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Advances in Knowledge Organization, Vol. 16 (2018)
Challenges and Opportunities
for Knowledge Organization
in the Digital Age
Proceedings
of the
Fifteenth International ISKO Conference
9-11 July 2018
Porto, Portugal
Organized by
International Society for Knowledge Organization (ISKO),
ISKO Spain and Portugal Chapter
University of Porto Faculty of Arts and Humanities
Research Centre in Communication, Information
and Digital Culture (CIC.digital) Porto
Edited by
Fernanda Ribeiro
Maria Elisa Cerveira
ERGON VERLAG
Editorial Support:
Raquel Graça
Predocumentation:
The volume contains: Introduction Keynote Address Foundations and Methods for
Knowledge Organization Interoperability towards Information Access Societal Challenges
in Knowledge Organization Poster Workshop List of Contributors and Authors Index
Bibliographic information published by the Deutsche Nationalbibliothek
The Deutsche Nationalbibliothek lists this publication in the Deutsche
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© Ergon ein Verlag in der Nomos Verlagsgesellschaft, Baden-Baden 2018
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www.ergon-verlag.de
ISBN 978-3-95650-420-4 (Print)
ISBN 978-3-95650-421-1 (ePDF)
ISSN 0938-5495
Table of Contents
Introduction
Fernanda Ribeiro ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 15
Keynote Address
Supporting truth and promoting understanding: Knowledge Organization and the curation of
the infosphere
David Bawden--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 17
Foundations and Methods for Knowledge Organization
Among dictionaries, reference works and concept systems: can the terminology in
International Standard ISO 5127:2017 contribute to Knowledge Organization?
Axel Ermert ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 29
An Analysis of the theoretical and practical application of Diplomatics to archival description
in Knowledge Organization
Natalia Bolfarini Tognoli, Ana Célia Rodrigues ----------------------------------------------------------- 43
Applied Knowledge Organization and the history of the world
Rick Szostak ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 52
Approaches to the concepts of exhaustivity and specificity in ISKO International meeting
proceedings: 2000-2017
Maria da Graça Simões, Daniel Martínez-Ávila, Blanca Rodríguez-Bravo, Patricia de Almeida,
Isadora Victorino Evangelista -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 58
Articulating a cultural research program for Knowledge Organization Systems
Gregory H. Leazer, Robert Montoya, Jonathan Furner --------------------------------------------------- 66
Aspects regarding the notion of subject in the context of different theoretical trends: teaching
approaches in Brazil
Brisa Pozzi de Sousa, Cristina Dotta Ortega --------------------------------------------------------------- 74
Automatic indexing and ontologies: the consistency of research chronology and authoring in
the context of Information Science
Maria da Graça Simões, Luís Miguel Machado, Renato Rocha Souza, Maurício Barcellos
Almeida, António Tavares Lopes ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- 86
6
Big data, Knowledge Organization and decision making: opportunities and limits
Amos David, Nadine Ndjock ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 95
Classification and Knowledge Organization Systems: ontologies and archival classification
Thiago Henrique Bragato Barros, Daniel Libonati Gomes -------------------------------------------- 103
Classification of photographs: methodological concepts in Archival Science, Library Science
and Museum Science
Ana Cristina de Albuquerque, Luciane de Fátima Beckman Cavalcante ----------------------------- 112
Comparing the use of full text search between a conventional IR System and a DBMS
Edson Marchetti da Silva ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 120
Computer-assisted checking of conceptual relationships in a large thesaurus
Decio Wey Berti, Jr., Gercina Lima, Benildes Maculan, Dagobert Soergel ------------------------- 128
The Contribution of Semiotics to Knowledge Organization for music information
Camila Monteiro de Barros, Lígia Maria Arruda Café, Audrey Laplante --------------------------- 137
Critical questions for big data approach in knowledge representation and organization
Lala Hajibayova, Athena Salaba --------------------------------------------------------------------------- 144
Developing a field of knowledge through bibliography: art history in the 16th century
Giulia Crippa ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 152
Different parameters for Knowledge Organization in archives
Sonia Troitiño ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 160
Document representation with images: an experimental milestone
Marcilio de Brito, Widad Mustafa El Hadi, Maja Žumer, Simone Bastos Vieira, Marcos de
Brito ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 167
Domain analysis of scientific production in Information and Communication Technology in
the context of small farmers
Fábio Mosso Moreira, Ely Francina Tannuri de Oliveira, Ricardo César Gonçalves Sant’Ana
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 176
Epistemic communities, domain analysis, and Kuhn: dialogs and intersections in Knowledge
Organization
Daniel Martínez-Ávila, Isadora Victorino Evangelista, Maria da Graça Simões, José Augusto
Chaves Guimarães ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 184
Epistemic LOCI: linguistic and critical meta-methodology in Knowledge Organization
Tatiana de Almeida, Gustavo Silva Saldanha ------------------------------------------------------------ 191
Epistemological challenges in Knowledge Organization in the digital age
Rosa San Segundo, Maria Adelina Codina-Canet ------------------------------------------------------- 198
7
Facet: itself a multifaceted concept
Michèle Hudon, Alexandre Fortier ------------------------------------------------------------------------ 204
Feasibility of implementing PRESSoo model in organizing Persian serials
Negin Shokrzadeh Hashtroudi, Mohsen Haji Zeinolabedini ------------------------------------------- 212
Foundations and methods for Knowledge Organization in European iSchools courses
Olívia Pestana ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 224
A Framework to represent variables and values in Social Science research data sets to support
data curation and reuse
Guangyuan Sun, Christopher S. G. Khoo ----------------------------------------------------------------- 231
The Genesis of Documentation in Brazil: Manoel Cícero Peregrino da Silva and Paul Otlet
(1900-1924)
Carlos Henrique Juvêncio, Georgete Medleg Rodrigues ----------------------------------------------- 240
Global Knowledge Organization, “super-facets” and music: universal music classification in
the digital age
Deborah Lee, Lyn Robinson, David Bawden ------------------------------------------------------------- 248
Historical ambiguity: a lens for approaching outdated terms
Lilium Rajan--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 256
How Knowledge Organization helped to shape the emerging field of Terminology in Canada
Lynne Bowker ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 265
Influence of metatheoretical research in Knowledge Organization
Paula Carina de Araújo, Joseph T. Tennis --------------------------------------------------------------- 273
Information and argument structures in Sociology research abstracts
Wei-Ning Cheng, Christopher S. G. Khoo ---------------------------------------------------------------- 282
Information and knowledge ecology: a field for research in Knowledge Organization
Wiesław Babik ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 290
Information from jussive processes
Elliott Hauser ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 300
Intellectual history, history of ideas, and subject ontogeny
Joseph T. Tennis ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 308
Is the massive incorporation of e-books into university libraries devaluing the technical
processes related to the assigning of subject headings and classification codes?
Isidoro Gil-Leiva, Mariângela Spotti Lopes Fujita, Pedro Manuel Díaz Ortuño, Daniela
Majorie dos Reis ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 314
8
Knowledge Organization in editorial policies for titles, abstracts and keywords in JCR-indexed
journals: an exploratory study in the areas of Information and Communication Sciences
Mariângela Spotti Lopes Fujita, María-del-Carmen Agustín-Lacruz, Ana Lúcia Terra ----------- 321
Knowledge Organization in the health field: an ontology project to improve the information
retrieval process
Claudio Jose Silva Ribeiro, Diones Ramos da Silva ----------------------------------------------------- 330
Literary warrant-based approach to organize KO terminology: criteria and method
Mario Barité, Mirtha Rauch, Ana Inés Brozia, Micaela Morales ------------------------------------- 339
Medical ontology: Siddha System of Medicine
Hemalata Iyer, K.S. Raghavan ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- 347
The Modern and its impact on models of information organization in Brazil: the decline of the
National Library and the rise of the National Book Institute (1930-1954)
Carlos Henrique Juvêncio, Georgete Medleg Rodrigues ----------------------------------------------- 356
The Onomasiological approach and the function of definitions in the elaboration of domain
models in ontologies
Maria Luiza de Almeida Campos, Hagar Espanha Gomes --------------------------------------------- 363
OntoM4IS: ontology reuse method for Information Science
Helder Noel Monteiro Firmino, Gercina Ângela de Lima ---------------------------------------------- 371
Parsimony in Biological and Colon Classifications
Robert D. Montoya ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 377
The Penumbra-line: Ranganathan’s journeys and the genesis of the APUPA pattern
Luca Giusti ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 380
Photography as a legitimate technique for domain analysis in Knowledge Organization
Eva Hourihan Jansen ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 392
Reconstructionism: a comparative method for viewpoint analysis and indexing using the
example of Kohlberg’s moral stages
Michael Kleineberg ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 400
A Relation typology in Knowledge Organization Systems: case studies in the research data
management domain
Jian Qin -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 409
Reorganization of knowledge in technical documents for the information system: the
extraction of logico-cognitive information from heterogeneous administrative data
Omar Larouk, Mabrouka El Hachani --------------------------------------------------------------------- 416
The Retrieval power added by subject indexing to bibliographic databases
Philip Hider --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 426
9
Risks and requirements of an applied Information Science research framework in healthcare
Fernanda Gonçalves, Gabriel David ---------------------------------------------------------------------- 432
Semantic warrant, cultural hospitality and knowledge representation in multicultural contexts:
experiments with the use of the EuroVoc and UNBIS thesauri
Roger de Miranda Guedes, Maria Aparecida Moura --------------------------------------------------- 442
Solid Foundations and some secondary assumptions in the design of bibliographic metadata:
toward a typology of complementary uses of metadata
Athena Salaba, Joseph T. Tennis --------------------------------------------------------------------------- 450
The Spirit of inquiry’s power to influence in 21st-century KO research: Jesse Shera and
Margaret Egan
José Augusto Chaves Guimarães, Maria Claudia Cabrini Gracio, Daniel Martínez-Ávila,
Rodrigo de Sales ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 460
Truth, relevance, and justice: towards a veritistic turn for KO
Jonathan Furner ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 468
Verbal protocols in Brazilian Information Science: a perspective from indexing studies
Paula Regina Dal’ Evedove, Roberta Cristina Dal’ Evedove Tartarotti, Mariângela Spotti
Lopes Fujita --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 475
Who is Tesauro? The man, words and things
Gustavo Silva Saldanha, Naira Christofoletti Silveira, Giulia Crippa and Tatiana de Almeida
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 483
Wikipedia categories in research: towards a qualitative review of uses and applications
Jesús Tramullas, Ana I. Sánchez-Casabón, Piedad Garrido-Picazo ---------------------------------- 490
Interoperability towards Information Access
A Comparative analysis and evaluation of bibliographic ontologies
Maria Teresa Biagetti ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 501
A Conceptual model for an OWL ontology to represent the knowledge of transmedia
storytelling
Juan Antonio Pastor Sánchez, Tomás Saorín Pérez ----------------------------------------------------- 511
Connecting KOSs and the LOD Cloud
Rick Szostak, Andrea Scharnhorst, Wouter Beek, Richard P. Smiraglia ----------------------------- 521
Converting UDC to BCC: comparative approaches to interdisciplinarity
Richard P. Smiraglia, Rick Szostak ------------------------------------------------------------------------ 530
10
Culturally relevant relationships: publishing and connecting digital objects in collections of
archives, libraries, and museums over the Web
Carlos H. Marcondes ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 539
Derivative interpretation of biographical sketches (bios) supporting innovative information access
Marcia Lei Zeng, Sophy Shu-Jiun Chen ------------------------------------------------------------------- 549
Extending the scope of library discovery systems via hashtags
Louise F. Spiteri ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 557
An FRBR-based approach for transforming MARC records into linked data
Ya-Ning Chen ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 565
From uniform identifiers to graphs, from individuals to communities: what we talk about when
we talk about linked person data
M. Cristina Pattuelli ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 571
Identifying semantic characteristics of user interaction datasets through application of a data
analysis
Fernando de Assis Rodrigues, Pedro Henrique Santos Bisi, Ricardo César Gonçalves
Sant’Ana ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 581
Image organization on the Web: an analysis from the perspective of cultural heritage of rural
farms in Brazil
Luciana de Souza Gracioso, Letícia Reis da Silveira, Maria da Graça Simões, Luzia Sigoli
Fernandes Costa ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 588
Information access in the digital era: document visualization strategy
Francisco Carlos Paletta, Armando Malheiro da Silva ------------------------------------------------- 597
Integrating libraries, archives, museums and art galleries with Linked Data: initiatives study
Ana Carolina Simionato, Felipe Augusto Arakaki, Plácida Leopoldina Ventura Amorim da
Costa Santos--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 606
Knowledge Organization in a Web collaborative environment
Vânia Mara Alves Lima, Cibele de Araújo Camargo Marques dos Santos -------------------------- 613
Knowledge Organization Systems and cultural interoperability in open humanitarian settings
Quoc-Tan Tran------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 624
Knowledge Organization systems used in European national libraries towards interoperability
of the semantic Web
Dorota Siwecka ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 633
The Need to interoperate: structural comparison of and methodological guidance on mapping
discipline-specific subject authority data to wikidata
Andreas Oskar Kempf ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 644
11
Phenomenon-based vs. disciplinary classification: possibilities for evaluating and for mapping
Claudio Gnoli, Andreas Ledl, Ziyoung Park, Marcin Trzmielewski ----------------------------------- 653
Relationship status: libraries and linked data in Europe
Diane Rasmussen Pennington, Laura Cagnazzo --------------------------------------------------------- 662
The Role of Knowledge Organization tools in open innovation platforms
Ricardo Eito-Brun -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 666
Subject access of Mexican television news broadcasts on the Web
Silvano Soto-Hernández, Catalina Naumis-Peña -------------------------------------------------------- 674
Tags on healthcare information websites
Marit Kristine Ådland, Marianne Lykke------------------------------------------------------------------- 684
Towards integrated systems for KOS management, mapping, and access: Coli-conc and its
collaborative computer-assisted KOS mapping tool Cocoda
Uma Balakrishnan, Jakob Voß, Dagobert Soergel ------------------------------------------------------ 693
Towards the semantic annotation and the prevention of the loss of information of second
opinion requests from rural Brazilian primary healthcare providers: the Q-codes use case – a
work in progress
Melissa P. Resnick, Elena Cardillo, Marc Jamoulle, Magdala de Araujo Novaes, Frank S.
Shamenek ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 702
Use of conceptual relations for semantic integration of scientific publications and research data
Luana Farias Sales, Luís Fernando Sayão --------------------------------------------------------------- 711
A Value-based approach to modelling interoperability in Knowledge Organization Systems
John Adetunji Adebisi, Babajide Samuel Afolabi, Bernard Ijesunor Akhigbe ----------------------- 720
VIAF and OpenCitations: cooperative work as a strategy for information organization in the
linked data era
Erika Alves dos Santos, Marcos Luiz Mucheroni -------------------------------------------------------- 729
Societal Challenges in Knowledge Organization
Author information for Knowledge Organization in the digital age
Wan-Chen Lee ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 739
Challenges of organization and retrieval of photographs on social networks on the Internet
Anna Carla Almeida Mariz, Raquel Oliveira Melo, Thales Almeida Mariz -------------------------- 746
Challenges to Knowledge Organization in the era of social media: the case of social
controversies
Nathanaëla Andrianasolo, Adrian-Gabriel Chifu, Sébastien Fournier, Fidelia Ibekwe-SanJuan
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 754
12
Copyright infringement: between ethical use and legal use of information
Arthur Coelho Bezerra, Tatiana Sanches ----------------------------------------------------------------- 762
Dealing with the paradoxes of customer opinion for effective decision support in churn
management
Ayodeji O.J Ibitoye, Olufade F.W Onifade, Chika O Yinka-Banjo ------------------------------------- 770
Design Science as a methodology for the development of Knowledge Organization Systems
in museological entities
Mariana Cantisani Padua, Maria José Vicentini Jorente, Natalia Nakano -------------------------- 786
Digital heritage: challenges and opportunities in the access and organisation of digital
knowledge in contemporary societies
Tiago Trindade Cruz ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 795
Enhancement of digital heritage through digital social networks
Camille Rondot, Emmanuelle Chevry-Pébayle ----------------------------------------------------------- 804
Epistemology and Ethics of big data
Moisés Rockembach, Armando Malheiro da Silva ------------------------------------------------------- 812
Information Design as knowledge technology in the organization of digital information
environments on the Zika Virus and its effects
Maria José Vicentini Jorente ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 820
Intersectionality and the social construction of Knowledge Organization
Maria Aparecida Moura ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 830
Knowledge Organization in the digital age: the complexity of the global labor market
Francisco Carlos Paletta, Armando Malheiro da Silva ------------------------------------------------- 839
Memories in dispute, and reconfigurations of cultural heritage: for an Ethnography of
museums
Samuel Ayobami Akinruli, Luana Carla Martins Campos Akinruli ----------------------------------- 848
The Mobile phone between challenge and expectations: a potential for information sharing
between Algerian breeders and veterinarians
Radia Bernaoui, H. Peter Ohly, Kebbab Salim, Mohamed Hassoun ---------------------------------- 856
Negotiating participatory KO in crowdsourcing infrastructures
Ina-Maria Jansson ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 863
New ways to produce shared knowledge to improve cooperation in overcoming societal
challenges in healthcare: the lever of innovative interface organizations in France
Christian Bourret --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 871
13
The Role of Neuroscience in information and knowledge appropriation
António José de Bastos Leite, Francisco Carlos Paletta, Maria Fernanda da Silva Martins,
Teresa Silveira ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 880
Testing library catalog analysis as a bibliometric indicator for research evaluation in Social
Sciences and Humanities
Maria Teresa Biagetti, Antonella Iacono, Antonella Trombone --------------------------------------- 892
What do museum website users expect from linked open data?
Alexandre Fortier, Elaine Ménard ------------------------------------------------------------------------- 900
What is happening about KOS in Spain: scientific production analysis, 2000-2017
José A. Moreiro-González, Virginia Ortiz-Repiso ------------------------------------------------------- 908
Posters
Challenges in management and Knowledge Organization of documental heritage: key factors
in the methodology of diligent search for orphan works
Rosario Arquero-Avilés, Brenda Siso-Calvo, Gonzalo Marco-Cuenca, Silvia Cobo-Serrano
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 921
A Connotative trust-based paradigm to minify societal challenge(s) in Knowledge
Organization Systems
Ojo Stephen Aderibigbe, Bernard Ijesunor Akhigbe, Babajide Samuel Afolabi, Emmanuel
Rotimi Adagunodo -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 924
The Contribution of research on information quality to Knowledge Organization
Priscila Basto Fagundes, Douglas Dyllon Jeronimo de Macedo, Enrique Muriel Torrado,
Adilson Luiz Pinto -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 927
Creation of a domain ontology in CIDOC CRM OWL format using heterogeneous textual data
related to industrial heritage
Eric Kergosien, Kaouther Ben Smida, Rémi Cardon, Natalia Grabar, Mathilde Wybo ------------ 931
Diplomatic forensics: a necessary historical review for the analysis of the born-digital record
Juan Bernardo Montoya-Mogollón, Sonia Maria Troitiño --------------------------------------------- 937
The French military documentary system to anticipate health risk: content and information
classification
M.Tanti --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 940
Gamification as a system for developing knowledge in the classroom: a proposal based on an
educational innovation project
Rosario Arquero-Avilés, Gonzalo Marco-Cuenca, Alicia Arias-Coello, Brenda Siso-Calvo,
Silvia Cobo-Serrano, Carmen Soler-Vaquer ------------------------------------------------------------- 945
14
Interdisciplinary research organization: superimposing linked library data, linked research
information and research data with interdisciplinary Knowledge Organization
Ingo Frank ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 948
Knowledge Organization and information retrieval in institutional repositories
Agnes Hajdu Barat ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 951
Knowledge Organization System interoperability: the cogitation of user interfaces for better
interactivity
Nkechinyere Joy Olawuyi, Bernard Ijesunor Akhigbe, Babajide Samuel Afolabi ------------------- 955
Mapping perspectival ambiguity in Bioethics: revisiting the viewpoint warrant
Denis Kos, Sonja Špiranec, Ante Čović ------------------------------------------------------------------- 959
A Model for decision making (DM) in territory management: social implications
María J. López-Huertas, Diego Martín Oliva ------------------------------------------------------------ 962
State of the art of organization and administration of libraries in Brazil: preliminary results
Jaqueline Santos Barradas, Eliane Cristina Maceió Ferreira ----------------------------------------- 966
Web archiving of elections and Brazilian possibilities
Moisés Rockembach, Lisiane Braga Ferreira ------------------------------------------------------------ 969
Workshops
The Politics of classification
Robert D. Montoya, Melanie Feinberg, Jonathan Furner, Gregory H. Leazer, Joseph T.
Tennis ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 975
Thematic representation and metadata of photographic documents
Ana Cristina de Albuquerque, Ana Carolina Simionato ------------------------------------------------ 979
List of Contributors and Authors’ Index --------------------------------------------- 983
Fernando de Assis Rodrigues, Pedro Henrique Santos Bisi, Ricardo César
Gonçalves Sant’Ana
Identifying semantic characteristics of user interaction datasets
through application of a data analysis
Abstract
In evaluating a decision, any fact analyzed needs to receive inputs from multiple data sources - structuring,
integrating, storing, and processing collected data into an output that supports a better understanding of the
fact from data, allowing new dimensions of analysis. The goal of this study is to identify the semantic
characteristics of data attributes at the moment of collection, from dataset structures found in the data export
interfaces of user interaction analysis tools, in Internet communication channels, and in web analytics data
tools involved in scientific journal management, through the application of a process of data analysis and data
modeling techniques. The research was delimited to exportable datasets available in interfaces from Open
Journal Systems, Google Analytics and Search Console, Twitter Analytics, and Facebook Insights. An
exploratory analysis approach was adopted to identify characteristics regarding how data are made available
and structured in these data resources. Entity-Relationship Modeling concepts were applied to design and store
data collected from services, resources, datasets, and attributes. In addition, the collected data was processed
into another data structure, adopting the online analytical processing cube as a three-dimensional
representation of elements, to facilitate analysis from different perspectives. This data analysis identified
semantic dissonances in definitions of entity attributes, which may interfere with the process of developing
relationships between attributes from different datasets, reducing the potential of interoperability.
Introduction
The use of data is part of the decision-making process in several fields, such as in
education (Ikemoto & Marsh, 2007), industry (Reddy, Srinivasu, Rao and Rikkula
2010), management (Goodwin and Wright 2014), and science (Turban, Aronson and
Liang 2004), among others.
In evaluating a decision, any fact analyzed needs to receive inputs from multiple data
sources – structuring, integrating, storing, and processing the collected data into an
output that supports a better understanding of the fact from data, allowing new
dimensions or perspectives of analysis (Inmon 2005; Kimball and Ross 2011; Reddy et
al. 2010; Turban et al. 2004).
For example, an evaluation of interactions between users and scientific contents in a
publisher's web domain may be analyzed by service holders from the outputs generated
in a process of collecting data regarding users’ interactions with their communication
channels, structured into a data warehouse: a “[…] subject-oriented, integrated, time-
variant, non-normalized, non-volatile collections of data that support analytical
decision-making” with “[...] access to all information relevant to the organization,
which may come from many different sources, both internal and external” (Turban et
al. 2004, p. 236).
582
However, if data are analyzed as a set of elements formed by the triad of entity,
attribute, and value (Santos and Sant’Ana 2015), this means using aggregated
information in these elements to assure minimal semantics to understand what is
available, particularly in regard to steps in obtaining data collected from data sources
(Sant’Ana 2016; Turban et al. 2004).
This effort to bind information in these data elements seeks to minimize semantic
dissonance between data, at the moment of data collection (Berg 2015; Rathod 2006;
Ross Parry, Nick Poole and Jon Pratty 2008) – the research problem of this study.
Our aim is to identify the semantic characteristics of data attributes at the moment
of collection, from dataset structures found in the data export interfaces of user
interaction analysis tools, in Internet communication channels, and in web analytics
data tools involved in scientific journal management, through the application of a
process of data analysis and data modeling techniques.
The research was delimited to exportable dataset structures, found in journal
publishing systems, online social network statistics, search engines, and web analytics
tools.
The sample was restricted to dataset struc tures available in reports from Open
Journal Systems
1
, Google Analytics
2
, Google Search Console
3
, Twitter Analytics
4
, and
Facebook Insights
5
. These resources did not present any version control numbering on
their interfaces, with the exception of Open Journal Systems (version 2.6). The data
was collected in September 2017 from "Electronic Journal Digital Skills for Family
Farming (RECoDAF)" accounts.
Methodology
An exploratory analysis approach was adopted to identify characteristics regarding
how data are made available and structured in these data resources, contemplating a
systematic description process for information from datasets, entities, and attributes
related to interaction between users and communications channels of a scientific
journal.
A total of 255 exportable datasets were found, distributed in 5 file formats: Comma-
Separated Values (CSV) (82 datasets), Google Docs Spreadsheet File Format (69
datasets), Microsoft Office Open XML Format Spreadsheet file (XLSX) (50 datasets),
Portable Document Format (PDF) (50 datasets), and Microsoft Excel Binary File
Format (XLS) (3 datasets).
1 Open Journal Systems is an open-source software developed by Public Knowledge Project, under GNU
General Public License.
2 Google Analytics is a web analytics service by Google LLC.
3 Google Search Console (formerly known as Google Webmaster Tools) is a web service by Google LLC.
4 Twitter Analytics is a web analytics service by Twitter, Inc.
5 Facebook Insights is a web analytics service by Facebook, Inc.
583
The 82 CSV datasets are distributed on 5 services, 50 retrieved from Google
Analytics, 20 from Google Search, 7 from Open Journal Systems, 3 from Facebook
Insights, and 2 from Twitter Analytics.
Except for CSV, all other file formats were discarded. The CSV is the only format
available in analyzed data sources that is an Internet mime-type, an open file format
(Shafranovich, 2005), an Internet tabular data model (Tennison, Kellogg and Herman
2015), and machine-readable by all well-known programming languages (Lebo and
Williams 2010). Moreover, CSV is the only format that appears as an export option in
all the interfaces analyzed.
Data analysis
In order to systematize the data analysis, concepts from Entity-Relationship (ER)
Modeling (Silberschatz, Korth and Sudarshan 2011) were applied; using the set of
conventions from ER "[…] to assist in databases design processes" (Date 2016, p. 64).
An ER model was developed (Figure 1), designed to store data collected from (i)
services, (ii) resources available in each service, (iii) datasets available in each resource,
and (iv) attributes available in each dataset.
In addition, two tables were developed to store information about controlled
vocabularies applied in datasets and attributes, in order to control the set of available
formats and data types in these elements (Date 2016, p. 228).
Figure 1: Diagram of Entity-Relationship model developed for data collecting
584
As a first step, the ER structure was applied in an Open Document Spreadsheet file
(ODS) to store data collected in this study
6
, which was able to identify in the 82 datasets
a total of 2,280 attributes, with a subset of 1,342 distinct attribute labels.
The second step was to convert the ODS file to a CSV file and upload and import it
into a database management system (DBMS) for subsequent data analysis, with tables
and columns representing ER model entities and attributes, respectively.
A script for Python programming language was developed to assist the processing
and reordering of data uploaded to tables in the DBMS into a second data structure,
adopting the online analytical processing cube
7
as a three-dimensional representation
of services (s), datasets entities (e), and attributes (a), acting as perspectives of analysis
(Gray, Bosworth, Lyaman and Pirahesh 1996; Inmon 2005; Kimball and Ross 2011).
The collected data was reordered to OLAP cube dimensions by concepts derived
from the pivot table process (Cornell 2005).
To evaluate an OLAP fact, we intended to observe the intersections of the OLAP
cube to determine the characteristics shared internally and externally by services,
entities and attributes that may affect semantic issues of data collection.
Results
The data analysis identified several attributes with label names composed by
filtering, grouping or sorting specifications as a part of text, a pattern followed only by
online social network statistical data export tools. This leads to an increase of
complexity involved in how to interpret those attributes and label inherent
characteristics as values, using fully or semi-automated data collecting algorithms.
In this scenario, it is possible to determine that an entity ( e
x
) may have two attributes
(a
x
and a
y
) sharing the same semantics (S), even when both attributes show distinct text
labels in data collecting, expressed by the formula:
An example that fits in this formula are two attributes (a
x
and a
y
) from a unique entity
(e
x
), with filtering specifications as a part of text labels, representing the total of people
who engaged with the journal content on an online social network profile (S) by
geographic area.
From another perspective, results from data analysis identified a larger set of
attributes that do not relate to any description of its content, formed by 88.69% of
available attributes, which means that label is the only explicit information on those
attributes available at the moment of data collection.
6 The data collected in this research are available at http://dadosabertos.info/data/collection_recodaf_2017.
7 Also known as OLAP cube.
585
Furthermore, all attributes that share equal label names are part of a subset of
attributes that do not have any description. This is critical in a data collecting process,
primarily because this subset of attributes plays a significant role in the interoperability
of data, inherently capable of being part of the set of potential primary keys with unique
value restrictions, helping to build relationships between data sources, or determining
geographic, temporal or linguistic aspects of the content itself.
This absence of semantics, with the exception of the availa bility of text labels, does
not ensure that attributes of two distinct entities (e
x
and e
y
) that share equal labels (a
x
)
will, consequently, share the same formal semantics ( S) in data collection by external
agents, expressed by the formula:
That effect requires external teams to interpret the semantics of these elements
locally, aided by their skills or previous knowledge.
For example, two attributes that share equal text labels (a
x
) from distinct entities (b
x
and b
y
), without proper description of their content, may require interpretation of
formats, data types, primary keys, unique restrictions, and controlled vocabularies
applied, increasing the risk of wrong interpretations of values, thus preventing data
collection teams from understanding that attributes may share the same text labels but
not the same semantics (S).
Conclusions
Data analysis helped to identify the critical points related to the adherence of
descriptive elements in the datasets analyzed, especially the lack of descriptive
elements in the data collection process when triggered through the available export
interfaces.
To reduce this dissonance between attributes, export interfaces could provide more
semantic information bound to datasets. This information may be fundamental to
interpret data available from different sources. Therefore, one action to reduce semantic
dissonances between attributes is the enhancement of text labeling rules, including the
use of controlled vocabularies and restriction clauses.
Moreover, the semantic dissonances in these entities may interfere with the
development process of relationships between attributes from different datasets,
thereby reducing the potential for interoperability.
586
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