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La violence et le sacré

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... In La violencia y lo sagrado, René Girard (1972) suggests that sacrifice antecedes the formation of communities and is repeated upon every crisis. Scapegoats served to reroute the violence that threatened to destroy the social order onto a lesser kind of violence that targeted a minor actor (Girard 1972, 155), thus securing the necessary social cohesion. ...
... The mortification of the flesh, the gesture, and the Bible held by Wuerich reappropriate, with an evident religious dimension, the sacrificial logics of the revolutionary order to denounce state violence. For Girard (1972), the scapegoat offered a double connotation, positive and negative. While the victim evinces the shameful violence of a community, it also liberates the community of such shame, strengthening social unity. ...
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Taking as a starting point the ontological differentiation between animal and human as a fundamental mechanism of biopolitical violence, I analyze the ambiguity of the imaginaries of flesh and animality in the contexts of revolutionary Cuba and Venezuela. I demonstrate how the dynamics of power marked by an ontological division between human and not human, often ascribed to neoliberalism, paradoxically operate in socialist regimes. I examine several instances of visual arts, performance, literature, and public demonstrations, to reveal, on the one hand, sacrificial state power over the population’s bodies and, on the other, examples of disobedience against the state. Resumen Partiendo de la diferenciación ontológica entre lo humano y lo animal como mecanismo fundamental de la violencia biopolítica, analizaré la ambigüedad de los imaginarios sobre la carne y lo animal en Cuba y Venezuela. Demostraré cómo las dinámicas de poder marcadas por esta división ontológica que generalmente se relacionan a contextos neoliberales, operan también de manera paradójica en regímenes socialistas. Para ello examinaré un corpus diverso de artes visuales, performance, literatura y demostraciones políticas a fin de revelar por un lado, el poder sacrificial del Estado sobre los cuerpos ciudadanos y, por el otro, la insumisión de los cuerpos frente a ese poder.
... En revanche, la violence, monopole légitime des forces surnaturelles, rend compte du châtiment comme un résultat de la répression du mal par le mal à des fins punitives visant la restauration de l'ordre et de la reconstruction du tissu social terni par le crime. Sans courir le risque de sombrer dans des débats ontologique, épistémologique, métaphysique ou encore philosophique, il nous semble nécessaire de souligner que le mal dans le contexte de notre analyse renvoie au crime, et est généralement considéré comme le fait de l'être humain qui agit en marge du contrat qui le lie, à sa communauté, au sacré, tandis que l'usage de la violence est inhérent au châtiment, et est du ressort des puissances surnaturelles (Girard, 1972). ...
... Dans la société traditionnelle africaine, le crime renvoie à un comportement "dissident" qui conduit à l'intrusion du « mal » dans le tissu social. Il déstabilise et fragilise ce tissus social en créant un sentiment d'insécurité, de désordre, d'apocalypse chez chaque membre de la communauté qui craint l'imminence d'une "violence automatique" (Girard, 1972) et répressive des dieux. Le caractère grégaire et communautaire des sociétés africaines fait que le crime commis par un individu est récupéré par la société par un processus automatique de responsabilisation collective découlant des engagements issus du « contrat social » qui les lie à la divinité. ...
Article
En Afrique, l’homme s’épanouit au sein d'un "totalitarisme cosmique". La vénération craintive du sacré ébranle la frontière entre le visible et l’invisible. Le cadre socio-culturel africain, ses croyances magico-religieuses, ses traditions donnent aux concepts de crime et châtiment un contenu qui soutient l’architecture d’une justice proprement africaine. Le crime c'est le mal dans ce qu'il a de destructeur tandis que le châtiment est une violence "légitime" des forces surnaturelles qui visent réprimander le mal par le mal. C'est du rapport crime et châtiment que l'on peut envisager l'existence d'une justice traditionnelle africaine qui intègre la donnée surnaturelle comme une variable fondamentale. Sur le plan esthétique, une lecture du corpus sous la perspective fantastique participe à déconstruire la vision "eurocentrique" du fantastique de sorte à reconnaître l'existence, sinon des "sensibilités fantastiques ayant un ancrage socioculturel indéniable, des typologies de fantastiques.
... La inmunización representa el anverso hermoso del sacrifi cio sublime del ritual del chivo expiatorio, que orienta la violencia, que se está extendiendo a toda la sociedad, hacia un objetivo sustitutivo y puede de esta manera contrarrestarla (Girard 1972(Girard : 105-178 y 1986. El chivo tiene, por lo tanto, un carácter profundamente ambivalente, principio causante de la violencia, es impuro; principio causante de la pacifi cación y de la purifi cación, es puro y santo. ...
... La inmunización representa el anverso hermoso del sacrifi cio sublime del ritual del chivo expiatorio, que orienta la violencia, que se está extendiendo a toda la sociedad, hacia un objetivo sustitutivo y puede de esta manera contrarrestarla (Girard 1972(Girard : 105-178 y 1986. El chivo tiene, por lo tanto, un carácter profundamente ambivalente, principio causante de la violencia, es impuro; principio causante de la pacifi cación y de la purifi cación, es puro y santo. ...
... A obscuridade é grande nos estudos do sacrifício (Girard, 1972(Girard, , 1978. A relação entre a violência e a solidariedade social (Coser, 1956;Giddens, 1988) também está identificada como um dos buracos negros das ciências sociais (Malešević, 2010: 17;Wieviorka, 2005: 68). ...
Article
Why do prison studies not explain notorious phenomena such as institutional violence in the most secure places in the world, the very different criminalization of sexes and social classes, the declared and unfulfilled intentions of states of respect of human rights? Why, in this regard, do ideological prejudices dominate? Prison sentences are modern phenomena, alongside wage labor. Prison and capitalism abolitionisms have separate histories. What they have in common is that they were both recovered by the system, and are now out of the game. Prison secrets are accompanied by other cognitive black holes, such as the social need to organize human sacrifices, both in penitentiaries and at work. Including the sacrificial economy in the analysis can help to overcome current epistemic limitations.
... Perché nella partita strategica lo sfidante è il medesimo del Settimo sigillo di Ingmar Bergman: la morte. È la presenza non solo e non tanto del rischio individuale, bensì di quello totale -la morte niente affatto simbolica di Stato, patria (Galli della Loggia 2008) e comunità -, che contribuisce a conferire alla guerra quell'attributo di sacralità che alcuni dei suoi interpreti più acuti e meno politicamente corretti, da Joseph de Maistre a James Hillman, passando per Roger Caillois e René Girard, le hanno riconosciuto (Girard 1972;Caillois 1990;Hillman 2004). In questa prospettiva lo sgomento di fronte al gesto 'incomprensibile' del terrorista suicida appare il sintomo più eclatante dell'odierna incapacità dell'Occidente di pensare le guerre proprie e comprendere quelle altrui. ...
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Umberto Gori is an eminent representative of the first wave of international studies in Italy. Throughout the past decades he has constantly been engaged in a number of research projects – ranging from international organization to the theory of international relations, from strategic studies to forecasting – and has taught not only at the University of Florence but also at many other Italian and foreign institutions. The present collection of essays is meant to celebrate his outstanding career. The contributors are students of his who, in turn, have followed his path in teaching and research, and who acknowledge an intellectual debt to him. The volume is arranged according to three general themes that are consistent with Gori’s interests: the competitive and cooperative dimensions of the international system; foreign policy and regional governance; the contemporary international order.
... I am now expanding my approach to hate speech, bringing together the psychological mechanisms of hate conceptualized by Girard [8] to better understand the manifestations of hate on Instagram. These three blocks should then allow me to present a holistic approach to online interactions upon which an ethical system for the moderation of problematic online interactions could be erected. ...
Conference Paper
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... From a reflection on the novels of these authors, René Girard developed universal things through a theory of desire (Girard, 1961) and human relationships, then of the violence (Girard, 1972) that constitutes human societies. His merit is to have observed a phenomenon that everyone has watched for hundreds of years without grasping the real scientific significance. ...
Experiment Findings
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The Research Methods course as taught at most universities does not train students to gain a deeper understanding of the worlds around them but to speak well using sophisticated technical language. The standards to which this course generally refers (research design, methodology, sampling, etc.) are performative in the sense that they ultimately impose a specific path. This paradoxically contradicts the objective stated by the course designers, which refers to an introduction to research methods. Hence the need for an initiation to research languages that tacitly impose a precise path. This is what I call advanced research methodology. In this lecture, I explore the contribution of Rene Girard in this matter, noting that the subject has not received attention from economists who generally focus on the notion of mimetic desire.
... Il s'agit, là aussi, d'un mouvement vers un moment antérieur de la psyché ou de l'identité du possédé. Si la violence artistique peut être pensée et si elle peut être insérée dans une problématisation qui a un sens, à la fois social et psychologique, il est impossible de le déconnecter de ces dimensions (Chastagner, 1999 ;Girard, 1972 ;Hell, pp. 175-225). ...
... Ion fundamentally is about, this article aims to address an ancient problem that appears as a recurring theme in Western thought and gains interest in contemporary debates concerning performance and immanence (Cull 2012;Rokem 2017); namely, theatrical mimesis as an embodied, non-representational concept (Gebauer and Wulf 1995;Murray 1997;Potolsky 2006) and the anthropological notion of imitation as contagion and intoxication (Girard 1974;Nancy 2015;Tarde 2010). In that context, Plato's Ion is placed precisely at the tension point between philosophy and literature, embodying "the ancient quarrel between philosophy and poetry" (see also Corby 2015;Plato 2013a), hovering between the intoxicating power of performance and the quest for critical reasoning. ...
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This essay stages a philosophical dialogue between one of Plato’s earliest and shortest works, Ion, and Philippe Lacoue-Labarthe’s deconstructive reflections on Diderot’s paradox of the actor. It takes the rhapsodic practice of the ancient figure of Ion as a reference point for thinking about the performer’s intoxicating nature and investigates its philosophical, bodily and psychological implications as well as its critical potential. It will proceed in three stages. The first part takes a detailed look at the absolute focal point of Ion, namely the analogy between the rhapsode’s intoxication and the Heraclean lodestone. The second part addresses the ‘logic’ of the magnet specifically from Ion’s point of view, which entails a critique of Socrates’ assumption of Ion being ‘out of his wits’ when he performs. The final part shows, with the help of Lacoue-Labarthe’s radicalization of Diderot’s paradox – the actor is nothing and everything at the same time – how Ion’s intoxicating impersonations can be considered an imperative for catharsis and critical intervention.
... De forma mais ou menos explícita, esta teoria do desejo já se encontrava presente na obra que Girard publicou em 1961. Ora, com a publicação de La Violence et le Sacré (Girard, 1972) e Des Choses Cachées depuis la Fondation du Monde (Girard, 1978), Girard vai encontrar a origem do desejo mimético e do próprio processo de significação em geral no processo que causou a transição do Animal para o Homem. Um dado essencial para compreender essa passagem consiste no facto do comportamento social de muitas espécies, em particular dos mamíferos superiores, ser a existência de padrões de dominação (dominance patterns), os quais estabelecem naturalmente uma hierarquia entre os membros de uma comunidade animal. ...
... The plot of Lang is structured according to pairings of mimetic desire and mimetic violence (see Girard 1972;Mäkelä 2014), in which locations can be interpreted as indicators of the socioeconomic (and other) inequalities that drive mimetic desire. This is most obvious on the level of the fortunate Lang (based in affluent Punavuori), who conquers Sarita (in working-class Kallio) from the much less prosperous Marko, the ex-husband of Sarita, who is living in the periphery of the capital. ...
... Todo esto es lo que dará origen a una tradición narrativa, que analiza la violencia sacrificial, y que comienza con el extraordinario trabajo de Marcel Mauss y Henri Hubert de 1898Hubert de (1981, y que tiene sus manifestaciones más recientes en los escritos de René Girard (1972). Nos atemoriza la monstruosidad del replicante porque su ambivalencia supone un ataque frontal al sistema clasificatorio, al ser "seres limítrofes-liminoides" (Turner 1967, 93-112), entre lo uno y lo otro, innaturales, transgresivos, heterogéneos, seres que nos "cuidan y ayudan", pero que también nos pueden matar. ...
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This study analyzes the meaning and functions of social acceleration and the intensification of the thresholds of human existence as a consequence of the application of techno-bio-power to human life through genetic engineering, taking the science fiction film, Blade Runner, by Ridley Scott as a case study. The authors from whom I draw support for constructing the conceptual framework of this study are Reinhart Koselleck — his extraordinary socio-historical studies of acceleration—, Herman Lübbe and David Harvey — their analyses of the phenomenon of the compression of time— and Harmut Rosa —with his theory about the driving forces of modern acceleration. The article explores the influence of variables like bio-technology and Artificial Intelligence (AI) in the creation of a new accelerated time, which redefine human nature and its social and cognitive surroundings. The conclusion is that natural evolution has been redefined by human design. © 2018, Universidad de los Andes, Bogota Colombia. All rights reserved.
... quand l'identité est vraiment parfaite, nous disons que les antagonistes sont devenus des doubles. » ( Girard, 1972 : 13 Ce conte présente également un deuxième stéréotype du récit mythique, celui de la mise en oeuvre d'un personnage donné comme seul responsable de la crise mortelle que vit la communauté. Plus les membres d'une collectivité sont représentés comme identiques, plus celui sur lequel s'est focalisée la culpabilisation collective est représenté comme un être négativement singulier. ...
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The Lying Goat is a traditional narrative that reinforces René Girard’s mimetic theory about understanding folktales. Indeed, the narrative portrays a crisis of indifferentiation, mimetic characters, transgression, lynching and even saving death. More is revealed with the morphogenetic evolution of history: the different versions of the folktale make it possible to reconstruct the transformation from a guilty heroine to an innocent heroine. Unlike ethnologic myths, however, folktales embody many cultural influences, thus making it difficult to interpret them. 31 janvier 2018
... Là où deux, trois, mille accusations symétriques et inverses se croisaient, une seule l'emporte et autour d'elle tout se tait. L'antagonisme de chacun contre chacun fait place à l'union de tous contre un seul ( Girard, 1990 Carnets, 12 | 2018 cultuelle d'un mythe cosmogonique est attestée chez beaucoup de sociétés traditionnelles (Eliade, 1963 : 50). ...
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Noting the key role that desire holds in the human condition, Girard believes that, in human relationships, there is an imitative character of desire. It is therefore possible to draw a mimetic triangle, with subject, object, model on its vertices. From the established interactions, rivalries arose in a way that, in primitive societies, created great conflicts which led to social chaos. The scapegoat was thought as a solution to control mimetic violence in these contexts. In his work, Girard formally introduces the scapegoat mechanism, seeking to identify the structure of mimetic crisis, founding homicide in mythology. This paper proposes an analysis of the Chinese cosmogonic Pangu myth through the theory of mimetic desire and the scapegoat mechanism, also trying to identify the same mimetic crisis, leading to widespread violence, the presence of the founding homicide, and the reconstruction of differentiation in the society of the mentioned period. 31 janvier 2018
... Ensuite, on lui frappe les parties génitales, puis on le brûle et on répand sa cendre au gré du vent. Ce pharmakos est, du fait de son statut social (car il est bien souvent esclave) en dehors de la société (Girard, 1972). ...
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The Martyrs of Lyons and Vienne, preserved in Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History, book V, describes one of the cruelest persecutions to be executed against the early Church. The letter relates how, in the absence of a governor, in 177, an infuriated mob clamored for the massacre of the Christian community. I am aiming to show how mimetic theory casts a new light on hagiography as a literary genre. The Martyrs of Lyons perfectly corresponds to the Girardian definition of the scapegoat, and unites all of Girard’s stereotypes of persecution. The scapegoat/martyr is channeling collective violence and thus regulates the community’s internal tensions. I will aim for a hermeneutics of hagiography in which the evangelic sphere reveals the depth of sacrificial violence. A new aspect of hagiographical texts can be unravelled with a Girardian reading. 31 janvier 2018
... Le week-end, il fréquente de temps en temps le simplet du village, surnommé le « pleu-pleu », sur lequel la violence de son frère aîné Arnaud et de Frédo, l'ami de ce dernier, se déchaîne. Le personnage du « pleu-pleu » devient ainsi le prototype de la victime émissaire qu'évoque René Girard (1972) : par sa faiblesse et sa différence, il est extérieur au groupe, ce qui lui confère une fonction « sacrifiable ». Martial retrouve un matin le « pleu-pleu » sur le sol de sa maison littéralement massacré. ...
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Dans le contexte de la littérature jeunesse, le traitement de la violence et de sa noirceur peut remettre en jeu les normes et l’horizon d’attente du lecteur adulte. Guillaume Guéraud est l’un des rares auteurs français écrivant des livres pour adolescents à refuser ces contraintes. À travers l’exemple de trois romans, cet article montre comment la violence prend place et se finalise parfois en une « fin non-heureuse ». Au-delà d’un défi aux normes traditionnelles en littérature pour adolescents, l’omniprésence du rouge et du noir dans les romans de Guéraud institue un statut plus élevé du lecteur adolescent et s’éloigne de la fonctionnalité didactique traditionnelle de la littérature de jeunesse.
Chapter
The development of the modern state could have led to the disappearance of the phenomenon of vigilantism. On the contrary, in the contemporary neoliberal moment, the phenomena of citizen participation in policing and vigilantism seem to have become integrated into the area of policing both in the Global South and in Western countries. The development of the phenomenon of securitisation, i.e. the treatment of social problems through a purely securitarian prism, has favoured the return of various forms of citizen participation in police work. These forms can be diverse, ranging from mass participation in surveillance to pure vigilantism. The securitisation of borders and migration seems to constitute a central element of this contemporary return to vigilantism
Chapter
Despite the construction of a theory of labor value, the Physiocratic school and Smith’s analysis incorporate elements directly related to utility value and announce the further developments elaborated by the Neoclassical School, starting from marginalism. For example, the fact that Smith conceives labor as disutility is justified by the utility value theory, and not the labor value theory.
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Towards a Vigilant Society sheds light on the emergence of a new society of vigilance, in particular the actions of anti-migrant groups around Dover and Calais. Based on field research on both sides of the channel, it studies the dynamics of these groups - midway between a social movement and vigilantism - at these two key points in the international migration route between the European Union and the United Kingdom. In recent years, a series of anti-migrant groups have been mobilising on both sides of the Channel to counter migrations. Their actions range from demonstrations, to violence against migrants. And by staging their actions on social media, which is an extraordinary sounding board, these groups can build an online community and a mass audience, influencing public opinion and even the migration policies of states. This is an open access title available under the terms of a CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 International licence. It is offered as a free PDF download from OUP and selected open access locations
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This paper aims to analyze the manifestation of the “Sorondrano” rain ritual and to assess community perceptions of its expected impacts in the face of extremely dry years over the past 38 years. Specifically, it attempts to characterize the relationship of the Ntandroy to their history and their ways of controlling their environment through this ritual practice and to highlight the conditions and requirements, norms and principles applicable to make the success of the ritual activity effective and reassuring in cases of repetitive droughts. The ethnographic field study was conducted with 44 respondents who had not left the localities in the past 10 years and were selected by purposive sampling. Data was further analyzed qualitatively by content analysis given the prevalent use of Likert type scales analyses. The surveys showed that the majority of the participants have witnessed the ritual ceremony in their lives and affirm its notoriety. They perceived its performance in the face of the eight cases of climatic drought recorded from 1981 to 2019, fitting in the harmonization of procedural steps that the sacrifice is performed without any error. The results imply the continued engagement in the Community - Supernatural Being relationship for the sustainable management of climatic drought cases and above all support the Ntandroy social religion as true coping strategies promoting rainfall as a local economic revival.
Thesis
Le problème de la crise écologique est d’une difficulté redoutable pour la rationalité économique s’il y a tout lieu de craindre qu’elle contraigne sensiblement l'utilité des agents, l’écologie scientifique n’apparaît pas à même, du fait de la complexité de son objet, de fournir à l’économie des appuis simples pour une intégration rationnelle univoque. Les entités écologiques ne sont pas des « biens environnementaux » : elles ne sont ni stables, ni discrètes, ni homogènes, mais s'entremêlent dans le temps et l’espace, à la fois lourdes d’une histoire singulière et perméables aux influences de leur environnement. Intégrer de tels objets dans un schéma instrumental général exige, dès lors, d'aller au-delà de l'application de simples jeux d'équivalences : les structures réelles requièrent d’être suivies de près, en assurant ici le maintien de régularités, là leur modification lente. Face à ces difficultés, une nouvelle nécessité apparaît qui conditionne le succès de l'intégration : la « malignité » de la rationalité instrumentale elle-même, la détermination des agents à opérer l'intégration. Or cette condition, avec l'extension du champ de la raison instrumentale, apparaît de plus en plus compromise. Il faut compter, en effet, avec le débordement du domaine des moyens, qui tend à produire, dans la modernité tardive, une érosion de la souveraineté subjective, une « décomposition du sujet », selon l 'expression de T W. Adorno. Est faite ici la supposition que le problème écologique est un problème double, en réalité : qu'il interroge la possibilité d'une rationalisation des entités écologiques, mais aussi, plus indirectement, la robustesse des finalités de l'agent.
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¿Qué es lo que nos revela, sobre Rousseau y sobre la Ilustración en general, una lectura girardeana de sus textos autobiográficos? Quizás que, en el corazón mismo de ese movimiento que supuestamente inaugura la Edad de la Razón, lo que en el fondo se juega es una crisis mimética no muy distinta de las que caracterizan a las primitivas religiones sacrificiales. Tras una breve introducción en la que enlistamos las tensiones que caracterizan a Rousseau, y tras una muy breve exposición de la teoría girardiana de la crisis mimética, y de la trampa de la cruz, mostraremos cómo el expediente rosseauniano cumple cabalmente con todos los requisitos para que se lo considere una crisis mimética en la que, dado el todos contra uno, se procede a la expulsión del chivo expiatorio. Mostraremos, además, que en esa crisis Rousseau juega el doble rol de perseguido secundario, y de persecutor, a su vez, como el resto de los ilustrados, de la Compañía de Jesús.
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This book offers a thorough analysis of demons in the Hebrew Bible and Septuagint in the wider context of the ancient Near East and the Greek world. Taking a fresh and innovative angle of enquiry, Anna Angelini investigates continuities and changes in the representation of divine powers in Hellenistic Judaism, thereby revealing the role of the Greek translation of the Bible in shaping ancient demonology, angelology, and pneumatology. Combining philological and semantic analyses with a historical approach and anthropological insights, the author both develops a new method for analyzing religious categories within biblical traditions and sheds new light on the importance of the Septuagint for the history of ancient Judaism.
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Ce travail d’anthropologie médicale et culturelle est issu d’une recherche qualitative sur les chirurgiens esthétiques qui a été réalisée en France et au Mexique de 2012 à 2019. Souvent, ces praticiens sont dépeints dans les médias comme des personnages malveillants. Dans cette thèse, nous étudions comment ces médecins répondent à leurs détracteurs et défendent la valeur sociale et thérapeutique de la chirurgie esthétique. L’anthropologie médicale nous fournit un outil théorique, celui de l’efficacité symbolique (Lévi-Strauss), qui nous permet de mieux saisir les logiques propres à cette pratique. Dans le cadre de ce travail, nous suivons ces spécialistes depuis leur parcours de formation jusqu’à leur installation « en ville ». L’ambiance de leurs cabinets, ces « temples de la beauté », est hautement particularisée, cet espace favorise une rencontre propice à la suggestion entre le chirurgien et le candidat à une opération. Néanmoins, le pouvoir de ces praticiens reste ambivalent, car si leur objectif est le façonnement d’humanité ou l’anthropopoiésis (Remotti), le spectre de l’insatisfaction et de l’abus de pouvoir peut faire basculer leur activité dans une destruction d’humanité ou anthropokhatairesis.
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Resumen: Se analiza aquí la figura de Voltaire tanto en esa calidad de harto dudoso o problemático "paladín de la tolerancia" que las democracias liberales-hoy en tan profunda crisis-le atribuyen; como en la también desmesurada opinión que él tuvo de sí mismo, en su siglo, como posible vence-dor del cristianismo. Veremos también, en paralelo, lo que todo esto implica para el problema de nuestra filosofía. Palabras clave: Cristianismo, Ilustración, tolerancia. Abstract: Analyzed here is the character of Voltaire and his renown as the highly doubtful or problematic "champion of tolerance" that liberal democracies-currently in a profound crisis-attribute to him, as well as, the excessively exaggerated opinion he had of himself, during his century, as the one who could possibly triumph over Christianity. We shall also see, simultaneously, what this means in relation to the problem of our philosophy.
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This comparative study of the works Não falei (2004) by Beatriz Bracher and Azul-corvo (2012) by Adriana Lisboa aims to analyze the representations of the responsibility-transfer mechanisms from the State to ordinary citizens, for crimes against humanity committed during the period of military dictatorship in Brazil. Building on the thoughts of Žižek (2012), we will take a look at how individuals, through the roles of informant and defector, are liable for acts of “subjective violence” committed by the regime, disregarding a primordial “systemic violence.” Taken from a logical causal context, these acts are matched and judged outside the legal system, analyzed within the personal spheres, according to affective and moral judgements. In the light of Ricœur’s (2000) reflections on the abuses of oblivion, we will see how the “Amnesty Law” solidifies this alienating process that, in the interests of creating a national “imaginary unit,” dilutes all political crimes in a uniform amalgam of forgiveness. The Pollack’s (1993) concept of “underground memory” will help us observe the existing abuse also within the wheelhouse of memory, by forcing the penetration of the collective into the casing of individual memories. Finally, we will show how the imaginary, point of contact between literature and history, according to White (1987), proves to be an essential resource for freely remembering or forgetting, harboring these “subterranean memories.”
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À partir d’un cadre d’analyse en sémiotique sociale, cet article aborde les pratiques de conception du livre numérique enrichi au prisme de l’un de ses supports de lecture les plus emblématiques : la tablette iPad de l’équipementier Apple. En nous appuyant sur des entretiens semi-directifs menés auprès de concepteurs, nous faisons émerger les processus de négociation avec les contraintes, normes industrielles, formes esthétiques et prescriptions d’usages encodées dans les interfaces graphiques et « architextes » de la tablette. À partir de l’exemple du livre numérique Le Horla, récit fantastique enrichi pour la jeunesse, nous explorons la manière dont certaines représentations, parfois idéologiques, s’incarnent dans la matérialité de l’artefact ou sont, au contraire, mises au défi par ses stratégies sémiotiques et rhétoriques.
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Dans cet article, nous examinons les nouvelles et romans publiés par Lise Tremblay entre 1990 et 2007. Toute l'œuvre de Tremblay se caractérise par la colère et la violence qui la traversent. Dans cette étude, nous nous penchons sur les nombreuses expressions tant de la colère que de la violence manifestées par ces personnages, sur les tentatives qui sont les leur de maîtriser leurs émotions et, le cas échéant, sur leurs échecs. Nous y analysons également la manière dont la violence atteint des paroxysmes (suicides et meurtres) et mène inexorablement à une souffrance extrême. Nous soulignons enfin le rôle important que joue la compassion dans le monde cruel de Tremblay.
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This chapter compares the characteristics, roles, and fates of two teenage girls who are victims of sadistic violence (including rape) in two Mexican films, Después de Lucía (dir. Michel Franco 2012) and Heli (dir. Amat Escalante 2013). After inscribing these adolescents within the broader panorama of teenage protagonists in contemporary Mexican cinema, the chapter seeks to interpret the filmic treatment and the significance of their sexual abuse in relation to other acts of violence in the films’ narratives, showing that such narratives crystallise an anti-initiatory process of the loss of speech. Lastly, the chapter focuses on the mise-en-scène of two key cinematic tropes connected with the tragedies of these adolescent characters, namely screens (i.e. televisions, videogames, iPhones) and cars.
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This article analyzes one kind of colonial equipment designed in the early twentieth century for the purpose of providing medical assistance to the indigenous populations of Angola and Mozambique. I will refer to it as a ‘hut-hospital’, although it had several forms and designations. The layout of hut-hospitals consisted of a main building and a number of hut-like units that were supposedly more attractive to the indigenous population and therefore more efficient than the large, rectangular buildings of the main colonial hospitals. Using different sources, including three-dimensional plaster models of hut-hospitals, photographs, legal documents, and 1920s conference papers and articles, I will investigate the relatively obscure history of this colonial artifact while exploring the use of imitation as part of the repertoire of colonial governance.
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Revue en ligne de sciences humaines et sociales Accueil Documents de travail Numéros à venir Numéro 35-Vieillir en institution Aline Chassagne Les temporalités de la vieillesse en prison. Le temps oublié des « vieux » détenus Résumé Au cours des trois dernières décennies, la part des personnes détenues âgées en France a quintuplé. Ainsi, les prisons qui étaient jusqu'alors composées majoritairement d'individus de moins de 30 ans ont vu leur part de séniors s'accroître. Cette tendance à enfermer plus fréquemment les « vieux » vient bouleverser nos représentations de la criminalité mais aussi celles liées à la vieillesse. Après avoir présenté les conditions de l'enquête de terrain dans une première partie, deux expériences du vieillissement en prison seront exposées à partir de deux cas empiriques. Pour finir, trois points saillants issus de l'analyse des temporalités de la vieillesse en prison seront développés : les difficultés de s'ajuster au rythme carcéral, la présence d'un temps vide et la modification de l'horizon temporel. Partant de ces trois points, les normes de la vieillesse et les objectifs de la sanction pénale seront interrogés. Abstract Temporalities of old age in prison. The forgotten time of "old" inmates Over the last three decades, the ratio of elderly detainees in France has been multiplied by five. Prisons that were hitherto populated mainly by inmates under the age of 30 have seen a dramatic increase in the number of older inmates. This tendency to detain the "old" not only shakes up our representations of crime, but also how we perceive old age. After a presentation of the field survey setting and methods in a first chapter, two separate experiences of ageing in prison will be detailed in the second, based on two empirical cases. Finally, three salient points from our analysis of the temporal aspects of ageing in prisons will be developed : the difficulties of adjusting to the prison rhythm, the presence of a time-vacuum, and the change in temporal horizon. Based on these points, the norms for ageing and the objectives of penal sentences will be questioned.
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René Girard speaks of the return of the religious as a “return of the sacred… in the form of violence.” This violence was inherent in the original “sacrificial system,” which deflected communal violence onto the victim. In this article, I argue that there is a double return of the sacred. With the collapse of the original sacrificial system, the sacred first reappears in the legal order. When this loses its binding claim, it reappears in the political order. Here, my claim will be that Carl Schmitt’s conception of the political is not simply structurally similar to Girard’s conception of the sacrificial system. It is actually a manifestation of this. In this political return of the religious, the religious and the political systems are conflated. What prevents us from seeing this is the self-concealment that is essential to the sacrificial act, a self-concealment that also characterizes its twofold return.
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This book offers a theoretical investigation into the general problem of reality as a multiplicity of ‘finite provinces of meaning’, as developed in the work of Alfred Schutz. A critical introduction to Schutz’s sociology of multiple realities as well as a sympathetic re-reading and reconstruction of his project, Experiencing Multiple Realities traces the genesis and implications of this concept in Schutz’s writings before presenting an analysis of various ways in which it can shed light on major sociological problems, such as social action, social time, social space, identity, or narrativity.
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Jena Romanticism can be used as an example to illustrate the conscious and unconscious permanency and transmission of sacrifice, and this despite Christ’s revelation of the mechanism, as Wackenroder, Tieck and Novalis offer us a new and original staging of the writer. The redefinition of the poet and of the act of creation around 1800 allows a reconciliation between mimetic theory and writing. In their self-reflexive novels, the sacrifice takes a new form, when these writers must find in the resumption of sacrifice an adequate form between travesty and nothingness, allowing the reappropriation of the dynamics of sacrifice, but also, at the end, writing, literary production.
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Mimetic Theory distinguishes accusation and guilt. Oedipus is « accused » of having killed his father and committed incest with his mother; it does not mean that he is « guilty ». In the Gospels, a woman is « accused » of adultery; but by declaring « that he who has never sin cast the first stone », Christ makes it clear that this woman is no more « guilty » than those who accuse her. All the Mimetic Theory can then be summarized as a question of quotation marks. When one removes the quotation marks from the word « guilty », when one so speaks of « guilty without quotation marks », one creates victims that one is about to persecute. This article highlights the importance of quotation marks in Girard's analysis of the Book of Job, and the two novels by Camus L’Étranger and La Chute. All of this lead to a question addressed to Mimetic Theory: If « guilty » must always be written in quotation marks, should it not be the same for « innocent »?
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„Gewalt ist einer der schillerndsten und zugleich schwierigsten Begriffe der Sozialwissenschaften“ (Imbusch 2002, S. 26). Diese Feststellung des Soziologen Peter Imbusch führt ein in die besonderen Herausforderungen der Beschäftigung mit dem Gewaltbegriff. Auch dort, wo – wie in der Friedensdenkschrift der Evangelischen Kirche in Deutschland (EKD 2007) – mit dem Konzept des gerechten Friedens eine bewusste Fokussierung auf friedliche Konfliktlösungsstrategien vorgenommen wird, bleibt der Umgang mit Gewalt und die Frage nach der Anwendung von Waffengewalt als ultima ratio doch einer der strittigsten Punkte der Auseinandersetzung.
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Der kanadische Historiker Modris Eksteins beginnt seine Kulturgeschichte des Ersten Weltkriegs mit dem Skandal, der die Premiere von Strawinskys Ballett Le Sacre du printemps im Théâtre des Champs-Élysées begleitete (Eksteins 1990, S. 25-92). Der Abend des 29. Mai 1913 in Paris, an dem die Parteien der ästhetischen Avantgarde und der Klassizität aufeinanderprallten, ist in Eksteins Darstellung das Pendant zu dem, was im anschließenden, Berlin gewidmeten Kapitel als „Augusterlebnis“ bezeichnet wird: der frenetische Jubel, mit dem die deutsche Kriegserklärung an Russland gefeiert wurde, die Rede des Kaisers, wonach er keine Parteien mehr kenne, sondern nur noch Deutsche, und die stürmische Begeisterung, mit der die Regimenter an die Front verabschiedet wurden.
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The essay examines some of the major philosophical perspectives which have addressed the theme of vulnerability, with the aim of understanding what kind of ontologies they have produced, and how they have characterised the related ethics. Particular attention is placed on some Authors who, although sometimes very different in relation to their national and cultural backgrounds, share the same Jewish origin: Simone Weil, Emmanuel Levinas, Hans Jonas and Judith Butler. The essay shows how these Thinkers developed an ethics of responsibility. Special attention is payed to the philosophy of Hans Jonas and the possible links of his thought with the philosophy of animal rights.
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Defined by their well-known ancestors, the characters in Andromache (1667) – Racine’s first masterpiece – often evoke the possibility of a “second Ilium”. In this play, the author develops the theme of repetition, thanks to memories of both hackneyed and crystallized images, an omnipresent and burdensome past and overused past conflicts about love and war. How can tragic figures resist this untenable position? It will be necessary to focus on war and the shock waves it provoked before sketching the outline of this verbal explosion that enabled Racine to voice out his powerful vision of war.
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