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Silent spring

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"An important, controversial account ... of the way in which man's use of poisons to control insect pests and unwanted vegetation is changing the balance of nature." Booklist.
... Integrated Pest Management (IPM) concepts were just emerging. Rachel Carson's Silent Spring (12), had appeared 8 years earlier. It would be 2 more years before Jim Hightower's Hard Tomatoes Hard Times (27) would be pub lished, and Norman Borlaug had just re ceived the Nobel Peace Prize. ...
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We are now in the foothills of the 21st century. As we ascend to the summit, mountainous issues and challenges confront us as to new directions in horticultural research and education. As we look to the future (3, 40, 68), the issues and challenges are both domestic and international. I shall direct my comments first, to the immediate past and present situation; 2nd, lost opportunities and areas of neglect; 3rd, where to from here: options, opportunities, and challenges; and finally, my conclusions.
... De certa maneira, o debate em torno do ambiental foi ignorado durante muito tempo em parte por conta desse tipo de análise conjuntural.A politização da questão ambiental acompanha dessa forma todo um conjunto de mudanças estruturais das sociedades desses países. Além da publicação dos resultados das pesquisas de RachelCarson (CARSON, 1962), quando temos o exemplo pioneiro de desastre ecológico e ambiental, nos anos que se seguem fica claro tanto para os movimentos políticos atuando no espaço público em restrição, quanto para os cientistas que acompanham os fenômenos sociais em curso, que a questão ambiental é temática fundamental para se compreender os processos , tanto na esfera de poder, assim como na econômica e na cultural. ...
... D'après Larrère (2015) 19 , son célèbre ouvrage « A sand County Almanac », en particulier son chapitre sur l'éthique de l'environnement, a largement influencé le mouvement environnementaliste et écologiste de la seconde moitié du XXème siècle, notamment John Baird Callicott, initiateur de l'éthique environnementale aux États-Unis. En 1962, la biologiste américaine Rachel Carson va elle aussi publier un ouvrage fondateur pour l'écologie moderne : « Silent Spring » (Carson, 1962). Traitant des dangers des pesticides sur la faune, cet essai (publié dans un premier temps au sein du New York Times) eut une large répercussion sur la société civile américaine 20 . ...
Thesis
Cette thèse a pour intention d’étudier la mise en application de la ville durable dans la conception et la réalisation de projets urbains, dans le contexte professionnel des praticiens en agences d’architecture, d’urbanisme, et de paysage. Cette recherche, relevant des champs disciplinaires de l’urbanisme et de l’aménagement du territoire, s’inscrit dans un contexte à la fois professionnel et universitaire. À travers la collaboration CIFRE (Convention Industrielle de Formation par la Recherche) entre l’agence d’architecture, d’urbanisme et de paysage AKTIS (Grenoble), et l’unité de recherche Architecture Environnement & Cultures Constructives (LabEx AE&CC - ENSA Grenoble), ce travail se définit comme une recherche appliquée sur la thématique de la ville durable. Cette situation sous-entend nécessairement une posture méthodologique particulière de la part du doctorant, dans un besoin d’objectivité des recherches.Au regard de l’orientation thématique adoptée dans cette thèse, il est question d’étudier et de préciser le contexte actuel concernant la fabrique de la ville durable : le cadre normatif, incitatif, et méthodologique existant ; les thématiques transversales abordées dans la conception de projets urbains ; les systèmes d’acteurs à l’œuvre dans ce type de projets ; les pratiques quotidiennes en Agences d’Architecture, d’Urbanisme et de Paysage, etc. Ces orientations de réflexion feront l’objet d’une étude comparative autour des projets urbains « durables » de trois métropoles françaises (Grenoble, Bordeaux, Lyon), dans le but de faire ressortir de ces éléments de différenciation, des pistes d’innovations. L’enjeu central est ainsi d’observer quelles sont les potentialités de mise en œuvre opérationnelle de la ville durable dans les pratiques de la maîtrise d’œuvre urbaine. En ce sens, cette thèse interroge les prolongements à donner dans les pratiques actuelles des AAUP au regard d’un constat critique comparatif entre Grenoble, Bordeaux et Lyon. Loin d’être une énième re-conceptualisation de la ville durable, ce travail de recherche considère le cadre existant dans la maîtrise d’œuvre comme un des éléments centraux à étudier : normes, certifications, évaluations, indicateurs, démarches, procédures sont autant de termes que l’on retrouve fréquemment dans les projets urbains. Entre la réglementation, la normalisation, et l’évaluation, il s’agira d’observer les dynamiques qui régissent aujourd’hui le pré-carré opérationnel et institutionnel de la ville durable. En considérant l’hypothèse d’une approche intégrée de l’urbanisme, et de la fabrique de la ville durable, comme un savant compromis entre qualité environnementale des opérations (eau, air, pollution, déchets, consommation énergétique, biodiversité, etc.), économie de projet, approche sociale par l’usage et réponse aux besoins sociétaux actuels et futurs, cette thèse questionne les lacunes théoriques sur la fabrique de la ville durable. En partant du postulat qu’une approche trop techniciste et sectorielle de la fabrique de la ville durable est en œuvre aujourd’hui, elle sonde les prolongements et améliorations possibles dans les pratiques des AAUP en France.
... Taking a look at the concept's historical emergence, it becomes apparent that the discussion about alternative economic growth models started nearly 60 years ago with the concern about a 'silent spring' [16], referring to the general conditions of the global environment. The book leads to the 1972 United Nations Conference on the Human Environment in Stockholm and the Club of Rome report in the same year. ...
Chapter
In response to the intensifying need to mitigate climate change and reduce the pressures on the earth’s natural resources, alternative economic (post growth) concepts begin to outstrip their role as niche concepts and are now frequently hypothesized to provide inevitable contributions to solving today’s sustainability challenges. Almost half a decade ago, Meadows et al. (The limits to growth. Universe Books, New York, 1972 [51]) instigated the discussion about “the limits to growth”, an idea which was later supported by the Brundtland Commission’s (World Commission on Environment and Development (WCED) in Our common future. Oxford University Press, Oxford, New York, 1987 [94]) call for new growth models. More recently, authors such as Stiglitz et al. (Report by the commission on the measurement of economic performance and social progress. Paris, 2009 [74]; Mismeasuring our lives: why GDP doesn’t add up. New Press, New York, 2010 [73]) or Tim Jackson have demanded a complete redefinition of prosperity with the objective to decouple human welfare from the material impact on the environment (Jackson in Prosperity without growth. Earthscan, London, 2009 [37]). This discussion about new models of prosperity often finds itself under the label of the “green economy” or the “food–energy–water nexus” (FEW nexus) addressing the core sectors of this transformation process. In the developed model, these new ideas are integrated in an intertemporal dynamic multinational general equilibrium model (GE model). The GE model consists of four countries (A, B, C, D) with three economic sectors (FEW, households, industry) each. We discuss the economic effects of our GE model approach in four growth scenarios for the four countries: Country A follows a zero-growth scenario, countries B and C grow by moderate rates of 1.2% and 1.9%, respectively, and country D is on a de-growth pathway (−1.3%). This model approach reveals the possible socio-economic consequences and alterations of various growth models for the FEW nexus sector, as well as the other economic sectors of the four countries.
... The first literature references addressing sustainability concept can be traced as early as in 1713 regarding the sustainability of forests in terms of logging regrown timber alone to retain soil fertility. The environmental issue was first mentioned in the chemical book Silent Spring authored by Carson (Carson, 1962cited in: Lees, 2012. Nowadays Sustainable Development defined as "meeting the needs of the present generation without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs" (World Commission on Environment and Development, 1987, p. 49) is based on the triple bottom line (TBL) framework authored by Elkington (1997). ...
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The issue of project management methodologies has never be undertaken by academics in the context of their contribution to sustainability. There is the lack of understanding which Agile Project Management (APM) results and Agile value crea- tion methods are in line with the assumptions of sustainability. The article fills this gap and presents the linkage between Agile project management and sustainability. The article presents both theoretical considerations as well as the results of empirical research that explains the relationship between APM and sustainability. As a result of multiple surveys, Guttman scales were developed, which showed the degree of Agile aspects' influence on sustainability, taking into account both the results of Agile implementation and the methods of value creation. Research revealed that improving the timeliness of deliveries, increase in productivity and improving the atmosphere in the organization as APM result is significant for sustainability. Value creation methods that most correspond with sustainability are design thinking and Agile rituals. The above provide certain practical and theoretical implications.
... In 2020, spraying chemical insecticides was still the major strategy for attempts to control upsurges of locusts and grasshoppers, also referred to as acridids, which are major pests of agriculture and pasture and a threat to livelihoods. Ever since Rachel Carson's (1962) "Silent Spring", scientists have warned about the adverse effects of chemical control of pests on their natural predators including birds, mammals, reptiles, insects and spiders. Acridid control has meanwhile been documented to lead to secondary outbreaks, either within the same ( or the next year (Lockwood et al. 1988). ...
Thesis
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Before the large-scale introduction of chemical insecticides after the Second World War (WW2), birds were considered worldwide as welcome natural allies to control acridids. For their role in acridid control they were worshipped in ancient times and in the first half of the 20th century protected in many countries worldwide. Until WW2, mechanical control e.g. by harvesting grasshoppers with ingenious dozers or digging trenches to interrupt marching hopper bands were chemically supplemented by massive use of arsenicals. The large scale introduction of Dieldrin in locust control around 1955 marked a turning point, as for the first time a persistent chemical became available to treat hopper bands which provided toxic residues killing hoppers emerging afterwards. The high toxicity for man and wildlife and the persistence of Dieldrin lead to a worldwide ban twenty years later, but in locust control it took until 1989 before its use eventually was discontinued. Meanwhile, organophosphorous insecticides had dominated the acridid arena since WW2 with varying contributions of carbamates, pyrethroids and some other chemical families. The interest in birds as natural allies had faded because of a widely held believe that the insecticides did a better job. In addition, the impact on birds of their widespread and large-scale use in Africa had neither been studied, nor assessed for its potential consequences for acridid control. It was against this background that the studies described in this thesis were undertaken to compare the efficacy on acridids and the impact on birds of non-selective chemical and selective biological insecticides, to contribute to efficient locust and grasshopper management with the lowest environmental footprint. Two oganophosphorous insecticides, fenitrothion and chlorpyrifos, both commonly used in acridid control until the present day and the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium acridum were studied. Both organophoshates caused direct avian mortality (2-7%) and morbidity through anti-cholinesterase poisoning. They also reduced the availability of arthropod prey leading to reductions in bird densities, reduced body mass, nest desertion and debilitation of fledglings. Acridid numbers returned to pre-spray densities by 21 days post-spray but bird numbers remained 25-50% lower than controls. By using a novel approach, mimicking bird feeding behaviour by using fine tweezers to pick up affected locust nymphs, it was shown that nymphs accumulated residues by secondary uptake generally peaking from 3 h to 24 h post-spray. This would have been missed by the current approach of using pitfall traps, sweep nets or tethered insects which are unlikely to represent realistic residue levels. Therefore current regulatory frameworks likely underestimate risks of acridid control, and do neither take into account gorge feeding and depletion of insect prey by the use of non-selective chemical insecticides. M. acridum had a comparable but delayed impact on acridids which, however, lasted longer than that of the chemical insecticides studied. Where the chemical insecticides reduced acridid numbers within hours to days, the biological product took 7 to 12 days to reduce acridid numbers to the same extent. However, it did not impact bird densities but rather their numbers increased and extended the impact of M.acridum on acridids with several months. Birds preferred medium and large sized grasshoppers and female Desert Locusts. The latter were taken three times more than males by kestrels which were studied. No direct or indirect adverse side-effects were observed on non-target organisms including invertebrate and vertebrate locust predators such as ants, reptiles and birds. These substantial ecological advantages should also be considered when choosing between conventional chemical and biopesticide-based locust control. More than 30 years since the development of M. acridum as a selective fungal insecticide for grasshoppers and locusts had started, potential users in Africa still prefer chemical insecticides as is shown by the ongoing outbreaks in the Greater Horn of Africa and beyond. This is partially due to misconceptions about its real costs by not taking into account the externalities associated with chemical insecticides and more importantly by a lack of scouting and early intervention in adjacent countries, during which locust swarms can build up, and a lack of planning to include the lag phase which is inherent to any bioinsecticide. This thesis explains how depending on the different stages of acridid development, birds can play an important role in acridid control and under several conditions even could prevent grasshoppers from reaching Economic Thresholds or Desert Locusts from forming swarms, by combining natural predation with the use of M. acridum. The use of chemical insecticides can be reduced much further to narrow the window of application than currently is the case. The research presented in this thesis also outlines why fenitrothion and chlorpyrifos should be considered for removal from FAO's Pesticide Referee Group assessments because of their negative effects on natural predators of acridids. In all scenarios there is a strong need for habitat restoration and grazing management as these factors would reduce opportunities for acridid development and increase bird numbers which have severely decreased over the past 50 years. The increasing place of biological locust and grasshopper control in China, both by using biopesticides and by attracting acridivorous birds by improving breeding conditions, is a good example of how to change the chemical oriented views prevailing up to the present in Desert Locust and Senegalese Grasshopper control. If this more comprehensive approach that will include the ecosystem services provided by avian allies will not be prepared in time and the necessary measures not executed, the next major upsurge will again trigger panic reactions resulting in massive use of chemical insecticides and potentially famine.
... Ainda nestas décadas, Arne Naess (1972, citado em Mascarenhas, 2013 defendeu uma visão ecossistémica e ecosófica (Mascarenhas, 2013, pp. 65-88), propondo uma ecologia profunda como alternativa de aproximação mais espiritual à natureza, exemplificada nos escritos de Aldo Leopold (1949) sobre a ética igualitária do ecossistema e a consciência ecológica de Rachel Carson (1962) segundo Mascarenhas (2013). De facto, esta aproximação faz-se por uma abertura mais fina a nós próprios e à vida não-humana que nos rodeia. ...
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Torna-se urgente “uma recomposição das práticas sociais e individuais (…) segundo três rubricas complementares – a ecologia social, a ecologia mental e a ecologia ambiental – sob a égide éticoestética de uma ecosofia” (Guattari, 1990, p. 23). Foi esta “urgência” que nos levou a organizar este livro. A necessidade foi a de reunir, para propagar e ecoar, um conjunto de fundamentos para uma ecologia político-social, que responda às problemáticas levantadas pelos diversos movimentos (feministas, urbanistas, LGBT, ecologistas, neo-anarquistas, artivistas, netativistas, entre outros); um conjunto de fundamentos para uma ecologia mental e psico-corporal, tendo em conta a necessidade de alertar para as novas formas de individuar, para novas subjetividades e para novos modos de responder aos diversos desafios da atual contingência; e um conjunto de fundamentos para uma ecologia sócio-ambiental, que se centre mais na relação com ecossistemas não antropocêntricos constituídos por minerais, vegetais e animais (agro-ecologia, permacultura, eco-aldeias, políticas florestais, agricultura biológica, agricultura de proximidade, horticultura terapêutica, entre outros). Os textos aqui reunidos vão neste sentido, apelando a um “eu sou tu” mais próximo de uma experiência verdadeiramente ecológica.
... Hy was ook besorg oor kubernetiese projeksies van navorsers aan die Massachusetts Instituut vir Tegnologie (MIT) (Revkin 2011) oor versnelde ontwikkeling en die onvolhoubare groei van die wêreldbevolking (Meadows et al. 1972 studies en interdissiplinêre navorsing gedoen (Baratta 2016:301-324). Gerekende omgewingsaktiviste, soos Rachel Carson (1907Carson ( -1964 (Carson 1962), Murray Bookchin (1921-2006 (White 2008:3-6) en Stuart Brand (1938) (Kendall 2012:65-71), het omgewingsbewustheid bevorder. Die tydsgees van die 1960's is gekenmerk deur sterk sosiaal-ideologiese denke, soos vroue-en menseregte asook steun vir nieu-marxisme in oorwegend kapitalistiese Westerse state. ...
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"Anthropocene" has been trending in environmental circles since the onset of the new millennium. It first caught public attention when scientists used it to describe the human impact on Earth's biosphere. Soon, also a lively discussion started amongst environmentalists perturbed by the destruction of earth's biosphere, because of human induced climate change. In the field of environmental and earth sciences there followed a strong initiative for a new geological epoch called the "Anthropocene". It implied that the current scientific stratigraphic dating system of the Earth requires revision. Humankind is said to have disrupted the global support system of life on planet Earth to the extent that we are heading for an imminent disaster. Resource scarcity, environmental destruction and climate change are considered as the symptoms of these human activities. In the early phase of the emergent public discourse the pronounced human ecological footprint was said to have started with the onset of the eighteenth century's British Industrial Revolution. By the early 2000s scientists, activists and politicians warned we were heading towards an imminent crisis. The large-scale extermination of many living organisms was said to have pointed directly to human resource over-consumption. Humankind has now left a profound imprint on geological processes that previously were shaped only by nature. Geologists have not yet reached consensus on an "Anthropocene epoch". One group views climate change as a natural process. Working in strictly demarcated parameters of so-called "golden spikes" registering in sophisticated geoscientific classification hierarchies, many are critical of collaboration with non-geological scientists. They insist that traces of the "human footprint" in most parts of the planet, do qualify as indicators of a new geological epoch. Several geoscientists have come out in support of the idea of an Anthropocene epoch. An outstanding feature of their approach to geoscience has been to integrate the field into comprehensive interdisciplinary study groups focusing on the effects of human activities on earth. Geological sciences, they insist, should now focus more on the present. The focus of working on the past - primarily on Earth's history "before humankind" - should shift to the present and the imminent future. In 2018, the International Commission on Stratigraphy (ICS) rejected a proposal for the formalisation of the Anthropocene by a specialised Anthropocene Working Group (AWG). Yet, the debate continues in the International Union of Geological Sciences (IUGS). It may take several years before the Anthropocene epoch is formally accepted. In the discipline of History, the discussion on the Anthropocene implies that the natural and social/human sciences should move forward towards a new historical consciousness of a distant past and explore contemporary history with a view to the future. There have been several calls for a more integrated endeavour and ethical self-consciousness for contemplating Earth's past, present and future. © 2021 South African Academy for Science and the Arts. All rights reserved.
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Amphibian populations are declining globally. Major drivers of these global declines are known. However, the contribution of these major drivers to population declines varies by presence/absence and interactive effect of drivers, thus creating local challenges for conservation of populations. Studies have determined that environmental contaminants contribute to amphibian population declines. However, there is a disagreement over the use of amphibians as sentinel species in ecotoxicological testing rather than the traditional taxa used, fish and invertebrates. Reviews of ecotoxicological studies have demonstrated that amphibians are generally less sensitive than fish and invertebrates to different groups of contaminants. Nonetheless, due to the distinct nature and mechanism of toxicity of various contaminants, it is necessary to study contaminants individually to be able to come to any conclusion on the relative sensitivity of amphibians. Copper (Cu) is one of the most studied environmental contaminants. In this study, we conducted a literature review of Cu toxicity to amphibians and the relative sensitivity of amphibians to other aquatic animals. The available data suggest that although amphibians may be tolerant of acute Cu exposure, they are relatively sensitive to chronic exposure (i.e., 100‐fold greater sensitivity to chronic compared to acute exposure). Additionally, ecologically relevant endpoints specific to amphibians (e.g., duration of metamorphosis and behaviour) are shown to provide a better understanding of their sensitivity compared to traditional endpoints (e.g., survival and growth). Our current knowledge on amphibian sensitivity is far from complete. Considering the current status of this globally threatened class of animals, it is necessary to fill the knowledge gaps regarding their sensitivity to individual contaminants, beginning with Cu. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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Dado que el problema que quiero tratar involucra una exhaustiva reflexión sobre la utilización (o la relación con) del entorno o la naturaleza, sigo un camino que parte de revisar la ecología como disciplina científica, y su articulación (o no) con los movimientos ambientalistas para, desde estos sitios de acción, investigar y movilizar, avanzando sobre los temas que en ambos casos subyacen como problema, y que no terminan de explorarse desde las perspectivas habitualmente aceptadas. Indago, así, la tradición occidental de pensamiento en cuanto a los supuestos jerarquizantes se refiere, a fin de mostrar los modos en que históricamente se han edificado, tanto las prácticas en relación al uso del medioambiente (criticadas por los ambientalismos), como la producción del conocimiento científico, entendido como base legítima del saber reconocido en nuestras sociedades. Aún cuando haga mención a formas de vida no-humanas o a culturas ajenas a la tradición moderna, dirijo el foco de mi reflexión a las promesas incumplidas de la modernidad occidental, desde una perspectiva a-moderna (tal como la denomina Bruno Latour), quien revisa las expectativas de progreso a la luz de tales proyectos inconclusos. A partir de estos desarrollos inacabados reviso, entonces, las experiencias de los «perdedores» del desarrollo moderno; es decir, de los sujetos que plantean resistencias y alternativas. Indago esas resistencias, no tanto a la luz de las desigualdades económicas sino, sobre todo, desde las falencias de reconocimiento. A fin de echar luz sobre los aspectos que permitan repensar las prácticas, avanzo con el interés de entender cómo la desigualdad social y la reproducción de esa desigualdad en las prácticas cotidianas, no son independientes de los problemas ambientales. Pongo en evidencia que el modo en que se ha edificado el saber occidental, sustentado en jerarquías que implican diversos ejercicios de dominio, ha llevado a pensar a la sociedad y a la naturaleza como ámbitos aislados o independientes, pero siempre igualmente jerárquicos. Dado este modo de considerar el mundo –presente también en el contexto de globalización actual– la reducción del medioambiente al concepto de recurso es cada vez más profunda. Por eso, tomo como guía el análisis de la problemática dualidad sociedad-naturaleza sobre la que se construyó el pensamiento y la praxis moderna. La escisión antagónica y excluyente de ambos conceptos se asocia a la idea del hombre como el ser de máximo desarrollo, cuya portación de razón permitiría justificar su dominio sobre todo lo no-humano, fundamento último de evaluación de lo nonatural como «diferente» en términos peyorativos o inferiorizantes. Como muestro en este libro, no solo de eso se trata. Por tanto, exploro especialmente el modo en que históricamente se consideró «lo natural» como dependiente y concebido con potencialidades que solo lograría desarrollar en caso de que un ser racional lo dominara. En este orden de cosas, aún en el ámbito humano, los pueblos no-occidentales, los sectores económicos menos privilegiados y la población femenina, fueron algunos de los grupos que quedaron asociados necesariamente a la idea de naturaleza. Dentro de ese marco, examino con especial interés la situación femenina y el peso fundante de la metáfora que liga a la mujer a la naturaleza, no solo para dar cuenta de un problema sectorizado, sino para profundizar en el análisis de la constitución de las formas de dominio y la búsqueda de alternativas. Las mujeres –como oportunamente lo señala la australiana Val Plumwood–, parecemos estar mejor colocadas para examinar y resolver ese antiguo dualismo: podemos hablar y razonar desde la posición de –y en solidaridad con– los que han sido considerados como «la naturaleza». Ese es, en definitiva, el objetivo central de este libro.
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Ecology, psychoanalysis and global warming: present and future traumas ‘We are threatened with suffering from three directions: from our own body, which is doomed to decay and dissolution and which cannot even do without pain and anxiety as warning signals; from the external world, which may rage against us with overwhelming and merciless forces of destruction; and finally from our relations to other men.’ (Freud, 1930/1985, p. 264) Requiem for a Friend ‘And only then, when I have learned enough, I will go to watch the animals, and let Something of their composure slowly glide Into my limbs; will see my own existence Deep in their eyes . . ..’(Rainer Maria Rilke, 2001) The conference In December 2018 the Tavistock and Portman Clinic collaborated with the Climate Psychology Alliance to create a conference to address ecological disaster. The conference combined keynote presentations by distinguished scholars in the field with an interdisciplinary panel conversation in order to explore what psychoanalysis, philosophy, science and activism could contribute to our understanding of how to communicate and deal with ecological disaster. It was hoped that an interdisciplinary discussion would open up new ways of thinking about global warming in order to contribute to the sense of growing social, environmental, and personal anxiety that is emerging as a result of climate change: eco-anxiety. The Tavistock and Portman Clinic, as hosts to this event, is building a commitment to reducing its carbon footprint, with the real possibility of becoming carbon neutral. Paul Jenkins, OBE and Chief Executive is leading the Environmental group at the Clinic, to build an institutional process to deal with the urgent crisis that is upon us. Alongside practical and physical measures the Tavistock is also developing a manifesto which will echo the work of Psychologists for Social Change. This manifesto will be committed to addressing the critical need for political change to create the conditions for health and wellbeing, including tackling inequality, austerity, poverty, benefits cruelty and climate and ecological breakdown. This manifesto, and the conference event, are in recognition that the Tavistock as an institution can influence and change the thinking of other organisations in a progressive way. NHS England itself has made a definite plan for its organisations to become sustainable, to have a low carbon impact in the fight against climate change. The Tavistock and Portman would go further than relying on localised policies by urging the UK Government to take note of action from the Welsh Government by bringing in a similar laws to the ‘Wellbeing of future generations’ Act 2015, which makes it incumbent on any public organisation to have the wellbeing of future generations at the heart of their policy and planning processes.
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Integrated Pest Management (IPM) provides an illustration of how crop protection has (or has not) evolved over the past six decades. Throughout this period, IPM has endeavored to promote sustainable forms of agriculture, pursued sharp reductions in synthetic pesticide use, and thereby resolved myriad socio-economic, environmental, and human health challenges. Global pesticide use has, however, largely continued unabated, with negative implications for farmer livelihoods, biodiversity conservation, and the human right to food. In this review, we examine how IPM has developed over time and assess whether this concept remains suited to present-day challenges. We believe that despite many good intentions, hard realities need to be faced. 1) We identify the following major weaknesses: i) a multitude of IPM definitions that generate unnecessary confusion; ii) inconsistencies between IPM concepts, practice, and policies; iii) insufficient engagement of farmers in IPM technology development and frequent lack of basic understanding of its underlying ecological concepts. 2) By diverting from the fundamental IPM principles, integration of practices has proceeded along serendipitous routes, proven ineffective, and yielded unacceptable outcomes. 3) We show that in the majority of cases, chemical control still remains the basis of plant health programs. 4) Furthermore, IPM research is often lagging, tends to be misguided, and pays insufficient attention to ecology and to the ecological functioning of agroecosystems. 5) Since the 1960s, IPM rules have been twisted, its foundational concepts have degraded and its serious (farm-level) implementation has not advanced. To remedy this, we are proposing Agroecological Crop Protection as a concept that captures how agroecology can be optimally put to the service of crop protection. Agroecological Crop Protection constitutes an interdisciplinary scientific field that comprises an orderly strategy (and clear prioritization) of practices at the field, farm, and agricultural landscape level and a dimension of social and organizational ecology.
Article
Humans are changing and challenging nature in many ways. Conservation Biology seeks to limit human impacts on nature and preserve biological diversity. Traditionally, Developmental Biology and Conservation Biology have had nonoverlapping objectives, operating in distinct spheres of biological science. However, this chasm can and should be filled to help combat the emerging challenges of the 21st century. The means by which to accomplish this goal were already established within the conceptual framework of evo‐ and eco‐devo and can be further expanded to address the ways that anthropogenic disturbance affect embryonic development. Herein, I describe ways that these approaches can be used to advance the study of reptilian embryos. More specifically, I explore the ways that a developmental perspective can advance ongoing studies of embryonic physiology in the context of global warming and chemical pollution, both of which are known stressors of reptilian embryos. I emphasize ways that these developmental perspectives can inform conservation biologists trying to develop management practices that will address the complexity of challenges facing reptilian embryos. Research Highlights • Reptiles and their embryos are under threat of emerging anthropogenic change such as pollution and thermal stress. Herein, I outline areas of future research where greater information about reptilian development in the context of real‐world challenges may inform conservation efforts.
Article
Nature and time have long been key concepts of educational thought. Educational thinkers from both the East and the West have tried to imitate and follow nature (conceived as tien or physis). They have also considered time in relation to human formation and growth. This article attempts to connect these two key concepts of education through the medium of the seasons. The seasons bridge both time and nature. Our experience of nature is temporal and manifests itself in the transition of the seasons. On the other hand, our experience of time is conditioned by the seasons. Seasons are a concrete manifestation of time and nature. It seems that philosophy has not paid enough attention to this. In this article, Japanese arts (such as the Katsura Imperial Villa and waka poetry) are used as the examples of how the arts can help to form our sensibility toward the seasons, which has ethical and educational implications. The article also asks questions about contemporary environmental discussions that, in the aspiration to be global and universal, often overlook concrete experience of the seasons conditioned by local climate.
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Este trabalho porta sobre a produção intelectual elaborada sobre a região amazônica na área de ciências sociais em três países: Brasil, Colômbia e Equador. Para realizar esse objetivo é feita uma discussão sobre o processo de transformação da região. É argüido que se trata de um processo que se repetiu ao longo do tempo em outras regiões do globo e que não se constitui em um movimento único na história, a não ser pelas especificidades locais. A própria irracionalidade desse avanço, que constitui e define em grande parte o objeto de estudo dessas ciências sociais, ou ao menos a tensão central em torno da qual é elaborada, é reveladora dos limites, das franjas de possibilidades reais que secolocam diante de nossa sociedade. Concluímos que trabalhar esse tema, os estudos amazônicos, dos de maior envergadura para a área ambiental, pode levar a entrever não apenas problemas presentes na região de maior floresta tropical do mundo. De uma forma especial esse tema nos habilita também a discutir a atual crise industrial, política e social traduzida pelo que chamamos de dilema ambiental.
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The Industry responsible for the discovery and development of crop protection compounds has undergone dramatic changes and increasing consolidation since the initial innovations in synthetic organic fungicides, herbicides and insecticides in the late 1940s and early 1950s. Likewise, there have been striking changes in the rate of introduction of new crop protection compounds over the past 70 years. While numerous studies over the past five decades have signaled the ongoing decline in the numbers of new active ingredients (AIs), a detailed analysis of the trends in the rate of introduction crop protection compounds shows a more complex pattern in the overall output of new AIs. The recent (post‐2000) decline in the numbers of new herbicides is the primary source of the perceived decline in overall numbers. When herbicides are excluded, the output of new fungicides and insecticides has been relatively constant, especially for the past 20 years. A notable observation is that innovation, as measured by the number of compounds representing a new chemical class (First‐in‐Class) has been relatively constant for the past 70 years, and most recently has been driven by the appearance of new fungicides and insecticides. Thus, the discovery and development of new AIs for crop protection and public health continues, in spite of the many challenges and changes to the Industry. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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Комаров В.М., Акимова В.В., Коцюбинский В.А., Земцов С. П. Сравнительный анализ подходов к разработке долгосрочных государственных стратегий в России и мире // Вопросы государственного и муниципального управления. 2021. № 1. С. 56–74 /// В статье обсуждаются вопросы построения перспективной методологии разработки долгосрочных стратегий в России. Проведен ценностно-содержательный сравнительный анализ долгосрочных стратегий в России и на Западе по следующим критериям: декларируемые ценности, понимание прогрессивности, место и роль стратегий в обществе, содержательное наполнение, индикаторы. Продемонстрировано сущностное отличие отечественных и зарубежных документов. Так, ключевой направленностью стратегий развитых стран является человеко-ориентированное развитие, создание среды равных возможностей, в которой каждый житель сможет максимально реализовать свой потенциал. В России стратегии более ориентированы на достижение показателей вышестоящих документов и формальное соответствие их положениям и требованиям законодательства. Основополагающее различие заключается в совершенно другом подходе к пониманию прогресса. В стратегиях развитых стран прогресс – это устойчивое развитие, повышение качества жизни, поддержание жизнеспособности экосистем и создание среды для раскрытия человеческого потенциала, во многих российских – это, преимущественно, экономический рост, развитие промышленности и привлечение инвестиций. Отсюда и расхождения в наборе показателей, качестве и составе структурных блоков, ключевых инструментах разработки, ее особенностях и т.д. Показано, что перспективная методология стратегического планирования в России может основываться на эколого-ориентированном (исследовательская программа экологической экономики) и человеко-ориентированном подходах, а также интегрировать современные инструменты прямой демократии. Данная методология была применена авторами при подготовке стратегий социально-экономического развития российских регионов и городов за последние годы и показала востребованность запроса на смену парадигмы – от экономического роста к «подлинному человеческому благополучию».
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This study takes China's oil and gas resource-based cities as the research object and builds a green growth efficiency evaluation index system from the four dimensions of social economy, resources and environment, science and technology, and government policy. Based on the non-radial and non-angle SBM model combining with the Malmquist–Luenberger (ML) index model for undesired output, it measures the green growth efficiency of oil and gas resource-based cities in China from 2010 to 2017 from both static and dynamic perspectives. It also analyzes the changing trend and room for growth of the green growth level of oil and gas resource-based cities. The results show that: (1) Using the combined SBM and ML methods can scientifically evaluate the green growth efficiency of China's oil and gas resource-based cities; (2) The green growth level of China's oil and gas resource-based cities generally rose first in 2010–2017 and then showed the declining wave momentum. The green growth efficiency has a lot of room for improvement; (3) The green technology progress index (TC) shows a U-shaped changing trend, and however, the TC is greater than 0.7 and approaching to 1 between 2011 and 2017, indicating that green technology progress has a promoting effect on green growth efficiency; (4) Indicating green technological progress is the main factor for improving the green growth efficiency of oil and gas resource-based cities. Graphic abstract
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We invite systematic consideration of the metaphors of cycles and circulation as a long-term theme in the history of the life and environmental sciences and medicine. Ubiquitous in ancient religious and philosophical traditions, especially in representing the seasons and the motions of celestial bodies, circles once symbolized perfection. Over the centuries cyclic images in western medicine, natural philosophy, natural history and eventually biology gained independence from cosmology and theology and came to depend less on strictly circular forms. As potent ‘canonical icons’, cycles also interacted with representations of linear and irreversible change, including arrows, arcs, scales, series and trees, as in theories of the Earth and of evolution. In modern times life cycles and reproductive cycles have often been held to characterize life, in some cases especially female life, while human efforts selectively to foster and disrupt these cycles have harnessed their productivity in medicine and agriculture. But strong cyclic metaphors have continued to link physiology and climatology, medicine and economics, and biology and manufacturing, notably through the relations between land, food and population. From the grand nineteenth-century transformations of matter to systems ecology, the circulation of molecules through organic and inorganic compartments has posed the problem of maintaining identity in the face of flux and highlights the seductive ability of cyclic schemes to imply closure where no original state was in fact restored. More concerted attention to cycles and circulation will enrich analyses of the power of metaphors to naturalize understandings of life and their shaping by practical interests and political imaginations.
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Communication about nature and the environment was important throughout the history of humankind. Humans learned about their environment by observation, by leaving adverse conditions or trying to overcome unfavourable condition in the nature by practical solutions.
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Soundscapes are the array of natural and anthropogenic sounds occurring in an area, and can consist of both natural and human derived components. In this study, we compared soundscapes in wetlands disturbed by road-traffic noise to wetlands distant from major roads. In each wetland, above-water and below-water soundscapes were recorded in Spring, Summer, and Fall. Wetlands near roads had higher sound intensity, more anthropogenic noise occurrences, and lower acoustic diversity above and below the water. In contrast, wetlands distant from roads had more natural sounds above and below the water, including a higher number of birdcalls. When soundscapes were subdivided by frequency, most anthropogenic sounds occurred in low frequencies (0–5 kHz), but natural sounds were found in all frequencies. Soundscapes changed during the year, with more natural sounds occurring in Spring and the highest acoustic diversity recorded in Spring and Fall. These findings indicate that nearby roads change wetland soundscapes by increasing noise pollution, which masks natural sounds such as bird calls and reduces biodiversity. The altered soundscapes of freshwater wetlands, near roads potentially could alter biotic communities by affecting animal behavior such as intraspecies communication, interaction of predator and their prey, and resource acquisition.
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There is high demand for herbicides based on the necessity to increase crop production to satisfy world-wide demands. Nevertheless, there are negative impacts of herbicide use, manifesting as selection for resistant weeds, production of toxic metabolites from partial degradation of herbicides, changes in soil microbial communities and biogeochemical cycles, alterations in plant nutrition and soil fertility, and persistent environmental contamination. Some herbicides damage non-target microorganisms via directed interference with host metabolism and via oxidative stress mechanisms. For these reasons, it is necessary to identify sustainable, efficient methods to mitigate these environmental liabilities. Before the degradation process can be initiated by microbial enzymes and metabolic pathways, microorganisms need to tolerate the oxidative stresses caused by the herbicides themselves. This can be achieved via a complex system of enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidative stress systems. Many of these response systems are not herbicide specific, but rather triggered by a variety of substances. Collectively, these nonspecific response systems enhance the survival and fitness potential of microorganisms. Biodegradation studies and remediation approaches have relied on individually selected strains to effectively remediate herbicides in the environment. Nevertheless, it has been shown that microbial communication systems that modulate social relationships and metabolic pathways inside biofilm structures among microorganisms are complex; therefore, use of isolated strains for xenobiotic degradation needs to be enhanced using a community-based approach with biodegradation pathway integration. Bioremediation efforts can use omics-based technologies to gain a deeper understanding of the molecular complexes of bacterial communities to achieve to more efficient elimination of xenobiotics. With this knowledge, the possibility of altering microbial communities is increased to improve the potential for bioremediation without causing other environmental impacts not anticipated by simpler approaches. The understanding of microbial community dynamics in free-living microbiota and those present in complex communities and in biofilms is paramount to achieving these objectives. It is also essential that non-developed countries, which are major food producers and consumers of pesticides, have access to these techniques to achieve sustainable production, without causing impacts through unknown side effects.
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We are experiencing a global biodiversity and climate crisis that is rapidly causing the extinction of species. Mammal species have been disproportionately affected; however, this trend is considerably worse in Australia. Since Australia’s occupation by Europeans, 34 mammal species have been declared extinct. Australian mammals in deserts are particularly at risk of extinction. Many arid zone mammals have specialised adaptations to their hostile, unpredictable ecosystems. For example, they use thermally insulative refuges, prefer habitats that reduce predation risk, or have large home ranges and broad diets to maximise energy intake. Understanding these adaptations is essential for informed conservation management. However, little ecological data is known for the sandhill dunnart, Sminthopsis psammophila, an endangered and charismatic marsupial that now remains within just a few natural refugial habitats in Australia’s southern deserts. To address conservation biology knowledge gaps, an integrated, evidence-based approach (i) quantified the diurnal and nocturnal ecology of S. psammophila in the Western Australian Great Victoria Desert (WAGVD), (ii) estimated the past, present and future distributions of S. psammophila throughout Australia, (iii) examined the key threats to S. psammophila - particularly wildfires and anthropogenic climate change - and (iv) proposed conservation management solutions for a) S. psammophila and b) sympatric arid zone species. Between 2015 and 2019, radio tracking and global positioning system (GPS) technologies examined the sheltering, foraging, dietary and habitat preferences of S. psammophila in the WAGVD. In contrast to its previously reported habitat preferences, S. psammophila preferred burrowing within long unburned (32+ years since a wildfire) spinifex (Triodia spp.) grassland habitats. Dense lower stratum swale, sand plain and dune slope habitats were preferred, whereas habitats lacking spinifex and open dune crest habitats were rarely used. Hence, wildfires were identified as a significant threat to the species. The sheltering preferences of S. psammophila agreed with the premise that small desert mammals often use shelters with thermal advantages and anti-predation benefits, such as burrows, Lepidobolus deserti hummocks and logs. Conversely, spinifex hummocks were not found to be insulative against extreme temperatures and were not preferred. The foraging adaptations of S. psammophila agreed with the premise that arid zone species often have large home ranges to exploit resource patches or islands. The 100 % home ranges of S. psammophila [mean: 70 ha; range: 6-274 ha; minimum convex polygon (MCP)] were influenced by sex and reproductive status. In addition, a Formicine-rich diet indicated that ants are an important dietary resource for S. psammophila. Species distribution models (SDMs) predicted the past, present, and future distributions of S. psammophila, evaluated the environmental parameters that determine the species’ distribution and identified habitats of high conservation value. The past model supported evidence that S. psammophila was widespread but has recently contracted to more climatically favourable areas of its geographic range. Ground-validation of the present model’s predictions discovered a population 150 km north of the species’ known range. Future models identified that climate change is a potential catastrophic threat for S. psammophila. By 2050, under Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 8.5 (our current pathway) there is a predicted 95 % reduction in suitable habitat for S. psammophila in the WAGVD. By 2070 (RCP 8.5), only the Eyre Peninsula population may remain viable and the continental distribution of S. psammophila may contract by up to 80 %. However, this contraction is predicted to be halved if global greenhouse gas emissions peak in 2040 then reduce (RCP 4.5). Due to specific habitat preferences for long unburned habitats, S. psammophila is further restricted within its climatically and geographically suitable range. As a semi-arid specialist, it is also vulnerable to drought-related population crashes. Hence, S. psammophila should remain listed as endangered at the state and federal level, and its status should be revised by the International Union for Conservation of Nature.
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New materialist and posthumanist thought present some key challenges for the imagined masculinist figure of the curriculum designer as rational planner. This chapter sketches the trajectory of this figure through curriculum theory and provides a feminist critique, drawing on the work of Rosi Braidotti and Karen Barad. With the aim of troubling the designer, the chapter contemplates whether ‘he’ can be thought differently, or must be relinquished. In this process, Braidotti and Barad are invoked in a reconfiguration of design as assemblage, and the designer’s agency as part of a more complicated picture. Poetry offers a concrete example of how arts-based research can both enact and represent this task. Ultimately, the chapter provides a grounding for other scholars and researchers to move beyond humanism to a lively and complex understanding of curriculum that is more responsive to the concerns of the Anthropocene. While this chapter is based on curriculum theory, it also has implications for systems that seek to reduce teachers to mere technicians, and offers teachers themselves ways to reconceptualise their work.
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In recent years, the idea of geoengineering, understood as large‐scale interventions in the planet's climate to counteract anthropogenic climate change, has steadily increased its visibility. Presented explicitly as an approach to climate change, geoengineering is positioned as a response, a reactive fix. Geoengineering, however, has a longer and broader history than the current climate crisis. It has long been an umbrella term for large‐scale projects in which various Earth sciences meet dreams about human ecosphere interventions, especially regarding lithosphere and climate and weather modifications. In this paper, we review the history of geoengineering, focusing specifically on climate geoengineering and lithosphere geoengineering. We draw attention to the difference between “proactive” (“high‐modernist”), aimed at mastery over nature, and “reactive” forms of geoengineering, hoping to address anthropogenic environmental degradation technologically. Additionally, we trace historical (dis)continuities between the older, proactive, form of geoengineering and their recent reframing as a technological fix—specifically around the question to what extent nature's complex systems can be known and controlled. Finally, we argue for the need to further research the intersections and shared histories between various forms of geoengineering. This article is categorized under: Climate, History, Society, Culture > Ideas and Knowledge
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Landscape Agronomy is expected to contribute to the observation, understanding and support of agriculture at the landscape level. The conceptual model of Landscape Agronomy was developed to integrate assessment and monitoring beyond the farm level and across multiple temporal and spatial scales. In this chapter, we evaluate the relevance of the Landscape Agronomy conceptual model by analysing three issues of integrated governance and public action. The three examples highlight the three parts of the conceptual model: (a) core agricultural landscape dynamics, illustrated by farmers’ collective projects of agroecological transition; (b) the three poles of the conceptual model—practices, resources and patterns—illustrated by Integrated Pest Management as an example of requirements for sustainable agroecosystem management; and (c) temporal and spatial interactions, illustrated by the concept of territorial circularity as a way to integrate landscape-based management into global issues related to nutrient cycles. Although it captures the key issues addressed by such perspectives, the Landscape Agronomy conceptual model still faces some challenges, such as explicit consideration of temporal dimensions and explicit inclusion of new (invisible) patterns emerging from newly available data and digitalisation.KeywordsPolicymakingIntegrated approachNatural resource managementFarm managementAgriculture
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In any problem-solving endeavor, identifying the right problem and asking the right questions is at least half the challenge. A well-posed problem can suggest an obvious, effective solution, while a poorly chosen problem can lead to dead-end non-solutions that leave no one better off. In this chapter, we consider important questions that should be asked with respect to potential beneficiaries or collaborators, the larger context of a problem, the type of impact, approaches to scale, and ethical considerations.
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In this chapter, we describe a mathematical model to simulate the development of insecticide resistance. First, The relationship between the mutation rate y and the dosage of insecticide use x is expressed as: y=f(x)a+bx. The total mutation rate, z(t), after the ith insecticide use changes with time t: z(t)=z(ti)exp(-r(t-ti))+c, tit<ti+1. Insect mutation rate model is: y(t1)=(1-c)f(x(t1)), z(t1)=c+y(t1),i=1; y(ti)=(1-c-z(ti-1)exp(-r(t-ti-1))) f(x(ti)), z(ti)=c+z(ti-1)exp(-r(t-ti-1))+y(ti),tit<ti+1, i=2, 3, … where y(ti): the rate of newly increased mutant individuals after the ith insecticide use, z(ti): the total mutation rate after the ith insecticide use, ti: the time of the ith insecticide use, and y(ti) the theoretical mutation rate of the ith insecticide use. The relationship between the pest population resistance R(ti) and z(ti) is represented as: R(ti)=p+q/(1-z(ti)). Thus the variables as insecticide use dosage, timing and frequency of insecticide uses, genetic mutagenicity of insect individuals, insecticide-resistant individuals’ fitness, etc., were included in the model. Sensitivity analysis indicated that the lower the fitness (r) of the insecticide-resistant individuals is, the slower the increase of insecticide resistance will be. The greater the insect individuals’ mutagenicity (b) is, the more quickly the insecticide resistance will rise. The greater the insecticide use dosage (x(t)) is, the more quickly the insecticide resistance will increase. The higher the frequency of insecticide uses is, the greater the insecticide resistance will increase. The results showed that the insecticide dosage is more important than usage frequency in determining the development of insecticide resistance, which highlights the importance of joint use of reducing insecticide dosage and adopting IPM technologies. The model can be used to not only the dynamic simuation of development of insecticide resistance but also the assessment of IPM technologies in reducing insecticide resistance. For example, with a set of specific parametrical values, the simulation of the model demonstated that insecticide resistance will reduce 83.74% when the insecticide dosage is reduced from 180 to 20 by jointly using IPM technologies. Full codes of Matlab, R and BASIC programs for the model were given.
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The climate crisis has received a great deal of attention of late, yet its root causes go back to the last century and beyond. Also going back many years have been efforts to address the roots of the climate crisis. These efforts include the work of language teachers to research, create, trial, and share materials and pedagogical strategies for educating and mobilizing teachers, students, and other stakeholders to address the beliefs and practices that have led our species to the precipice of irredeemable disaster. This article seeks to serve as an annotated repository of works and collective wisdom of the author and colleagues, both near and far, as to how language teaching can accomplish its joint tasks of both facilitating student enjoyment of and expertise in their languages, and at the same time engaging students in fulfilling their responsibility as citizens of their home country and the world, a responsibility that has only grown more urgent due to the climate crisis. This repository is the result of 50 years of research, not with blinded control groups and statistical analysis (valuable though those methods can be), but of naturalistic investigation. The repository divides into three sections: Inspiration, Information, and Implementation. Strategies and ways that teachers have found useful for growing their own and their students’ knowledge of the causes of and possible solutions to the climate crisis are considered. The article ends with a poem by the author which addresses the important question of the role of the teacher in the classroom and beyond.
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The common conception of the economy is a throughput model where inputs are converted into useful goods and services. Emissions and waste are the unfortunate by-products of this conversion process. Inputs and emission and waste by-products seemingly come from nowhere and disappear into nowhere. In other words, the common conception is that the economy has no context. As a result, the unintended side effects of economic activity disappear from the purview of economics. Economists refer to these unaccounted side effects of economic activity as ‘externalities’. The deficiencies of this contextless model have long been recognised by ecological and social economists. This chapter outlines a new economic model developed by the lead author called restorative economics. Like the doughnut model developed by Kate Raworth (2012), it places the economy in its social and environmental context and makes long neglected social and environmental impacts of economic activity visible. The restorative economics model, however, makes a further distinction regarding the context of economic activity that makes the model more operational. It distinguishes between sources and sinks. Sinks are the counterpoints to the resources that feed the front end of the economic process. Sinks deal with the tail end of the process. The restorative economics model therefore places value not only on the resources used to produce goods and services and on these outputs of goods and services themselves, but also on the many social and environmental sink factors that absorb emissions, process waste, reduce stress, and alleviate social tension. Restorative economics pays attention to both the resources and the sinks needed to sustain economic activity in the long run. We illustrate the value of these sinks by reviewing several local and regional initiatives from Washington DC, namely the Urban Food Hubs model, the Five Pillars of Economic Development, the Food Connects vision and the ambitious agenda of the Sustainable DC plan. We conclude the chapter by reviewing policies that support a restorative economy.
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This chapter reports on a research project in which the authors interviewed 20 employees from animal or conservation charities and organisations. The aims of the research were to explore first, animal welfare issues that participants believed children should know about and secondly, to discover the pedagogical approaches these organisations employed in schools and local communities. Findings included participants employing concepts such as One Health and One Welfare to introduce young people gradually to the complexities and sensitivities of animal welfare and conservation. Participants spoke of using anthropomorphism to encourage children to understand animal sentience, and of then widening the scope of animal pedagogies to introduce a social and moral dimension into deeper discussion about human responsibilities to the planet, non-human and human life.
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Although cinema narrative represents a fundamental communication tool in framing public opinion, whether a negative representation of certain species in the context of animal-horror movies might increase the attitudinal hostilities towards them remains an aspect of wildlife perception that is poorly studied. Here, we reviewed online sources from the last 70 years to describe the negative representation of animal roles in horror and disaster movies. Specifically, we described species diversity, how the animal was depicted, the cause for its aggressive behaviour and how it came in contact with the human characters. By means of principal coordinate analysis (PCoA), we also highlighted three main typologies of animal-horror movies. The dataset consisted of 263 titles produced world-wide from 1950 to 2019. The results showed that animal representation is transversal yet uneven, with five species groups out of 18 appearing in more than half of the movies. There were significant associations between species, their representation and the different kinds of movies they appeared in, with some species groups appearing more commonly in certain types of film plots rather than others. Together, the results suggested that both the themes and topics of animal-horror movies were often the result of a combination of factors, including fashion-driven audience interests, societal and political concerns, and technological availability at the time of production. Whether this repeated and variegated representation can increase attitudinal hostility remains however unclear.
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A great deal of the contemporary discourse around circularity revolves around waste—the elimination of waste (and wastelands) through recycling, renewing and reuse (3Rs). In line with industrial ecological thinking, the discourse often focuses on resource efficiency and the shift toward renewables. The reconstitution of numerous previous ecologies is at most a byproduct of the deliberate design of today’s cyclic systems. Individual projects are often heralded for their innovative aspects (both high- and low-tech) and the concept has become popularly embraced in much of the Western world. Nevertheless, contemporary spatial circularity practices appear often to be detached from their particular socio-cultural and landscape ecologies. There is an emphasis on performative aspects and far too often a series of normative tools create cookie-cutter solutions that disregard locational assets—spatial as well as socio-cultural. The re-prefix is evident for developed economies and geographies, but not as obvious in the context of rapidly transforming and newly urbanizing territories. At the same time, the notion of circularity has been deeply embedded in indigenous, pre-modern and non-Western worldviews and strongly mirrored in historic constellations of urban, rural and territorial development. This contribution focuses on two contexts, Flanders in Belgium and the rural highlands, the Mekong Delta and Ho Chi Minh City in Vietnam, which reveal that in spite of the near-universal prevalence of the Western development paradigm, there are fundamentally different notions of circularity in history and regarding present-day urbanization. Historically, in both contexts, the city and its larger territory formed a social, economic and ecological unity. There was a focus is on the interdependent development of notions of circularity in the ever-evolving relations of landscape, infrastructure and urbanization. In the development of contemporary circularity, there are clear insights that can be drawn from the deep understandings of historic interdependencies and the particular mechanisms and typologies utilized. The research questions addressed are in line with territorial ecology’s call to incorporate socio-cultural and spatial dimensions when trying to understand how territorial metabolisms function (Barles, Revue D’économie Régionale and Urbaine:819–836, 2017). They are as follows: how can case studies from two seemingly disparate regions in the world inform the present-day wave of homogenized research on circularity? How can specific socio-cultural contexts, through their historical trajectories, nuance the discourse and even give insights with regard to broadened and contextualized understandings of circularity? The case studies firstly focus on past site-specific cyclic interplays between landscape, infrastructure and urbanization and their gradual dissolution into linearity. Secondly, the case studies explicitly focus on multi-year design research projects by OSA (Research Urbanism and Architecture, KU Leuven), which underscore new relations of landscape, infrastructure and urbanization and emphasize the resourcefulness of the territory itself. The design research has been elaborated in collaboration with relevant stakeholders and experts and at the request of governmental agencies.
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In a previous article, I examined the nature of historical consciousness. In this article, I apply it to three social issues: racism, ecological crisis, and higher education. Since the methods of historical consciousness are already in use, the aim here is not to introduce a new approach. My purpose is to make readers conscious of what they might normally do and why they are doing it. If a society fails to highlight and make explicit the methods it uses to solve the challenges it faces, the transfer of relevant skills will decline over several generations. Modern society has already reached the stage at which scientism has displaced a balance between timeless scientific rationality and historical consciousness in our approach to social issues. Without historical perspective to provide a narrative structure to the findings of science, society is likely to act in ways that are counterproductive. Unless citizens have a personal sense of participation in the stream of historical events, the knowledge they gain from science is not likely to be useful in guiding the direction of society.
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Neonicotinoids have been in the spotlight in the pollinator community as they persist in the soil, have high water solubility, and have been associated with negative health implications on insect pollinators. The risk of new novel pesticides, including neonicotinoids, to bats are largely unknown. Bats have unique physiology as they are the only mammals capable of true and sustained flight, and have physiological adaptations including echolocation and torpor which under current protocols for acute and chronic toxicity studies in birds and terrestrial animals are not assessed. Due to these characteristics, some have argued that bats may serve as important bioindicators for ecosystem health and pesticide use. This chapter will focus on pesticides, and discuss the increased risk of exposure, morbidity, and mortality of bats species due to their unique physiology and natural life history. Special emphasis will be on potential increased risk of zoonotic disease transmission in bats exposed to emerging contaminants that suppress their immune system or cause increased biological stress.
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The necessity to follow the environmental fate of chemicals and in particular the aquatic toxicity not only of existing compounds, but also of those to be developed, has challenged the application of quantitative structure–activity relationships (QSAR) already at their genesis. The present chapter provides an overview of the historical evolution of environmental QSAR and its development as an autonomous discipline. It highlights the progress in the essential elements of QSAR methodology, such as molecular representation, statistical algorithms, suitable to treat the growing amounts of multiple endpoints, the strengthening in the criteria for model validation and for the definition of the applicability and tries to track the inherent philosophy rather, and then compile the numerous QSAR models published for the variety of toxicity endpoints assessed in different aquatic species at the three trophic levels. The huge diversity in the chemicals space resulted in the formulation of structural alerts for classification purposes in chemical categories, an essential requirement for the construction of a robust model or for choosing the appropriate model among the existing ones for toxicity predictions. Narcotics obey to rather simple rules with hydrophobicity being the single physicochemical parameter in the relevant QSAR models. On the other hand reactive and specifically acting chemicals, which exhibit “excess toxicity” demand the application of more elaborated statistical tools and the exploitation of the big arsenal of molecular descriptors. Hydrophobicity is still a major partner, however other parameters mostly related to electrophilicity and hydrogen bonding, as well structural and topological descriptors may show important contribution. The QSAR paradigm is facilitated by the existing and continuously being updated databases for ecotoxicological endpoints, as well by the development of software or web platforms either, freely or commercially available, which incorporate a variety of statistical tools and models for different endpoints and chemical classes. Commonly used software tools are presented in this chapter. The most important fact is that the QSAR paradigm in aquatic toxicity is proved to be a success story, since it has been adapted by the regulatory organizations, which have developed their own software and in silico platforms or support existing ones. Read-across techniques for filling data gaps are also implemented in many of platforms. In this aspect, the goal for the construction of any new model is not only to be more efficient than existing ones leading to more reliable and accurate predictions but also to meet the requirements of regulatory authorities. More to the point, the last years emphasis has been given to the integration of the results from multiple modeling tools and read across approaches for improved reliability of predictions. Several integration techniques have been suggested for this purpose. Moreover, the development of quantitative activity–activity relationships (QAAR) for interspecies toxicity predictions would reduce the vast toxicity space, as shaped by the multiple endpoints at a variety of aquatic species.
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Many years after sustainable development’s first definitions, the topic still provokes reflections emphasizing the need to understand the implications qualitative an evolution on an environmentally responsible, socially fair and economically viable basis. In this sense, this study aims to present new perspectives on the concept of sustainable development based on reflections of students participating in a Professional Master's Program in Governance and Sustainability. The research is characterized as a qualitative bibliographic research study, using subjective interpretation in the design of the definitions of sustainability and sustainable development found in the literature in view of the perspective of students of the institution's master's classes, seeking to understand what is new and what remains at the very essence of such concepts. Thus, the authors seek to contribute to discussions about society’s perspective on sustainable development, emphasizing the importance of establishing educational policies focused on promoting education for sustainability, in line with the UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).
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In recent years, images of climate catastrophe have become commonplace. However, Black visions of the confluence of the Anthropocene and the apocalypse have been largely ignored. As we argue in this article, Black social thought offers crucial resources for drawing out the implicit exclusions of dominant representations of climate breakdown and developing an alternative account of the planet's future. By reading a range of critical race theorists, from Frederick Douglass and W. E. B. Du Bois to Octavia Butler and Ta-Nehisi Coates, we propose a rethinking of the climate apocalypse. The African American theoretical and cultural tradition elaborates an image of the end of the world that emphasises the non-revelatory nature of climate catastrophe, warns against associating collapse with rebirth, and articulates a mode of maroon survivalism in which the apocalypse is an event to be endured and escaped rather than fatalistically expected or infinitely delayed.
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How to feed, house, clothe and power 11 billion of us without eliminating very many species and wrecking Earth's climate is perhaps this century's greatest challenge. We must obviously strive to curb growth in resource-intensive demand, but we also need to identify production systems that meet people's needs at least overall cost to nature. The land-sharing/sparing concept provides a quantitative framework for doing this, centred around the principle that generating meaningful insights requires comparing alternatives that are matched in terms of overall production. Applications of this framework to >2500 individually assessed species of vertebrates, plants and insects across five continents show that most species decline under farming, and that most would fare least badly under a land-sparing approach – with high-yield production meeting demand in a relatively small, farmed area, freeing-up space for conservation of intact habitats elsewhere in the landscape. However, important questions remain around how to deliver high yields sustainably, and how to ensure high-yield farming does indeed spare natural habitat. The framework is increasingly being applied in other domains too – including urban planning, recreation, forestry and fisheries – where it has the potential to shed light on long-running debates about whether nature would prefer us to concentrate our impact or spread it more lightly but widely. The realization that conservation cannot be delivered without simultaneously considering how humanity meets its needs in these and other sectors is of particular significance as policymakers meet to establish global environmental targets through to 2030 and beyond.
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The Jewish-Christian tradition has been partly blamed for creating an attitude towards the environment that sees it as something to be dominated by humans and exploited for their benefit. These traditions also stress the idea that humans are ‘stewards’ of creation, given the task to look after the planet for God. What does it mean to steward creation, and does stewardship offer a solution to the escalating ecological crisis? This article draws on the author’s research and experience to raise challenging questions for our generation.
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The first half of the twentieth century was turbulent. There was panic in the early 1900s with a stock market crash, followed by the First World War in 1914, and the revolution in Russia in 1917.
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In this paper, I aim to convey the history of ecopsychology's changing conceptualizations of science and technology and their role in facilitating engagement with the ecology movement. To do so, I compare ecopsychology's treatment of science and technology in two important publications: Gatherings, a non‐peer‐reviewed digital journal of the early 2000s that portrayed ecopsychology in humanistic, socially critical, and artistic terms; and Ecopsychology, a scholarly journal founded in 2009 that regarded ecopsychological questions as testable hypotheses, and distinguished itself from prior (“first generation”) ecopsychology on the basis of its embrace of technological progress and the scientific method. As a part of this shift, ecopsychologists of the “second generation” championed the notion that humans are a “Technological Species,” an ontological statement that naturalized the increasing sophistication of high technology as the result of inherent human drives, and established conceptual groundwork for studies that used consumer technology such as computers to mediate experiences of nature. In the final part of the paper, I critique the “Technological Species” proposition for obscuring the historical and material conditions that make the existence of consumer technology possible, such as the ecologically devastating mining of rare‐earth metals on colonized land in Central and South America. I argue that, to be socially and ecologically accountable, ecopsychology should turn toward practices that help us make sense of consumer technology's place in systems of colonialist and ecological violence, process our place within these systems as users of consumer technology, and build community less dependent on technology.
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The most widespread and numerous inland fish in the world is likely the mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis and G. holbrooki, Poeciliidae). Much has been written about the basic biology, the current distribution and the negative impacts of non‐native populations of mosquitofish. Here, we instead review the relationship of humanity with mosquitofish. First, we review the early literature on the species and aim to resolve its path towards becoming the globally dominant fish for biological control of mosquitoes. We identify the initial advocates of mosquitofish use, we examine the reasons behind their advocacy, and we document the spread of their viewpoints into and from the globally foundational mosquito control texts. Second, we identify the people and institutions that facilitated early international translocations of mosquitofish, including, among others, David Starr Jordan, the Rockefeller Foundation and the International Red Cross. Third, we discuss the reduction in mosquitofish translocation and use during and after WWII, initially stemming from the discovery and use of other methods, like DDT and later from a recognition of the negative ecological consequences of non‐native mosquitofish populations. Fourth, we propose that the future utility of mosquitofish is largely in its value as a model study organism. We provide an overview of the contributions mosquitofish have made to some major fields in biology. Finally, we suggest that the value of mosquitofish as a model system should increase into the future, behind a momentum of research advances, and as human‐mediated range expansion will permit access to mosquitofish by yet greater numbers of biologists worldwide.
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In Brazil, Aedes aegypti mosquito is the most frequent vector of some arboviruses, such as dengue, yellow fever, Zika and chikungunya. The use of synthetic insecticides to combat this vector has been compromised due to the development of resistant populations and the collateral damage caused to nature. Essential oils (EO) have been studied as an alternative to synthetic insecticide. Thus, the objective of this work was to do a review of EOs from Caatinga biome plants, wich are effective against Ae. aegypti at different stage of development (eggs, larvae, pulp and adult); to identify promising plant species with insecticidal activity as well as the most frequent terpenic compounds in oils with the best activity profile. The keywords Aedes aegypti, essential oil, Caatinga and Northeast Brazil were searched on Scielo, Pubmed, ‘Portal dos Periódicos Capes’ and ScienceDirect platforms. Hence, a great insecticidal potential of these essential oils against Ae. aegypti larvae and adults was identified as well as great potential for repellents and oviposition supression. Of all the plants, those of genera Cordia, Croton, Piper, Lippia and several genera of the Lamiaceae family can be highlighted as the most promising against Ae. aegypti. Analyzing the oils that showed larvicidal activity at concetrations <100 ppm, β-Caryophyllene, Caryophyllene oxide, Spathulenol, 1,8-cineole and Thymol are common compounds in the majority and in all acetylcholinesterase inhibitory has been demonstrated. This study can assist the search for plant species with potential insecticide, including pointing out specific compounds that are promising for the development of applied research in the area.
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The ban and restriction of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and major brominated flame retardants (BFRs), including hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), due to their confirmed detrimental effects on wildlife and humans have paved the way for the wide application of organophosphate esters (OPEs). OPEs have been extensively used as alternative flame retardants, plasticizer, and antifoaming agents in various industrial and consumer products, which leads to an increase in production, usage, and discharge in the environment. We compile recent information on the production/usage and physicochemical properties of OPEs and discussed and compared the available sample treatment and analysis techniques of OPEs, including extraction, clean-up, and instrumental analysis. The occurrence of OPEs in sediment, aquatic biota, surface, and drinking water is documented. Toxicity, human exposure, and ecological risks of OPEs were summarized; toxicological data of several OPEs shows different adverse health effects on aquatic organisms and humans. Much attention was given to document evidence regarding the bioaccumulation and biomagnification potential of OPEs in aquatic organisms. Finally, identified research gaps and avenues for future studies are forwarded. Graphical abstract
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Twenty years ago, we published an assessment of the threats facing primates and with the passing of two decades, we re‐evaluate identified threats, consider emerging pressures, identify exciting new avenues of research, and tackle how to change the system to rapidly advance primate and primate habitat conservation. Habitat destruction and hunting have increased, the danger of looming climate change is clearer, and there are emerging threats such as the sublethal effects of microplastics and pesticides. Despite these negative developments, protected areas are increasing, exciting new tools are now available, and the number of studies has grown exponentially. Many of the changes that need to occur to make rapid progress in primate conservation are in our purview to modify. We identify several dimensions indicating the time is right to make large advances; however, the question that remains is do we have the will to prevent widespread primate annihilation and extinction?
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Eco-anxiety may not be new, but could now be seen as an emergent phenomenon attracting increasing attention as public awareness about the climate and bio-diversity crisis grows. There may also be some generational differences in how we respond emotionally, with children often talking about feelings framed by their experience of adult misunderstanding or inaction. What often scares children the most is how they see the ‘adult world’ failing to take sufficient urgent action on these threats, whilst at the same time dismissing, criminalising, pathologising and patronising their feelings and voices. Children and young people are increasingly taking centre stage in protests about the need to take urgent action, whilst simultaneously often being the focus of society’s anxieties about the psychological impact of the crises; ‘we mustn’t frighten the children’. This paper focuses on children and young people’s perspectives; introducing eco-anxiety, drawing on clinical practice examples, research findings and finally offering conceptual frames to help us broaden and deepen our understanding of this evolving syndrome.
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