ArticlePDF Available

Crop residue recycling for economic and environmental sustainability: The case of India

Authors:
  • Institute of Home Economics, New Delhi
  • ICAR-Indian Institute of Maize Research, New Delhi, India

Abstract and Figures

India is one of the key producers of food grain, oilseed, sugarcane and other agricultural products. Agricultural crops generate considerable amounts of leftover residues, with increases in food production crop residues also increasing. These leftover residues exhibit not only resource loss but also a missed opportunity to improve a farmer’s income. The use of crop residues in various fields are being explored by researchers across the world in areas such as textile composite non-woven making processes, power generation, biogas production, animal feed, compost and manures, etc. The increasing trend in addition of bio-energy cogeneration plants, increasing demand for animal feedstock and increasing trend for organic agriculture indicates a competitive opportunity forcrop residue in Agriculture. It is to be noted that the use of this left over residue isoften not mutually exclusive which makes measurement of its economic value more difficult.For example, straw can be used as animal bedding and thereafter as a crop fertilizer. In view of this, the main aim of this paper envisaged to know about how much crop residue is left unutilized and how best they can be utilized for alternative purposes for environmental stewardship and sustainability. In this context, an attempt has been made to estimate the total crop residue across the states and its economic value though data available from various government sources and a SWOT analysis performed for possible alternative uses of residue in India. This paper also discusses the successful case studies of India and global level of use of crop residues in economic activities. Over all 516 Mtonnes of crop residue was produced in 2014-15 in India among which cereals were the largest producer of crop residue followed by sugarcane. The energy potential from paddy rice straw crop residue was estimated as 486,955 megawatt for 2014-15 and similarly for coarse cereals it was 226,200megawatt.
Content may be subject to copyright.
Open Agriculture. 2017; 2: 486–494
Mtonnes of crop residue was produced in 2014-15 in India
among which cereals were the largest producer of crop
residue followed by sugarcane. The energy potential from
paddy rice straw crop residue was estimated as 486,955
megawatt for 2014-15 and similarly for coarse cereals it
was 226,200megawatt.
Keywords: crop residue, economic value, environmental
sustainability, composites making, India
1 Introduction
Agriculture has a majorshare in the overall economy of
India. In different agro-ecological regions of India, a
wide range of crops are cultivated across the vast majority
of land with significant quantity of crop residue (non-
economical plant parts) that are left in the field after
harvest.After being usedin competitive alternatives such
as cattle feed, animal bedding, cooking fuel, organic
manure etc., nearly 234 million tonnes/year (i.e. 30%) of
gross residue generated in India is available as surplus.
This huge amount of crop residue has economic value.
Approximately 500-550 million tonnes (Mt) of crop
residue is generated on-farm and off-farm annually
from its production of 110 Mt of wheat, 122 Mt of rice, 71
Mt of maize, 26 Mt of millets, 141 Mt of sugarcane, 8 Mt
of fibre crops (jutemesta, cotton) and 28 Mt of pulses.
Multipurpose use of crop residue include, but are not
limited to, animal feeding, soil mulching, bio-manure,
thatching for rural homes and fuel for domestic and
industrial use.Despite the known of its benefits, growers
burn a significant portion of the crop residues on-farmso
thatthe succeeding crop can be sown on clear field.
Mechanized farming coupled with lack of low-skilled
farm labor and high associated cost further exacerbate
the problem of on-farm burning of crop residues. Irrigated
areas where multiple crops are grown annuallyand areas
adjoining to the national capital region and satellite
cities had experienced a surge in burning of rice, wheat,
cotton, maize, millet, sugarcane, jute, rapeseed-mustard
https://doi.org/10.1515/opag-2017-0053
received December 28, 2016; accepted july 24, 2017
Abstract: India is one of the key producers of food grain,
oilseed, sugarcane and other agricultural products.
Agricultural crops generate considerable amounts of
leftover residues, with increases in food production crop
residues also increasing. These leftover residues exhibit
not only resource loss but also a missed opportunity to
improve a farmer’s income. The use of crop residues in
various fields are being explored by researchers across
the world in areas such as textile composite non-woven
making processes, power generation, biogas production,
animal feed, compost and manures, etc. The increasing
trend in addition of bio-energy cogeneration plants,
increasing demand for animal feedstock and increasing
trend for organic agriculture indicates a competitive
opportunity forcrop residue in Agriculture. It is to be
noted that the use of this left over residue isoften not
mutually exclusive which makes measurement of its
economic value more difficult.For example, straw can be
used as animal bedding and thereafter as a crop fertilizer.
In view of this, the main aim of this paper envisaged to
know about how much crop residue is left unutilized and
how best they can be utilized for alternative purposes for
environmental stewardship and sustainability. In this
context, an attempt has been made to estimate the total
crop residue across the states and its economic value
though data available from various government sources
and a SWOT analysis performed for possible alternative
uses of residue in India. This paper also discusses the
successful case studies of India and global level of use
of crop residues in economic activities. Over all 516
Review Article
Saroj Devi, Charu Gupta, Shankar Lal Jat*, M.S. Parmar
Crop residue recycling for economic and
environmental sustainability: The case of India
*Corresponding author: Shankar Lal Jat, ICAR-Indian Institute of
Maize Research, IARI, Pusa Campus, New Delhi-110012, India,
E-mail: sliari@gmail.com
Saroj Devi, Charu Gupta, Department of Fabric & Apparel Science,
Institute of Home Economics, University ofDelhi, New Delhi-110016,
India
M.S. Parmar, PTTD and Chemical Quality evaluation Divisions, NITRA
Ministry of Textiles, Govt. of India. New Delhi, India
Open Access. ©  Saroj Devi, etal., published by De Gruyter Open. This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-
NonCommercial-NoDerivs . License. Unauthenticated
Download Date | 10/4/17 2:36 PM
Crop residue recycling for economic and environmental sustainability: The case of India 487
29 Mt, 13 Mt and 12 Mt, respectively (Table 1). Among cereal
crops, rice, wheat, maize and millets together contributed
70% of crop residue followed by fiber crop (13%).
The estimate presented in Table 1 is computed from
multiple sources with a certaindegree ofunaccounted
uncertainty. EURACHEM (2000) proposed a formula
to compute the uncertainty of the estimate using the
Eurachem guide. Under this uncertainty computation
method, data areassumed to be normally distributed,
firstly identify the major uncertainty sources such as
residue to crop ratio (RCR), dry matter fraction (DMF) and
production average (PA). Then, standard uncertainty (u)
of each uncertainty sources is computed. If dispersion
of input variables of crop residue is recorded as range
and standard deviation (sd) then ‘u’ is considered as
mean of range and sd as it is, respectively. The standard
uncertainty (u) of input variable of crop residue from Table
1 is presented in Table 2.The final combined uncertainty
(Ufc) for each crop is calculated by summing standard
uncertainty sources (Uc). The estimate ± Ufc for each crop
is presented in Table 3.
The trend in crop residue generation in India shows
uplift with a CAGR of 2.53% annually (Figure 1). Rice,
wheat and maize are major food grain crops in India
that contribute a large portion of the total crop residue
production. Biomass residue sources and quantity of rice,
wheat and maize are given in Table 4 respectively.
3 Problem Identification and
Methodology
Typically, surplus residue is burnt in-situ from March to
May. On farm burning of crop residue becomes a source
of greenhouse gases (CO2, CO, CH4, N2O, SO2), aerosols,
particulate matters, smoke, volatile organic compound
and radioactive gases; thereby they exacerbate global
and regional atmosphere chemistry (Crutzen and Andreae
1990).The present paper mainly focuses on the status of
crop residue in India as well as recycling of crop residue
for economic and environmental sustainability. The
study will be helpful to view the global warming problem
associated with residue burning.
4 Utilization and on-farm burning
of crop residues in India
Across India, crop residue is being utilized differently
depending on the region and its socio-economic status,
type of cultivated crop, number of crops per year, etc.
and groundnut residue. In recent years, across India the
demands of crop residue for cattle feed and industrial
purpose haveincreased due to excessive in-situburning of
it. Thus, it is imperative to set up appropriate policiesthat
promote multiple use of crop residues in the context of
conservation agriculture and to prevent their on-farm
burning.In this review paper we were interested in
highlighting the (i) annual crop residue production and
on-farm burning and its impact on environment, (ii) scope
and challenges of using crop residue for conservation
agriculture, (iii) management plan of crop residue at local
and regional level, and (iv)identifying research and policy
of crop residue management for productive, profitable
and sustainable agriculture.
Every year, agriculture alonegenerates 140 billion
tons of biomass,which is equivalent toapproximately 50
billion tons of oil. The energy generated from agricultural
biomass waste can substantially displace fossil fuel, reduce
emissions of greenhouse gases and provide renewable
energy to about 1.6 billion people in developing countries,
which still lack access to electricity. Similarly, the partially
green crop residue which has a narrow carbon:nitrogen
ratio (30:1), which facilitate composting,can serve as an
alternate to high energy derived fertilizer and provide a
viable option for eco-friendly organic farming (Dia 2005;
Weindorf et al. 2008; Dia et al. 2009).As raw materials,
biomass wastes are anattractive potential for large-scale
industries and at a community-level. Findings from
previous studies have suggested that theligno-cellulose
byproducts including corn stover, rice and wheat straw,
sorghum stalks and leaves, pineapple and banana
leaves, can be used to extract natural cellulose fibers
with properties suitable for textile, composite and other
industrial applications (Sinha 1974; Sinha and Ghosh 1977;
Doraiswamy and Chellamani 1993; Reddy and Yang 2005).
2 Crop residue generation in India
After crop harvesting, the left over plant material
including leaves, stalk and roots is known as crop residue.
It is estimated that India generates around 500 Mt of
crop residue annually (GOI, 2016) with wide regional
variability. The uneven distribution and use of crop
residue depends on the crops grown, cropping intensity
and productivity across the nation.The highest crop
residue estimate was recorded for Uttar Pradesh (60 Mt).
Other high crop residue producing regions were Punjab
(51 Mt) and Maharashtra (46 Mt) (Table 1). Cereals, fibers,
oilseeds, pulses and sugarcane contributed the majority
of crop residue with production estimates of 352 Mt, 66 Mt,
Unauthenticated
Download Date | 10/4/17 2:36 PM
488 S. Devi, et al.
Table 1:Total crop residue generation (tonnes) in different states of India during 2014-15
State/ UT Rice Wheat Coarse
Cereal
Pulse Oilseed Sugarcane Cotton Jute &
Mesta
Total
Andhra Pradesh+
Telangana . . . . . . . . .
Assam . . . . . . . . .
Bihar . . . . . . . . .
Chhattisgarh . . . . . . . . .
Gujarat . . . . . . . . .
Haryana . . . . . . . . .
Himachal Pradesh . . . . . . . . .
Jammu & Kashmir . . . . . . . . .
Jharkhand . . . . . . . . .
Karnataka . . . . . . . . .
Kerala . . . . . . . . .
Madhya Pradesh . . . . . . . . .
Maharashtra . . . . . . . . .
Orissa . . . . . . . . .
Punjab . . . . . . . . .
Rajasthan . . . . . . . . .
Tamilnadu . . . . . . . . .
Uttar Pradesh . . . . . . . . .
Uttarakhand . . . . . . . . .
West Bengal . . . . . . . . .
Others . . . . . . . . .
All-India . . . . . . . . .
Harvest index .-.*
(Hay, )
.-.
(McLare, )
.-. .-. .-. .
(Thangavelu, )
. . -
Dry Matter Fraction . . . . . . . . -
*20% of grain is also a non- economic part contributing to crop residue
Source: Compiled by author.Data provided by Ministry of Statistics and Program Implementation (MOSPI, 2013-14).
Table 2: Standard uncertainties (u) in the various conversion factors (that are major contributors to uncertainties) for different crop residue
types
Parameter Paddy Wheat CoarseCereal Pulse Oilseed Sugarcane Cotton Other Fibres
RCR . . . . . . . .
DMF . . . . . . . .
PA . . . . . . . .
Source: Calculatedby author data provided by Ministry of Statistics and Program Implementation (MOSPI, 2013-14).
Unauthenticated
Download Date | 10/4/17 2:36 PM
Crop residue recycling for economic and environmental sustainability: The case of India 489
Table 3: Yearly average crop residue generation in India with combined uncertainty 2010-14
Crop Crop reside generation± deviation (Mt)
Rice .± .
Wheat .±.
Coarse Cereal .±.
Pulse .±.
Oilseed .±.
Sugarcane .±.
Cotton .±.
Other Fibres(Jute &Mesta) .±.
Total yearly avg. .±.
Source: Self-created table from data provided byMOSPI, 2013-14.
Fig. 1: The trend of crop residue generation in India. (Source: Compiled by author from data provided by Ministry of Statistics and Program
Implementation (MOSPI, 2013-14))
Table 4: Biomass residue sources and quantity of rice, wheat and maize
S. No. Crop Residue Name Residue Quantity Major Producer States
. Rice Straw & Husk . Every ton of paddy produces .–. Mt of straw and . – . Mt of husk. West Bengal,
Uttar Pradesh
and Andhra
Pradesh
. India generates around  Mt of rice straw and  Mt of rice husk,
respectively.
. Wheat Straw . Every ton produces . to . t of straw. Uttar
Pradesh, Punjab
& Haryana
. India generates about  Mt of wheat straw.
. Maize Stover, Cob &
Silk
. Every ton of maize produces . Mt of stover, .-. Mt of husk, silk, etc. Karnataka,
Maharashtra,
Rajasthan, Uttar
Pradesh, Andhra
Pradesh, Bihar
. India generates over  Mt of stover,  Mt of cob and  Mt of husk,
respectively.
Source:http://www.erewise.com/current-affairs/biomass-resources-inindia_art52cbbb9bcd5df.html#.Vd9atPmqqko
Unauthenticated
Download Date | 10/4/17 2:36 PM
490 S. Devi, et al.
residues from multiple sources are presented in Table 5.
Interestingly, the magnitude may not be the same but the
pattern of distribution of crop residue estimates across
states is consistent.
For example, in southern India rice stubble is used for
domestic fuel or in boilers for parboiling rice whereas in
northern India a large amount is burnt on-farm. Similarly,
sugarcane leftovers are used for either feeding cattle
or burnt on-farm for ratoon crop. Likewise, groundnut
residues are burnt in brick and lime kilns. Cotton, pulses,
oils seed crops, chilies, coconut shells, rapeseed and
mustard stalks, sunflower and jute residues are used as
domestic fuel (Pathak et al. 2010). Usually growers uses
crop residues for fodder, fuel, cattle sheds, packaging, etc
or sell to landless households or middle men for further
selling.
Across India, cereals are the highest contributor of
surplus residues which areoften in-situ burnt. Other high
surplus residue producing crops are fiber, oilseed, pulses
and sugarcane (Figure 2). Estimates of total vs. surplus
crop residue are associated with varying prediction
intervals or certain degrees of uncertainty. Within each
states of India, estimates of total, surplus and burnt
Table 5: State-wise generation and remaining surplus of crop residues in India
State
Mt yr-
Crop residue generation
(MNRE, )
Crop residue surplus
(MNRE, )
Crop residues burnt(IPCC
coefficients)
Crop residues burnt(Pathak
et al., )
Andhra Pradesh . . . .
Arunachal Pradesh . . . .
Assam . . . .
Bihar . . . .
Chhattisgarh . . . .
Goa . . . .
Gujarat . . . .
Haryana . . . .
Himachal Pradesh . . . .
Jammu and Kashmir . . . .
Jharkhand . . . .
Karnataka . . . .
Kerala . . . .
Madhya Pradesh . . . .
Maharashtra . . . .
Manipur . . . .
Meghalaya . . . .
Mizoram . . . .
Nagaland . . . .
Odisha . . . .
Punjab . . . .
Rajasthan . . . .
Sikkim . . . .
Tamil Nadu . . . .
Tripura . . . .
Uttarakhand . . . .
Uttar Pradesh . . . .
West Bengal . . . .
India . . . .
Source: self-generated table using data fromMOSPI (2013-14), MNRE (2009) and Pathak et al. (2010).
Fig. 2: The share of unutilized residues in total residues generated by
different crops in India (Source: self-generated using data from MNRE,
2009)
Unauthenticated
Download Date | 10/4/17 2:36 PM
Crop residue recycling for economic and environmental sustainability: The case of India 491
6 Alternative Uses of Crop Stubble
Globally, rice is the most consumed food. Thus, rice is
grown in large areas and generates a huge amount of
residue in the form of straw. In Asia, a large amount of
rice straw undergoes field burning. Kim and Dale (2004)
reported that 668 t of rice residue has the potential to
generate 708.7 litres of bioethanol. Therefore, the burning
of rice straw results invirtually completeloss of potential
energy from bio-ethanol. With increased fuel prices,
frequency of weather fluctuation (or debate on climate
change), air pollution and greenhouses gases, there is
considerable interest among researchers for alternative
uses of field-based residues for energy applications
(Kumar et al. 2015).
Across India, the disposal pattern of rice residue
depends on the market value of it. The different methods
adopted for end-use of rice straw reported various studies
were summarized in Table 7. It is evident that over 3/4 of
rice straw is burnt in-situ. Growers usually either partially
or fully burn the crop residue. Full burning is mainly
practiced in IGP where the time between planting and
harvesting of succeeding and preceding crop, respectively,
is not enough to dispose of the left over residue from
preceding crop. In both burning practices, pollution has a
severe impact on the environment including reduced soil
quality, enhanced soil erosion, and increased air pollutant
and greenhouse gases (Kumar et al. 2015).
With the increased incidence of burning of crop
residue, central authorities have been initiating and
have been promoting approach to alleviate the problem.
These approachesinclude the use of crop (particularly
cereals)residue as fodder, bio-thermal power plants and
mushroom cultivation, as bedding material for cattle,
production of bio-oil, paper production, bio-gas and
incorporation of rice residue in soil, energy technologies
and thermal combustion (Kumar et al. 2015). Among
different strategies, only combustion technology is
currently being commercialized whereas the other
technologies are at different stages of development.
7 Model for management of crop
residues
The management of crop residue depends on multiple
factors and, thus, a region or need-based crop
residuemanagement plan should be developed.While
developing amanagement plan, it is important to
5 Quantification of economic value
of crop residue
It is important to understand the economic use of crop
residue to alleviate the problem of in-situ burning of it.
Contrastingly, across India, the majority of crop residue
is not being burned. For example, rice generated residue
is in the form of straw and husk. In southern and northern
India the major portion of rice straw is being used for
cattle feed and roof thatching, and burnt on-farm,
respectively (Meshram 2002). Conversely, husk is
mostly subjected to on-farm burning across the country,
especially after the introduction of modern combine
harvesters. Wheat is the second most consumed crop
after rice. The large amount of wheat straws (residue)
goes into cattle feeding, domestic fuel, paperboard
making and oil extraction (TIFAC 1991). However, in areas
of Indo-Gangetic plains (IGP) such as Punjab, Haryana,
Uttarnchal and Uttar Pradesh - where intense cropping
system is adopted - the straw is burnt as it is the easiest
and most economical option to get rid of it in the short
period available between two crops. Unlike wheat, corn
straw and millet stalks are relatively hard, and therefore
used less for fodder. However, it is either left in the field
as compost or used for cattle feed (TIFAC 1991;Meshram
2002). Similarly, mustard stalks are widely burnt or used
for domestic fuel.Sugarcane is a relatively long duration
crop and its residue is disposed ofquicklyto catchup for
the sowing of the follow-up crop. Sugarcane residue
includes trash, tops and bagasse. Trash is used as fuel
for jaggery extraction, cattle feed or burnt on-site (Tyagi
1989;Meshram 2002). Likewise, peanut stems and shells
are used for domestic and industrial fuel, respectively
(Tyagi 1989; TIFAC 1991; Meshram 2002).
On a global basis, burning of crop residue
represents nearly 2020 Mt (approx. 25% of total biomass
produced) (Crutzen and Andreae 1990;Andreae and
Merlet2001;Chang and Song2010).The four states viz.
Uttar Pradesh, Maharastra, Madhya Pradesh and Punjab
constitute 47% of total burnt crop residue as per IPCC
coefficient (Table 6). This huge amount of burnt crop
residue is virtually a loss of opportunity to itspotential
use for different purposes such as composite making and
bio-energy generation. In developing nations, clean and
affordable energy production can be enhanced from the
deployment of advanced biomass cooking stoves. It is
projected that growth in use of biofuel for transportation
will rise from 2% at presentto 27% in 2050 (IEA Roadmap
Biofuels for Transport 2011).
Unauthenticated
Download Date | 10/4/17 2:36 PM
492 S. Devi, et al.
Table 6: Burning of crop residue (tonnes)
State/ UT
Rice Wheat Sugarcane Cotton Total for all Crops
IPCC Jain et al. IPCC Jain et al. IPCC Jain et al. IPCC Jain et al. IPCC Jain et al.
Andhra Pradesh +
Telangana
. . . . . . . . . .
Assam . . . . . . . . . .
Bihar . . . . . . . . . .
Chhattisgarh . . . . . . . . . .
Gujarat . . . . . . . . . .
Haryana . . . . . . . . . .
Himachal Pradesh . . . . . . . . . .
Jammu & Kashmir . . . . . . . . . .
Jharkhand . . . . . . . . . .
Karnataka . . . . . . . . . .
Kerala . . . . . . . . . .
Madhya Pradesh . . . . . . . . . .
Maharashtra . . . . . . . . . .
Orissa . . . . . . . . . .
Punjab . . . . . . . . . .
Rajasthan . . . . . . . . . .
Tamilnadu . . . . . . . . . .
Uttar Pradesh . . . . . . . . . .
Uttarakhand . . . . . . . . . .
West Bengal . . . . . . . . . .
Others . . . . . . . . . .
All-India . . . . . . . . . .
Source: Compiled by author by IPCC and Jain et al. (2014) methodology.
Table 7: End use of paddy straw
S. No Author Disposal pattern
Badarinath and Chand Kiran () – % area is machine harvested
¾ or  % of straw is burnt
 Venkataramanet al. () – % straw burnt (IGP)
Sidhu and Beri ()  % of paddy burnt and  % of wheat burnt, fodder ( % of rice and  % of wheat),
rope making ( % of rice and  % of wheat), incorporated in soil ( % of rice and less than
 % of wheat), miscellaneous ( % each of rice and wheat)
Sarkar et al. ()  % combine harvested and  % burnt
Average  % of paddy is burnt
Source: Data retrieved from Badarinath and Chand Kiran (2006), Venkataraman et al. (2006), Sidhu and Beri (2005) and Sarkar et al. (1999).
Unauthenticated
Download Date | 10/4/17 2:36 PM
Crop residue recycling for economic and environmental sustainability: The case of India 493
of it is not being economically exploited and treated as
waste. Widespread attention to this agricultural waste
management has clearly been limited to date.Given,
1. The exclusion of agricultural residue as an economic
product in the case ofIndia,
2. Lack of interest and energy on the part of farmer and
small industrial stakeholder,and
3. The economic difficulties in farming (and
relatedindustries).
Imposing a ban on burning of crop residue may not
be fruitful unless growers are enlightened with the
negative effects of it on human, animal and soil health,
crop biodiversity,the mirco- and macro-environment,
etc. To disseminate the knowledge of usefulness of crop
residue, extension education is encouraged among
growers and producers. Extension activities include
talks, speeches, visuals, presentations, publication, etc.
For example, a documentary on the environment and
emphasize and imperative to consider the facts regarding
the quantity of crop residues being produced, seasonal
availability, priority of competing uses, availability
of technologiesanditsshort-andlong-term impacts,
and availability of infrastructure and equipment for
management of crop residues.
A proposed model plan thatmay be used as a guideline
for managing crop residues at local and regional scales is
presented in Table 8.
8 Conclusion
Crop residues are of great economic value as livestock
feed, fuel and industrial raw material. However,
management challengesof the crop residues are varied
across the region and its socio-economic needs.
The estimated amount incorporated with standard
uncertainties provides a completeview about the amount
of crop residue generation every year. A large amount
Table 8: Model plan for managing crop residues at local and regional scales
Query Response Crop residues management options
. Can crop residues be used for
conservation agriculture?
If the answer is
No, move to query 
Yes Retain it on soilsurface
Use drill for sowing with residues (e.g. HappySeeder)
Follow conservation agriculture for all crops in rotation
. Can it be used as fodder?
If the answer is
No, move to query 
Yes Leave stubbles infield
Enrich fodderwithsupplements
(e.g. urea and molasses)
Use manure in conservation agriculture
. Can it be used for composting? Yes Leave stubbles infield
Adopt modern composting technique (e.g. IARI model)
Use compost in conservation agriculture
. Can it be used for biogas generation?
If the answer is
No, move to query 
Yes Leave stubbles infield
Adopt communitybiogas
plant (e.g. KVIC design modified by IARI)
Use slurry in conservation agriculture
. Can it be used for bio-fuel generation? If
the answer is No, move to query 
Yes Leave stubbles infield
Install bio-fuel plant
Use liquid slurry in conservationagriculture
. Can it be used for electricity generation?
If the answer is No, move to query 
Yes Leave stubbles infield
Install biomass-energy plant (e.g. KPTL model)
Use ash in conservation agriculture
. Can it be used for gasification?
If the answer is No, move to query 
Yes Leave stubbles infield
Install biomass gasifier (e.g. CIAEmodel)
Use ash in conservation agriculture
. Can it be used for biochar making? Yes Leave stubbles infield
Install biochar klin (e.g. IARImodel)
Use biochar in conservation agriculture
Source: Andrea and Merlet (2001) and A strategy suggested by authors using their own evaluation while reading available literature on uses
of crop residues.
Unauthenticated
Download Date | 10/4/17 2:36 PM
494 S. Devi, et al.
Kim S., Dale B.E., Cumulative energy and global warming impacts
from the production of biomass for biobased products. Journal
of Industrial Ecology, 2004, 7(3–4), 147–162
Kumar P., Kumar S., Joshi L.,Socioeconomic and Environmental
Implications of Agricultural Residue Burning A Case Study
of Punjab, India.Springer New Delhi Heidelberg New York
Dordrecht London, 2015
MeshramJ.R., Biomass resources assessment programme and
prospects of biomass as an energy resource in India. IREDA
News,2002, 13(4), 21–29
MNRE, Ministry of New and Renewable Energy Resources,
Government of India, New Delhi, 2009,www.mnre.gov.in/
biomassrsources
MOSPI, 2013-14,http://www.mospi.gov.in/announcements/
asi-2013-14-vol-i
Pathak B.S., Crop Residue to Energy. In: Environment and
Agriculture (Eds. KL Chadha and MS Swaminathan), Malhotra
Publishing House, New Delhi, 2004, pp. 854-869
Pathak H., Bhatia A., Jain N., Aggarwal P.K., Greenhouse gas
emission and mitigation in Indian agriculture – A review, In ING
Bulletins on Regional Assessment of Reactive Nitrogen, Bulletin
No. 19 (Ed. Bijay-Singh), SCON-ING, New Delhi, 2010,p. 34
Pathak H., SaharawatY.S., Gathala M., LadhaJ.K., Impact of resource-
conserving technologies in the rice-wheat system. Greenhouse
Gas Science & Technology, 2011,1, 261–277
Reddy N., Yang Y.,Biofibers from agricultural byproducts for
industrial applications. USA TRENDS in Biotechnology, 2005,
23(1), 22-27
Sarkar A., Yadav R.L., Gangwar B., Bhatia P.C.,Crop residues in
India.Modipuram: Project Directorate for Cropping System
Research. Technical Bulletin, 1999
Sidhu B.S., BeriV., Experience with managing rice residues in
intensive rice-wheat cropping system in Punjab. In I. P. Abrol,
R. K. Gupta and R. K. Malik (Eds.), Conservation agriculture:
Status and prospects. New Delhi: Centre for Advancement
of Sustainable Agriculture, National Agriculture Science
Centre,2005, pp. 55–63
Sinha M.K., The use of banana-plant fiber as a substitute for jute.
The Journal of The Textile Institute, 1974, 65(27), 27–33
Sinha M.K., Ghosh S.K., Processing of pineapple leaf fibers in jute
machine. Indian Textile Journal, 1977, 88(10), 105–110
TIFAC, Technology Information Forcasting and Assessment
Council, Techno market survey on ‘‘Utilization of agriculture
residue (farms and processes)’’. Department of Science and
Technology, New Delhi, 1991
TyagiP.D., Fuel from wastes and weeds, Batra book service, New
Delhi, 1989,pp. 42–131,www.mospi.nic.in/Mospi_New/site/
inner.aspx?status=2&menu_id=92.
VenkataramanC., Habib G., Kadamba D., ShrivastavaM., LeonJ.F.,
Crouzille B., Boucher O., Streets D.G., Emissions from open
biomass burning in India: Integrating the inven- tory approach
with high-resolution Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectro-
radiometer (MODIS) active-fire and land cover data. Global
Biogeochemical Cycles, 2006,20(2), 1–12
Weindorf D.C., Sarkar R., Dia M., Wang H., Chang Q., Haggard
B., McWhirt A., Wooten A., Correlation of X-ray fluorescence
spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission
spectroscopy for elemental determination in composted
products. Compost Sci. Utilization, 2008, 16(2), 79-82,http://
dx.doi.org/10.1080/1065657X.2008.10702361
climate change with special emphasis on how burning
crop residue adversely impactsonclimate change can be
used. Educatingthe farmers about the pecuniary and non-
pecuniary benefits of not burning the agricultural residues
could include,alternatives to burning agricultural residue
like collection and transportation of agricultural residues,
gasification as a fuel for the boilers, converting into
briquettes, designing of suitable harvester, compostingin-
situ, and straw mulching while using disc ploughs, disc
harrows, rotavators, zero tillage and happy seeders.
The prospect for crop residue utilization in
nonconventional ways is limited. However, the drive to
change isincreasing rapidly due to different industries
using crop residue as raw materials are increasing, as
indicated by figures earlier. But the potential of individual
industriesare yet to be prioritized and need impetus. The
Government’s initiative to generate energy out of theseby-
products has acted as a catalyst. This further instills the
idea of economic benefit among different stakeholders.
References
AndreaeM.O., Merlet P., Emission of Trace Gases and Aerosols from
Biomass Burning. Global Biogeochem. Cycles,2001, 15, 955–66
BadarinathK.V.S., Chand Kiran T.R., Agriculture crop residue burning
in the Indo-Gangetic Plains—A study using IRSP6 WiFS satellite
data. Current Science, 2006, 91(8),1085–1089
Chang D., Song Y., Estimates of Biomass Burning Emissions in
Tropical Asia Based on Satellite Derived Data. Atmospheric
Chemistry and Physics,2010, 10, 2335–51
CrutzenP.J., AndreaeM.O., Biomass Burning In the Tropics: Impact
on Atmospheric Chemistry and Biogeochemical Cycles.
Science,1990, 250, 1669–1678
Dia M.,Plant Stand and Nitrogen Management for Maximisation of
Yield and Quality of Baby Corn, M.S thesis, Acharya N.G. Ranga
Agricultural University,Rajendranagar, Hyderabad., 2005
Dia M., Weindorf D., Thompson C., Cummings H., Cacovean H., Rusu
T., Spatial distribution of heavy metals in the soils of Erath
county, Texas. StudiaUniversitatis Babes-Bolyai, Geographia,
2009, 2 99-114
Doraiswamy I., Chellamani P., Pineapple-leaf fibers. Textile
Progress,1993, 24(1), 1–25
EURACHEM 2000. EURACHEM/ CITAC Guide CG 4. Quantifying
uncertainty in analytical measurement. In: Ellison SLR,
Rosslein M, Williams A (eds) Second edition, 2000
GoI, Annual Report 2016, Ministry of New and Renewable Energy,
New Delhi, 2016, (http://mnre.gov.in).http://www.erewise.com/
current-affairs/biomass-resources-inindia_art52cbbb9bcd5df.
html#. Vd9atPmqqko
IEA, Technology Roadmap Bioenergy for Heat and Power,
International Energy Agency, Paris, France, 2011
Jain N., Bhatia A., Pathak H., Emission of air pollutants from crop
residue burning in India. Aerosol and Air Quality Research,
2014, 14(1), 422-30
Unauthenticated
Download Date | 10/4/17 2:36 PM
... These resources could be used to produce environmentally sustainable ruminant nutrition and production. This strategy would provide financial and health benefits for the animal industry while also helping to alleviate the environmental problems associated with waste disposal [25]. The inclusion of these by-products in ruminant diets could lessen the environmental impact of their disposal [26] and promote the growth of a circular economy by recycling the biomass derived from crop production [1]. ...
Article
Full-text available
The agro-food industry produces tons of waste at different stages in the food production process, creating a massive ecological crisis. If implemented, the use of fruit and vegetable by-products (FVBPs) in animal nutrition has the potential to lessen the environmental footprint of the food production chain, lower animal feeding costs, and improve the quality and sustainability of animal products. Recent research on the inclusion of FVBPs, naturally enriched with polyphenols, in the diets of small and large ruminants has shown some promising outcomes, which we discuss in this review. The effects of FVBPs on digestion, rumen fermentation, methane emissions, rumen liquor fatty acid profile, and milk production are examined. Due to the chemical composition and the presence of certain bioactive compounds, FVBPs are capable of influencing the ruminal and intestinal ecosystem through improved kinetics of fermentation. Several in vivo studies have demonstrated that the dietary inclusion of FVBPs resulted in improved milk production and composition without any negative effect on animal performance. Using FVBPs as an alternative to conventional feedstuffs may promote sustainable animal production and nutrition. However, it must be stressed that the efficacy of these feed supplements is conditional on the source, kind, and quantity employed.
... Good agricultural practices must be adapted to each specific situation according to the soil and climate characteristics in order to avoid or at least minimize the undesirable effects of agriculture on the environment in general and on the quality of the soil-plant system and water resources in particular [7]. Therefore, it is becoming increasingly common for crop production to design fertilization and water management that take environmental factors into account, with the aim of increasing the efficiency of water use and lowering energy consumption [8][9][10], as well as encouraging the use of organic amendments [11][12][13] inclusive of the recycling of crop residues in the field [14,15]. In this regard, proper water and crop nutrient management have been shown to increase soil organic carbon (OC) accumulation and agricultural productivity by preserving a sound ecological environment [16]. ...
Article
Full-text available
The environment is affected by most anthropogenic activities; among them, agriculture is one activity with more negative effects, especially when management is inadequate, causing soil degradation or contamination. This paper presents the results of an agronomic field trial on a spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) crop. The objective of which was to monitor soil and crop properties under two doses of irrigation and organic fertilization. The results showed that the use of excessive doses of irrigation and fertilization increased the electrical conductivity (ECext) from 5.5 to 8.5 dS m−1 and the concentration of ions in the soil solution which, for the most soluble ions (NO3−, Cl−, Na+), leached towards the deep horizons, reaching 2194.8 mg L−1 in the case of NO3−. However, their use did not increase spinach production and is thus a waste of resources that increases the risk of soil salinization. Nutrient inputs to the soil were much higher than extractions (between 12% for N and 99% for Fe), partly because of agronomic management and especially because of the return of crop residues, which increased the organic carbon stock by about 2500 kg ha−1 (4–6%), enhancing its function as a CO2 sink. These surpluses form part of complex organic structures or are immobilized as carbonates or alkaline phosphates. Preservation of the agrosystem studied requires limiting the use of low-quality irrigation water and adjusting fertilization.
... However, with the growing demand of the crops and instantaneous economic effects, farmer community is not able to utilize these agricultural wastes especially straw and most of the straw was burnt in the in-situ conditions (Ahmed et al. 2015;Singh and Brar 2021). The details of the justification behind the burning of RS in the fields of India include lesser time between successive crops (Bhuvaneshwari et al. 2019), high labor cost or unavailability of labor (Devi et al. 2017), land leveling with straw in the field, inefficient farmers to adopt sustainable technologies, costlier and less straw management practices (Dobermann and Fairhurst 2002), and lack of technical knowledge to farmers (Sidhu et al. 2007;Sangmesh et al. 2018). With the burning of RS in the harvested paddy field, the gasses like SO 2 , CO 2 , CO, N 2 O NO X , and CH 4 (Islam et al. 2018;Hoang et al. 2018) are produced and spread into the environment (Arai et al. 2015;Singh 2016) as depicted in Fig. 2. ...
Article
Full-text available
With the growing demand, a large amount of paddy has been harvested by growers leaving behind the stubble (left over rice straw), which is being a big burden on the farmers for its management. For the easy access, the burning of stubble has been opted which in turn results in the deterioration of the environment. To mitigate this problem, rice straw utilization strategies should be opted. Therefore, in this review article, the strategies of utilizing rice straw in fiber or ash form to manufacture construction materials have been summarized. The manuscript also considers the method of productions, variability in raw materials, and various mechanical/physical properties of construction materials targeted. Further, the financial aspects related to utilization of rice straw and rice straw ash are also encoded at last. This review will be helpful to expedite the research in this field and may also be used for startups related to various product development using straw in the local areas, which may depreciate the burning of straw in the field and its environmental effects.
... The natural fiber comes from stalks, leaves, and seeds such as wheat straw, corn straw, cotton, jute, hemp, kenaf, and sisal [13][14][15]. In general, the utility of corn stalk is very limited for domestic fuel, livestock feed, and industrial fuel [16], and the remaining straw was burned in fields by factors such as labor scarcity, low nutritive value [17], ignorance of cultivators towards the public health issue [18,19], and socio-economic constraints [20] in the past [21][22][23][24][25], which led to a loss of valuable soil nutrients [26,27], waste of resources, and serious pollution of the environment [28][29][30][31], and poses a challenge to production and life [32]. Therefore, utilization of such cereal crop residue is of great importance not only for minimizing the environmental impact and risk to human health, but also for obtaining a higher profit through natural fiber. ...
Article
Full-text available
Corn stalk fibers were extracted from corn stalk using sodium hydroxide for textile application. The extraction conditions were optimized on the basis of the quality and quantity of extracted fibers. The optimum conditions were obtained by treating corn stalk with 5 g/L concentration of sodium hydroxide for 60 min at boiling temperature using a 1:50 material-to-liquor ratio. Extracted fibers were bleached and tested for different physical and chemical properties. Besides these properties, the characterization of extracted fibers was carried out by a scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) and Fourier–transform infrared (FTIR) analysis. SEM was used to study the morphological changes in the raw and bleached fibers. The crystallinity changes of the raw and bleached samples were measured with an X-ray diffractometer by peak height method. FTIR was used to examine the compositional changes in the bleaching process. It was found that raw fibers contained the cellular residues such as lignin and hemicelluloses, which cement the fibers together. The chemical treatments such as alkali and bleaching partially removed hemicelluloses, lignin, and amorphous fractions of cellulose. This led to the gradually increasing crystallinity of the treated fiber. Peak height values were obtained by measuring the transmittance of the spectra through FTIR analysis. Different physical and chemical properties of the extracted corn stalk fibers indicated that it can be used for making biodegradable composite materials.
... The agricultural leftovers left behind after grain harvest are referred to as biomass. It is anticipated that the crop leftovers (biomass) from the food grains comprise roughly 500-550 Mt of biomass (Devi et al. 2017). These biomass crop wastes are utilised for mulching, livestock feed, manuring etc. ...
Preprint
Full-text available
Burning biomass poses a severe concern and is currently a hot topic. In India, about 85–90% of biomass is burned in the field. Burning agricultural crop residue also contributes to the release of various pollutants that are harmful to human health. It also has a negative effect on the many ecosystem services, including those that are regulating, providing, sustaining, and cultural. It impacts pollinators, reduces soil fertility, changes soil structure, and influences how naturally pests and diseases are controlled. It lessens nematode, microbe, earthworm, insect, and pathogen biodiversity. Burning biomass removes nutrients, which has a significant impact on the ecology. Biomass burning removed around 2400, 35, 3.2, 21 and 2.7 kg of carbon, nitrogen, phosphorous, potassium, and sulphur from the soil. The cost to add those nutrients back to the soil using the replacement cost technique is Rs. 30834. The economic benefits of biomass include its usage as a source of energy, biofuel, compost, gasification, and bio-methanation. The effects of burning biomass and the uses of biomass must be understood by all parties involved.
... The agricultural leftovers left behind after grain harvest are referred to as biomass. It is anticipated that the crop leftovers (biomass) from the food grains comprise roughly 500-550 Mt of biomass (Devi et al. 2017). These biomass crop wastes are utilised for mulching, livestock feed, manuring etc. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
Burning biomass poses a severe concern and is currently a hot topic. In India, about 85– 90% of biomass is burned in the field. Burning agricultural crop residue also contributes to the release of various pollutants that are harmful to human health. It also has a negative effect on the many ecosystem services, including those that are regulating, providing, sustaining, and cultural. It impacts pollinators, reduces soil fertility, changes soil structure, and influences how naturally pests and diseases are controlled. It lessens nematode, microbe, earthworm, insect, and pathogen biodiversity. Burning biomass removes nutrients, which has a significant impact on the ecology. Biomass burning removed around 2400, 35, 3.2, 21 and 2.7 kg of carbon, nitrogen, phosphorous, potassium, and sulphur from the soil. The cost to add those nutrients back to the soil using the replacement cost technique is Rs. 30834. The economic benefits of biomass include its usage as a source of energy, biofuel, compost, gasification, and bio-methanation. The effects of burning biomass and the uses of biomass must be understood by all parties involved.
... This policy adaptation allows the Indian ethanol sector to take advantage of the alternative feedstocks abundance for boosting ethanol production. Among all the alternative feedstocks, surplus amount of cassava, paddy straw, wheat straw, sugarcane bagasse, maize stover, and sweet-sorghum stalk can be utilised for ethanol production as these are available in a large quantity (Devi et al., 2017;J. S. Mishra et al., 2017;Pushpalatha et al., 2020), as using these feedstocks is reported to be resource-saving and sustainable (Basavaraj et al., 2013;Konde et al., 2021;Ray et al., 2012). ...
Article
Full-text available
In India, ethanol is recognised as a fuel for its potential to provide environmental and energy security-related benefits to the country. So, an Ethanol Blending Programme (EBP) has been initiated by the Government of India to harvest the benefits of ethanol. However, India has consistently failed to achieve the blending target, which indicates the necessity to recognise the barriers and drivers of the programme. In this present study, an integrated methodology has been proposed based on a hybrid Delphi-PESTEL (political, economic, social, technological, environmental, and legal) and Fuzzy-AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process) analysis to identify and prioritise the barriers and drivers associated with the Indian ethanol blending programme. 25 PESTEL indicators have been identified, quantified, and ranked according to the opinion of the experts using the Fuzzy-AHP analysis. Further, the sensitivity of the Fuzzy-AHP result has been checked. The study shows that “Insufficient infrastructure” is the most significant barrier for the EBP while “Energy security of the country” is the most crucial driver of the programme. The present study is expected to help policymakers achieve the ethanol blending target.
Chapter
Agriculture plays a vital role in the Indian economy, contributing 19.9% to the country’s total Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and providing employment to a large proportion of the country’s population. Being a country known for its physiographic diversity with desert, plains, mountains, coastal plains, and peninsular plateau and ever-increasing population, Indian agricultural land has been prone to a wide variety of physical and chemical stresses from natural and anthropogenic channels. In the country, nearly 29% (96.4 Mha) of India’s total geographical area (328.7 Mha) is subjected to degradation majorly by soil erosion by water (36.1 Mha), followed by vegetation degradation, referred to as a decline in the above-ground biomass resulted from deforestation/overgrazing (29.3 Mha), wind erosion (18.2 Mha), salinity (3.7 Mha), frost shattering (3.3 Mha), and human interventions that include mining, urbanization, and industrial activities (2.3 Mha), mass movement or mass wasting that includes all forms of downward movement of soil and rock under the influence of gravity (0.9 Mha), waterlogging (0.7 Mha), and others (1.9 Mha). India has focused on reducing degraded areas, particularly from 1996 through the new policy framework with public investments made in the agricultural domain to achieve a neutral status in land degradation by 2030. However, while focusing on the existing major degradation processes like water and wind erosion, salinity, and waterlogging, emerging pollutants like microplastics and fluoride are given the least priority, which may result in a significant threat to environmental sustainability and food security in the future. This chapter’s objective is to highlight the status of soil degradation in India with particular emphasis on the existing and emerging degradation processes such as soil erosion by wind and water, overgrazing, salinity, waterlogging, slash-and-burn agriculture, agrochemicals, microplastics, and fluoride pollution. This chapter also emphasizes the leading causes and effects of various physical and chemical land degradation processes, macro- and micro-scale statistics of different degradation processes, and national interventions in conserving and reclaiming the affected lands.KeywordsDriving forcesMitigation strategiesNational policy frameworkProcessesSoil degradation status
Chapter
After harvesting, agriculture and livestock farming discard waste. Due to the massive scale of agriculture, agricultural waste cannot be disregarded and must be handled effectively through an agricultural waste management strategy. Agricultural wastes contain various substances like fine metal particles, medications, and microorganisms, and improper disposal can be environmentally damaging. Creating a more efficient and sustainable agricultural supply chain should be prioritized to reduce waste. Recycling agricultural wastes into usable goods may create other wastes that may be used as raw ingredients for another valuable product, demanding ongoing agricultural waste recycling until all possible waste has been transformed into riches.
Article
Full-text available
This paper evaluates India's annual waste-to-energy potential through biomethane production, and the corresponding greenhouse gas abatement. Biodegradable wastes generated across various sectors (agriculture, horticulture, animal husbandry, municipalities, sericulture, fisheries, and industries) are examined, many of which have not been considered previously for India's bioenergy potential assessments. The degree of replaceability of present-day unclean fuels and the net avoided greenhouse gas emissions from the utilisation of this biomethane are evaluated for three separate end use scenarios: electricity generation, cooking, and road transportation. The total biomethane generation potential is 125 billion cubic metres, after considering a gas leakage rate of 3%. The corresponding total heat and electrical energy generation potentials are 4.49 EJ and 748.59 TWh respectively; the breakdown of this for all the states and union territories of India is also calculated. Biomethane from wastes could have provided for either 47% of India's gross generated electricity or 91% of India's road transport fuel demand in the financial year of 2018–19. Less than 43% of this biomethane could supply the entirety of the country's cooking fuel demand. The corresponding avoided GHG emissions from the displacement of fossil fuels and the prevention of crop residue field burning and municipal waste dumping are between 284 and 461 million tonnes of carbon dioxide-equivalent, excluding the contribution from black carbon. The avoided particulate emissions from crop residue burning prevention is around 2 million tonnes. Thus, this paper makes a strong case for biomethane generation from wastes in India to appropriately address climate change impact, pollution, and waste disposal problems, and aims to inform and influence energy policy in the country, with additional considerations of the gap between the potential and the state-of-the-art, and the technical and socio-economic challenges of waste-to-energy schemes. In addition to the quantitative evaluations, this paper contains a comprehensive compilation of data on waste and biomethane generation potentials from experiments and surveys scattered across the literature; it is hoped that this will be a valuable resource for future research, energy assessments, and policy considerations.
Article
Full-text available
Spatial Distribution of Heavy Metals in the Soils of Erath County, Texas. The presence of heavy metals in soils is a potential threat to plants, animals, humans and the environment. The soils of Erath County, Texas were examined to determine the spatial variability of heavy metals (Pb, Mn, Zn, and As) near the major highways (US-281, 377, 67, and State Highway 8 and 108) as well as unpaved county roads. It is hypothesized that heavy metals generated from combustion of motor fuel have accumulated near roadsides. However, their persistence in the soil varies with the distance from the road edge, direction of prevailing wind, traffic density, and type of road. Soil samples were collected along both sides of the road at variable distances: 25, 50 and 100 m from the road edge.The high concentration of Pb, Mn, and Zn in roadside soil was found to be associated with traffic related activities. The distribution of Pb, Mn, and Zn in roadside soil is related to traffic density, and distance from the road edge. The prevailing wind also had a significant effect on the accumulation pattern of Pb and Mn in roadside soil. Although As in roadside soil was higher than typical background levels, As distribution was not influenced by traffic density, distance from the road edge, or direction of prevailing wind. Rather, observed differences were attributed to the nature of the soil parent material.
Article
Full-text available
Agricultural crop residue burning contribute towards the emission of greenhouse gases (CO 2 , N 2 O, CH 4), air pollutants (CO, NH 3 , NO x , SO 2 , NMHC, volatile organic compounds), particulates matter and smoke thereby posing threat to human health. In the present study a state-wise inventory of crop residue burnt in India and the air pollutants emitted was prepared using the InterGovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) national inventory preparation guidelines for the year 2008–09. Total amount of residue generated in 2008–09 was 620 Mt out of which ~15.9% residue was burnt on farm. Rice straw contributed 40% of the total residue burnt followed by wheat straw (22%) and sugarcane trash (20%). Burning of crop residues emitted 8.57 Mt of CO, 141.15 Mt of CO 2 , 0.037 Mt of SO x , 0.23 Mt of NO x , 0.12 Mt of NH 3 and 1.46 Mt NMVOC, 0.65 Mt of NMHC, 1.21 Mt of particulate matter for the year 2008–09. The variability of 21.46% in annual emission of air pollutants was observed from 1995 to 2009.
Article
Full-text available
Climatological mean estimates of forest burning and crop waste burning based on broad assumptions of the amounts burned have so far been used for India in global inventories. Here we estimate open biomass burning representative of 1995–2000 from forests using burned area and biomass density specific for Indian ecosystems and crop waste burning as a balance between generation and known uses as fuel and fodder. High-resolution satellite data of active fires and land cover classification from MODIS, both on a scale of 1 km × 1 km, were used to capture the seasonal variability of forest and crop waste burning and in conjunction with field reporting. Correspondence in satellite-detected fire cycles with harvest season was used to identify types crop waste burned in different regions. The fire season in forest areas was from February to May, and that in croplands varied with geographical location, with peaks in April and October, corresponding to the two major harvest seasons. Spatial variability in amount of forest biomass burned differed from corresponding forest fire counts with biomass burned being largest in central India but fire frequency being highest in the east-northeast. Unutilized crop waste and MODIS cropland fires were predominant in the western Indo-Gangetic plain. However, the amounts of unutilized crop waste in the four regions were not strictly proportional to the fire counts. Fraction crop waste burned in fields ranged from 18 to 30% on an all-India basis and had a strong regional variation. Open burning contributes importantly (about 25%) to black carbon, organic matter, and carbon monoxide emissions, a smaller amount (9–13%) to PM2.5 (particulate mass in particles smaller than 2.5 micron diameter) and CO2 emissions, and negligibly to SO2 emissions (1%). However, it cannot explain a large “missing source” of BC or CO from India.
Article
Full-text available
The rice-wheat system is the main source of food and income for millions of people in South Asia. However, because of increasing pressure of biotic and abiotic stresses in response to soil degradation and changing climate, crop productivity and farmers’ profi ts are on a downward trend. Recent efforts have attempted to develop and deliver resource-conserving technologies (RCTs) with effi cient and environmentally friendly tillage/crop establishment and water use compared with the conventional practices of farmers. No tool, however, is available to evaluate the RCTs quantitatively, particularly in terms of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and other environmental impacts. A simulation model, named InfoRCT (Information on Use of Resource-Conserving Technologies), has been developed integrating biophysical, agronomic, and socio-economic data to establish input-output relationships related to water, fertilizer, labor, and biocide uses; GHG emissions; biocide residue in soil; and N fl uxes in the rice-wheat system. The model provided a comparative assessment of RCTs in yield, income, global warming potential (GWP), biocide residue index, and N loss. The assessment showed that mid-season drying and no-till systems increased income, and also reduced the GWP. The model could be used for assessing impact of crop management practices on productivity and GHG emissions in rice-wheat systems.
Article
In this review, the prospects of utilizing pineapple-leaf fibres for textile and allied applications are considered. Fibre production and fibre properties are discussed from both industrial and research points of view. An account of the possible use of pineapple-leaf waste is also given. There are 68 references.
Article
Biomass burning from forest regions and agriculture crop residues can emit substantial amounts of particulate matter and other pollutants into the atmosphere. An inventory of forest, grassland and agricultural burning is important for studies related to global change. This study provides an account of the agriculture crop residue burning in Punjab during wheat and rice crop growing periods. Indian Remote Sensing Satellite (IRS-P6) Advanced Wide Field Sensor (AWiFS) data during May and October 2005 have been analysed for estimating the extent of burnt areas and thereby greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from crop residue burning. Emission factors available in the literature were integrated with satellite remote sensing data for estimating the emissions. Results suggested that emissions from wheat crop residues in Punjab are relatively low compared to those from paddy fields. It is inferred that incorporation of agricultural residues into the soil in rice-wheat systems is highly sustainable and eco-friendly, rather than burning the crop residues. The potential of satellite remote sensing datasets for burnt area estimation and GHG emissions, is also demonstrated in the study.
Article
The elemental composition of compost products was determined via inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP) and x-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF). Correlations between the two methodologies were evaluated on individual elemental basis to determine if XRF provides results comparable to ICP. Results showed that XRF provides good correlation to ICP on certain EPA-regulated metals such as As, Cu, and Zn. ICP provided better detection of elements at low levels (<5 mg kg−1) in the composted products tested. While XRF cannot achieve the absolute detection limits of ICP, it does show utility as a field screening tool for determining if products fall below EPA mandated metal levels.