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How Chipotle used unbranded content to increase purchase intention by changing beliefs about ethical consumption

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Abstract

To combat ad avoidance, advertisers are moving advertising into programs, a practice known broadly as branded entertainment. The difficulty of advertising to Millennials has also prompted the use of unbranded cause advertising, to increase awareness of issues championed by the brand, without triggering defensive persuasion-coping strategies. Chipotle combined both these trends when it produced a relatively unbranded piece of branded entertainment, Farmed and Dangerous, a four-episode sitcom that humorously dramatized the ethical issues raised by industrial farming. When the series ran on Hulu, an online television network, it increased sales for the Chipotle brand and won awards for its creators. This study reports a classic pre/post experimental design, to show how exposure to this unbranded entertainment increased purchase intention by changing beliefs about ethical issues related to the environment, nutrition, and gene technology.

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A theory of heuristic and systematic information processing The heuristic-systematic model proposes two distinct modes of thinking about information. Systematic processing involves attempts to thoroughly understand any available information through careful attention, deep thinking, and intensive reasoning, whereas heuristic processing involves focusing on salient and easily comprehended cues that activate well-learned judgmental shortcuts. Heuristic processing is a more efficient and relatively automatic mode of processing, but more often than not confers less judgmental confidence. Systematic processing confers more confidence but is relatively effortful and time-consuming. Thus, individuals tend to engage in heuristic processing unless they are both motivated and able to think carefully about information, in which case the two modes of processing can have additive, attenuating, or interactive effects. Furthermore, both modes of processing can be relatively open-minded, driven by accuracy concerns, or relatively biased, driven by defense or impression concerns. This chapter situates the heuristic-systematic model within its ...
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The relative impact of narrative versus factual message strategies on product evaluation was explored. The role of ad message involvement (AMI) as a mediator was also investigated. Narrative versus factual print ad copy resulted in more favorable product evaluations for two fictitious brands, one each from the cell phone and sunglasses product categories. Narrative print ad copy also elicited higher ad message involvement which, in turn, mediate the differential effect of narrative versus factual copy on product evaluations. The study demonstrated one of the major pathways through which the relatively more persuasive effects of narrative versus factual print ad copy appears to operate. © 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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This paper presents an information-processing model that is directly applicable to the investigation of how mediated messages are processed. It applies the model to the case of television viewing to demonstrate its applicability. It provides a measure for each part of the model. It presents evidence that supports the model in the television-viewing situation. Finally, it demonstrates how the model may be used to further research and understanding in well-known theoretical traditions. This model is not meant to stand in opposition to any of these theories but, rather, should work well with them by providing hypothesized mechanisms that may underlie well-known effects. This model should prove useful both to researchers and, eventually, to message producers. To the extent that we can better understand how the content and structure of messages interact with a viewer's information-processing system to determine which parts and how much of a communication message is remembered, we will make great strides in understanding how people communicate.
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Many believe that within three or four years the wireless Internet will overtake the fixed-line Internet in consumer penetration and business-to-consumer (B2C) e-commerce. Some believe that distinctions between media will soon disappear because of digital convergence: that it will soon be meaningless to ask whether the device used for home shopping is a PC or a TV. This article argues that the various new media will continue to be distinguishable from each other despite convergence and that the dominant device, even in B2C markets, will continue to be something like today's PC.
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There are strong indications that many consumers are switching towards more socially and environmentally responsible products and services, reflecting a shift in consumer values indicated in several countries. However, little is known about the motives that drive some toward, or deter others from, higher levels of ethical concern and action in their purchasing decisions. Following a qualitative investigation using ZMET and focus group discussions, a questionnaire was developed and administered to a representative sample of consumers; nearly 1,000 usable questionnaires were collected. The degree of awareness, concern and action regarding 16 ethical issues was quantified, using a measure developed from the Stages of Change concept within the Transtheoretical model. Motivations for ethical behaviour, in relation to each individual’s most salient ethical issue, were investigated using initially 22 motive statements within the framework of the Decisional Balance Scale (DBS). The findings suggest that the DBS and Stages model have an explanatory value within the ethical decision-making context, and that the motives identified do reflect the Decisional Balance Constructs. Indeed the study suggests that respondents’ motivational attitudes are a function of their stage of ethical awareness, concern and action. Therefore, the Decisional Balance Scale may well prove useful for designing appropriate interventions and communications to facilitate movement towards more ethical decision-making. These findings yield strategic insight for communicating messages to ethical consumers and for better understanding their purchasing decisions.
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This article proposes that narrative processing creates or enhances self-brand connections (SBC) because people generally interpret the meaning of their experiences by fitting them into a story. Similarly, in response to an ad that tells a story, narrative processing may create a link between a brand and the self when consumers attempt to map incoming narrative information onto stories in memory. Our approach rests on the notion that a brand becomes more meaningful the more closely it is linked to the self. We conceptualize this linkage at an aggregate level in terms of SBCs, that is, the extent to which consumers have incorporated the brand into their self-concepts. The results of an experiment show that narrative processing in response to a narratively structured ad is positively related to SBCs, which in turn have a positive relation with brand attitudes and behavioral intentions.
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This research examines differences in consumers' sympathy and empathy responses to televised drama commercials. The research framework is multidisciplinary, for construct definition from humanities disciplines (aesthetics and philosophy) grounds the empirical testing of sympathy and empathy responses to advertising. Valid and reliable measurement instruments are developed to test relationships between sympathy and empathy as responses to classical and vignette advertising dramas. Results of two experiments indicate that sympathy responses mediate the effect of a drama advertisement's form on empathy responses, with both sympathy and empathy directly enhancing positive attitudes to an advertisement. Copyright 2003 by the University of Chicago.
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In theories and studies of persuasion, people's personal knowledge about persuasion agents' goals and tactics, and about how to skillfully cope with these, has been ignored. We present a model of how people develop and use persuasion knowledge to cope with persuasion attempts. We discuss what the model implies about how consumers use marketers' advertising and selling attempts to refine their product attitudes and attitudes toward the marketers themselves. We also explain how this model relates to prior research on consumer behavior and persuasion and what it suggests about the future conduct of consumer research. Copyright 1994 by the University of Chicago.
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In three learning experiments we examined how subjects' level of involvement during initial exposure to consumer trivia influences what they learn and what they subsequently come to believe. Subjects rated consumer trivia statements as more true when they had been exposed to those statements earlier in the experiment. Simple repetition increased subsequent truth ratings. Moreover, when subjects processed the information during initial exposure in a less involving fashion, the effect of repetition on truth became more pronounced. Familiarity emerged as a key mediator of the truth effect. When subjects experienced an "it rings a bell" reaction, they judged the information to be more true. Finally, under low-involvement processing, the truth effect increased when subjects engaged in a processing task (rote rehearsal) that increased familiarity without increasing evaluative processing of the information. Copyright 1992 by the University of Chicago.
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Television ads can be classified as either arguments or dramas or hybrids of these forms. We claim that form dimension influences how ads are processed. An argument backs its claims with appeals to objectivity and is processed evaluatively. A drama appeals more to subjective criteria and is processed empathically. A study is reported in which 40 television commercials were classified on a dramatization scale. They were shown to 1,215 people, and measures of evaluative and empathic processing were taken. The measures were found to be weighted differently for arguments and dramas, supporting the contention that form influences processing. Copyright 1989 by the University of Chicago.
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A dual-task procedure was used to examine the effects of text genre on prose processing, comprehension, and recall in 20 young (18-33 years) and 20 old (65-80 years) adults. Response latencies on a secondary task provided an index of cognitive capacity used in reading narrative and expository passages. Both groups recalled more of narratives than of expository passages, although old subjects recalled less than young. Also, the narrative protocols of both age groups showed a greater difference for recall of main ideas as compared to details. Age differences in the pattern of text genre effects were found on measures of comprehension, capacity utilization, and processing efficiency. It appears that the narrative genre facilitated most measures of performance and partially compensated for some limitations in the older group.
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Individuals who lead a "wellness-oriented" lifestyle are concerned with nutrition, fitness, stress, and their environment. They accept responsibility for their health and are excellent customers for health-related products and services. Those who lack a wellness orientation are identified as higher health risks and become candidates for health promotion program intervention. The authors report a new scale by which to measure the wellness-oriented lifestyle. Scale development procedures are detailed, followed by information from five studies that support its validity. The authors suggest ways health care marketers may use the Wellness Scale to segment and target potential customers and position their products and services.
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The aim of the study was twofold. The first aim was to develop on-line video clip material that showed examples of nurses dealing with potentially difficult and delicate patient groups. The second aim was to evaluate the effectiveness of video clip materials for enhancing nursing student's self-efficacy to effectively communicate with the type of patients described above. The production of contextually relevant video clip material involved the identification of relevant material based on real experiences, writing appropriate scripts, recruiting actors, recording the performances and producing them in a form that could be accessed on-line. Self-report questionnaires were used to assess the effectiveness of video clip material. Level 1 (n = 145) nursing students completed a self-efficacy measure that assessed confidence to deal with situations such as breaking news of death, working with children, people with disability and aggressive behaviour at the start and the end of the module. Results indicated that student's self-efficacy increased noticeably over the course of the module. Differences between increases in self-efficacy attributed to watching videos or attending lectures were marginal. Findings suggest that using video clips that show students effectively coping with adverse situations provide an effective teaching approach for enhancing self-efficacy. Future research is needed to test the extent to which self-efficacy measures relate with nursing performance.
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This paper is one of 18 selected by the Editorial Review Board of The Journal of Advertising Research to be a ‘classic’ - an article that has withstood the test of time. First published in 1974, Ehrenberg examines the role of advertising by looking at advertising and consumption in general, then discussing competition among brands and the factors affecting brand choice, particularly for established brands of frequently bought goods. He concludes the advertising's main role is to reinforce feelings of satisfaction with brands already bought.
Illusions in Regression Analysis
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Food with Integrity: Chipotle's Fresh Mex
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