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To combat ad avoidance, advertisers are moving advertising into programs, a practice known broadly as branded entertainment. The difficulty of advertising to Millennials has also prompted the use of unbranded cause advertising, to increase awareness of issues championed by the brand, without triggering defensive persuasion-coping strategies. Chipotle combined both these trends when it produced a relatively unbranded piece of branded entertainment, Farmed and Dangerous, a four-episode sitcom that humorously dramatized the ethical issues raised by industrial farming. When the series ran on Hulu, an online television network, it increased sales for the Chipotle brand and won awards for its creators. This study reports a classic pre/post experimental design, to show how exposure to this unbranded entertainment increased purchase intention by changing beliefs about ethical issues related to the environment, nutrition, and gene technology.
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... Therefore, purchase intention can be increased by designing Customer Relationship Marketing. Bellman, Potter, Treleaven-Hassard, Robinson, & Varan (2011) and Bellman, Rask, & Varan (2019) stated that purchase intention is influenced by the level of consumer experience and consumer relations. In conjunction with the present issue, this study aims to analyze the mediating role of CRM in digital marketing and online trust on the online purchase intention of e-commerce customers in Banda Aceh city, Aceh province, Indonesia. ...
... In a broader sense, CRM is the entire process of building and maintaining profitable customer relationships by delivering superior customer value and satisfaction. Purchase intention can basically be increased by designing Customer Relationship Marketing as stated by Bellman et al., (2019) stated that purchase intention is influenced by the level of consumer experience and consumer relations. ...
In the digitalization era, e-commerce plays a crucial role in the economy, followed by the internet and smartphone technology. Also, it has a positive effect on humankind. Indonesia has reported the highest e-commerce adoption in the world. However, limited previous studies utilize customer relationship management (CRM) as a mediator in influencing online purchase intention. The present study seeks to analyze the mediating role of CRM in the relationship of digital marketing and online trust on the online purchase intention of e-commerce customers in Banda Aceh city, Aceh province, Indonesia. This study involved all the customers of e-commerce companies in Banda Aceh City. The sample was determined by using a rule of thumb. A total of 150 respondents participated and were collected using purposive sampling. The results indicated that Digital Marketing and Online Trust have a significant positive relationship with CRM. Also, Digital Marketing and CRM have a significant relationship with online purchase intention. Unfortunately, Online trust does not significantly affect online consumer purchase intention. In addition, the CRM mediates the relationship of digital marketing and online trust towards the online purchase intention of e-commerce consumers in Banda Aceh, Aceh Province, Indonesia. This study concludes that CRM plays a role as a mediator in the relationship of the studied variables on the online purchase intention of e-commerce consumers. Also, this study has successfully analyzed the factors that influence online purchase intention and proved the role of CRM.
... To understand the influence of stories, researchers have investigated the effects of storytelling on information processing (Adaval and Wyer 1998), product evaluations (Polyorat et al. 2007), brand attitude (Nagar 2019), brand associations (Lundqvist et al. 2013), brand preference (Tezer et al. 2020), self-brand connections (Escalas, 2004) and brand image (Ryu et al. 2019). Storytelling has been associated with higher levels of brand recall (Brechman and Purvis, 2015), stronger persuasive effects (Bellman et al. 2019), favourable responses toward advertising and increased word-of-mouth (Kang et al. 2020). However, research that examines the effect of storytelling on the dimensions that constitute the consumer relationship experience, respectively, cognition, emotion, and behaviour, in an integrated conceptual model, is considerably scarce. ...
... Therefore, storytelling can be an important strategic vehicle to transmit and disseminate the brand's meaning to consumers. Whereas traditional advertisements can have weak persuasive effects (Bellman et al. 2019), our results suggest that storytelling can create strong brand meanings, connect the brand to the consumer's sense of self and stimulate an affective involvement, through a particularly important mechanism, the narrative structure. Moreover, in today's intense fight over consumer attention, managers can defy consumers' expectations with the introduction of unpredictable story elements able to challenge the traditional schemas held in consumers' minds. ...
The main purpose of this research is to explore the strategic role of storytelling as a facilitator of the consumer–brand relationship experience through the creation of cognitive, emotional, and behavioural responses. The hypotheses are tested with a dataset of survey data from 323 Portuguese consumers using partial least squares structural equation modelling. Based on social identity theory, the findings show that storytelling improves consumers’ cognitive responses through consumer–brand identification and stimulates consumers’ emotional responses through brand affective involvement. Moreover, storytelling stimulates behavioural responses through purchase intention, via the mediating role of consumers’ cognitive and emotional responses. The results also show that storytelling generates stronger emotional than cognitive responses, but cognitive responses have stronger effects on behavioural responses. This research contributes to the literature on the strategic role of storytelling in brand management by demonstrating that storytelling is an effective way of improving the consumer–brand relationship experience.
... Although the campaign was implemented under the brand name Strong Beautiful Future, the intervention content was often unbranded. This lack of an emphasis on branding is an advertising strategy used in the marketing industry as a way of encouraging an audience to focus on the actual content of an advertisement or campaign rather than emphasizing increased awareness of a brand name (Anthoine-Badaroux et al. 2017;Bellman et al. 2017). ...
Low birthweight is one of the main causes of poor health outcomes among newborns, with Black women having a disproportionately high prevalence. A digital intervention targeted Black women in Orange County, Florida with information on positive pregnancy-related knowledge and attitudes related to low birthweight. This paper reports on campaign methods for the first 2.5 years of implementation.
Campaign content was tailored toward Black women, around a reproductive empowerment lens. Content focused on emphasizing healthy pregnancy-related behaviors and creating positive representations of Black women throughout the various stages of pregnancy through both static images and a web series. Digital metrics gauged campaign engagement. Three cross-sectional online surveys conducted in the intervention county examined Black women’s pregnancy-related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors.
After two years of campaign implementation, social media accounts showed 1784 followers. While Facebook showed more average monthly impressions, Instagram showed more average monthly engagements. Survey results showed some increases in knowledge about prenatal care, weight gain, exercise, and the health impacts of low birthweight.
Conclusions for Practice
This study highlights the potential for a culturally-appropriate digital intervention to promote positive pregnancy outcomes among at-risk women. Digital interventions offer a potential way to achieve positive pregnancy-related behavior changes on a larger scale. This may be particularly important given that the COVID-19 pandemic may be changing the ways that pregnant women access information. Studies should examine the impact and feasibility of using culturally-appropriate digital interventions that directly address Black women and their specific experiences during pregnancy.
... Content produced by influencers was intentionally unbranded, a term referred to as "native advertising" . Using unbranded content and relying on the effectiveness of tailored messaging is an established practice in marketing, but is relatively untested within the public health sphere [31,32]. This method of advertising promotes ideas related to a specific behavior change in order to have an effect on behavior that is beneficial to the brand (or in this case, the health behavior). ...
Seasonal influenza affects millions of people across the United States each year. African Americans and Hispanics have significantly lower vaccination rates, and large-scale campaigns have had difficulty increasing vaccination among these two groups. This study assessed the feasibility of delivering a flu vaccination promotion campaign using influencers, and examined shifts in social norms regarding flu vaccine acceptability after a social media micro influencer campaign. Influencers were asked to choose from vetted messages and create their own original content promoting flu vaccination, which was posted to their social media pages. Content was intentionally unbranded to ensure that it aligned with the look and feel of their pages. Cross-sectional pre- and post-campaign surveys were conducted within regions that received the campaign and control regions to examine potential campaign impact. Digital metrics assessed campaign exposure. Overall, 117 influencers generated 69,495 engagements. Results from the region that received the campaign showed significant increases in positive beliefs about the flu vaccine, and significant decreases in negative community attitudes toward the vaccine. This study suggests that flu campaigns using a ground-up rather than top-down approach can feasibly reach at-risk groups with lower vaccination rates, and shows the potentials of using an influencer-based model to communicate information about flu vaccination on a large scale.
This report offers a strategic analysis for Chipotle. Firstly, the company's mission, vision, current strategy and objectives are revisited. Secondly, the nature of the industry and PESTLE
analysis is conducted to have a better understanding of the external environment. Thirdly, Chipotle’s key external and internal factors are defined, followed by external factor evaluation
(EFE) matrix and internal factor evaluation (IFE) and competitive profile matrix (CPM). In
this stage, Chipotle achieved a score slightly above average in external factor and an average
score in internal factors. Also, its performance is scored as worst among its major competitors: Panera Bread and Jack in the Box. Next, in the strategy formulation stage, various matrixes are used, including SWOT matrix, SPACE matrix, BCG matrix, IE matrix, Grand strategy matrix and QSPM matrix. As a result, a series of strategies are come up. The most frequently suggested strategies are: Product development (creating new menu) and market development (international expansion). Creating new menu was selected to be the best strategy for Chipotle due to a higher score in QSPM matrix.
In strategy implementation stage, Chipotle’s long term objective is identified which is to achieve a 40% revenue increase in 3 years. Departmental objectives and policies are established to provide further guidance. Then, finance, marketing, HR and R&D issues may occur in strategy implementation are recognized, which are areas that Chipotle should carefully look into when applying strategies. The projected income statement for the year 2018 is designed to forecast financial performance. At last, 5 recommendations for Chipotle to achieve better performance are proposed, including Building a food safety organizational culture; Conducting effective marketing; Conducting market research; Daypart business expansion, and Continuous investing in technology and innovation.
Obesity is a leading cause of premature death in the U.S., in part due to consumption of sugar sweetened beverages (SSBs). In New Jersey, African Americans, Hispanics, and those of low income have the highest rates of SSB consumption. This study evaluates the impact of NJ Sugarfreed, a campaign designed to reduce sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption across New Jersey. From 12/1/17–9/30/18, we used a collective impact model to create targeted statewide campaigns that reduce SSB consumption among New Jersey residents, with an emphasis on African American and Hispanic low-income mothers/caregivers who are often gatekeepers to children's SSB consumption. Passaic County, New Jersey received a higher dose intervention. Messages were disseminated through social media, partner organizations, and community partnerships. Campaign impact was examined through evaluation surveys and analysis of beverage sales. Baseline and follow-up surveys (n = 800 baseline; n = 782 follow-up) showed positive trends toward decreased soda consumption and increased knowledge about SSBs. Passaic respondents showed a 5% decrease in those who consume 1+ soda per day, compared to a 1% decrease among New Jersey respondents. Analysis of overall SSB beverage sales showed the most pronounced decreases in Passaic (7% decrease) compared to New Jersey (6%). By drawing upon best practices in message development and the use of various platforms for dissemination, combined with community-based participation, we have provided more evidence to support the use of a collective impact model as a way of reducing unhealthy behaviors that impact health disparities.
The authors examine the dynamic effects of category- and brand-level advertising for a new pharmaceutical in a market in which regulations require that the content of these two types of advertising be mutually exclusive. Specifically, category, or generic, messages should communicate information only about the disease without promoting any brand, whereas brand-level messages should be void of any therapeutic information. This brings up two questions of great managerial importance: Which type of message is generally more effective (category or brand level), and when is one type more effective than the other? The authors pursue these questions by analyzing the effects of advertising on new and refill prescriptions through the use of an augmented Kalman filter with continuous state and discrete observations. The findings suggest the presence of complex dynamics for both types of regulation-induced advertising messages. In general, brand advertising is more effective, especially after competitive entry. Extensive validation tests confirm the superiority of the modeling approach. The authors discuss implications for managers and regulators.
This paper investigates the dominance of the information processing model in TV advertising. Despite theoretical and empirical evidence which supports the importance of factors such as emotional content and creativity, we show that a rational information-based persuasion model, which pre-dates the development of formal marketing, persists in its domination of almost all TV advertising development and evaluation. We postulate that this persistence derives from a sociological desire to maintain a positivist worldview of simplistic well-ordered value systems operated by rational and predictable consumers. We suggest that both advertisers and researchers need to adopt a Critical Realism perspective in order to move beyond the philosophical straightjacket of this information processing model, and we summarise the implications that this has for current research practice.
Despite the widespread use of exploratory factor analysis in psychological research, researchers often make questionable decisions when conducting these analyses. This article reviews the major design and analytical decisions that must be made when conducting a factor analysis and notes that each of these decisions has important consequences for the obtained results. Recommendations that have been made in the methodological literature are discussed. Analyses of 3 existing empirical data sets are used to illustrate how questionable decisions in conducting factor analyses can yield problematic results. The article presents a survey of 2 prominent journals that suggests that researchers routinely conduct analyses using such questionable methods. The implications of these practices for psychological research are discussed, and the reasons for current practices are reviewed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Summated scales are widely used in management research to measure constructs such as job satisfaction and organizational commitment. This article suggests that Revelle’s (1979) coefficient beta, implemented in Revelle’s (1978) ICLUST item-clustering procedure, should be used in conjunction with Cronbach’s coefficient alpha measure of internal consistency as criteria for judging the dimensionality and internal homogeneity of summated scales. The approach is demonstrated using ICLUST reanalyses of sample responses to Warr’s (1990) affective well-being scale and O’Brien, Dowling, and Kabanoff’s (1978) job satisfaction scale. Coefficient beta and item clustering are shown to more clearly identify the homogeneity and internal dimensional structure of summated scale constructs than do traditional principal components analyses. Given these benefits, Revelle’s approach is a viable alternative methodology for scale construction in management, organizational, and cross-cultural contexts, especially when researchers need to make defensible choices between using whole scales or subscales.
A promotional strategy of growing interest is the placement of branded products in movies. An experiment compared the recall effectiveness of common product-placement strategies with each other and with advertising. Prominent placements elicited higher recall than did advertisements, which, in turn, outperformed subtle placements. The explicit mention of a product in the audio script (without a visual depiction) led to better recall than a subtle visual placement (without audio reinforcement). However, the addition of a complementary audio message did not significantly enhance the recall of a product that already enjoyed prominent visual display.
Service researchers have postulated that for many services, from the customer’s point of view, the service experience is the key perceptual event. For portraying and conveying experiences, narrative forms of communication tend to be uniquely effective. This experimental study examined whether consumer expertise interferes with the relative effectiveness of story-based appeals in print advertisements portraying experiential services. This study also sought insight into consumers’ affective responses to service ads, a nascent area of inquiry. Overall, this study’s results suggest that consumers with relatively low familiarity with a service category might prefer appeals based on stories to appeals based on lists of service attributes. This relative advantage of narrative ads might be magnified when the novice consumer is in a happy rather than sad mood while encoding the information in the ad. Consumers with relatively high familiarity with the focal service category, however, might be unaffected by the format of the information presentation.
Recent years have seen an increase in public concern for farm animal welfare in the UK. However, sales of higher welfare meat
and other animal-based food products are typically lower than their standard counterparts. The aim of this study was to determine
both the prevalence of concern for farm animal welfare in a population, as well as the reasons for higher concern in some
consumers as compared with others. In addition, the study focused on consumer attitudes towards pigs (Sus scrofa scrofa), and concern for their welfare, in particular, in order to identify areas which, if addressed, may help to increase consumer
concern for pig welfare on farms, as well as increase consumer demand for higher welfare pork products. A questionnaire was
designed with this in mind and disseminated to undergraduate students at the University of Chester. Concern for farm animal
welfare, concern for the welfare of pigs on farms and reported willingness to pay extra for higher welfare pork products were
all found to be influenced by consumer attitudes towards pigs, participant programme of study, awareness of pork production
methods and previous exposure to a conventional pig farm. In addition, the results of the study indicate that a high level
of ignorance regarding pork production methods is prevalent amongst UK consumers. In order to increase concern for pig welfare
on farms, and thereby increase demand for higher welfare pork products, it was suggested that campaigns should aim to make
clear the production methods used in conventional pork production systems in the UK.
In the last few decades product placement has matured and become more sophisticated. Branded products are no longer just 'placed'; they are woven into entertainment content making a stronger emotional connection with the consumer. The outcome is a concept the advertising industry is calling branded entertainment, a convergence of advertising and entertainment. This article considers whether or not branded entertainment is a new technique, or just another form of product placement. By tracking the evolution of product placement and from an analysis of the two concepts, it is suggested that branded entertainment is a new term to describe a more contemporary, sophisticated use of product placement. A conceptual framework for understanding the various forms of product placement is presented, and this highlights the key influences on the effectiveness of this fast-growing marketing phenomenon. The important management issues related to product placement are considered; issues related to measurement, control, and ethics. The article then concludes with recommendations for further research.
Participants estimated the attractiveness of vacations described in 2 travel brochures. The information about 1 vacation was conveyed in a narrative that described the sequence of events that would occur. In contrast, information about the other vacation was conveyed in an ostensibly unorganized list. Vacations were generally evaluated more favorably when they were described in a narrative than when their features were simply listed. Moreover, this difference increased when (a) negative features of the vacations were mentioned, (b) pictures accompanied the text information, or (c) recipients were encouraged to imagine themselves having the experiences described. Although narrative forms of information elicited more extreme affective reactions than list forms, this did not account for the difference in their effectiveness. Rather, the advantage of narratives was attributed to (a) their structural similarity to information acquired through daily life experiences and (b) the use of a holistic—as opposed to a piecemeal—strategy for computing judgments.
The authors review more than 250 journal articles and books to establish what is and should be known about how advertising affects the consumer-how it works. They first deduce a taxonomy of models, discuss the theoretical principles of each class of models, and summarize their empirical findings. They then synthesize five generalizations about how advertising works and propose directions for further research. Advertising effects are classified into intermediate effects, for example, on consumer beliefs and attitudes, and behavioral effects, which relate to purchasing behavior, for example, on brand choice. The generalizations suggest that there is little support for any hierarchy, in the sense of temporal sequence, of effects. The authors propose that advertising effects should be studied in a space, with affect, cognition, and experience as the three dimensions. Advertising's positioning in this space should be determined by context, which reflects advertising's goal diversity, product category, competition, other aspects of mix, stage of product life cycle, and target market.
Dunlap and Van Liere's New Environmental Paradigm (NEP) Scale, published in 1978, has become a widely used measure of proenvironmental orientation. This article develops a revised NEP Scale designed to improve upon the original one in several respects: (1) It taps a wider range of facets of an ecological worldview, (2) It offers a balanced set of pro- and anti-NEP items, and (3) It avoids outmoded terminology. The new scale, termed the New Ecological Paradigm Scale, consists of 15 items. Results of a 1990 Washington State survey suggest that the items can be treated as an internally consistent summated ratingscale and also indicate a modest growth in pro-NEP responses among Washington residents over the 14 years since the original study.
To increase the sales of their products through advertising, firms must integrate their brand-advertising strategy for capturing market share from competitors and their generic-advertising strategy for increasing primary demand for the category. This paper examines whether, when, and how much brand advertising versus generic advertising should be done. Using differential game theory, optimal advertising decisions are obtained for a dynamic duopoly with symmetric or asymmetric competitors. We show how advertising depends on the cost and effectiveness of each type of advertising for each firm, the allocation of market expansion benefits, and the profit margins determined endogenously from price competition. We find that generic advertising is proportionally more important in the short term and that there are free-riding effects leading to suboptimal industry expenditure on generic advertising that worsen as firms become more symmetric. Due to free-riding by the weaker firm, its instantaneous profit and market share can actually be higher. The effectiveness of generic advertising and the allocation of its benefits, however, have little effect on the long-run market shares, which are determined by brand-advertising effectiveness. Extensions of the model show that market potential saturation leads to a decline in generic advertising over time.
Although public interest in sustainability increases and consumer attitudes are mainly positive, behavioral patterns are not
univocally consistent with attitudes. This study investigates the presumed gap between favorable attitude towards sustainable
behavior and behavioral intention to purchase sustainable food products. The impact of involvement, perceived availability,
certainty, perceived consumer effectiveness (PCE), values, and social norms on consumers’ attitudes and intentions towards
sustainable food products is analyzed. The empirical research builds on a survey with a sample of 456 young consumers, using
a questionnaire and an experimental design with manipulation of key constructs through showing advertisements for sustainable
dairy. Involvement with sustainability, certainty, and PCE have a significant positive impact on attitude towards buying sustainable
dairy products, which in turn correlates strongly with intention to buy. Low perceived availability of sustainable products
explains why intentions to buy remain low, although attitudes might be positive. On the reverse side, experiencing social
pressure from peers (social norm) explains intentions to buy, despite rather negative personal attitudes. This study shows
that more sustainable and ethical food consumption can be stimulated through raising involvement, PCE, certainty, social norms,
and perceived availability.
Despite the widespread use of exploratory factor analysis in psychological research, researchers often make questionable decisions when conducting these analyses. This article reviews the major design and analytical decisions that must be made when conducting a factor analysis and notes that each of these decisions has important consequences for the obtained results. Recommendations that have been made in the methodological literature are discussed. Analyses of 3 existing empirical data sets are used to illustrate how questionable decisions in conducting factor analyses can yield problematic results. The article presents a survey of 2 prominent journals that suggests that researchers routinely conduct analyses using such questionable methods. The implications of these practices for psychological research are discussed, and the reasons for current practices are reviewed.
This research investigates the effect of consumer characteristics (e.g., familiarity and enduring motivation) and stimulus characteristics (e.g., information format and content) on the utilization of nutrition information. Results indicate that both types of charcteristics influence information processing and decision quality. Moreover, stimulus characteristics, in general, were found to facilitate these activities irrespective of consumer differences. Copyright 1990 by the University of Chicago.
Transportation was proposed as a mechanism whereby narratives can affect beliefs. Defined as absorption into a story, transportation entails imagery, affect, and attentional focus. A transportation scale was developed and validated. Experiment 1 (N = 97) demonstrated that extent of transportation augmented story-consistent beliefs and favorable evaluations of protagonists. Experiment 2 (N = 69) showed that highly transported readers found fewer false notes in a story than less-transported readers. Experiments 3 (N = 274) and 4 (N = 258) again replicated the effects of transportation on beliefs and evaluations; in the latter study, transportation was directly manipulated by using processing instructions. Reduced transportation led to reduced story-consistent beliefs and evaluations. The studies also showed that transportation and corresponding beliefs were generally unaffected by labeling a story as fact or as fiction.
In October 2002, the U.S. Department of State under the direction of Under Secretary of State for Public Diplomacy and former advertising executive Charlotte Beers launched a first-ever public diplomacy campaign featuring television spots promoting the happy lives of American Muslims. The advertising campaign, known as the Shared Values Initiative, ran on a limited schedule throughout the Middle East and Asia through January 2003. This article attempts to assess the reactions and feelings that international viewers have toward the commercials and, to the extent possible, evaluate the effectiveness of the commercials on changing international audiences attitudes toward the United States.International students from various countries who were enrolled at Regents College in London, England in the summer of 2003 constituted the sample for this study. An experimental design, similar to those found in World War II propaganda literature, was employed to measure their attitudes toward the U.S. government, the American people, and their perception of how Muslims are treated in America before and after viewing the State Department commercials. The international students reactions to the spots in the form of an advertising copy test are also reported.
Given recent interest in social media, many brands now create content that they hope consumers will view and share with peers. While some campaigns indeed go "viral," their value to the brand is limited if they do not boost brand evaluation or increase purchase. Consequently, a key question is how to create valuable virality, or content that is not only shared but also beneficial to the brand. Share data from hundreds of real online ads, as well as controlled laboratory experiments, demonstrate that compared with informative appeals (which focus on product features), emotional appeals (which use drama, mood, music, and other emotion-eliciting strategies) are more likely to be shared. Informative appeals, in contrast, boost brand evaluations and purchase because the brand is an integral part of the ad content. By combining the benefits of both approaches, emotional brand-integral ads boost sharing while also bolstering brand-related outcomes. The authors' framework sheds light on how companies can generate valuable virality and the mechanisms underlying these effects.
How users consume media has shifted dramatically as viewers migrate from traditional broadcast channels toward online channels. Rather than following the schedule dictated by television networks and consuming one episode of a series each week, many viewers now engage in binge watching, which involves consuming several episodes of the same series in a condensed period of time. In this research, the authors decompose users' viewing behavior into (1) whether the user continues the viewing session after each episode viewed, (2) whether the next episode viewed is from the same or a different series, and (3) the time elapsed between sessions. Applying this modeling framework to data provided by Hulu.com, a popular online provider of broadcast and cable television shows, the authors examine the drivers of binge watching behavior, distinguishing between user-level traits and states determined by previously viewed content. The authors simultaneously investigate users' response to advertisements. Many online video providers support their services with advertising revenue; thus, understanding how users respond to advertisements and how advertising affects subsequent viewing is of paramount importance to both advertisers and online video providers. The results of the study reveal that advertising responsiveness differs between bingers and nonbingers and that it changes over the course of online viewing sessions. The authors discuss the implications of their results for advertisers and online video platforms.
This article discusses the contribution of critical political economy approaches to digital journalism studies and argues that these offer important correctives to celebratory perspectives. The first part offers a review and critique of influential claims arising from self-styled new studies of convergence culture, media and creative industries. The second part discusses the contribution of critical political economy in examining digital journalism and responding to celebrant claims. The final part reflects on problems of restrictive normativity and other limitations within media political economy perspectives and considers ways in which challenges might be addressed by more synthesising approaches. The paper proposes developing radical pluralist, media systems and comparative analysis, and advocates drawing on strengths in both political economy and culturalist traditions to map and evaluate practices across all sectors of digital journalism.
This article reviews the conventional view of advertising—the Strong Theory—which is all but universally believed in the United States and which sees advertising as a dynamic force operating as an engine for brand innovation and other types of change in the market-place. In contrast, there is the theory developed over the years with increasing persuasiveness by Andrew Ehrenberg of the London Business School, that sees advertising as a weak force, one that cannot act as a prime mover in the capitalist system, but which is used defensively by most advertisers as a means of protecting the status quo. This essay argues that a good deal of mischief has been caused by an uncritical belief that the Strong Theory operates in all circumstances. As a result, advertising has been associated too much with over-promise and under-delivery. The article's focus is then directed to education for advertising as it is carried out in American universities. It is argued that much of the research carried out in these universit...
The choice of foods by free-living individuals is an area of concern for many people involved in the production and distribution of foods, but also for those concerned with nutrition and health education. Like any complex human behaviour, food choice is influenced by many interrelating factors. A number of models seeking to delineate the effects of likely influences have been put forward in the literature (e.g. Randall and Sanjur 1981; Shepherd 1985; reviewed by Shepherd 1989). However, few of these models present any indication of likely mechanisms of action of the multitude of factors identified, nor do they quantify the relative importance of, or interactions between, factors. Likewise they do not allow any quantitative tests which are predictive of food choice. To date many such models are really only catalogues of the likely influences although as such they are useful in pointing to the variables to consider in studies in this area.
A quantitative content analysis examined stereotypes and counter-stereotypes concerning mental illness in crime-based fictional television programs aired on U.S. television between 2010 and 2013. Coders rated 65 randomly selected television episodes and 983 characters for stereotypes and counter-stereotypes related to mental illness. Characters labeled as having mental illness demonstrated greater likelihood of committing crimes and violence than the remaining population of characters, perpetuating stereotypes. They also stood greater chance of being victimized by crime, another stereotype. Nevertheless, counter-stereotypes related to social standing (including the presence of family and friends) also emerged in the television content. The authors discuss how stereotypes in television content might contribute to the stigmatization of mental illness.
Conventional wisdom suggests that most purchases made from infomercials30-minute direct-response television advertisements-are made on impulse. However, this study of 878 infomercial purchasers of six products from a major international infomercial marketer indicates that the majority of purchase decisions involved some degree of planning rather than simply being made on the spur of the moment. Factors influencing whether a purchase was an impulse or planned decision included: comments by experts, demonstrations, the levels of previous product interest, prepurchase thinking about the product, and prior exposure to the advertisement, as well as the number of infomercials viewed by consumers. Having children aged between 10 and 14 years old also had an influence.
The authors discuss the potential merits of taking a narrative approach to communicating service brand image through advertising. On the assumption that a primary goal of advertising should be to create a vivid image of the brand in consumers' minds, they assess past definitions of brand image and adapt them to the marketing of services. They review metaphors used previously to understand services, and emphasize that the experiential aspect of services should play an important role in how service brand image is conceptualized. Specifically, they suggest that experience is a useful conceptualization for understanding service brand image because it represents the customer's perspective of a service and the symbolic meanings created during service consumption. Using their conceptualization of service as experience, the authors discuss how to view consumers' comprehension of services, and thus how to communicate about services through advertising. They draw on narrative theory to suggest that narrative thought is a predominant cognitive mode of comprehension used by consumers to interpret experience (and hence services) and that narrative advertising should be effective in communicating service experience. Finally, they present a series of propositions linking the formal structure of advertising to responses related to the creation of service brand image.
G*Power (Erdfelder, Faul, & Buchner, 1996) was designed as a general stand-alone power analysis program for statistical tests commonly used in social and behavioral research. G*Power 3 is a major extension of, and improvement over, the previous versions. It runs on widely used computer platforms (i.e., Windows XP, Windows Vista, and Mac OS X 10.4) and covers many different statistical tests of the t, F, and chi2 test families. In addition, it includes power analyses for z tests and some exact tests. G*Power 3 provides improved effect size calculators and graphic options, supports both distribution-based and design-based input modes, and offers all types of power analyses in which users might be interested. Like its predecessors, G*Power 3 is free.
A theory of heuristic and systematic information processing The heuristic-systematic model proposes two distinct modes of thinking about information. Systematic processing involves attempts to thoroughly understand any available information through careful attention, deep thinking, and intensive reasoning, whereas heuristic processing involves focusing on salient and easily comprehended cues that activate well-learned judgmental shortcuts. Heuristic processing is a more efficient and relatively automatic mode of processing, but more often than not confers less judgmental confidence. Systematic processing confers more confidence but is relatively effortful and time-consuming. Thus, individuals tend to engage in heuristic processing unless they are both motivated and able to think carefully about information, in which case the two modes of processing can have additive, attenuating, or interactive effects. Furthermore, both modes of processing can be relatively open-minded, driven by accuracy concerns, or relatively biased, driven by defense or impression concerns. This chapter situates the heuristic-systematic model within its ...
This paper presents an information-processing model that is directly applicable to the investigation of how mediated messages are processed. It applies the model to the case of television viewing to demonstrate its applicability. It provides a measure for each part of the model. It presents evidence that supports the model in the television-viewing situation. Finally, it demonstrates how the model may be used to further research and understanding in well-known theoretical traditions. This model is not meant to stand in opposition to any of these theories but, rather, should work well with them by providing hypothesized mechanisms that may underlie well-known effects. This model should prove useful both to researchers and, eventually, to message producers. To the extent that we can better understand how the content and structure of messages interact with a viewer's information-processing system to determine which parts and how much of a communication message is remembered, we will make great strides in understanding how people communicate.
Many believe that within three or four years the wireless Internet will overtake the fixed-line Internet in consumer penetration and business-to-consumer (B2C) e-commerce. Some believe that distinctions between media will soon disappear because of digital convergence: that it will soon be meaningless to ask whether the device used for home shopping is a PC or a TV. This article argues that the various new media will continue to be distinguishable from each other despite convergence and that the dominant device, even in B2C markets, will continue to be something like today's PC.
There are strong indications that many consumers are switching towards more socially and environmentally responsible products
and services, reflecting a shift in consumer values indicated in several countries. However, little is known about the motives
that drive some toward, or deter others from, higher levels of ethical concern and action in their purchasing decisions. Following
a qualitative investigation using ZMET and focus group discussions, a questionnaire was developed and administered to a representative
sample of consumers; nearly 1,000 usable questionnaires were collected. The degree of awareness, concern and action regarding
16 ethical issues was quantified, using a measure developed from the Stages of Change concept within the Transtheoretical
model. Motivations for ethical behaviour, in relation to each individual’s most salient ethical issue, were investigated using
initially 22 motive statements within the framework of the Decisional Balance Scale (DBS). The findings suggest that the DBS
and Stages model have an explanatory value within the ethical decision-making context, and that the motives identified do
reflect the Decisional Balance Constructs. Indeed the study suggests that respondents’ motivational attitudes are a function
of their stage of ethical awareness, concern and action. Therefore, the Decisional Balance Scale may well prove useful for
designing appropriate interventions and communications to facilitate movement towards more ethical decision-making. These
findings yield strategic insight for communicating messages to ethical consumers and for better understanding their purchasing
This article proposes that narrative processing creates or enhances self-brand connections (SBC) because people generally interpret the meaning of their experiences by fitting them into a story. Similarly, in response to an ad that tells a story, narrative processing may create a link between a brand and the self when consumers attempt to map incoming narrative information onto stories in memory. Our approach rests on the notion that a brand becomes more meaningful the more closely it is linked to the self. We conceptualize this linkage at an aggregate level in terms of SBCs, that is, the extent to which consumers have incorporated the brand into their self-concepts. The results of an experiment show that narrative processing in response to a narratively structured ad is positively related to SBCs, which in turn have a positive relation with brand attitudes and behavioral intentions.
This research examines differences in consumers' sympathy and empathy responses to televised drama commercials. The research framework is multidisciplinary, for construct definition from humanities disciplines (aesthetics and philosophy) grounds the empirical testing of sympathy and empathy responses to advertising. Valid and reliable measurement instruments are developed to test relationships between sympathy and empathy as responses to classical and vignette advertising dramas. Results of two experiments indicate that sympathy responses mediate the effect of a drama advertisement's form on empathy responses, with both sympathy and empathy directly enhancing positive attitudes to an advertisement. Copyright 2003 by the University of Chicago.
In theories and studies of persuasion, people's personal knowledge about persuasion agents' goals and tactics, and about how to skillfully cope with these, has been ignored. We present a model of how people develop and use persuasion knowledge to cope with persuasion attempts. We discuss what the model implies about how consumers use marketers' advertising and selling attempts to refine their product attitudes and attitudes toward the marketers themselves. We also explain how this model relates to prior research on consumer behavior and persuasion and what it suggests about the future conduct of consumer research. Copyright 1994 by the University of Chicago.
In three learning experiments we examined how subjects' level of involvement during initial exposure to consumer trivia influences what they learn and what they subsequently come to believe. Subjects rated consumer trivia statements as more true when they had been exposed to those statements earlier in the experiment. Simple repetition increased subsequent truth ratings. Moreover, when subjects processed the information during initial exposure in a less involving fashion, the effect of repetition on truth became more pronounced. Familiarity emerged as a key mediator of the truth effect. When subjects experienced an "it rings a bell" reaction, they judged the information to be more true. Finally, under low-involvement processing, the truth effect increased when subjects engaged in a processing task (rote rehearsal) that increased familiarity without increasing evaluative processing of the information. Copyright 1992 by the University of Chicago.
Television ads can be classified as either arguments or dramas or hybrids of these forms. We claim that form dimension influences how ads are processed. An argument backs its claims with appeals to objectivity and is processed evaluatively. A drama appeals more to subjective criteria and is processed empathically. A study is reported in which 40 television commercials were classified on a dramatization scale. They were shown to 1,215 people, and measures of evaluative and empathic processing were taken. The measures were found to be weighted differently for arguments and dramas, supporting the contention that form influences processing. Copyright 1989 by the University of Chicago.
A dual-task procedure was used to examine the effects of text genre on prose processing, comprehension, and recall in 20 young (18-33 years) and 20 old (65-80 years) adults. Response latencies on a secondary task provided an index of cognitive capacity used in reading narrative and expository passages. Both groups recalled more of narratives than of expository passages, although old subjects recalled less than young. Also, the narrative protocols of both age groups showed a greater difference for recall of main ideas as compared to details. Age differences in the pattern of text genre effects were found on measures of comprehension, capacity utilization, and processing efficiency. It appears that the narrative genre facilitated most measures of performance and partially compensated for some limitations in the older group.
Individuals who lead a "wellness-oriented" lifestyle are concerned with nutrition, fitness, stress, and their environment. They accept responsibility for their health and are excellent customers for health-related products and services. Those who lack a wellness orientation are identified as higher health risks and become candidates for health promotion program intervention. The authors report a new scale by which to measure the wellness-oriented lifestyle. Scale development procedures are detailed, followed by information from five studies that support its validity. The authors suggest ways health care marketers may use the Wellness Scale to segment and target potential customers and position their products and services.
The aim of the study was twofold. The first aim was to develop on-line video clip material that showed examples of nurses dealing with potentially difficult and delicate patient groups. The second aim was to evaluate the effectiveness of video clip materials for enhancing nursing student's self-efficacy to effectively communicate with the type of patients described above. The production of contextually relevant video clip material involved the identification of relevant material based on real experiences, writing appropriate scripts, recruiting actors, recording the performances and producing them in a form that could be accessed on-line. Self-report questionnaires were used to assess the effectiveness of video clip material. Level 1 (n = 145) nursing students completed a self-efficacy measure that assessed confidence to deal with situations such as breaking news of death, working with children, people with disability and aggressive behaviour at the start and the end of the module. Results indicated that student's self-efficacy increased noticeably over the course of the module. Differences between increases in self-efficacy attributed to watching videos or attending lectures were marginal. Findings suggest that using video clips that show students effectively coping with adverse situations provide an effective teaching approach for enhancing self-efficacy. Future research is needed to test the extent to which self-efficacy measures relate with nursing performance.
This paper is one of 18 selected by the Editorial Review Board of The Journal of Advertising Research to be a ‘classic’ - an article that has withstood the test of time. First published in 1974, Ehrenberg examines the role of advertising by looking at advertising and consumption in general, then discussing competition among brands and the factors affecting brand choice, particularly for established brands of frequently bought goods. He concludes the advertising's main role is to reinforce feelings of satisfaction with brands already bought.
Illusions in Regression Analysis
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Chipotle Eats Itself
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