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Doughnut Economics: Seven Ways to Think Like a 21st-Century Economist

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THE SUNDAY TIMES BESTSELLER'I see [Raworth] as the John Maynard Keynes of the 21st Century: by reframing the economy, she allows us to change our view of who we are, where we stand, and what we want to be.' George Monbiot, Guardian'This is sharp, significant scholarship . . . Thrilling.' Times Higher Education'[A] really important economic and political thinker.' Andrew MarrEconomics is broken. It has failed to predict, let alone prevent, financial crises that have shaken the foundations of our societies. Its outdated theories have permitted a world in which extreme poverty persists while the wealth of the super-rich grows year on year. And its blind spots have led to policies that are degrading the living world on a scale that threatens all of our futures.Can it be fixed? In Doughnut Economics, Oxford academic Kate Raworth identifies seven critical ways in which mainstream economics has led us astray, and sets out a roadmap for bringing humanity into a sweet spot that meets the needs of all within the means of the planet. En route, she deconstructs the character of ‘rational economic man’ and explains what really makes us tick. She reveals how an obsession with equilibrium has left economists helpless when facing the boom and bust of the real-world economy. She highlights the dangers of ignoring the role of energy and nature’s resources – and the far-reaching implications for economic growth when we take them into account. And in the process, she creates a new, cutting-edge economic model that is fit for the 21st century – one in which a doughnut-shaped compass points the way to human progress.Ambitious, radical and rigorously argued, Doughnut Economics promises to reframe and redraw the future of economics for a new generation.'An innovative vision about how we could refocus away from growth to thriving.' Daily Mail'Doughnut Economics shows how to ensure dignity and prosperity for all people.' Huffington Post
... Doughnut Economy is a new economic theory that considers environmental constraints and societal needs [30,31]. This theoretical framework is significantly close to our need for an inequality comparison in the above-mentioned modes, because future urban transportation, in addition to the environmental, pollution and energy management constraints, should consider sustainability criteria such as inequality. ...
... The concept of Doughnut economics as one of the new ideas in sustainable development was introduced in 2017 by Kate Raworth [30]. Raworth points out that conventional economic models do not respond to the needs and requirements of human life in the 21st century. ...
... This decrease is much more significant than the cost of applying doughnut economics in transportation. [30]. Therefore, it is understandable why, despite this concept's novelty, its use in urban management has been investigated in various studies. ...
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Inequality is a problem facing the world community, especially in developing countries, that affects urban transport and vice versa. Which possible urban transportation mode will cause the least inequality? This is a vital question. The development of Autonomous vehicles (AV) has made Shared Autonomous Vehicles (SAV) one of the future transport modes. Active and public transport are also mentioned as applicable future modes, based on the literature. This paper aims to compare inequality in active transportation, public transport and SAV as the most important alternatives to private cars in the future. In this regard, we use doughnut economic concepts as the framework for our comparison. First, the inequality concept is expanded and then literature demonstrates the future desirability of modes. We show why doughnut economics could be a beneficial alternative for comparing that resulted in the superiority of active and public transport over SAV in terms of future inequality.
... I denne artikel udfoldes der en ny baeredygtig økonomisk teori, udviklet af Kate Raworth (2017). ...
... I artiklen uddybes den nye tilgang til baeredygtig økonomisk teori med en ny teoretisk tilgang til udvikling af baeredygtige forretningsmodeller (Bocken et. al., 2014;Joyce & Paquin, 2016;Nicoletti, 2019;Raworth, 2017). ...
... Den sociale vaerdiskabelse sker gennem fokus på samarbejde med aktører og organisationer i det omgivende samfund (Bocken et. al., 2014;Brix 2020;Joyce & Paquin, 2016;Nicoletti, 2019;Raworth, 2017). ...
Article
I denne artikel udfoldes en ny strømning indenfor økonomisk tænkning og teori. Baseret på bæredygtige og systemteoretiske tilgange udfordres de klassiske økonomiske teorier og giver nye måder for ledere at arbejde innovativt med bæredygtige forretningsmodeller. Formålet med artiklen er at udfolde, hvordan bæredygtig økonomisk teori kombineret med teorier om innovation af bæredygtige forretningsmodeller kan sætte spørgsmålstegn ved de taget-for-givet forestillinger om økonomisk styring, der præger beslutningsprocesserne i danske virksomheder. Gennem to cases undersøges og eksemplificeres der muligheder og begrænsninger for at skabe bæredygtige forretningsmodeller. Artiklen tager udgangspunkt i projektet ”Det samfundsnyttige landbrug”, der har sat fokus på at udvikle nye forretningsmodeller for økologisk landbrug i Danmark.
... Kate Raworth (2017) provides another model that combines meeting the needs of all within the means of the planet. These needs include providing life's essentials while ensuring that collectively we do not overshoot our pressure on Earth's life-supporting systems, on which we fundamentally depend. ...
... (2) Nonrenewable resources such as minerals and fossil fuels must be used no faster than renewable substitutes for them can be put into place. (3) Pollution and wastes must be emitted no faster than natural systems can absorb them, recycle them, or render them harmless Figure 2. The doughnut of social and planetary boundaries (Raworth, 2017) At its worst, the Triple Bottom Line model results in the prioritization of the economy and economic growth, whilst environmental and social outcomes receive much lesser attention. This has been termed the Mickey Mouse model (model 3) and is currently the model that underpins most global economic and political decision making today. ...
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Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) is a global project championed by UNESCO. This article surveys the literature on ESD and highlights its aims and objectives, actions and outcomes. Firstly, I introduce the international history of ESD which emerged from the UN Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro in 1992. A decade later a Rio+10 conference took place in Johannesburg in 2002 which subsequently led to the UN
... Toward visualizing the issue of sustainable energy consumption in relation to social justice we turn to "doughnut economics", a recent metaphor regarding environmental sustainability and human endeavor through natural resource consumption. The "doughnut" essentially consists of three concentric layers: a social foundation of well-being that no one should fall below with regards to basic commodities in life (e.g., sufficient food, clean water, and access to energy), an ecological ceiling over which life becomes unsustainable on Earth, and a middle layer between them where a safe and just space of existence is possible [70]. Outside these three zones lie two areas of unsustainable existence. ...
... Raworth & C. Guthier. CC-BY-SA 4.0)[70]. ...
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Almost a century after its onset, the present era—when human endeavor significantly affects the environment and the future of the Earth’s ecosystem—is now regularly being referred to as the “Anthropocene”. Electric energy is recognized as one of the main forces of change that have contributed to the rise of the human reign. Moreover, its consumption, especially in organizations, is considered responsible for a large part of the greenhouse gas emissions whose curtailment is necessary for the preservation of our climate. This work focuses on turning the spotlight onto the importance of a far-from-exhausted resource in the fight for environmental protection: organizational energy conservation—as exhibited by both the organization and its members individually. Reviewing existing literature, we find that organizational energy conservation is concurrently a matter of environmental sustainability, ethics, and social justice and a matter entwined with crises. Aiming to further guide future research and practice in this field, we discriminate between and provide guidelines for conducting both “hard” (which include facility retrofitting and automation and pose the highest cost in their execution) and “soft” (which include the utilization of IS and/or behavioral interventions and pose a significantly lower cost in their execution) organizational energy-saving interventions.
... However, a de-emphasis on the holistic in our healthcare, economic, political, and other social systems has contributed to fundamental disconnects that simultaneously impede both human flourishing and a thriving ecosystem. This has led to proposals for more interconnected ways of seeing and redesigning the larger system to reflect principles of interbeing, using holistic frameworks such as Doughnut Economics (Raworth, 2017), Systems Integrity Building Economy or Interbeing Economy (Manga, 2008), Eco-System awareness (Scharmer & Kaufer, 2013), Compassionomics (Trzeciak & Mazzarelli, 2019), Regenerative Design (Reed, 2007), Whole Health (Gaudet & Kligler, 2019), and Ecosynomics (Ritchie-Dunham, 2014). ...
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One of the clearest manifestations of a flourishing life is manifested in the positive impact one projects on society, in the sense of making other lives flourish. Cristóbal Balenciaga is a paradigm of a flourishing life in the fields of creation and education within fashion. This article explains his professional achievements from a doble perspective, artistic and entrepreneurial, and his contribution to the flourishing of clients, workers, and even the fashion of future generations. The legacy of Balenciaga show that human flourishing may be considered as the result of a creative process, for which setting goals, audacity, resilience and consistency are required. When these capacities are put into practice they transcend the improvement of the personal well being to create an expansive mechanism that generates flourishing societies.
... However, a de-emphasis on the holistic in our healthcare, economic, political, and other social systems has contributed to fundamental disconnects that simultaneously impede both human flourishing and a thriving ecosystem. This has led to proposals for more interconnected ways of seeing and redesigning the larger system to reflect principles of interbeing, using holistic frameworks such as Doughnut Economics (Raworth, 2017), Systems Integrity Building Economy or Interbeing Economy (Manga, 2008), Eco-System awareness (Scharmer & Kaufer, 2013), Compassionomics (Trzeciak & Mazzarelli, 2019), Regenerative Design (Reed, 2007), Whole Health (Gaudet & Kligler, 2019), and Ecosynomics (Ritchie-Dunham, 2014). ...
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Eudaimonic well-being builds on the writings of Aristotle and integrates contemporary theories of positive psychological functioning. The empirically operationalization is detailed, emphasizing the importance of rigorous psychometric evaluation. Scientific advances of this model of well-being are noted, showing links to sociodemographic factors, experiences in work and family life, and health outcomes. Three future directions for research are considered. The first addresses growing problems of socioeconomic inequality and their role in undermining the opportunities of disadvantaged segments of society to experience eudaimonia. These problems have now been exacerbated by the COVID-19 pandemic, which has disproportionately impacted those who were already vulnerable. The second new direction examines the role of the arts and humanities as factors that nurture eudaimonic well-being. Whether the arts can activate needed compassion and caring among the privileged is also considered. The third new direction examines the intersection of entrepreneurial studies with eudaimonic well-being. Conventional conceptions of entrepreneurial success focus on business profits; a case is made that eudaimonia, of the entrepreneur as well as his/her employees and surrounding communities, constitute further measure of success that elevate issues of virtue, morality, and ethics.
... However, a de-emphasis on the holistic in our healthcare, economic, political, and other social systems has contributed to fundamental disconnects that simultaneously impede both human flourishing and a thriving ecosystem. This has led to proposals for more interconnected ways of seeing and redesigning the larger system to reflect principles of interbeing, using holistic frameworks such as Doughnut Economics (Raworth, 2017), Systems Integrity Building Economy or Interbeing Economy (Manga, 2008), Eco-System awareness (Scharmer & Kaufer, 2013), Compassionomics (Trzeciak & Mazzarelli, 2019), Regenerative Design (Reed, 2007), Whole Health (Gaudet & Kligler, 2019), and Ecosynomics (Ritchie-Dunham, 2014). ...
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Human flourishing has been defined as a subjective and holistic sentiment related to growth, prosperity, fulfillment, and sense of life completeness. This definition may lead to think that human flourishing is unique to people living under privileged circumstances of health and well-being, whereas people with life limiting illnesses are deprived from this possibility. In this paper, we reflect on the idea of human flourishing in the context of palliative care. Although people with advanced illnesses experience in a special manner the limits of human life and vulnerability, and the final stages may inevitably imply considerable suffering, we argue that it is also possible to experience this final stage as an opportunity for personal growth, to live it in full accordance with one's beliefs and values, and to reestablish a profound connection to oneself and to others. In sum, the end of life may also be a time of human flourishing.
... However, a de-emphasis on the holistic in our healthcare, economic, political, and other social systems has contributed to fundamental disconnects that simultaneously impede both human flourishing and a thriving ecosystem. This has led to proposals for more interconnected ways of seeing and redesigning the larger system to reflect principles of interbeing, using holistic frameworks such as Doughnut Economics (Raworth, 2017), Systems Integrity Building Economy or Interbeing Economy (Manga, 2008), Eco-System awareness (Scharmer & Kaufer, 2013), Compassionomics (Trzeciak & Mazzarelli, 2019), Regenerative Design (Reed, 2007), Whole Health (Gaudet & Kligler, 2019), and Ecosynomics (Ritchie-Dunham, 2014). ...
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We tend to think of flourishing as a place we get to, where we have arrived, but often do not see that act of change itself is a core facet of what it means to flourish. Indeed, we argue that flourishing is in fact our ability to change and adapt rather than a state that we are striving for. This points to human flourishing requiring an ‘adaptive’ approach to manage change: supporting careful navigation, negotiation and trade-offs. On this basis we need to identify the barriers that get in the way of enacting these possibilities and as such organisations and institutions that seeks to facilitate behaviour change will lean on barrier identification as well identifying ways to overcome them thought educating, assisting and facilitating. Using a behaviour change framework to identify the mechanisms shaping behaviour can help to identify ways to overcome barriers and facilitate positive outcomes.
... However, a de-emphasis on the holistic in our healthcare, economic, political, and other social systems has contributed to fundamental disconnects that simultaneously impede both human flourishing and a thriving ecosystem. This has led to proposals for more interconnected ways of seeing and redesigning the larger system to reflect principles of interbeing, using holistic frameworks such as Doughnut Economics (Raworth, 2017), Systems Integrity Building Economy or Interbeing Economy (Manga, 2008), Eco-System awareness (Scharmer & Kaufer, 2013), Compassionomics (Trzeciak & Mazzarelli, 2019), Regenerative Design (Reed, 2007), Whole Health (Gaudet & Kligler, 2019), and Ecosynomics (Ritchie-Dunham, 2014). ...
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Governments should help citizens thrive, not merely survive. Doing so means alleviating stress and addressing mental illness, as well as amplifying positive experiences and emotions that allow humans to blossom and grow. But what factors support human flourishing? In this chapter, I challenge early pessimistic views of human nature as purely selfish by summarizing evidence demonstrating that humans are social and prosocial beings. Critically, I discuss how social and prosocial behavior have been repeatedly shown to promote well-being, a finding that aligns with numerous theories espousing that meaningful social connections are the essential feature to human flourishing (Ryff and Singer, Personality and Social Psychology Review 4(1):30–44, 2000). Using these insights, I suggest that institutions should revise their policies to mirror and inspire human proclivities to connect and care.
... However, a de-emphasis on the holistic in our healthcare, economic, political, and other social systems has contributed to fundamental disconnects that simultaneously impede both human flourishing and a thriving ecosystem. This has led to proposals for more interconnected ways of seeing and redesigning the larger system to reflect principles of interbeing, using holistic frameworks such as Doughnut Economics (Raworth, 2017), Systems Integrity Building Economy or Interbeing Economy (Manga, 2008), Eco-System awareness (Scharmer & Kaufer, 2013), Compassionomics (Trzeciak & Mazzarelli, 2019), Regenerative Design (Reed, 2007), Whole Health (Gaudet & Kligler, 2019), and Ecosynomics (Ritchie-Dunham, 2014). ...
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Human flourishing is a complete state of well-being, comprised of essential elements that are universally valued across cultures as ends in themselves rather than as means to ends. Understanding the ontological interconnectedness of individual and communal flourishing has important implications for health. A narrow view of health has been framed in biomedical—and frequently physical—terms as the absence of disease or impairment. But broader and more holistic understandings derived from long-standing wisdom in the humanities are increasingly being used in tandem with the allopathic approach, thereby offering a relational understanding of health that transcends a focus on physical infirmity and locates the individual in social, ecological, and spiritual contexts. This wisdom has profound implications for the organization of healthcare, including a restoration of compassion as the heart of healthcare practice, as recent iterations of lifestyle medicine and integrative medicine have demonstrated. A synthesis of interdisciplinary knowledge affirms the goal of building a wellbeing ecosystem that transcends self-centeredness and reimagines health as flourishing.
... However, a de-emphasis on the holistic in our healthcare, economic, political, and other social systems has contributed to fundamental disconnects that simultaneously impede both human flourishing and a thriving ecosystem. This has led to proposals for more interconnected ways of seeing and redesigning the larger system to reflect principles of interbeing, using holistic frameworks such as Doughnut Economics (Raworth, 2017), Systems Integrity Building Economy or Interbeing Economy (Manga, 2008), Eco-System awareness (Scharmer & Kaufer, 2013), Compassionomics (Trzeciak & Mazzarelli, 2019), Regenerative Design (Reed, 2007), Whole Health (Gaudet & Kligler, 2019), and Ecosynomics (Ritchie-Dunham, 2014). ...
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This chapter concerns how artificial agents can be used to bolster moral emotions like compassion that are linked to well-being. While technology-based interventions for well-being are plentiful, e.g., wellness apps, two critical components for flourishing in the twenty-first century are currently overlooked: (1) promoting moral emotions , e.g., gratitude, that relies on complex emotional experiences rather than simple negative or positive affect, and (2) using conversational agents , e.g., chatbots, rather than other technological interventions, e.g., mobile apps, which reframes well-being interventions as conversations . We look into gratitude and compassion as specific moral emotions that can be fostered by talking with technology rather than clicking through technology. This extends our relations of care to include artificial agents, in which we explore flourishing along with (not despite) technology in a new light.
... However, a de-emphasis on the holistic in our healthcare, economic, political, and other social systems has contributed to fundamental disconnects that simultaneously impede both human flourishing and a thriving ecosystem. This has led to proposals for more interconnected ways of seeing and redesigning the larger system to reflect principles of interbeing, using holistic frameworks such as Doughnut Economics (Raworth, 2017), Systems Integrity Building Economy or Interbeing Economy (Manga, 2008), Eco-System awareness (Scharmer & Kaufer, 2013), Compassionomics (Trzeciak & Mazzarelli, 2019), Regenerative Design (Reed, 2007), Whole Health (Gaudet & Kligler, 2019), and Ecosynomics (Ritchie-Dunham, 2014). ...
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Travel Literature can be a way of approaching eudaimonia and an interdisciplinary meeting point. When travelling, the individual is exposed to a multiple encounter experience. On the other hand, travelling is an intergenerational experience, and it will be increasingly so. From this perspective, it is possible to enrich studies by focusing on tourism and globalization, but also on relationships with technology. It is also possible, from this angle, to open new ways of developing new narratives that deepen in the encounter with oneself, with other cultures and that define new values in an ethics of human flourishing. The attempt to synthetize Travel Literature, an “elusive genre”, does not only contribute to sort out a tenuous typology, but also evidences the need to keep thinking about two fundamental dimensions of human existence; the dimension of circumstance, and the dimension of imagination.
... However, a de-emphasis on the holistic in our healthcare, economic, political, and other social systems has contributed to fundamental disconnects that simultaneously impede both human flourishing and a thriving ecosystem. This has led to proposals for more interconnected ways of seeing and redesigning the larger system to reflect principles of interbeing, using holistic frameworks such as Doughnut Economics (Raworth, 2017), Systems Integrity Building Economy or Interbeing Economy (Manga, 2008), Eco-System awareness (Scharmer & Kaufer, 2013), Compassionomics (Trzeciak & Mazzarelli, 2019), Regenerative Design (Reed, 2007), Whole Health (Gaudet & Kligler, 2019), and Ecosynomics (Ritchie-Dunham, 2014). ...
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Wellbeing and flourishing are two interconnected concepts. Usually both are studied from just one discipline. In this book we combine research from academics look to combine the evidence on how flourishing has an impact and is influenced by health, art, entrepreneurship, and work life, among other factors. These influences and impact can be categorized in three groups. First, the interconnection with the self that is how we construction the image of ourselves impacts how we interpret and perceive different stimuli or experiences, and this has an impact on our flourishing. Second, the interconnection with others impacts the relationship we build with them, and this relationship impacts our flourishing. Finally, the interconnection with the environment shows us that being aware of the impact that our behaviors and traditions the environment can foster behaviors and changes that look to promote flourishing.
... However, a de-emphasis on the holistic in our healthcare, economic, political, and other social systems has contributed to fundamental disconnects that simultaneously impede both human flourishing and a thriving ecosystem. This has led to proposals for more interconnected ways of seeing and redesigning the larger system to reflect principles of interbeing, using holistic frameworks such as Doughnut Economics (Raworth, 2017), Systems Integrity Building Economy or Interbeing Economy (Manga, 2008), Eco-System awareness (Scharmer & Kaufer, 2013), Compassionomics (Trzeciak & Mazzarelli, 2019), Regenerative Design (Reed, 2007), Whole Health (Gaudet & Kligler, 2019), and Ecosynomics (Ritchie-Dunham, 2014). ...
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To establish a “neuroscience of flourishing” one must first boil down its definition to only feature psychological concepts and then build a definition based on what the brain does. The “trait” perspective treats flourishing as a trait of the person that is reflected by forms of brain structure and/or patterns of neural functioning. The “behavioral” perspective emphasizes the brain as doing the behaviors that flourishing people do. I spend more time fleshing out the “belief” perspective, which is the brain’s representions of ‘having flourishing. In particular, the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) forms these flourishing beliefs by generating positive evaluations of life circumstances (e.g., life satisfaction), the self (e.g., self-esteem), relationships (e.g., relationship satisfaction), and goal progress (e.g., purpose). This “belief” neuroscientific perspective on flourishing is parsimonious, helps explain the overlapping yet distinct features of hedonic and eudaimonic flourishing, and forms the basis for neurologically constrained psychological models of flourishing.
... However, a de-emphasis on the holistic in our healthcare, economic, political, and other social systems has contributed to fundamental disconnects that simultaneously impede both human flourishing and a thriving ecosystem. This has led to proposals for more interconnected ways of seeing and redesigning the larger system to reflect principles of interbeing, using holistic frameworks such as Doughnut Economics (Raworth, 2017), Systems Integrity Building Economy or Interbeing Economy (Manga, 2008), Eco-System awareness (Scharmer & Kaufer, 2013), Compassionomics (Trzeciak & Mazzarelli, 2019), Regenerative Design (Reed, 2007), Whole Health (Gaudet & Kligler, 2019), and Ecosynomics (Ritchie-Dunham, 2014). ...
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The study of the good life or Eudaimonia h as been a central concern for academics and philosophers, as well as for many people, at least since Aristotelian times. This responds to the common experience that we all seek happiness. Today, we are witnessing a new paradoxical boom. The pursuit of happiness seems to permeate everything (i.e., books, media, organizations, talks), without reducing, or in some cases even increasing, the numbers of suicides, depression, and similar pathological consequences of anxiety and stress.
... Series 2, Vol 3, No 2 whether the economy (and its regulation) was 'embedded in' society, or whether society had come to be 'embedded in' the economy (and its regulation) (Earle & Ors 2017;Raworth 2018). By exploring the relevance of these questions through an economic sociology of law (ESL) lens, I took a deep dive into our ongoing use of one metaphor-'embeddedness'-and its effects. ...
... The research focus of my PhD explored how we do, talk and think about the relationships between law, economy and society. In the wake of the 2008 financial crash, questions began to emerge about whether the economy (and its regulation) was 'embedded in' society, or whether society had come to be 'embedded in' the economy (and its regulation) (Earle & Ors 2017;Raworth 2018). By exploring the relevance of these questions through an economic sociology of law (ESL) lens, I took a deep dive into our ongoing use of one metaphor-'embeddedness'-and its effects. ...
... The governments of Scotland and New Zealand are also applying "economies of well-being", and the Lancet publication [47] on food and consumption advocated for more "triple-duty" actions. This is aligned with Raworth and his "doughnut economy" [48], also consistent with the concepts of planetary boundaries [5]. ...
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As society tries to tackle climate change around the globe, communities need to reduce its impact on human health. The purpose of this review is to identify key stakeholders involved in mitigating and adapting to climate change, as well as the type and characteristics of community empowerment actions implemented so far to address the problem. Published and unpublished studies from January 2005 to March 2022 in English and Portuguese were included in this review. The search, conducted on PubMed, CINAHL, Scopus, MEDLINE, Scopus, Web of Science, SciELO, and RCAAP (Repositório Científico de Acesso Aberto de Portugal), followed a three-step search strategy. Data extraction was performed by two independent reviewers, using an extraction tool specifically designed for the review questions. Twenty-seven studies were eligible for inclusion: six used interviews as a qualitative method, three were systematic reviews, three were case study analyses, three used surveys and questionnaires as quantitative methods, two used integrative baseline reviews, and three utilized a process model design. Six studies targeted local, public and private stakeholders. Community settings were the context target of fifteen studies, whereas twelve specifically referred to urban settings. Seven types of community actions were acknowledged across the globe, characterised as hybrid interventions and referring to the leading stakeholders: local governments, non-governmental organizations, civil society, universities, public health, and private sectors.
... The phrase 'ecological infrastructure' describes the functions, processes, and interactions that produce the ES (Jónsson and Davídsdóttir, 2016). All aspects of the ecological infrastructure deserve consideration to optimize human wellbeing within planetary boundaries (Costanza et al., 2014;Raworth, 2017). In an agricultural context, the most apparent form of ES are the tangible outputs from an agroecosystem or provisioning services, such as food, fibers, energy, and pharmaceuticals (Power, 2010). ...
Article
Intensification of the food system and higher consumption of meat and dairy products has placed heavy pressure on the ecological infrastructure responsible for providing ecosystem services (ES). Agroecosystem management often focuses on yield optimization and loses sight of nature’s contribution. This paper uses a systematic literature review and the Common International Classification of Ecosystem Services (CICES) typology to characterize the peer-reviewed literature on meat and dairy production between 2012 and 2021 on ES and ecosystem disservices (EDS). Nearly 64% of the articles included in the review explored the biophysical domain, primarily through life cycle assessment or biophysical measurements. Studies from Europe and South America account for two-thirds of all articles with 47% and 20%, respectively. Nearly 47% of the ES and EDS were reported from cattle, 8% from sheep and about 20% from mixed or unspecified sources. The two animal sources that account for most global meat production, poultry and pork, were significantly underrepresented in the review. Over 50% of ES and EDS reported in the literature were regulation and maintenance services. Global warming potential was the most frequently encountered EDS and was reported twenty-five times. Conceptual ambiguity surrounding EDS posed a challenge for synthesizing the ES/EDS reported in the literature. This review demonstrates the lack of a clear link between specific animals/animal rearing activities and ecosystem services. There is a need to map the interactions between the various capital inputs, management interventions and ES/EDS of livestock activity. The results reflect a need for standardized classification of ES, definition of EDS in an agroecosystem context and integration of ES perspective with various valuation methods.
... However, a de-emphasis on the holistic in our healthcare, economic, political, and other social systems has contributed to fundamental disconnects that simultaneously impede both human flourishing and a thriving ecosystem. This has led to proposals for more interconnected ways of seeing and redesigning the larger system to reflect principles of interbeing, using holistic frameworks such as Doughnut Economics (Raworth, 2017), Systems Integrity Building Economy or Interbeing Economy (Manga, 2008), Eco-System awareness (Scharmer & Kaufer, 2013), Compassionomics (Trzeciak & Mazzarelli, 2019), Regenerative Design (Reed, 2007), Whole Health (Gaudet & Kligler, 2019), and Ecosynomics (Ritchie-Dunham, 2014). ...
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Work and family are two domains of human life that are closely interconnected. For that reason, job resources can potentially contribute to have a better non-work life domain. The purpose of this research is to study how contextual resources, such as spouse behavior at home, can foster human flourishing through spill crossover, resulting in enriched outcomes in the work and home domain. We explore how support for work received from the spouse can lead to the generation of resources such as creativity, self-efficacy and strategic renewal. This chapter contributes to the work and family literature by introducing the concept of work supportive spouse behavior (WSSB), defined as behaviors exhibited by spouses that are supportive of their partner’s role in the workplace—this concept mirrors the family supportive supervisor behavior (FSSB) that denotes behaviors by supervisors that favor their employees’ role as family members.
... However, a de-emphasis on the holistic in our healthcare, economic, political, and other social systems has contributed to fundamental disconnects that simultaneously impede both human flourishing and a thriving ecosystem. This has led to proposals for more interconnected ways of seeing and redesigning the larger system to reflect principles of interbeing, using holistic frameworks such as Doughnut Economics (Raworth, 2017), Systems Integrity Building Economy or Interbeing Economy (Manga, 2008), Eco-System awareness (Scharmer & Kaufer, 2013), Compassionomics (Trzeciak & Mazzarelli, 2019), Regenerative Design (Reed, 2007), Whole Health (Gaudet & Kligler, 2019), and Ecosynomics (Ritchie-Dunham, 2014). ...
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The great architect Antoni Gaudí i Cornet (1852–1926) is one of the shining lights of humanity on its path to social and individual perfection. Through his works, his life, and his teaching to his disciples and collaborators, we can easily describe a real form of human flourishing. Millions of people from every corner of the world are interested in the works of Gaudí and the positive impact it has on humanity. In this chapter, first we discuss human flourishing in the life and the teachings to his disciples of Gaudí, how Antoni Gaudí achieved his own flourishing; secondly, we indagate about how his art works are contributing to the flourishing of millions of human beings and, finally, we illustrate our opinions with three examples of Gaudí’s works which demonstrate to others ways to flourish themselves.
... For example, Kate Raworth's 'doughnut economics' concept references the planetary boundaries framework. 25 Raworth's doughnut is a model for a sustainable economy, in which social needs of humans are fulfilled (the 'social foundation'), while planetary boundaries are respected (the 'ecological ceiling'). Drawing these two considerations as circles, a doughnut-shaped space occurs in which the economy should unfold. ...
Article
The Rights of Nature concept not only breaks with the anthropocentrism of existing (environmental) law; it also recognizes that nature has private interests, in addition to being of public interest. That is, whereas in classic sustainability thinking, the use of certain resources is allowed as long as public interests are not systematically/systemically harmed, rights of nature facilitate the protection of nature before planetary boundaries are transgressed. This recognition of nature as having private interests enables the framing of disagreements around ‘nature’ as matters of corrective justice, which renders the application of private legal doctrines more easily conceivable and arguably even necessary. The contributions to this Symposium Collection showcase the viability of the intersection of private law and rights of nature. Firstly, it is necessary to research how existing private law will influence the effectiveness of rights of nature. Such an exercise is undertaken by Björn Hoops, who carefully assesses what rights for the German Black Forest would mean in terms of German constitutional property law. The mirror image of this approach is to explore what impact Rights of Nature will have on private law. Such an approach is taken by Alex Putzer and co-authors in their article on the transformation of land-ownership regimes after the introduction of Rights of Nature in Ecuador and Uganda. A third line of scholarship assesses the significance of Rights of Nature for private law theory: Visa Kurki proposes a new concept of legal personhood, prompting us to think through the meaning of statements like ‘a river is a legal person’.
... However, a de-emphasis on the holistic in our healthcare, economic, political, and other social systems has contributed to fundamental disconnects that simultaneously impede both human flourishing and a thriving ecosystem. This has led to proposals for more interconnected ways of seeing and redesigning the larger system to reflect principles of interbeing, using holistic frameworks such as Doughnut Economics (Raworth, 2017), Systems Integrity Building Economy or Interbeing Economy (Manga, 2008), Eco-System awareness (Scharmer & Kaufer, 2013), Compassionomics (Trzeciak & Mazzarelli, 2019), Regenerative Design (Reed, 2007), Whole Health (Gaudet & Kligler, 2019), and Ecosynomics (Ritchie-Dunham, 2014). ...
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In this chapter, we examine the association between forgiveness and flourishing. We begin by identifying what forgiveness and flourishing are. We then move to considering conceptual models as well as evidence supporting the connection between forgiveness and flourishing. An early model of the forgiveness and mental health relationship offers a beginning in this regard. Next, we examine the stress-and-coping models of forgiveness of oneself and others. The final model is the scaffolding self and social systems model of forgiveness and subjective well-being. These models offer multiple vantage points from which to consider the forgiveness-flourishing connection. Limitations to these models and to the current state of knowledge on forgiveness and flourishing are highlighted, especially the limits to comprehensive assessment of flourishing in the extant literature. Conclusions and future directions for studying and promoting flourishing in people of different religious affiliation, cultures, countries, and life-circumstances are discussed in closing.
... However, a de-emphasis on the holistic in our healthcare, economic, political, and other social systems has contributed to fundamental disconnects that simultaneously impede both human flourishing and a thriving ecosystem. This has led to proposals for more interconnected ways of seeing and redesigning the larger system to reflect principles of interbeing, using holistic frameworks such as Doughnut Economics (Raworth, 2017), Systems Integrity Building Economy or Interbeing Economy (Manga, 2008), Eco-System awareness (Scharmer & Kaufer, 2013), Compassionomics (Trzeciak & Mazzarelli, 2019), Regenerative Design (Reed, 2007), Whole Health (Gaudet & Kligler, 2019), and Ecosynomics (Ritchie-Dunham, 2014). ...
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This open access book presents a novel multidisciplinary perspective on the importance of human flourishing. The study of the good life or Eudaimonia has been a central concern at least since Aristotelian times. This responds to the common experience that we all seek happiness. Today, we are immersed in a new paradoxical boom, where the pursuit of happiness seems to permeate everything (books, media, organizations, talks), but at the same time, it is nowhere, or at least very difficult to achieve. In fact, it is not easy to even find a consensus regarding the meaning of the word happiness. Seligman (2011), one of the fathers of the positive psychology, confirmed that his original view the meaning he referred to was close to that of Aristotle. But, he recently confessed that he now detests the word happiness, since it is overused and has become almost meaningless.The aim of this open access book is to shed new light on human flourishing through the lenses of neurosciences and health, organizations, and arts. The novelty of this book is to offer a multi-disciplinary perspective on the importance of human flourishing in our lives. The book will examine further how different initiatives, policies and practices create opportunities for generating human flourishing.
... This study addresses the possibility of integrated governance and nexus thinking by defining interrelationships using doughnut economics (DE) indicators. This model aims to conceive and rethink the economy within two boundaries: a social foundation and an ecological ceiling, showing in a single graphic the scarcities and overshoots of a city, a region, a country, or the planet itself [8,9]. ...
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Doughnut economics (DE) is an economic model that expresses the social and ecological dimensions of nexus designed by Dr. Kate Raworth in 2012. The concept, which is based on the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), intends to rethink our economy for the twenty-first century to meet social demands within a safe environmental ceiling. The DE model’s parameters are achieved only through interconnections, but these links are not well-defined for integrated strategic decision-making. A deeper description of Nevada illustrates the relevance of a cross-disciplinary decision-making tool that could identify interconnectivity among diverse but essential sustainability indicators. The state surpasses the planet’s water demand boundaries, greenhouse gases emitted by nonrenewable energy sources, and chemical pollution; meanwhile, the state is falling short in food security, housing, gender equality, social equity, political voice, safety, and justice. The research brings a circular economic model to an American state-level context and introduces the model to dynamic thinking.
... inadequate food, water, housing, etc. Her later publication (Raworth, 2017a) presents an accessible, logical case for a paradigm shift in economics for the 21st century and provides seven ways to consider the need and potential of its application. These include moving from a GDP-dominated goal to a doughnut-shaped economic goal, which has the following attributes: an embedded economy c ; social, adaptable humans; the recognition of the dynamic complexity of systems; distributive income by design; income equity achieved by regenerative design d ; and becoming an economy agnostic about growth. ...
... However, a de-emphasis on the holistic in our healthcare, economic, political, and other social systems has contributed to fundamental disconnects that simultaneously impede both human flourishing and a thriving ecosystem. This has led to proposals for more interconnected ways of seeing and redesigning the larger system to reflect principles of interbeing, using holistic frameworks such as Doughnut Economics (Raworth, 2017), Systems Integrity Building Economy or Interbeing Economy (Manga, 2008), Eco-System awareness (Scharmer & Kaufer, 2013), Compassionomics (Trzeciak & Mazzarelli, 2019), Regenerative Design (Reed, 2007), Whole Health (Gaudet & Kligler, 2019), and Ecosynomics (Ritchie-Dunham, 2014). ...
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This chapter attempts to connect fatherhood involvement with human flourishing. We begin by presenting to the reader the reasons why fatherhood involvement matters. We then review fatherhood as a transformative event, together with the barriers that may limit the transformational aspect of fatherhood. Next, we review the concept of generativity, and a new definition of paternal generativity is also provided. Then, we present a model that connects fatherhood to human flourishing, partially explained by the role of paternal generativity and relational flourishing. Finally, the chapter ends with implications for researchers, organizations, and governments.
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Recent research shows the importance of purchasing local products for development the local and national economy. In developing countries, consumption of domestic products is a rapidly growing trend as it contributes to the development of brands and images of local companies. Faced with a foreign product preference in Vietnam, the Vietnamese government has organized a campaign entitled “Vietnamese people prioritizing Vietnamese products” in which local companies are encouraged to enhance their product quality, and consumers are encouraged to buy locally manufactured products. This study seeks to investigate how the Vietnamese government has shaped consumer behavior for domestic goods by framing public interest in the campaign. An analysis of 274 news articles in popular newspapers showed four main frames: campaign’s policy framing (CP), benefit of using Vietnamese goods (VG), advanced role models (RM), and criticizing foreign product preference (CF). A survey with 526 Vietnamese consumers indicated that four frames significantly predicted consumer attitudes. Results of the linear regression model were significant, the R-squared ( R ² ) value was .25, indicating that approximately 25% of the variance in LP was explained by CP, VG, CF, and RM. RM, VG, and CP significantly predicted LP, but CF did not significantly predict LP. The findings suggest that further studies test the framing theory by using media coverage as a secondary source.
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The world is changing, so are the demands on the Design industry, from businesses, and society as a whole. Design fundamentally is about change as it responds to the external environment to identify opportunities to create new design activities and outcomes. Consequently, design (in theory and practice) tends to elevate its role as a catalyst for change, influencing strategic decisions, producing clear visions, shared beliefs, and values, and the models, methods, and tools to innovate with an emphasis on a systemic, whole-system interpretation of sustainable development. Why is it that Design professionals and Design academics don't exchange their knowledge for the common good? In this paper, therefore, a central objective is to build an argument for why the value of Design in business, and its economics thinking and approach in management, need a common purpose system view to tackle this century's technological, ethical, social, and ecological challenges. In the end, Design is seen as complex, while designers advocate for specific capabilities to innovate by making things simple and better. To achieve a common ground, we refer to Donella Meadows’ definition of a system and to the literature on the Design industry. We use her model to draw a simple form that brings together all parts of design activity, practice, or theory in order to develop a collective vision and help the understanding of the Design industry's purpose, ethics, and responsibility for a life-centred future.KeywordsDesign industryDoughnut economicsSystems theoryDesign valueDesign in businessStrategic design
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In this era of climatic change design needs new tools, frames and approaches to guide the design process for holistic transformations towards sustainability. This requires changes to three intertwined and interdependent dimensions of society, economy and natural environments. Where change to business and economic models is critical to achieve radical change to achieve sustainability. Terms rising in attention among scholars, business and states to address these issues are sustainability, sustainable development and circular economy. Yet while these terms are of increasing global interest there remains a gap in their relationship and specifically the contribution the Circular economy makes to sustainable development. This paper addresses this gap and demonstrates through a synthesized hybrid model, the contribution of the circular economy to sustainable development, the natural environment and the critical need for change of business and economic models to realize and reduce impacts for climatic change. This paper acts as a first step to develop a new frame for a design process for holistic transformation towards sustainability and in the context of a Circular economy.KeywordsTransformationCircular-economySustainabilityHybrid-modelDesign-approachValue-creation
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New policies for Europe aim to build and support health and wellbeing. For such policies to work, understanding the mechanisms of how actual implementation and transformation can take place is essential. In this article, the authors highlight the important role of social movements, community action, and NGOs as the cornerstone of successful change. The article argues that general policies must remember to act as a fertilizer for local action and agency, it points to five key policy areas to include, and argues that the social movements have to be respected as the cornerstone for transformation if we are to build back better and fairer.
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The European Foundation for Management Development (EFMD) is the largest international accreditation body for business schools, with more than 950 members across 92 countries, including the world's highest-ranked schools. A not-for-profit, mission-led institution, the EFMD plays a central role in shaping a global approach to management education, emphasizing the development of socially responsible leaders. As part of EFMD's fiftieth anniversary celebrations, its President, Professor Eric Cornuel, has edited this volume, featuring contributions from leaders in management education, including the presidents and deans of the top business schools from across the world. Each contribution will address the challenges and dilemmas facing business schools today, with respect to four key themes: the 'higher purpose' of business schools; the social impact of business schools; the internationalization of business schools; and crisis management within business schools, with a special focus on the impact of COVID-19. This volume is also available via Open Access.
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The need to engage students in thinking about the politics of law, especially in a time of escalating climate and other crises, is increasingly urgent. In this paper, we discuss a series of place-based teaching strategies designed to foster critical legal thinking, but also hope and a sense of agency. Inspired by a range of scholars – Bruno Latour, Doreen Massey, Henry Giroux and J.K. Gibson-Graham – we use context in an effort to cultivate what Giroux calls ‘educated hope’. Our starting point is what the law does (and also what law does not do and what it could do), not what the law is. Instead of taking a field of law and then using examples to illustrate how it works in context, we discuss three courses that start with the context of a particular place. Our courses cover a range of laws that work together to shape that place, spanning multiple fields, and emphasise their peopled and place-based specificity. After discussing teaching and assessment strategies that we have found productive, we reflect on implications beyond our courses, and the potential for broader place-based legal pedagogies.
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The mainstream economics stance focusing on how to allocate government resources to enhance wellbeing and alleviate poor mental health is fundamentally and inherently misguided because it is underpinned by the discipline’s staunch assumptions that the most effective best way to model the economy is to assume that people are autonomous self-interested individuals. This mathematically motivated, peer-driven approach generates clear, simple, and highly respected numerical results which are needed in a world that prioritises evidence-based decision making. Unfortunately for the modellers, our world is not full of autonomous self-interested individuals but socialised other-regarding individuals. The powerful economic discipline’s key modelling assumptions reflect a poor understanding of the networked socio-spatial fabric of society that is central to the social model of ill-health. After delving into the structural limitations of mainstream economics, we call for a seismic shift in thinking in the economics profession so that it more effectively embraces social networks, sociological, and spatial factors. Doing so would enable a more appropriate allocation of resources that could more effectively transform the social system.
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The Cambridge Companion to International Organizations Law illuminates, from a legal perspective, what international organizations are, what makes them 'tick' and how they affect the world around them. It critically discusses such classic issues as the concept of international organization and membership, as well as questions of internal relations, accountability and how they make law, set standards and otherwise affect both their member states and the world around them. The volume further discusses the role of international organizations in particular policy domains, zooming in on domains which are not often discussed through international organizations, including disarmament, energy, food security and health. Eventually, a picture emerges of international organizations as complex phenomena engaging in all sorts of activities and relationships, the operation and authority of which is underpinned by the rules and regulations of international law.
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TheTransition chapter expands the discussion of the realisation of sustainabilitySustainability. The first part addresses barriersBarriers to sustainable developmentSustainable development that are innate in our current societies, covering politicalPolitical, economicEconomic, technological as well as cultural aspects. The second part discusses the barriersBarriers that emerged from the caseCases studies in the previous chapter. Some are clearly defined and visible Others are subtle, indirect, and complex. An observation from my research was that the closer I examined the sustainabilitySustainability construct in the context of the existing societal framework the more I uncovered barriersBarriers against its realisation. The barriersBarriers appear to be as interlinked and as interdependent as the sustainabilitySustainability construct itself. Some are broad, difficult obstacles, and some are practical and basic, easy to understand and address. The difficulty closing the gap between theory and the practical application does not seem to be due to a lack of scientific research or technological inventions and know-how, but due to the magnitude and amount of resistance, found everywhere in our society. Some of the barriersBarriers are universal and encompass aspects of our cultural and traditional make-up. Some are specific, such as those experienced and recorded in the caseCases stories. The chapter discusses each group of barriersBarriers as well as views on overcoming them.
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This chapter highlights the challenging processProcesses of creating a state of global sustainabilitySustainability. It outlines the potential frameworks and factors needed and draws a trajectory for the future based on the sum of the diverse parts. In doing so, the chapter summarizes the key ingredients in the challenge to achieving sustainabilitySustainability and concludes with final reflections on its realisability. Questions relating to barriersBarriers and processesProcesses are addressed from the perspectives of the current state of sustainable developmentSustainable development. Utopian theories and historical examples, as well as the practical experiences from the three casesCases are addressed. New influences are added, including recent global events and calls for action, and the impacts of the COVID-19Covid-19pandemic, the IPCCIntergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) 6th AssessmentAssessment Report from 2021/2022 as well as the agreements made at COPConference of Parties (COP) 26. The aspect of inner sustainabilitySustainability comprising the emotional, psychological, and spiritual dimensions, is examined as it plays a key role in the changeChange of direction, as well as in building resilience to meet the new challenges as they arise.
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Our global demand for resources currently exceeds the Earth’s carrying capacity (ECC), defined as the limit of anthropogenic pressure that our ecosystem can withstand within its regenerative and assimilative capacities. Representing a significant share of global environmental degradation, cities are seen as having the potential to catalyze a transition to a truly sustainable state in compliance with ECC. However, in order to do so, urban decision-makers must rely on robust measurement tools representing the complex dynamics or urban systems to guide their actions. This paper asks what tools exist to bridge this gap between theory and practice, what role urban planners are now giving to the ECC, and what the sustainability status of high-income reductionleading cities is in relation to the ECC. Ten assessment frameworks and four sustainability indicators were identified as compatible with the One Planet goal and adapted to measure key urban flows. Sustainability is primarily considered through the lens of climate at the urban scale, and existing assessment standards lack comprehensibility, leading to an overall underestimation of cities’ total environmental footprint. To select and analyze the leading cities in impact reduction, we used the following criteria : achievement of an absolute GHG emission reduction greater than 15 % over the period 1990-2020, and intentionality/commitment to sustainability through active membership in specific environmental knowledge transfer groups. Twenty-four cities were identified whose GHG reductions since 1990 range from 24-49 %, which is between 2-4 times lower than what is required by high-income cities by 2050 to reach the goal of living within ECC. To achieve a "one-planet life", cities must address their overconsumption using systemic tools that incorporate the notion of ECC and consider indirect emissions related to urban consumption. Various obstacles to this approach have been identified, of a practical, economic, cultural and geopolitical nature, and must be taken into account in order to promote the wider use of ECC as the ultimate goal of sustainability. Achieving a global state that respects ECC is everyone’s concern. Hence, the establishment of specific reduction targets, based on collaboration and effort-sharing approaches, must be promoted to ensure an environmentally efficient and socially just transition.
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This chapter focuses on four root causes that could be the most important causes that are rarely addressed by governments, industries, and many environmental professionals who continue to accept the ideology that technological innovation will allow endless economic growth on a finite planet. The four root causes are: limits of human evolutionary strengths and our psychological biases; human population; anthropocentrism; and the myth that technological innovation allows endless growth in consumption of materials, energy, and land on a finite planet. There are other root causes, but unless we address these root causes, we are unlikely to make progress on addressing the global environmental crises we have created. KeywordsAnthropocentrismCognitive biasesPopulationEvolutionConsumptionEconomic growthTechnology limitations
Article
Territorial cohesion is a formal EU policy goal since 2010, when it was placed in the Lisbon Treaty, alongside the long-term EU goals of economic and social cohesion. Understandably, by itself, a policy goal is irrelevant if it cannot be assessed. In this light, this article discusses potential methodological approaches to measure territorial cohesion trends in a given territory, their advantages and limitations, based on existing literature. It uses European NUTS 2 and the Portuguese and Polish NUTS 3 as concrete case studies to assess territorial cohesion trends from 2005 to 2020 via a Territorial Cohesion Index. As such, it presents an updated and unique picture on the territorial cohesion trends in Europe and in two specific EU member states, based on available data. It concludes that measuring territorial cohesion trends is challenging mainly due to lack of available data in certain key dimensions of territorial cohesion, but it is possible and needed.
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A 20 year journey of Strengthening Local Health Systems in India
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217] EXTRACTIVISMO Y DESACOPLAMIENTO AMBIENTAL: EVIDENCIAS PARA COLOMBIA DESDE EL METABOLISMO SOCIAL 19702019 mario pérez rincón y juliana sarmiento castillo introducción Frente a la crisis ambiental global, el concepto de desarrollo sos-tenible del Informe Brundtland (1987) se ha convertido en la noción rectora para la gobernanza ambiental internacional. 1 Este concepto conquista en poco más de 30 años de existencia un espacio sociolingüístico sin precedentes y logra gran apoyo político a nivel general. Después de las críticas al crecimiento económico que surgieron a principios de los años setenta en el documento del Club de Roma "Límites al crecimiento" (1972), en la Conferencia de las Naciones Unidas sobre el Medio Humano en Estocolmo (1972) y en la Declaración de Cocoyoc (1974), 2 el informe recuperó al crecimiento económico como el hecho que cura todos los males; de esta manera, se convirtió en la varita mágica que brinda solución a los problemas sociales y ambientales. A partir de allí, todos los informes sobre sostenibilidad y las declaraciones de las cumbres de la Tierra alegan que no existe conflicto entre crecimiento, justicia social y protección ambien-tal. Por otro lado, la hipótesis de la curva ambiental de Kuznets (CAK) permite apoyar las "políticas expansivas de crecimiento, 1 wced (World Commission on Environment and Development), Our Common Future, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 1987.
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‘Sustainability’ (German: Nachhaltigkeit) can be understood as a concept for the use of resources, in which a lasting satisfaction of needs for future generations can be ensured by preserving the natural regenerative capacity of the systems involved (including living beings and ecosystems) (World Ocean Review, World Ocean Review 4(1), 2015). Etymologically, the term ‘sustainability’ is derived from the Latin sustinere (tenere, to hold; sub, under), meaning in terms of sustain ‘to maintain’, ‘to support’, ‘to uphold’ or ‘to endure’ (Online Etymology Dictionary, Sustain. https://www.etymonline.com/word/sustain, n.d.). This means that the systems involved can ‘permanently withstand’ a certain level of resource use without suffering damage. Historically, the concept goes back to the Saxon tax accountant and mining administrator Hans Carl von Carlowitz (1645–1714), who wrote the first comprehensive treatise about forestry and is considered to be the father of sustainable yield forestry. The concept involved the basic idea of using natural resources such as forests mindfully, so that the supply never runs out (Environment & Society Portal, Hans Carl von Carlowitz and “sustainability”, n.d.; World Ocean Review, World Ocean Review 4(1), 2015). In 1972, the term was used in the Club of Rome report ‘The Limits to Growth’ in the broader sense of a ‘state of global equilibrium’ and thus achieved international attention (Meadows et al., The limits to growth – a report for the club of Rome’s project on the predicament of mankind. Universe Books, 1972).
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