Seabuckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) has been traditionally used as medicine and nutritional supplement for a long period of time. However, information on the systemic toxicity and safety evaluation of seabuckthorn and its extracts is still scarce. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential toxicity of seabuckthorn oil by an acute oral toxicity study in mice and a 90-day repeated oral toxicity study in rats. No mortality or signs of toxicity was observed in mice treated with 20 mL/kg body weight seabuckthorn oil in the acute toxicity study. In the subchronic toxicity study, 80 Sprague-Dawley rats (10 animals per sex per treatment group) were administrated with 10, 5, 2.5 and 0 (control) mL/kg body weight of seabuckthorn oil daily for 90 days by gavage. There were no signs of toxicity and treatment-related changes in rats treated with seabuckthorn oil on mortality, body and organ weights, food consumption, blood biochemistry and hematology, gross necropsy and histopathological examinations. Based on the finding of this study, the maximum tolerated dose of seabuckthorn oil was >20 mL/kg for mice for acute toxicity study, and the no-observed-adverse-effect level was 10 mL/kg body weight for both male and female rats for 90-day toxicity study.