ArticlePDF Available

Abstract

Play is a social-centred process, able to boost motivation and promote learning across all levels and ages. With the growing push for creativity in the classroom as well as the application of effective technology in teaching and learning, it can be a daunting task for educators to find fitting competitive or game-based learning platforms. Foremost, educators need to consider elements such as motivation and whether the platform is likely to foster – and reinforce – learning. In the present study, a cohort of undergraduates at a public university in Malaysia were exposed to the use of Kahoot!, a game-based learning platform, during their weekly lectures for one semester. The participants were students of English for the Media, which covers theoretical and practical dimensions. The latter dimension includes the learning and application of media language features and devices. Survey data (51 respondents) on the whole indicated that the students found Kahoot! to be beneficial in terms of: 1) inducing motivation as well as engagement, and 2) fostering and reinforcing learning (for both theoretical and practical aspects). The 33-item questionnaire created by the researchers was also tested for reliability, with returned values indicating high internal consistency, thus making the instrument a reliable option for use in future studies. The study’s findings are of relevance to researchers, educators, course designers, and designers of game-based learning applications. Keywords: Kahoot!; gamification; game-based learning; higher education; motivation; learning; knowledge reinforcement
Pertanika J. Soc. Sci. & Hum. 26 (1): 565 - 582 (2018)
ISSN: 0128-7702 © Universiti Putra Malaysia Press
SOCIAL SCIENCES & HUMANITIES
Journal homepage: http://www.pertanika.upm.edu.my/
E-mail addresses:
debbita_tan@usm.my (Debbita Tan Ai Lin),
malinik@usm.my(Ganapathy, M.),
manjeet@usm.my (Manjet Kaur)
*Corresponding author
Article history:
Received: 23 August 2017
Accepted: 29 September 2017
ARTICLE INFO
Kahoot! It: Gamication in Higher Education
Debbita Tan Ai Lin, Ganapathy, M.* and Manjet Kaur
English Language Studies Section, School of Languages, Literacies and Translation, Universiti Sains
Malaysia, 11800 USM, Penang, Malaysia
ABSTRACT
Play is a social-centred process, able to boost motivation and promote learning across
all levels and ages. With the growing push for creativity in the classroom as well as the
application of effective technology in teaching and learning, it can be a daunting task for
educators to nd tting competitive or game-based learning platforms. Foremost, educators
need to consider elements such as motivation and whether the platform is likely to foster
and reinforce learning. In the present study, a cohort of undergraduates at a public university
in Malaysia were exposed to the use of Kahoot!, a game-based learning platform, during
their weekly lectures for one semester. The participants were students of English for the
Media, which covers theoretical and practical dimensions. The latter dimension includes
the learning and application of media language features and devices. Survey data (51
respondents) on the whole, indicated that the students found Kahoot! to be benecial in
terms of: 1) inducing motivation as well as engagement, and 2) fostering and reinforcing
learning (for both theoretical and practical aspects). The 33-item questionnaire created by
the researchers was also tested for reliability, with returned values indicating high internal
consistency, thus making the instrument a reliable option for use in future studies. The
ndings of this study are of relevance to researchers, educators, course designers, and
designers of game-based learning applications.
Keywords: Kahoot!, gamication, game-based learning, higher education, motivation, learning, knowledge
reinforcement
INTRODUCTION
Technological advancement and its
continuous progress has transformed how
activities are performed on a daily basis. In
the context of education, especially learning,
Debbita Tan Ai Lin, Ganapathy, M. and Manjet Kaur
566 Pertanika J. Soc. Sci. & Hum. 26 (1): 565 - 582 (2018)
educators now have the opportunity to
introduce and integrate play-based learning
activities via technology in their instruction.
The incorporation of play in learning
has seen the emergence of a very unique
concept of game-based learning. According
to Zarzycka-Piskorz (2016), it is basically
the use of game elements and game design
techniques in non-game contexts. Game-
based learning or gamication rests on the
experiential nature of a game that allows
learners the opportunity to be fully involved
in the learning cycle. Game-based learning
also garners learners’ full attention and
promotes knowledge retention due to its
‘play nature’.
Platforms that are play-oriented and
infused with learning elements are often
designed with defined outcomes related
to the teaching and learning aims of a
particular lesson or series of lessons.
Although games are play-oriented, the
designing principles behind such games are
based parallel to relatively specic teaching
and learning context aims. The principles
allow for more engagement and fun during
the learning process. The engagement and
fun factors of game-based learning have
been found to boost learner motivation
and sustain retention. Zarzycka-Piskorz
(2016) highlighted that there exists strong
evidence showing a relationship between
game-playing and increased motivation as
well as persistence.
Game-based learning tools such as
Kahoot! supplement pedagogical practices
with new technological solutions. Kahoot!
is a digital game-based student response
system that allows teachers and learners
in classroom settings to interact through
competitive knowledge games using existing
infrastructure. Wang, Zhu and Sætre (2016)
pointed out that Kahoot! represents a new
generation of student response systems
that focuses on student motivation and
engagement through gamification. This
platform is apt for increasing motivation and
engagement (which promotes learning), and
for assessing students’ understanding of a
lesson. Furthermore, gamication develops
learners’ metacognitive abilities, promotes
empathy, and builds teamwork skills.
Additionally, a recent study on
Kahoot! by Wang and Lieberoth (2016),
involving almost 600 students, reiterated
the advantages of using the game-based
platform for learning; specifically, they
reported that variation in the use of
audio and points affected concentration,
engagement, enjoyment and motivation,
and that Kahoot!’s audio and music features
affected classroom dynamics in a signicant
and positive manner.
In short, Kahoot! purportedly offers
a host of benets and allows educators to
be creative and students to be motivated,
intrinsically and extrinsically. Game-
based learning provides a thrill from the
ordinary, a thrill which is absent from
traditional instruction and everyday life.
Tools like Kahoot! can make students
enjoy and continue doing tasks that they
Kahoot! It: Gamication in Higher Education
567Pertanika J. Soc. Sci. & Hum. 26 (1): 565 - 582 (2018)
normally would not. In her commentary
on gamication, McGonigal (2011, p. 124)
quite aptly stated the following:
The real world just doesn’t offer
up as easily the carefully designed
pleasures, the thrilling challenges,
and the powerful social bonding
afforded by virtual environments.
Reality doesn’t motivate us as
effectively. Reality isn’t engineered
to maximize our potential. Reality
wasn’t designed … to make us
happy. Reality, compared to games,
is broken.
It is therefore viable to look into the impact of
Kahoot! on the motivation and engagement
of learners as well as its inuence on their
learning, not only at the school level but
also within the context of higher education
to gauge if the platform would prove to be
useful for tertiary learners.
Problem Statement
It is said that “a motivated learner can’t
be stopped” (Prensky, 2003, p. 1).
Unfortunately, much of the content that
university learners today have to acquire,
be it theoretical or practical, is hardly
motivating. According to Prensky (2003),
the words ‘boring’, ‘dry’ and ‘technical’
are often associated with the teaching
and learning process in general. He even
noted that “It is probably safe to say that
today’s teachers, trainers and educators
are rarely as effective as they might be
in the motivational department, and this
often causes real problems in getting our
otherwise highly-stimulated students to
learn.” (p. 1)
In essence, students do not experience
effective learning when there is no
motivation to do so, and it can be a daunting
task for educators to nd tting methods
that are highly engaging and likely to foster
and reinforce learning. In this advanced
and technology-saturated age, gamication
is an emergent approach to tertiary-
level instruction. Gamification promotes
motivation and facilitates effective learning
through the employment of game elements,
mechanics and game-based thinking (Kapp,
2014), thus making it indispensable for
the teaching and learning of content that
students term as ‘dry’ and ‘boring’. The
problem, however, lies in the selection of
suitable platforms that can truly engage our
learners and help them learn.
Closer to home, results from a survey
conducted among lecturers and students of
Universiti Putra Malaysia demonstrate that
both parties agree that the lecture method is
the least favoured and is therefore not very
effective (Ismail, Elias, Mohd, Perumal, &
Muthusamy, 2010).
Similarly, Yap (2016) in her paper
on transforming conventional teaching
classrooms into learner-centred, multimedia-
mediated classrooms, pointed out that
many lecturers are still using conventional
teaching and that in such classrooms, “while
the lecturer is explaining and writing on the
board, students will be copying the same
thing onto their notes, some day-dreaming
and some sleeping.” (p. 106).
Debbita Tan Ai Lin, Ganapathy, M. and Manjet Kaur
568 Pertanika J. Soc. Sci. & Hum. 26 (1): 565 - 582 (2018)
Thang et al. (2016), in their study
involving four different Malaysian public
universities, highlighted that Malaysian
students prefer using technology for social
networking rather than for academic
purposes. They noted, however, that the
students do have a favourable view towards
the adoption of more technology into the
classroom but tend not to invest time and
energy in it. The researchers suggested
a possible explanation for this, that this
phenomenon could be attributed to the
manner in which technology is used in
the classroom. This implies that while
technology is abundant, the real challenge
rests in educators selecting the correct
technological platforms for use in their
classrooms (that is, gaming platforms that
can effectively motivate students to pay
attention and learn, as well as encourage
sustained learning within the Malaysian
context).
This is in tandem with Yunus et al.’s
(2012) position that “It is now a challenge
for educators to be able to choose the right
game, and to create an effective learning
environment suited for our Malaysian setting
...” (p. 360). The researchers suggested that
educators in Malaysia work to manipulate
gaming aspects for educational purposes,
and take advantage of the entertaining
and addictive qualities that are generally
inherent in gaming tools.
In addition, despite a plethora of studies
on learning and gamification, there is
an unfortunate paucity with regard to
such studies within the Malaysian context
specically in relation to the use of game-
based learning in higher education, thus
making the present study both timely and
signicant.
Research Objectives
The present study focuses on examining the
suitability of Kahoot!, a game-based learning
platform, for use in higher education within
the Malaysian context. Specifically, the
study looks at the effectiveness of Kahoot!
in terms of its ability to:
1) induce intrinsic and extrinsic motivation
2) foster and reinforce learning (theoretical
and practical aspects)
In addition, the study is a platform to test
the reliability of the 33-item questionnaire
created by the researchers.
Research Questions
The present study is guided by the following
research questions:
RQ1: Does the use of Kahoot! during
lectures induce intrinsic motivation
among learners?
RQ2: Does the use of Kahoot! during
lectures induce extrinsic motivation
among learners?
RQ3: Does the use of Kahoot! during
lectures help foster learning?
RQ4: Does the use of Kahoot! during
lectures help reinforce learning?
Kahoot! It: Gamication in Higher Education
569Pertanika J. Soc. Sci. & Hum. 26 (1): 565 - 582 (2018)
Research Signicance
This ndings contribute to the emerging
field of game-based learning, and offer
direction in terms of selecting suitable
gamification platforms for use in the
Malaysian higher education among adult
learners. The ndings also provide direction
with regards to educational policy-planning
and are on the whole, of relevance to
educators, learners, and course designers.
Additionally, the questionnaire designed by
the researchers (with all constructs tested for
reliability) is also a contribution to the eld,
and is of signicance to scholars engaged in
game-based learning research.
LITERATURE REVIEW
Gamication
The growth of personal computing and the
Internet has brought about gaming diversity
in the eld of education. New opportunities
for play to foster learning are now widely
available, and one aspect of play, that it
inuences learning , cannot be denied. Piaget
(1962) asserted that play is a crucial element
in one’s cognitive development from birth
through to adulthood. More recently,
Piaget’s theory was further supported by
Fromberg and Gullo (1992). According
to them, language development, social
competence, creativity, imagination, and
thinking skills are fostered and enhanced
through play. Concurrently, Frost (1992)
also stressed that “play is the chief vehicle
for the development of imagination and
intelligence, language, social skills, and
perceptual-motor abilities in infants and
young children” (p. 48). In relation to
Piaget’s theory, Vandenberg (1986), utilising
Vygotsky’s theory, pointed out that “play
does not only reect, it also creates thought”
(p. 21).
In the context of education, the
penetration of games into learning activities,
also widely known as gamication, refers
to the use of pedagogical systems that
are developed with gaming designs but
implemented within non-game contexts,
including education (Deterding, Dixon,
Khaled, & Nacke, 2011). The advent of
computing and the Internet has allowed
videos and computer games to be used in
classroom activities for the enhancement
of learning processes. Of late, Internet-
accessible digital tools have made gaming a
mobile learning tool that can accommodate
many participants in a single game, via a
single platform. Thus, this does not only
work towards enhancing learning but
also, practically, makes the teaching and
learning process much more efcient and
contemporary.
Kahoot!: An Introduction
The use of technology has been proven to
foster learning and reinforce learning. The
fostering and reinforcement of learning
through the use of computers, smartphones
and tablets have improved learners’
engagement and active participation in
classrooms. The use technology is also
undoubtedly a great assistance to teachers
in terms of helping to increase motivation
as well as increase the level of student
participation in class, and in terms of
Debbita Tan Ai Lin, Ganapathy, M. and Manjet Kaur
570 Pertanika J. Soc. Sci. & Hum. 26 (1): 565 - 582 (2018)
evaluating students’ overall comprehension
and development. In addition, learners
also get to enjoy the opportunity to engage
themselves in their learning and monitor
their own progress and understanding (Koile
& Singer, 2006).
Kahoot! is a unique game concept, the
result of the Lecture Quiz Research Project
initiated in 2006 at the Norwegian University
of Science and Technology (NTNU). It is a
free game-based learning platform that aims
to make learning fun across all subjects
in any language, and can be used with
many types of digital devices. Kahoot! can
also be programmed to suit learners of all
ages. The platform enables teacher-learner
interaction in classroom settings of various
sizes via competitive knowledge games
using existing infrastructure (which should
include good Internet connection). The
embedded graphical interfaces and audio
elements present a gaming experience that
can potentially promote motivation and
learning among students, including adult
ones.
Kahoot!: Gamication for Student
Motivation and Learning
Zarzycka-Piskorz (2016) underscored
that gamified education builds upon
motivation, especially intrinsic motivation
that encourages an individual’s engagement.
Game-based learning approaches increase
learners’ interest in the subject matter
because they enjoy (or experience pleasure)
as they learn, and thus are more engaged
and focused in the subject. This eventually
fosters learning and also results in
sustainable learning. According to Suzanne
(2013), gamification is sustainable or
is enhanced based on the desire of an
individual to achieve the expected outcome.
However, this desire is conditional to the
individual’s sense of excitement. In essence,
games in any form have the potential
to increase motivation in the classroom
through engagement. Zarzycka-Piskorz
(2016) further described Kahoot! as an
online game that promotes both cooperation
and autonomy in the classroom.
Kahoot! as a game-based student
response system, can be aligned to Thomas
Malone’s theory of intrinsically motivating
instructions (Malone, 1980). This theory
indicate three categories that make learning
fun: 1) challenge (goals with uncertain
outcomes), 2) fantasy (captivation through
intrinsic or extrinsic fantasy), and 3)
curiosity (sensor curiosity through graphics
and audio, and cognitive curiosity). As
the theory is contextualised within the
classroom learning setting, the second
category, fantasy, is transformed into a game
show with the teacher and students playing
the role of game host and competitors
respectively. The initial category, challenge,
involves the students being challenged to
answer questions and compete against other
players. The final category, curiosity, is
displayed via graphics and audio and getting
the students to solve cognitive puzzles.
The competitive nature of play among
the students in getting the correct answers
compensates for the lack of variety during
game play (should there be any).
Kahoot! It: Gamication in Higher Education
571Pertanika J. Soc. Sci. & Hum. 26 (1): 565 - 582 (2018)
Several researchers have studied the
effects of educational games with regards
to learning outcomes and motivation levels.
Papastergiou’s (2009) study’s respondents
indicated that the game-based learning
approach created more engaging, effective
and active learning. They also indicated
that they enjoyed a more relaxed learning
environment. A study by Anderson and
Barnett (2011) on pre-service teachers’
understanding of electromagnetic concepts
using a game called ‘Supercharged!’
compared to students who conducted a more
traditional inquiry of the same concepts
found that the group that used video games
outperformed the group that did not in
terms of learning outcomes. However, there
are also contrasting studies. For instance,
Squire (2005) found that introducing games
in the classroom does not necessarily
produce positive results and can instead
result in complaining students and a lack
of motivation.
According to Dichev and Dicheva
(2017), as games engender motivation and
engagement, the proposal to gamify learning
is enticing. In relation to this position,
research has indicated that motivation is one
of the more crucial predictors of academic
achievements (Linehan, Kirman, Lawson,
& Chan, 2011) as it is linked to learning-
related concepts such as engagement, effort,
goals, focus of attention, self-efficacy,
confidence, achievement, and interest.
Therefore, gamication’s benet in terms
of fostering and reinforcing learning is
multifold. As highlighted by Caponetto, Earp
and Ott (2014), the benets of gamication
augment learning in a variety of contexts
and subject areas, and promote participatory
approaches, collaborations, self-guided
study, efcient completion of assignments,
and make assessments more effective
and easier to conduct. The integration of
exploratory approaches into learning also
facilitates student creativity and retention.
With regards to reinforcing learning,
Bonde et al.’s (2014) study on the effects
of combining gamication elements with
simulations to improve the motivation and
learning effectiveness of biotechnology
students showed that a gamied laboratory
simulation can increase motivation levels
and learning outcomes when compared
with traditional teaching. Furthermore, in
higher education, games such as Kahoot! are
suitable for various instructional practices
such as lectures, tutorials, assignments,
projects, lab activities, class exercises and
discussions, as presented by Dichev and
Dicheva (2017) in their work on gamifying
education.
How does Kahoot! work?
Learning games such as Kahoot! are
channels to evaluate whether learning
objectives have been achieved. Therefore,
game-based learning activities such as
quizzes serve the purpose of reviewing
content based on information taught.
Prensky (2005) emphasised that learning
games can serve multiple functions such as
the teaching of various theories, skills and
behaviours, as well as languages, creativity
and communication.
Debbita Tan Ai Lin, Ganapathy, M. and Manjet Kaur
572 Pertanika J. Soc. Sci. & Hum. 26 (1): 565 - 582 (2018)
Additionally, research by Zarzycka-
Piskorz (2016) indicated that winning a
game in learning shapes an environment
based on the needs of the students and
to a certain extent, the requirements of a
course. In this context, multiple objectives
can be targeted at and eventually achieved,
for example, introducing, revising and
consolidating theoretical as well as practical
knowledge or content.
Kahoot! (https://getkahoot.com) is a
free platform which provides teachers the
opportunity to: 1) create their own quizzes
and surveys, or 2) use existing quizzes and
surveys made accessible for public use.
Scores are displayed at the end of each game
and teachers are able to save the information
in a digital document. As for the learners
(players), they are not required to register
for a Kahoot! account and will instead be
provided with a game PIN prior to joining
a specific game at https://kahoot.it/#/ as
directed by their teacher (game host).
A learning classroom also functions as a
game show, where the teacher’s role is that
of a game show host and the students, the
players or competitors. Without neglecting
the learning elements, Gee (2003) indicated
that well-designed video games are learning
machines that are able to increase student
motivation and engagement. The strength
of these games lies in having learning occur
naturally without the students realising that
learning is actually taking place.
Wang (2011) noted that games can
mainly be integrated in education in three
ways. In the context of the present study,
they were included as an integrated part
of traditional classroom lectures over
the course of one semester to improve
motivation and learning, in line with past
studies by Carver, Howard, and Lane
(1999), Carnevale (2005), Wang, Øfsdahl,
and Mørch-Storstein (2007), Wang, Øfsdahl,
and Mørch-Storstein (2008) and Wu, Wang,
Børresen, and Tidemann (2011).
Related Research
A research project was conducted at the
Norwegian University of Science and
Technology (NTNU) by Wang et al. (2016)
to investigate the effects of a traditional
non-gamied response system (Clickers), a
game-based response system (Kahoot!) and
paper-form formative assessment for a quiz
in lectures. The results were signicantly
inclined towards the use of Kahoot!.
Students were found to be more motivated
by Kahoot! as compared to Clickers and the
paper-form quiz. The students’ responses
also indicated a higher level of satisfaction
and engagement. However, a positive effect
on learning outcomes was not evident as no
signicant differences were found.
In a K-12 study, games were also found
to improve motivation, classroom dynamics,
and academic achievement (Rosas et al.,
2013). Sharples (2000) asserted that game-
based learning has a similar effect in higher
education. This was evident in Tüysüz’s
(2009) study which demonstrated that
using a game-based learning approach can
Kahoot! It: Gamication in Higher Education
573Pertanika J. Soc. Sci. & Hum. 26 (1): 565 - 582 (2018)
result in better achievement in chemistry as
compared to traditional learning methods.
Improved learning outcomes were also
detected in studies by Miller, Schweingruber,
Oliver, Janice and Smith (2002), and Liao,
Chen, Cheng, Chent and Chan (2011).
These ndings are in line with past studies
that highlight the importance of games in
learning.
On the whole, when educators plan
to integrate gamication into learning, it
is vital that they realise the importance of
motivation and thus, refrain from merely
incorporating the gaming element into
their lectures or lessons supercially. Their
efforts should take into account motivation,
(intrinsic as well as extrinsic), as the driving
factor behind students’ engagement and
interest. In other words, when gamication
is intended as part of the teaching and
learning process, it is crucial to ensure that
one’s students will actually favour the game
and that the game can actually sustain their
interest for a considerable period of time.
Gamication in higher education brings
in the fun element for students involved
in academic programmes. Tools such
as Kahoot! display good potential for
application in teaching and learning at
the tertiary level as it can potentially
induce motivation as well as engagement,
and promote learning and knowledge
reinforcement. It is possible that educational
transformation with the use of tools like
Kahoot! may eventually make methods like
rote-learning entirely obsolete.
METHODS
The present study implemented the survey
approach, and reports results using a
descriptive design based on quantitative and
qualitative data. The researchers designed
and utilised a comprehensive questionnaire
comprising close-ended (ve-point Likert
scale) and open-ended items. According
to Nelson (2008), in her work on survey
research methods, such measures in a survey
instrument enable researchers to investigate
both quantitative and qualitative empirical
premises.
However, the subjective nature of survey
measures can present a problem – reliability.
The researchers therefore, sought to remedy
this problem by conducting a reliability
analysis. The questionnaire consists of
33 items (four for demographic data)
measuring different constructs, as reected
in the research questions presented earlier.
The reliability analysis was conducted using
the SAS 9.4 software platform to measure
the internal consistency of the instrument
as a whole.
The study was conducted in Universiti
Sains Malaysia and purposive procedures
were adhered to, taking into account the
researchers’ knowledge of the population
of interest as well as the aims of the study.
Undergraduates of English for the
Media, a four-unit course which covers
theoretical and practical dimensions, were
invited to participate in the study and access
to the online questionnaire was via a Google
Forms key. The portal remained accessible
for two weeks. There were 51 out of 54
Debbita Tan Ai Lin, Ganapathy, M. and Manjet Kaur
574 Pertanika J. Soc. Sci. & Hum. 26 (1): 565 - 582 (2018)
possible participants of various ethnicities
who completed the questionnaire after
being exposed to the use of Kahoot! in their
weekly lectures for one semester (14 weeks).
Each Kahoot! session was conducted post-
lecture, and comprised one interactive
multiple-choice quiz with approximately
10 to 14 items or questions based solely on
the day’s lecture. Each Kahoot! session also
lasted no more than 15 minutes to prevent
the possibility of a wear-out effect.
RESULTS
As shown in Table 1, the reliability of the
questionnaire as a whole is excellent, with
α = .97. Interpretation of the obtained value
is based on the commonly accepted rule of
thumb for interpreting Cronbach’s alpha (α)
readings (George & Mallery, 2003).
Table 1
Result of reliability analysis
Construct
Measured
Cronbach’s
Alpha (α)
Level of Internal
Consistency
(Reliability)
Kahoot!
Questionnaire
.97 Excellent
Table 2
Respondents’ Age Range
Age (years) Number of
Respondents (n)
Percentage
(%)
21 4 7.8
22 18 35.3
23 23 45.1
24 5 9.8
27 1 2
51 100
Table 3
Respondents’ gender, race and hometown
Category Group Number of
respondents
(n)
Percentage
(%)
Gender Males 11 21.6
Females 40 78.4
51 100
Race Malay 28 54.9
Chinese 20 39.2
Indians 2 3.9
Foreigners 1 2
51 100
Hometown Urban 23 45.1
Semi-
urban
22 43.1
Rural 6 11.8
51 100
The respondents selected for this study
comprised a mixed age group as shown in
Table 2. The majority (45.1%) were 23 years
old while the second highest range were
respondents aged 22 years old. A total of 5
respondents were 24 years old, 4 were 21
years old and 1 was 27 years old.
Table 3 highlights the respondents’ gender,
race and hometown. 78.4% (n=40) of the
respondents were females and 21.6% (n=11)
were males. This table also classies the
respondents’ race breakdown. The majority
(n=28) were Malays, followed by Chinese
(n=20), two Indians, and one foreign
respondent. The last section of Table 3
illustrates the respondents’ background in
terms of their hometown; there appears to
be a near equal proportion of respondents
originating from the urban (n=23) and semi-
urban (n=22) areas. Only six respondents
were from rural areas.
Kahoot! It: Gamication in Higher Education
575Pertanika J. Soc. Sci. & Hum. 26 (1): 565 - 582 (2018)
A significant number (78.4%) of the
respondents conveyed that they had never
played Kahoot! or experienced such
exposure prior to taking the English for
the Media course. About 21.6% of the
respondents indicated their prior exposure
to Kahoot!.
Table 4
Respondents’ prior exposure to Kahoot!
Item True (%) False (%)
I have never played
Kahoot! before this year.
78.4 21.6
Table 5
Respondents’ attitudes towards Kahoot!
Item 1 (%) 2 (%) 3 (%) 4 (%) 5 (%)
1. I look forward to playing Kahoot! 2 0 5.9 27.5 64.7
2. I nd Kahoot! interesting. 2 0 3.9 11.8 82.4
3. I nd Kahoot! fun. 2 0 3.9 13.7 80.4
4. I get annoyed when I can’t connect to Kahoot! 5.9 3.9 21.6 25.5 43.1
5. I feel excited when playing Kahoot! 2 2 3.9 31.4 60.8
6. I enjoy playing Kahoot! 0 2 5.9 27.5 64.7
7. I feel positive when playing Kahoot! 2 5.9 2 35.3 54.9
8. I focus on the items or questions in each Kahoot!
session.
2 0 3.9 35.3 58.8
9. I respond to each item or question in each Kahoot!
session.
2 2 3.9 29.4 62.7
10. I respond as quickly as possible to each item or question
in each Kahoot! session.
0 2 2 35.3 60.8
11. I respond as accurately as possible to each item or
question in each Kahoot! session.
0 0 15.7 41.2 43.1
12. I like the competitiveness in our Kahoot! sessions. 0 2 11.8 31.4 54.9
13. I am motivated by the prospect of winning in these
Kahoot! sessions.
2 5.9 11.8 29.4 51
14. I pay more attention during lectures because I hope to
win in the Kahoot! sessions.
3.9 9.8 13.7 37.3 35.3
15. I am eager to learn via Kahoot! 2 0 13.7 37.3 47.1
16. There is value in using Kahoot! for teaching and
learning purposes.
0 2 5.9 27.5 64.7
17. Kahoot! should be used in higher education. 0 7.8 7.8 21.6 62.7
1: Strongly Disagree; 2: Disagree; 3: Slightly Agree; 4: Agree; 5: Strongly Agree
Debbita Tan Ai Lin, Ganapathy, M. and Manjet Kaur
576 Pertanika J. Soc. Sci. & Hum. 26 (1): 565 - 582 (2018)
Table 5 reflects the respondents’
attitudes towards Kahoot!. It is noteworthy
that 100% of the students expressed their
positive regard for the effectiveness of
Kahoot! in the academic context. An
insignificant proportion of 2% strongly
disagreed to nearly all the items listed in
Table 5. An interesting trend of 98% of
similar responses was recorded for nine
items which supplies evidence with regard
to the popularity of Kahoot! among the
respondents – students looking forward
to the sessions; nding it interesting, fun
and enjoyable; responding quickly to and
focusing on each item or question eagerly;
being fond of the competitiveness in each
Kahoot! session; preferring to learn via
Kahoot!; recognising the value of using
Kahoot! for teaching and learning purposes,
and in higher education. About 96% of
the respondents also perceived Kahoot! as
exciting and were thus motivated to make
the effort to answer every item or question
during each Kahoot! session. A total of
92% acknowledged their positivity towards
playing Kahoot!, and were especially
motivated by the prospect of winning.
Table 6
Respondents’ perceptions of Kahoot! for learning and knowledge reinforcement
Item 1 (%) 2 (%) 3 (%) 4 (%) 5 (%)
1. Our Kahoot! sessions help me learn the gist of: A)
Theoretical frameworks that I might have missed during
lectures.
0 2 5.9 29.4 62.7
2. Our Kahoot! sessions help me learn the gist of: B)
Analysis models that I might have missed during
lectures.
0 2 9.8 37.3 51
3. Our Kahoot! sessions help me learn the gist of: C) Media
concepts that I might have missed during lectures.
2 0 7.8 35.3 54.9
4. Our Kahoot! sessions help me learn the gist of: D)
Media language features or devices that I might have
missed during lectures.
2 0 5.9 41.2 51
5. Our Kahoot! sessions help me learn the gist of: E) Media
writing techniques that I might have missed during
lectures.
0 2 7.8 37.3 52.9
6. Our Kahoot! sessions help reinforce (consolidate) my
learning of: A) Theoretical frameworks.
0 2 7.8 47.1 43.1
7. Our Kahoot! sessions help reinforce (consolidate) my
learning of: B) Analysis models.
0 2 9.8 43.1 45.1
8. Our Kahoot! sessions help reinforce (consolidate) my
learning of: C) Media concepts.
0 2 9.8 47.1 41.2
9. Our Kahoot! sessions help reinforce (consolidate) my
learning of: D) Media language features or devices.
0 2 7.8 45.1 45.1
10. Our Kahoot! sessions help reinforce (consolidate) my
learning of: E) Media writing techniques.
0 5.9 9.8 47.1 37.3
1: Strongly Disagree; 2: Disagree; 3: Slightly Agree; 4: Agree; 5: Strongly Agree
Kahoot! It: Gamication in Higher Education
577Pertanika J. Soc. Sci. & Hum. 26 (1): 565 - 582 (2018)
According to Table 6, the respondents’
perceptions of Kahoot! account for their
learning and knowledge reinforcement.
An interesting trend was again captured
for the first five items with 98% of the
students communicating that Kahoot! did
help foster their learning. They indicated
that the Kahoot! sessions assisted them in
learning the gist of information that they
had missed during lectures in terms of the
following aspects – theoretical frameworks,
analysis models, media concepts, media
language features or devices, and media
writing techniques.
A similar trend of 98% agreement was
found for items 6 to 9 in Table 6, in relation
to the students’ positive affirmation of
the Kahoot! sessions helping to reinforce
their learning with regards to theoretical
frameworks, analysis models, media
concepts, and media language features or
devices. A signicant portion (94.1%) of the
students afrmed that the Kahoot! sessions
helped reinforce their knowledge of media
writing techniques.
The nal item of the questionnaire is
open-ended, allowing the researchers to
garner a diverse array of qualitative data.
The nal item is as follows: “Please provide
a comment about your experience with
Kahoot! in this course.”
The students reiterated that they found
Kahoot! to be intrinsically motivating:
“One of a kind learning experience”; “fun
learning experience”; “highly effective”;
“increases interest in the course”; “nice
and engaging experience”; “Damn fun”;
“enjoyable”; “Awesome!”. The following
responses also demonstrate the inducement
of extrinsic motivation in the students:
“enjoy the competitiveness”; “really look
forward to Kahoot!”; “Kahoot! makes me
feel more motivated and focus”; “write more
comprehensive notes based on the lectures
in order to answer Kahoot! at the end”;
“Subconsciously, it feels like a ash revision
that makes me remember the lecture more,
winning or losing the quiz”.
Students also highlighted that the use
of Kahoot! during lectures help foster and
reinforce learning: “I am always enjoying
the learning process by playing ‘Kahoot!’
as it gives me the chance to recall and to
retain what I’ve learned during lectures”;
“very interesting way to revise after the
lecture”; “good recap session”; “It is useful
as it refreshes my memory of whatever I
learned in class and tells me where are the
main points of the lecture to be focused on”;
“Kahoot helps me recall all info that was
learned during class”; “reinforce students’
memory of the particular topic, very helpful
for learning and also recapping the lecture
and really helpful method to learn and also
revise”.
Nevertheless, the students did highlight
the limitations of using Kahoot!: “The
limitation of playing Kahoot! is only the
internet. Means that if the internet is slow
then it will be difcult for me to click on the
answer. Hence, I lost the game”; “great app,
but the wi connection sometimes sucks
and we can’t connect into the app”; “just
the internet connection affects my mood to
play Kahoot”; “it would be better if Kahoot
has more features to make it a little more
Debbita Tan Ai Lin, Ganapathy, M. and Manjet Kaur
578 Pertanika J. Soc. Sci. & Hum. 26 (1): 565 - 582 (2018)
challenging (for example, able to pick more
than one answer)”; “It would be better if we
can get faster wi connection”; “just need
better internet connection and we’re good”.
DISCUSSION
This study is grounded in the theory
of intrinsically motivating instructions
(Malone, 1980). The rst element (challenge)
of Malone’s theory is reected in terms of
the students being challenged to engage
in the Kahoot! sessions despite certain
limitations (such as no prior exposure to
Kahoot!, Internet connectivity issues) and
the fact that the outcome of each session
was uncertain. The second element (fantasy)
was met through the students’ evident
captivation with Kahoot!, as demonstrated
by their motivation and engagement towards
Kahoot! in the ndings. Lastly, the element
of curiosity was met through their interaction
with Kahoot!’s graphics and embedded
audio features; this third element was also
realised when the students experienced
learning and knowledge reinforcement via
Kahoot! (see Table 6).
The purpose of this study was to
examine the effectiveness of Kahoot! in
terms of its ability to induce intrinsic and
extrinsic motivation while determining if
this form of gamication is able to foster
and reinforce learning. The results of the
present study provide evidence of Kahoot!
as a gamication tool that is able to induce
intrinsic and extrinsic motivation among
tertiary students. These positive ndings
are in line with Wang et al.’s (2016) study,
which concluded that Kahoot! advocates
a new style of learning that promotes
motivation and facilitates engagement.
More importantly, Zarzyeka-Piskorz (2016)
postulated that when learning incorporates
any form of gamification, the learning
process becomes more engaging as intrinsic
motivation is induced. Indeed, 98% of the
present study’s students indicated their high
level of intrinsic motivation when engaging
with Kahoot!, affirming it as a tool that
has enhanced their learning experience in
the English for the Media course. In fact,
one student pointed out that “Most lectures
especially in theoretical-based courses will
have less interactive lecture sessions, where
students only read and write notes. Seldom
are the lecture sessions interactive, due to
attitudes from both lecturers and students. I
nd that this type of lecture tend to make me
lose focus during the lecture. But Kahoot!
makes me feel more motivated and focus …
Thank you Dr. for using Kahoot! Love it!”.
Interestingly, the results also showcased
the high level of extrinsic motivation
induced by Kahoot!. This aspect is reected
in terms of the students indicating high
levels of competitiveness during their
Kahoot! sessions, their motivation at the
prospect of winning, and their eagerness
to learn via this platform. This strongly
suggests that Kahoot! should be integrated
into the teaching and learning cycles in
higher education courses. These ndings
are testimonies to Papastergiou’s (2009)
research in relation to the effectiveness
of games in encouraging better learning
outcomes and better motivation at grasping
academic concepts, which further concurs
Kahoot! It: Gamication in Higher Education
579Pertanika J. Soc. Sci. & Hum. 26 (1): 565 - 582 (2018)
with Linehan et al. (2011) who highlighted
gamication as a signicant predictor of
students’ academic success.
The results of this study support the
notion that Kahoot! is effective in terms of
its ability to foster and reinforce learning,
especially with regards to theoretical
frameworks, analysis models, media
concepts, media language features or
devices, and media writing techniques. The
present ndings are in tandem with past
studies (Rosas et al., 2003; Tüysüz, 2009)
that emphasise the effectiveness of Kahoot!
in the academic context. The key ndings of
this study explicate the students’ intrinsic
and extrinsic motivation in using Kahoot!
as a platform to foster and reinforce their
learning, with most of them afrming that
the Kahoot! sessions had not only helped
them learn whatever they might have missed
during the lectures, but that the sessions
had also helped them signicantly in terms
of knowledge reinforcement and retention.
However, the students did point out the
limitations of using Kahoot!, particularly
the issue of wi- connection. The lack of a
stable Internet connection had apparently
hindered their responses to the quiz items.
The question therefore arises as to whether
they were negatively affected by this, but
the key ndings downplay this limitation
as almost all the students indicated that
they were motivated and engaged, and
experienced learning as well as knowledge
consolidation through the Kahoot! sessions
conducted. In fact, most of the students also
resorted to the use of their own Internet
data plans when they experienced wi-fi
connection issues.
CONCLUSION
Although the ndings of this study cannot
be generalised to the entire population of
tertiary students in Malaysia, partly due to the
diverse nature of different tertiary courses,
the key ndings offer signicant insights
into the effectiveness of using Kahoot! in
higher education, among adult learners. It is,
however, recommended that future studies
employ samples from other academic
courses and also from other universities.
To have a more thorough understanding
of the benefits of using Kahoot!, it is
further recommended that future research
in this area be more qualitative. While
such recommendations are made, it is
incumbent on stakeholders to realise that
educators, students and administrators all
play equally important roles in the creation
of teaching and learning environments that
are conducive, contemporary and relevant
to today’s generation of learners.
REFERENCES
Anderson, J., & Barnett, M. (2011). Using video
games to support pre-service elementary teachers
learning of basic physics principles. Journal
of Science Education and Technology, 20(4),
347-362.
Bonde, M. T., Makransky, G., Wandall, J., Larsen,
M. V., Morsing, M., Jarmer, H., & Sommer,
M. O. (2014). Improving biotech education
through gamied laboratory simulations. Nature
Biotechnology, 32(7), 694-697.
Debbita Tan Ai Lin, Ganapathy, M. and Manjet Kaur
580 Pertanika J. Soc. Sci. & Hum. 26 (1): 565 - 582 (2018)
Caponetto, I., Earp, J., & Ott, M. (2014). Gamication
and education: A literature review. In 8th
European Conference on Games Based Learning
(pp. 50-57). Germany: ECGBL.
Carnevale, D. (2005). Run a class like a game show:
‘Clickers’ keep students involved. Chronicle of
Higher Education, 51(42), B3.
Carver, C. A., Howard, R. A., & Lane, W. D. (1999).
Enhancing student learning through hypermedia
courseware and incorporation of student learning
styles. Education, IEEE Transactions, 42(1),
33-38.
Deterding, S., Dixon, D., Khaled, R., & Nacke,
L. (2011). From game design elements to
gamefulness: Defining gamification. In 15th
International Academic MindTrek Conference:
Envisioning Future Media Environments (pp.
9-15). New York, NY: ACM.
Dichev, C., & Dicheva, D. (2017). Gamifying
education: What is known, what is believed
and what remains uncertain: A critical review.
International Journal of Educational Technology
in Higher Education, 14(9), 1-36.
Fromberg, D. P., & Gullo, D. F. (1992). Perspectives
on children. In L. R. Williams & D. P. Fromberg
(Eds.), Encyclopedia of early childhood
education (pp. 191-194). New York: Garland
Publishing Inc.
Frost, J. L. (1992). Play and playscapes. Albany,
NY: Delmar.
Gee, J. P. (2003). What video games have to teach
us about learning and literacy. Computer
Entertainment, 1(1), 20-20.
George, D., & Mallery, P. (2003). SPSS for Windows
step by step: A simple guide and reference (11.0
Update). Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
Ismail, N., Elias, S., Mohd, I. S., Perumal, D.,
& Muthusamy, I. (2010). Exploring ESL
students’ apprehension level and attitude towards
academic writing. The International Journal of
Learning, 17(6), 475-483.
Kapp, K. (2014). Gamification: Separating fact
from fiction. Online: CLOmedia. Retrieved
July 1, 2017, from http://cedma-europe.
org/newsletter%20articles/ Clomedia/
Gamication%20-%20Separating%20Fact%20
from%20Fiction% 20(Mar%2014).pdf
Koile, K., & Singer, D. (2006). Development of a
tablet-PC-based system to increase instructor-
student classroom interactions and student
learning. In D. Berque, J. Prey & R. Reed
(Eds.), The impact of tablet PCs and pen-based
technology on education: Vignettes, evaluations,
and future directions (pp. 112-122). West
Lafayette, IN: Purdue University Press.
Liao, C. C., Chen, Z. H., Cheng, H. N. H., Chent,
F. C., & Chan, T. W. (2011). My-mini-pet: A
handheld pet-nurturing game to engage students
in arithmetic practices. Journal of Computer
Assisted Learning, 27(1), 76-89.
Linehan, C., Kirman, B., Lawson, S., & Chan, G.
(2011). Practical, appropriate, empirically-
validated guidelines for designing educational
games. In ACM Annual Conference on Human
Factors in Computing Systems (pp. 1979-1988).
Canada: Vancouver.
Malone, T. W. (1980). What makes things fun to learn?
Heuristics for designing instructional computer
games. In The 3rd ACM SIGSMALL Symposium
and The 1st SIGPC Symposium on Small Systems
(pp. 162-169). Palo Alto, California, USA: ACM
Press.
Kahoot! It: Gamication in Higher Education
581Pertanika J. Soc. Sci. & Hum. 26 (1): 565 - 582 (2018)
McGonigal, J. (2011). Reality is broken: Why games
make us better and how they can change the
world. New York: The Penguin Press.
Miller, L., Schweingruber, H., Oliver, R., Janice,
M., & Smith, D. (2002). Teaching neuroscience
through web adventures: Adolescents reconstruct
the history and science of opioids. The
Neuroscientist, 8(1), 16-21.
Papastergiou, M. (2009). Digital game-based learning
in high school computer science education:
Impact on educational effectiveness and student
motivation. Computers and Education, 52(1),
1-12.
Piaget, J. (1962). Play, dreams, and imitation in
childhood. New York: W.W. Norton & Co.
Prensky, M. (2003). Digital game-based learning.
ACM Computers in Entertainment, 1(1), 1-4.
Prensky, M. (2005). Computer games and learning:
Digital game-based learning. Handbook of
Computer Game Studies, 18, 97-122.
Rosas, R., Nussbaum, M., Cumsille, P., Marianov, V.,
Correa, M., Flores, P., … & Salinas, M. (2003).
Beyond Nintendo: Design and assessment of
educational video games for rst and second
grade students. Computer Education, 40(1),
71-94.
Sharples, M. (2000). The design of personal mobile
technologies for lifelong learning. Computer
Education, 34(3-4), 177-193.
Squire, K. (2005). Changing the game: What happens
when video games enter the classroom. Innovate:
Journal of Online Education, 1(6), 1-8.
Suzanne, S. (2013). 4 ways to bring gamication of
education to your classroom. Retrieved July 20,
2017, from http://blog.tophat.com/4-ways-to-
gamify-learning-in-your-classroom/
Thang, S. M., Lee, K. W., Murugaiah, P., Jaafar,
N., Tan, C. K., & Bukhari, N. (2016). ICT
tools patterns of use among Malaysian ESL
undergraduates. GEMA Online Journal of
Language Studies, 16(1), 49-65.
Tüysüz, C. (2009). Effect of the computer based game
on pre-service teachers’ achievement, attitudes,
metacognition and motivation in chemistry.
Scientic Research and Essays, 4(8), 780-790.
Vandenberg, B. (1986). Play theory. In G. Fein & M.
Rivkin, (Eds.), The young child at play (pp. 17-
22). Washington, DC: NAEYC.
Wang, A. I. (2011). Extensive evaluation of using a
game project in a software architecture course.
ACM Trans. Computing Education, 11(1), 1-28.
Wang, A. I. (2015). The wear out effect of a game-
based student response system. Computers and
Education, 82, 217-227.
Wang, A. I., & Lieberoth, A. (2016). The effect of
points and audio on concentration, engagement,
enjoyment, learning, motivation, and classroom
dynamics using Kahoot!. Reading: Academic
Conferences International Limited (Oct 2016),
738-746.
Wang, A. I., & Wu, B. (2011). Using game
development to teach software architecture.
International Journal of Computer Games
Technology, 2011(4), 1-12.
Wang, A. I., Zhu, M., & Sætre, R. (2016). The effect of
digitizing and gamifying quizzing in classrooms.
In Proceedings of the 10th European Conference
on Games Based Learning. University of the
West of Scotland, Paisley, Scotland.
Wang, A. I., Øfsdahl, T., & Mørch-Storstein, O.
K. (2007). Lecture quiz: A mobile game
concept for lectures. In Proceedings of the 11th
IASTED International Conference on Software
Engineering and Application (SEA 2007).
Cambridge, MA, USA: Acta Press.
Debbita Tan Ai Lin, Ganapathy, M. and Manjet Kaur
582 Pertanika J. Soc. Sci. & Hum. 26 (1): 565 - 582 (2018)
Wang, A. I., Øfsdahl, T., & Mørch-Storstein, O.
K. (2008). An evaluation of a mobile game
concept for lectures. In Proceedings of the 21st
Conference on Software Engineering Education
and Training (CSEET 2008). Charleston, SC.
Werbach, K. (2015). Gamication, coursera platform:
University of Pennsylvania. Retrieved July 20,
20017 from https://www.coursera.org/learn/
gamication/
Wu, B., Wang, A. I., Børresen, E. A., Tidemann, K. A.
(2011). Improvement of a lecture game concept:
Implementing lecture quiz 2.0. In Proceedings of
The 3rd International Conference on Computer
Supported Education. Noordwijkerhout,
Netherlands.
Yap, W. L. (2016). Transforming conventional
teaching classroom to learner-centred teaching
classroom using multimedia-mediated learning
module. International Journal of Information
and Education Technology, 6(2), 105-112.
Yunus, M. M., Kwan, L., Said, N. E., Karim, K.,
Jani, R., & Shamsul, M. A. (2012). Educational
gaming: The inuence of video games on ESL
students’ writing skills. In WSEAS International
Conference. Proceedings. Recent Advances
in Computer Engineering Series (No. 7) (pp.
355-360). WSEAS. Retrieved from http://www.
wseas.us/e-library/conferences/2012/Vienna/
COMPUTERS/ COMPUTERS-57.pdf
Zarzycka-Piskorz, E. (2016). Kahoot it or not? Can
games be motivating in learning grammar?
Teaching English with Technology, 16(3), 17-36.
... The actualization of these game-based activities has gained its demand and popularity among educators in the Philippine Educational System. Numerous studies have found out that these gamified online platforms are useful and relevant, especially among undergraduates, with respect to how these online applications induce student motivation and engagements (Lin et al., 2018). However, in a research study that was conducted by The research study of Mader and Bry (2019) led to the advancement of game-based online learning activities by introducing team-based social gamification as part of their study. ...
Article
Full-text available
This paper utilized systematic literature review method to determine and analyze the pros and cons of incorporating game-based activities and gamifications in science education. Also, this paper reviewed relevant research studies, articles, and literature reviews to identify educational innovations and programs that can potentially enhance the strengths and alleviate the problems of utilizing and integrating game-based learning activities in science online learning. It was found that game-based activities and gamifications had the capability to support and digitize classroom instructions with smooth transition, and can increase students’ motivation and interest towards learning, and social and communicative skills from working with their peers. And in spite of the fact that these innovative tools revealed its positive effects and impactful results in education, numerous challenges and drawbacks were identified and determined. Concerning these snags, it was determined and reported from several research studies and literature reviews that some of the game-based elements and features which are leader scoreboards, badges, level of challenges, and reward systems were saturated with problems and negative impacts on student learning. Concurrently, it was also found that teachers strove to a lot of pedagogical and technical problems when utilizing and integrating gamified learning activities in their classroom instructions. It was concluded that this paper could be used as basis for more research studies that would be conducted in the future, and scrutinizing the effectiveness and educational barriers of game-based learning and gamifications must continue to present and provide relevant educational resources and professional and technical preparations from educators to prevent the possible risks.
... Apart from that, gamification encourages the learners to explore, take chances and experience failure in a fun environment with the lowcost benefit of development (Kapp 2012;Sobocinski 2017;Thiebes et al. 2014). The gamification technique also encourages compassion and builds teamwork skills (Lin et al. 2018). ...
Article
Full-text available
Undergraduate Dental Student’s Perceptions of the Effectiveness of Gamified Biochemistry Module
... The face validity of the survey questions was determined by the quantitative and qualitative methods. During this process, a group of 37 randomly selected participants underwent a pilot study, responding to nine Likert scale questions and three open-ended questions based on Kalleny (2020) and Tan et al. (2018). Of the nine original Likert scale questions, five were removed due to ambiguity or participants finding irrelevance. ...
Article
Full-text available
Published in the Journal of University Teaching & Learning Practice. Tertiary institutions are increasingly providing hybrid delivery options to students, requiring course coordinators to migrate formerly face-to-face curricula into frameworks that suit online teaching. However, there is a risk that the implementation of hands-on, engaging activities will decrease during hybrid sessions due to staff uncertainty of their effectiveness across the varied cohorts. This presents a need to identify engaging modes of instruction that can remain equally engaging for learning regardless of the students' enrolled mode of delivery. Interactive polling has the potential to be used within a class in real-time and allow both face-to-face and online students to take part in an in-class activity at the same time. This study aimed to compare the effects of interactive polling within either a face-to-face or online delivery format. One-hundred and seventy-four participants studying first-year health science and medicine completed a live interactive poll using the Kahoot! platform in either a face-to-face (n=72) or online (n=102) hybrid-delivered subject. Experiences and perceptions were provided as written responses and a Likert scale survey. Participant responses were positive, with three themes emerging, including interactive polling being enjoyable, engaging, and valuable for learning. Across cohorts, participants rated interactive polling highly, and perceived that it offered an effective learning and revision tool. This study found that interactive polling using Kahoot! maintains its suitability as a method of instruction across both face-to-face and online learner cohorts. The finding that it remains equally effective across both delivery modes provides evidence-based support for its use in hybrid or blended subject offerings.
... Therefore, the study of student motivation and engagement classifiers, such as Markov Chains (from now on MC), seems relevant to know the influence of motivation on learning. In the context of higher education, this study aims to assess whether these tools would be helpful to university students [13]. ...
Article
The current situation in the world with the COVID-19 pandemic has reinforced a pre-existing trend based on increasing the use of gamification tools in education to motivate students. In this work, a study based on a Markov model is proposed to assess motivation during the training process in higher education. The evolution of Faculty of Business Administration graduates when using a gamified smartphone application (HEgameApp) has been measured. The behavior of graduates is assessed through collaboration in fora created by HegameApp, and the recognition given by their classmates. A utility function is defined to obtain a statistical estimator used in the assignment of motivational states of the study participants. In addition, a decrement function is assigned to the value of the components of the utility function to estimate the time variation of motivation during the process of knowledge assimilation. The proposed solution shows that when graduates are involved in using the app, they significantly increase their academic outcomes and satisfaction while receiving the lectures. In addition, the positive feedback perceived through the application fora has a measurable effect on their motivation.
Article
This study aims to identify a method to motivate students to participate in technical courses and apply the knowledge they attain in their design projects. This study proposed gamification using Kahoot for a construction course (one of the technical courses). A quantitative method is applied in the research, and a second-year, first-semester class is the case study. Kahoot, a free online platform, was used as a supportive tool to make the course more game-like and fun. After each class, questions and quizzes were delivered to the students through Kahoot, and they played by answering them. The results show that students enjoyed and engaged in the course and were sufficiently motivated to apply the knowledge they acquired in their design projects. They also suggested gamification for their other courses. This study used a quantitative method for evaluating the experiences of 21 students in one course in one semester. Given the small sample size, the results of this study may not be generalizable to a broader population. For further research, studies may need both a longer timeframe and the application of more techniques and tools of gamification.
Article
Full-text available
The application of Information and Communication Technologies in the classroom encourages student learning by increasing their motivation and promoting collaborative teamwork. The aim of this study was to analyze the differences on intrinsic motivation of university students considering contextual variables when working specific contents through digital tools and virtual gamified strategies. Nine hundred and nineteen university students (18–21 years old) participated in the study. A descriptive cross-sectional study was performed considering four different variables: gender, working language, subject nature and academic degree. The applications used were Kahoot and Vevox and student motivation was assessed through an adapted version to the university context of the Intrinsic Motivation Inventory (IMI) Questionnaire. A higher score for bachelor´s degree compared to vocational training for the dimensions interest-enjoyment and effort-importance, together with a lower level in tension-pressure were revealed. Only the effort dimension was different between genders, being higher for female. Practical subjects showed higher values in bachelor´s degree for interest, competence, effort, and lower scores concerning tension-pressure. Finally, the teaching in Spanish revealed better scores in all dimensions compared to English, especially when the subject nature is practical. In line with previous results, university students showed good levels of intrinsic motivation when virtual gamified tools were used.
Article
This research was conducted to reveal the description of teaching vocabulary using kahoot! Application through online learning and students’ vocabulary mastery after learning using kahoot! application. It used mixed method which was conducted to 20 students of State Vocational School of Salatiga who joined English Club Program. The researchers used test and observation to get the data. Based on observation result, it is seen that teacher prepared the teaching activity well which was seen from the implementation of teaching vocabulary using kahoot! Application could run as planned. Teacher used zoom application to communicate and interact with students in applying the game in teaching activity. Students are challenged and motivated to fill the game and raced to be the winner. After conducting the test, the researchers calculated the score and found the mean score of each test. The mean score of students’ pre-test is 36 and the mean score of post-test is 84. Based on the research result, the researchers could say that learning while playing could make students more relax to absorb the material and improve their vocabulary mastery as its effect. Kahoot application could be used as one of learning media while implementing teaching through distance learning.
Conference Paper
The infusion of learning material with game elements have been used to capture the attention of students, improving engagement and motivation. Some gamified learning environments have not been successful and educators should pilot test these platforms before full scale implementation. The goal of this study was to explore a gamified learning environment to determine if the use thereof could successfully be incorporated in a first year programming module. A group of 92 students used the Khan Academy platform for one academic term. Semi-structured interviews were used to collect qualitative data from students. The results indicate that students enjoyed using this platform and a large percentage of students reported that the lessons on the Khan Academy platform assisted them to better understand programming principles. The gamification elements in the platform namely points, badges and a leaderboard also motivated students to keep using the platform.
Article
Full-text available
Gamification of education is a developing approach for increasing learners’ motivation and engagement by incorporating game design elements in educational environments. With the growing popularity of gamification and yet mixed success of its application in educational contexts, the current review is aiming to shed a more realistic light on the research in this field by focusing on empirical evidence rather than on potentialities, beliefs or preferences. Accordingly, it critically examines the advancement in gamifying education. The discussion is structured around the used gamification mechanisms, the gamified subjects, the type of gamified learning activities, and the study goals, with an emphasis on the reliability and validity of the reported outcomes. To improve our understanding and offer a more realistic picture of the progress of gamification in education, consistent with the presented evidence, we examine both the outcomes reported in the papers and how they have been obtained. While the gamification in education is still a growing phenomenon, the review reveals that (i) insufficient evidence exists to support the long-term benefits of gamification in educational contexts; (ii) the practice of gamifying learning has outpaced researchers’ understanding of its mechanisms and methods; (iii) the knowledge of how to gamify an activity in accordance with the specifics of the educational context is still limited. The review highlights the need for systematically designed studies and rigorously tested approaches confirming the educational benefits of gamification, if gamified learning is to become a recognized instructional approach.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The use of game-based learning in the classroom has become more common in recent years. Many game-based learning tools and platforms are based on a quiz concept where the students can score points if they can choose the correct answer among multiple answers. The article describes an experiment where the game-based student response system Kahoot! was compared to a traditional non-gamified student response system, as well as the usage of paper forms for formative assessment. The goal of the experiment was to investigate whether gamified formative assessments improve the students' engagement, motivation, enjoyment, concentration, and learning. In the experiment, the three different formative assessment tools/methods were used to review and summarize the same topic in three parallel lectures in an IT introductory course. The first method was to have the students complete a paper quiz, and then review the results afterwards using hand raising. The second method was to use the non-gamified student response system Clicker where the students gave their response to a quiz through polling. The third method was to use the game-based student response system Kahoot!. All three lectures were taught in the exact same way, teaching the same syllabus and using the same teacher. The only differences were the lecture hall and the method use to summarize the lecture. A total of 384 students participated in the experiment, where 127 subjects did the paper quiz, 175 used the non-gamified student response system, and 82 students using the gamified approach. The gender distribution was 48% female students and 52% male students. Pre-and a post-test were used to assess the learning outcome of the lectures, and a questionnaire was used to get data on the students' engagement and motivation. The results show significant improvement in motivation, engagement, enjoyment, and concentration for the gamified approach, but we did not find significant learning improvement.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
There are many examples on the use of game-based learning in and outside the classroom, along with evaluation of their effect in terms of engagement, learning, classroom dynamics, concentration, motivation and enjoyment. Most of the research in this area focuses on evaluations of the use of game-based learning applications and the effect they have on the students. The majority of these papers show that game-based learning has a positive effect compared to more traditional learning methods. However, there are very few papers that investigate what specific elements in game-based learning applications that produce a positive effect. In this paper, we present an experiment where we investigated how the use of points and audio affect the learning environment. Specifically, the paper presents results from an experiment where the same lecture was taught for different group of students using the game-based learning platform Kahoot!. One group used Kahoot! as it supposed to be used with audio and points, one group used Kahoot! with audio but without points, one group used Kahoot! without audio but with points, and one group used Kahoot! without points and audio. The results from the experiment reveal that there are some significant differences whether audio and points are used in game-based learning in the areas of concentration, engagement, enjoyment, and motivation. The most surprising finding was how the classroom dynamics was positively affected by the use of audio. A total of 593 students participated in this experiment with a gender distribution of 44% female and 56 male students.
Article
Gamification is not a very new concept. It is the use of game elements and game design techniques in a non-game context. It is used in various contexts for various purposes. There is strong evidence that shows the relationship between game playing and increased motivation. More and more learning games emerge and bring a promise to help to learn a language. There are certain game elements that could be used in non-game contexts to trigger effective player engagement as well as persistence and motivation to win/learn. The paper outlines the influence of specific game elements onto players, presents the motivational aspects of game involvement, and investigates what game elements could be responsible for increasing motivation to participate and engage in a grammar learning game. All of these are investigated on the example of a Kahoot.it online game, which was used with the General English language course students attending the classes in The Modern Languages Centre at the Pedagogical University, Cracow, Poland. The main objective of the research paper is to observe and assess how the students' motivation increases - if - to learn and practise grammar and how effective this mode of learning is. It also presents the teachers' evaluation of the design process, its implementation and recommendations for further use.