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PAVING THE WAY TO LARGE-SCALE WIND POWER DEVELOPMENTS: MOROCCO'S PRE-COP22 POLICIES

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In 2016, Morocco's 850 MW wind auction set a world record at 2.8 €cent/kWh with up to 70% of investments in local contents. A local rotor blade factory as part of industrial offsetting policies showed how ONEE, the country's utility leveraged its wind energy experience. Public and private wind developments backed by local banks enabled Morocco to tap into its significant wind potential. With an interconnected grid to neighboring markets opening the Atlantic Sahara trade winds to a regional power dispatch, Morocco's chairmanship of the Marrakech COP 22 conference makes inclusive renewable energy policies a matter of utmost importance.
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PAVING THE WAY TO LARGE-SCALE WIND POWER DEVELOPMENTS:
MOROCCO’S PRE-COP22 POLICIES
Benhamou. Khalid
Sahara Wind, 32 Av. Lalla Meryem Souissi Rabat 10170 Morocco
In 2016, Morocco’s 850 MW wind auction set a world record at 2.8 €cent/kWh with up to 70% of investments in local contents.
A local rotor blade factory as part of industrial offsetting policies showed how ONEE, the country’s utility leveraged its wind energy
experience. Public and private wind developments backed by local banks enabled Morocco to tap into its significant wind potential.
With an interconnected grid to neighboring markets opening the Atlantic Sahara trade winds to a regional power dispatch, Morocco’s
chairmanship of the Marrakech COP 22 conference makes inclusive renewable energy policies a matter of utmost importance.
Keywords: wind, energy, integrated, inclusive, auction, framework
INTRODUCTION
A High-level impulse to wind energy
Before 1994, efforts to develop wind energy in Morocco
were rather limited. Created in 1983 with the aim to promote
the use of renewable energies, the Centre for Development of
Renewable Energies (CDER) carried wind measurements on a
few sites in the northern parts of the country. Distributed
throughout the countryside, earlier mechanical wind pumping
systems installed during French colonial times in the 1930’s
were turning decrepit. These were gradually replaced by diesel
pumping. Hence, the first wind turbines introduced in the
country under a US foreign assistance program were dedicated
for that purpose. Under a partnership with CDER, USAID
funded two 10 kW Bergey wind turbines connected to water
pumps in the North-Eastern rural community of Naima..
The country’s wind energy prospects remained rather
bleak, that is until the significant Atlantic trade winds potential
blowing over the Sahara desert coastline were brought to the
attention of Morocco’s Head of State. Submitted on February
19th 1994 through the express intercession of King Mohammed
VI (then Crown Prince Mohammed) a High-level Report [1] on
the Sahara wind energy potential was presented to late King
Hassan II. In a matter of days, an entirely new team was
nominated at the helm of Moroccos national electric utility
ONE [2] with the firm intent to develop wind energy. Trained at
the prestigious Ecole Polythechnique of France with experience
in the private sector Driss Benhima was nominated as ONE’s
managing director, flanked by a deputy director with strong
experience in renewable energies. Holding a PhD in energy
management Ali Fassi Fihri [3], was the head of Morocco’s
Renewable Energy Development Center-CDER. He would
concurrently hold this position with that of deputy director of
ONE. Tasked with building a strong wind energy portfolio, he
coordinated Morocco’s first private energy concession
schemes.
Under instruction of Morocco’s Head of State, the country
resolutely pursued a renewable energy deployment strategy. It
is important to mention that most alternative energy policies
were at the time eluded by France’s EDF, where many of
Morocco’s utility employees had accomplished training
programs. Within such context, late King Hassan had
personally funded the building of Africa’s first wind-diesel
system on the Sahara Atlantic trade windblown coastline, on
one of his agricultural properties. The hybrid system that I had
the privilege to conceive and install, took advantage of the
significant trade winds that were reported upon initially. Built
at cost of 500,000 US$, the AOC 15/50 kW [4] wind turbine
powered a small distribution grid connected to various electric
loads such as water pumping and ice-making. Built at El
Argoub, near the city of Dakhla, the Tiniguir wind-diesel
demonstration system premiered wind technologies in many
aspects. Powering an agricultural farm, the system was to be
commercially viable and was built for that purpose. The very
same spirit drove ONE’s subsequent wind program on a much
larger scale in trying to develop a wind power base relying on
private sector involvement. Within a few months, the country’s
first Independent Power Purchase IPP agreement for a large
coal-fired power plant had been attributed to a private operator.
ONE looked therefore at similar options and attempted to
launch an auction for a first wind park.
INITIATING PRIVATE WIND CONCESSIONS
Morocco’s first Koudia/Abdelkhalek Torres wind farm
With wind measurements available from CDER for
several years, the Koudia al Baida site on Morocco’s northern
tip, displayed one the best wind conditions available at the time.
With a yearly average of 11 m/s, it was estimated that the site
could generate wind energy on a competitive basis.
Unfortunately, private sector interest into a Moroccan wind
venture was limited at the time. Thriving on favorable
feed-in-tariffs available in Europe, the industry considered
Morocco’s first-mover conditions not attractive enough. With
limited options available, ONE ended-up working out a Power
Purchase Agreement on a 50 MW wind farm with Jean Michel
Germa, a French expert running a consulting cabinet. The latter
brought EDF and the ParisBas bank in a wind farm venture,
into which he would retain a 15% equity stake. At 5.5
€cent/kWh over a 20 year concession, the Power Purchase
Agreement was about one-third more expensive than a
coal-fired one. It represented nonetheless the country’s first
step into a major wind project. As the largest private wind farm
on the African continent (as well as emerging economies) upon
commissioning, it represented EDF’s major wind investment
for many years. On-line since the year 2000 with some 90
single 600 kW Vestas wind turbines, the Koudia wind farm was
renamed after Abdelkhalek Torres, Morocco’s iconic nationalist
which led the region’s independence from Spanish rule.
An inconclusive Tangier/Tarfaya joint wind farms bid
Subsequent to the aforementioned wind premiere, ONE
sought to expand the country’s wind capacities by launching a
call for tender for two large wind farms, making it the world’s
largest wind auction at the time [5]. Introduced in 1999, the
combined 140 MW Tangier wind tender north of the country
coupled to 60 MW by Tarfaya in the south saw the participation
of nine international consortiums. Due to significant price
differences between both sites, ONE decided to drop the
Tarfaya site, short-listing two consortiums for the Tangier wind
farm. As ONE disposed of concessionary financing sources of
its own -unavailable to the private sector- the Tangier wind
tender ended-up too expensive to build [6]. The tender was
therefore considered inconclusive and subsequently withdrawn.
Having lost the opportunity to win this tender, Enercorp one of
the two remaining qualified bidding companies was dissolved.
Its director, Alexander Andy Karsner left for the United
States and became U.S. Assistant Secretary for Energy
Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) [7] during most of
the Bush administrations’ second term. Although anecdotal, his
nomination made earlier applied research partnerships with the
U.S. Department of Energy in support of the Sahara Wind
project extremely difficult to implement [8].
PUBLIC UTILITY WIND DEVELOPMENTS
The Essaouira Amogdoul wind farm
At Cape Sim, Atlantic trade winds can be tapped on
Morocco's northern latitudes. Favorable wind measurements
confirmed the quality of a site, adjacent to the ocean. With the
help of a 50M€ concessionary loan provided by the German
KfW, ONE launched its first wind farm tender under an
Engineering Procurement and Construction EPC scheme. The
tender’s result enabled the building of the 60 MW Amogdoul
wind farm commissioned on April 13th 2007 with 71 G52-850
kW Gamesa wind turbines. Located near the city of Essaouira,
reduced financing costs and a maintenance contract with
Gamesa, enabled ONE to refine its experience in wind farm
operation. An earlier 3.5 MW Enercon E-40 wind
demonstration facility within the 50 MW Koudia wind farm
had indeed proven to be challenging to maintain for ONE. The
relocation of the Amogdoul wind farm’s site a few kilometers
away from the ocean’s more corrosive environment where
measurements were taken, affected its productivity negatively.
As a consequence, wind-electricity costs turned out to be
higher than expected. The lack of regulatory compensation
mechanisms to support wind power deployments makes
generation costs a critical issue to ONE. This would be
particularly relevant in its merger with ONEP Morocco’s water
utility to form a joint state conglomerate designated as ONEE.
The Tanger I Dahr Saadane 140 MW wind farm
With a firm commitment to develop wind energy using
concessionary finance, ONEE launched its second EPC tender
on the site of Tangier’s earlier private 140 MW wind farm
tender. At the height of the wind turbine market crunch of 2008
with soaring prices, financing from the European Investment
Bank-EIB (80 M€) and the German KfW (50 M€) had to be
complemented with 100 M€ provided by the Spanish Instituto
de Credito Oficial-ICO to support Gamesa’s winning tender.
Building upon earlier experiences with similar machines at the
Amogdoul wind farm, the Tangier 140 MW wind farm’s larger
scale made the local integration of its components
economically viable. Besides civil works and electrical
equipment sourced locally, tubular towers for the 165 G52-850
kW Gamesa wind turbines were also rolled in Morocco. For
that matter, upon the June 28th 2010 official commissioning of
the "Dahr Saadane" Tangier wind farm, a 1000 MW Moroccan
Integrated Wind Energy program was officially announced.
PRIVATE SECTOR WIND DEVELOPMENTS
Morocco’s Renewable Energy Law 13-09 and Nareva’s
Akhfennir, Foum El Oued, Haouma wind farms
Concurrent to ONEE’s wind developments, the Moroccan
legislation evolved under a cogeneration law 13-09 on
renewable energies [9]. This law enables private operators to
supply industrial end-users with renewable electricity under a
long-term contract. By wheeling this electricity through
ONEE’s grid at a fixed rate, and without providing any support
scheme, the law saw the emergence of several wind farms on
the country’s windiest sites. Among these are the Akhfennir
(100 MW) and Foum El Oued (50 MW) wind farms located on
the Sahara trade windblown coastline, as well as the Haouma
(50 MW) wind farm near Tangier. Developed by Nareva, a
local private energy developer and equity investor, these came
online in 2013 [10]. Moroccan banks mostly from the private
sector carried the financing for these wind developments. Prior
to that, ONEE’s 300 MW wind tender by Tarfaya –Africa’s
largest- had set the stage for similar funding schemes.
Tarfaya 300 MW: Africa’s largest operational wind farm
Launched in 2007 the selection procedure for ONEE
Tarfaya 300 MW IPP concession tender stretched over 4 years.
During this time, developers found it challenging to mobilize
significant amounts of investments needed in equity and project
debt financing. After a lengthy process, the tender collected
only two offers that pitched ENGIE (formally Suez-Gaz de
France) on its own or in a partnership with Nareva. With access
to local finance facilitated by Nareva, the latter ended-up
winning the tender in 2011. As a result, an Independent Power
Purchase agreement for 0.72 DH/kWh (6.6€cent/kWh) over 20
years [11] was signed with ONEE under a BOOT (Build, Own,
Operate and Transfer) contract. On-line since December 2014
with a capacity of 301 MW, the Tarfaya wind farm is the largest
in operation on the African continent. Its size associated to
subsequent financial exposure, represented both a challenge as
well as an opportunity for local banks to get involved. As a first
step into the wind sector, the effect of scale on electricity prices
expected from a 300 MW single wind farm tender proved to be
rather limited. It remains indeed; the country’s highest to date.
PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS
1000 MW Moroccan Integrated Wind Energy Program
While scale makes a sound economic justification for
transferring a wind industry, the learning curve provided by the
Tarfaya wind farm enabled ONEE to assess the best possible
configurations for individual wind farms and project size. That
combination will prove to be critical in the conception of its
1000 MW integrated wind energy program. Consisting of five
separate wind projects listed within a single tender stretching
over several years, ONEE’s integrated wind program is capable
of providing visibility to wind turbine manufacturers. It enabled
them to identify manufacturing capacity deployments as well as
key technology integrations over an extended period of time.
This can enhance wind turbine efficiency and lower generating
costs. In order to address financial exposure on each of the five
wind farms within this large tender, ONEE provided
co-financing possibilities of its own available under Public
Private Partnership agreements. With concessionary sources of
funds provided on most favorable terms by financial
institutions, ONEE was in a position to help leverage financial
deals for each bidding consortium. Following an international
pre-qualification round, the open process during which every
bidder was allowed to review its offer stretched over a
timeframe ranging from its initial technical offer submission to
its reviewed offer until the ultimate commercial offer. As time
went on, wind measurements were collected over the five sites
and continuously provided to each prequalified bidder. This
added certainty and helped fine-tune respective offers being
prepared.
Phase I: the Taza wind farm
As wind data for the 150 MW wind farm by Taza were
readily available before the 1000 MW initiative started, the site
would be used to stage a phase I/pilot project for the remaining
850 MW wind tender [12]. The Taza wind farm involved for
the first time a Public Private Partnership on its financing. As a
result, a 50 Million Euro reduced-interest loan was provided by
the German KfW to ONEE for this project. Closed in 2012, the
150 MW Taza wind tender ended-up being won by a
consortium led by French electric power provider EDF
Energies Nouvelles along with the Japanese investment firm
Mitsui & Co. Ltd at an electricity price of 0.52 DH/kWh
(4.7€cent/kWh) [11].
The 850 MW Moroccan Integrated Wind Energy Initiative
The expected lower electricity prices achieved on Taza’s
wind site, comforted ONEE in its approach to blend public and
private funding for its remaining 850MW of wind capacity to
be carried out in five different projects. Designated under the
Integrated Wind Energy Program the Tanger II (100 MW),
Boujdour (100 MW), Tiskrad (300 MW), Midelt (150 MW)
and Jbel Lahdid (200 MW) wind farms are spread throughout
ONEE’s national grid over a distance exceeding 1500
kilometers. They range from the Atlantic Sahara trade
windblown coastline at Boujdour (100 MW) in the South, to
the Tanger II (100 MW) wind farm by the strait of Gibraltar on
Africa’s Northern tip.
Table 1. 850 MW Integrated Wind Energy Program wind farms
Name
Wind
Quality
Size
MW
Year
Midelt
Good
150
2017
Tiskrad
Excellent
300
2018
Tanger II
Very Good
100
2018
Jbel Lahdid
Good
200
2019
Boujdour
Excellent
100
2020
Total
850
2020
Although extended in time due to its size, the preparation
of Morocco’s Integrated Wind Energy Program spearheaded by
ONEE involved contributions of major financial institutions.
The program benefited from respective loans amounting to 15
M€ from the European Commission [13], 130 M€ from the
KfW Development Bank of Germany [14], 200 M€ from the
European Investment Bank (EIB) [15], 359 M$ from the
African Development Bank [16] and a further 125 M$ from the
World Bank Group’s administered Climate Investment Fund
[17]. Under the last two, the Integrated Wind Energy Program
helped leverage funding for rural electrification and
pump-storage facilities for excess wind-electricity generation to
help shave-off peak-load demand curves. Hence, the
cumulative financing collected from international institutions
around the 850 MW Integrated Wind Program amounted to
approximately 775 M€.
The auction process which lasted from June 2010 until
March 2016 aligned five final qualified international bidding
consortiums. As a result, the winning Nareva/Siemens/Enel-led
consortium managed to submit an offer which consecrated one
of the world’s cheapest wind-electricity at 0.31MAD/kWh or
2.8€cent/kWh obtained through project finance (without
feed-in tariffs, tax breaks or other support mechanisms) [18].
The offer included the launching of a 600-Rotor-blades/year
factory unveiled by Siemens near the Tanger-Med harbor [19].
The major part of its production is destined to regional export
markets. Considering such project-tied industrial investments,
Morocco’s Integrated Wind Energy Program can reach up to
70% in local contents of its total value. In the light of a rather
limited 850 MW auction volume, the learning curve of
Morocco’s earlier wind deployments led to a high-impact
successful economic model.
CONCLUSION
After the Paris Global Climate Agreement, the 22nd
Conference of the Parties COP22 taking place in Marrakech,
Morocco from November 07-18th 2016 will gather major
players to help establish effective global climate adaptation and
emission mitigation policies. As a host country which will carry
the COP21 Chairmanship from France, Morocco’s wind
deployment frameworks set the tone to sound, more inclusive
wind-energy driven policies. Dubbed the “COP of projects” or
the “Paris Agreement-Implementation COP”, the Marrakech
COP22 conference will provide further economic evidence on
the benefits of a global renewable energy transition. The
Multi-GigaWatt scale of the Sahara Wind project is for that
matter set to open a new chapter in high-economic impact
regional trans-border renewable energy collaborations.
References
[1] K. Benhamou Wind energy potential in the Sahara
High-level Report presented to H.M. King Hassan II of
Morocco on February 19th, 1994.
[2] Formally Office National de l’Electricité (ONE),
Morocco’s Power utility merged with Office National de l’Eau
Potable (ONEP) Morocco’s Water Utility in 2012 to form the
Office National de l’Electricité et de l’Eau potable ONEE.
[3] Ali Fassi Fihri left ONE in 2001 to head Morocco’s Water
Utility ONEP. In 2008, he was concurrently nominated head of
the Electric utility ONE to supervise its merger with ONEP. He
is ONEE’s managing director since its creation in 2012.
[4] AOC 15/50 15 meter rotor diameter 50 kW Atlantic Orient
Corporation AOC wind turbine.
[5] N. Inman Morocco shortens the short listwindpower
monthly June 2002.pp.60-61.
http://www.windpowermonthly.com/article/955040/morocco-sh
ortens-short-list
[6] K. Benhamou quoted Utility ONE looks set to go ahead
with 140 MW Tangiers wind farmwindpowermonthly March
2004.http://www.windpowermonthly.com/article/962188/utility
-one-looks-set-go-ahead-140-mw-tangiers-wind-farm
[7] Andy Karsner Former Assistant Energy Secretary for
Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)
https://georgewbush-whitehouse.archives.gov/government/kars
ner-bio.html
[8] Graham Pugh from the U.S. Department of Energy had to
withdraw as NATO country Project Director of the NATO
SfP-982620 “Sahara Trade Winds to Hydrogen” project
coordinated by Sahara Wind Inc.
http://saharawind.com/documents/Grant.Letter.G.Pugh.DoE.NA
TO-982620.pdf
[9] Royaume du Maroc, Ministère de l'Energie, des Mines, de
l'Eau et de l'Environnement, Loi 13-09 relative aux énergies
renouvelables
https://www.finances.gov.ma/Docs/2013/depp/loi%20Energies
%20renouvelables.pdf
[10] Interview "Nareva veut devenir un des acteurs majeurs de
l’énergie au Maroc", selon son PDG Ahmed Nakkouch L’usine
nouvelle02/08/2013.
http://www.usinenouvelle.com/article/nareva-veut-devenir-un-d
es-acteurs-majeurs-de-l-energie-au-maroc-selon-son-pdg-ahme
d-nakkouch.N202432
[11] Karim Chraibi “Quel modèle économique pour financer
les futures capacités de production d’énergie renouvelable par
le privé au Maroc ? Massolia News 06/01/2016
http://www.massolia.com/rencontre/quel-modele-economique-
pour-financer-les-futures-capacites-de-production-denergie-ren
ouvelable-par-le-prive-au-maroc/
[12] Eolien: La centrale pilote sera installée à
Taza L’Economiste N°:3391 26/10/2010
http://www.leconomiste.com/article/eolien-la-centrale-pilote-se
ra-installee-taza
[13] European Commission, Development and Cooperation-
EuropeAid, Neighborhood Investment Facility NIF Operational
Annual Report 2013 p8.
https://ec.europa.eu/europeaid/sites/devco/files/nif-operational-
annual-report-2013_web_fr.pdf
[14] KfW Development Bank Wind Energy Morocco
https://www.kfw-entwicklungsbank.de/PDF/Entwicklungsfinan
zierung/L%C3%A4nder-und-Programme/Nordafrika-Nahost/Pr
ojekt-Marokko-Wind-2014-EN.pdf
[15] European Investment Bank EIB ONEE - PROJET
EOLIEN30/12/2013
http://www.eib.org/projects/loans/2012/20120174.htm
[16] African Development Bank “AfDB Approves US $800
Million in Loans to Advance Morocco’s Wind and Solar
Ambitions press release 03/09/2012.
http://www.afdb.org/en/news-and-events/article/afdb-approves-
us-800-million-in-loans-to-advance-moroccos-wind-and-solar-a
mbitions-9651/
[17] Climate Investment Fund One Wind Energy Plan June
2012.https://www-cif.climateinvestmentfunds.org/projects/one-
wind-energy-plan
[18] Reuters Africa, article “UPDATE 1-Nareva-led group wins
$1.2 bln wind power deal in Morocco 10/03/2016
http://af.reuters.com/article/moroccoNews/idAFL5N16I2SQ
[19] Siemens, press release “Siemens to build rotor blade
factory for wind turbines in Morocco 10/03/2016
https://www.siemens.com/press/PR2016030214WPEN
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any citations for this publication.
Article
Routine observations have been used to determine the diurnal and seasonal variations of the wind at 20 meteorological stations in Malaysia. The wind speed distributions, with calms omitted, are represented by Weibull functions. Seasonal mean wind power densities at the surface exceed 20 W m−2 only at stations on the east coast and in the south of West Malaysia during the northeast monsoon from November to March. Estimates of seasonal power densities at 600 m above the surface range from below 100 W m−2 to over 300 W m−2, with the highest values over the south of West Malaysia and the east coasts of East and West Malaysia during the northeast monsoon.
to head Morocco's Water Utility ONEP he was concurrently nominated head of the Electric utility ONE to supervise its merger with ONEP. He is ONEE's managing director since its creation
  • Ali Fassi Fihri
  • One
Ali Fassi Fihri left ONE in 2001 to head Morocco's Water Utility ONEP. In 2008, he was concurrently nominated head of the Electric utility ONE to supervise its merger with ONEP. He is ONEE's managing director since its creation in 2012.
Morocco shortens the short list" windpower monthly
  • N Inman
N. Inman "Morocco shortens the short list" windpower monthly June 2002.pp.60-61.
Utility ONE looks set to go ahead with 140 MW Tangiers wind farm
  • K Benhamou
K. Benhamou quoted "Utility ONE looks set to go ahead with 140 MW Tangiers wind farm" windpowermonthly March 2004.http://www.windpowermonthly.com/article/962188/utility -one-looks-set-go-ahead-140-mw-tangiers-wind-farm
Former Assistant Energy Secretary for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) https://georgewbush-whitehouse.archives.gov/government/kars ner-bio
  • Andy Karsner
Andy Karsner Former Assistant Energy Secretary for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) https://georgewbush-whitehouse.archives.gov/government/kars ner-bio.html
Department of Energy had to withdraw as NATO country Project Director of the NATO SfP-982620 " Sahara Trade Winds to Hydrogen " project coordinated by Sahara Wind Inc. http://saharawind
  • Graham Pugh From The
Graham Pugh from the U.S. Department of Energy had to withdraw as NATO country Project Director of the NATO SfP-982620 " Sahara Trade Winds to Hydrogen " project coordinated by Sahara Wind Inc. http://saharawind.com/documents/Grant.Letter.G.Pugh.DoE.NA TO-982620.pdf
Environnement, Loi 13-09 relative aux énergies renouvelables https://www.finances.gov.ma/DocsNareva veut devenir un des acteurs majeurs de l'énergie au Maroc", selon son PDG Ahmed Nakkouch L'usine nouvelle02
  • Maroc Royaume
Royaume du Maroc, Ministère de l'Energie, des Mines, de l'Eau et de l'Environnement, Loi 13-09 relative aux énergies renouvelables https://www.finances.gov.ma/Docs/2013/depp/loi%20Energies %20renouvelables.pdf [10] Interview "Nareva veut devenir un des acteurs majeurs de l'énergie au Maroc", selon son PDG Ahmed Nakkouch L'usine nouvelle02/08/2013. http://www.usinenouvelle.com/article/nareva-veut-devenir-un-d es-acteurs-majeurs-de-l-energie-au-maroc-selon-son-pdg-ahme d-nakkouch.N202432
Quel modèle économique pour financer les futures capacités de production d'énergie renouvelable par le privé au Maroc ?
  • Karim Chraibi
Karim Chraibi "Quel modèle économique pour financer les futures capacités de production d'énergie renouvelable par le privé au Maroc ? Massolia News 06/01/2016
UPDATE 1-Nareva-led group wins $1.2 bln wind power deal in Morocco
  • Reuters Africa
Reuters Africa, article "UPDATE 1-Nareva-led group wins $1.2 bln wind power deal in Morocco" 10/03/2016
Siemens to build rotor blade factory for wind turbines in Morocco
  • Press Siemens
  • Release
Siemens, press release "Siemens to build rotor blade factory for wind turbines in Morocco" 10/03/2016