltj]bg @)&! sf7df8f}+ .
56. jftfj/0f ;+/If0f P]g -@)%#_ tyf lgodfjnL -@)%$_= lj1fg k|ljlw tyf jftfj/0f dGqfno .
57. jL/lg3G6' efu–$, g]kfn ;/sf/, sf7df8f}+, g]kfn .
58. g]kfnsf] ;+ljwfg -@)&@_= sfg"g lstfa Joj:yf ;ldlt, sf7df8f}+ .
59. g]kfn /fhkq -@)&!_= sfg"g lstfa Joj:yf ;ldlt, sf7df8f}+ -@)&!÷#÷#)_ .
60. g]kfn /fhkq -@)&@_= sfg"g lstfa Joj:yf ;ldlt, sf7df8f}+ -@)&@÷&÷!&_ .
61. /fli6«o lgs'~h tyf jGohGt' ;+/If0f P]g -@)@(_= /fli6«o lgs'~h tyf jGohGt' ;+/If0f ljefu,
aa/dxn, sf7df8f}+ .
- 58 _
!!= cg';"rLx?
cg';"rL != 6\ofS;; sG6f]6f{ kfOg] :yfgsf] ljj/0f
qm=;+= lhNnf :yfg s}lkmot
! bfr'{nf l6k'n5\ofS6L, 5]tL, clk–gfDkf,
sf}6]nLuf8–s;f}lGt, /ftfdf6L
KATH Herbarium; Poudel et al. (2014)
@ a}t8L>Lefj/
KATH Herbarium
# aemfË;'df{;/f]j/, 3f]8f bfpg]–nf]v8f,
KATH Herbarium
$ 8f]6LvKt8, ;flnËf8f]–rf]ofsf6\g]
KATH Herbarium. Parajuli et al. (1999)
% afh'/fsfF8], e'm/sf]6, clGtrf}/,
KATH Herbarium, Para