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BLACK CUMIN (Nigella sativa) AND ITS ACTIVE COMPONENT OF THYMOQUINONE: EFFECTS ON HEALTH

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... The indicative of its use since ancient times black cumin seeds was discovered in Tutankhamun's tomb in the Valley of the Kings. It was used by Hippocrates (460-370 BC), who is considered the founder of modern medicine, to strengthen the liver and relieve digestive system complaints (Ermumcu & Şanlıer, 2017). It is also mentioned that the seeds of the plant were used by Hippocrates for snake and scorpion bites and skin rashes, head inflammations and colds (Majid, 2018). ...
... Chemical composition of black cumin; varies according to the harvest season, variety, climate and growing region of the plant (Ermumcu & Şanlıer, 2017;Güllü & Gülcan, 2013;Heshmati & Namazi, 2015;Sultan et al., 2009). The N. sativa seeds, depending on the variety and grown region, contain a yellowish volatile oil (0.01%-0.5%), a fixed oil (20%-40%), proteins, saponin, terpenoids, quinones (such as thymoquinone, nigellone, and thymohydroquinone), minerals (such as iron, calcium, potassium, magnesium, zinc and copper (1.79%-3.44%)) ...
... Black cumin seeds contain other ingredients, including Medicinal and Aromatic Plants: Economics Production Agricultural Ultilization and Other Aspects| 423 nutritional components such as carbohydrates, fats, vitamins, mineral elements, and proteins, including eight of the nine essential amino acids (Ghosheh, Houdi, & Crooks, 1999;Salem, 2005). Nigella sativa can be used in various forms, as a powder, oil or extract in traditional treatment (Ermumcu & Şanlıer, 2017;Heshmati & Namazi, 2015;Salem, 2005). ...
... THQ is less toxic in vivo and in vitro at a dose of 20-500 mg/kg; however, it was found toxic in a dose of 500 mg/kg on the histopathological level in the form of oil in rats (Ermumcu & Şanlıer, 2017). In vitro, the toxicity of THQ was tested in rat hepatocyte cultures both for cyto and genotoxicity and found that THQ produces genotoxic and cytotoxic effects at concentrations ≥ 25 mM (Khader et al., 2009). ...
... The Indian alternative system of treatments (Ayurveda and Siddha) effectively uses it for immune-boosting activity due to the presence of THQ and nigellone (Abdallah, 2017). The effectiveness in common cold is also reported (Ermumcu & Şanlıer, 2017). NS raises the level of CD8 cell and enhances the immunity in bronchial asthma and allergic rhinitis. ...
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Currently, the whole world is facing a life-threatening novel coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Natural products are well-known for their potential role against viral disease, and some anti-viral agents have been developed to combat these diseases. Herein, the authors investigated the possible effects of this Holy plant Nigella sativaL. (NS), against coronavirus, using evidence-based and mechanistic approaches to conclude the immune-boosting and alleviation of respiratory systemeffects of NS. The pharmacological studies established a prominent role in treating various respiratory, immune systems, cardiovascular, skin, and gastrointestinal disorders. Literature supported the significant anti-viral role and showed an inhibitory role for NS against MHV-A59 CoV (mouse-hepatitis virus–A59) infected Hela, i.e., HeLaCEACAM1a (HeLa-epithelial carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 1a) cell. NS is a safe herbal product or dietary supplement and could be an effective and affordable community adjuvant treatment for coronavirus in the current scenario.
... In addition, it has been shown that the liquid intake of N. sativa seed extract reduces glucose absorption and inhibits glucose carriers in diabetic rats (27). Our results verify the positive and dose-dependent effect of N. sativa seed in improving insulin resistance and serum level changes of insulin in PCOS rats. ...
... Recent studies have shown that thymoquinone in black seeds have inhibitory effects on free radicals (37,38) and the potential antihyperglycemic properties of N. Sativa is based on its antioxidant content. Moreover, N. sativa is reported to stimulate paraoxonase enzyme, which functions as an antioxidant (27). Furthermore, flavonoids, active ingredients in N. sativa seed (21), have antioxidant properties (39). ...
Article
Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common endocrine disorders among women. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the therapeutic effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Nigella sativa (N. sativa) seed as a plant, the consumption of which has been recommended in Islam, on dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA)-induced PCOS rats. Materials and Methods: This experimental study was carried out on 36 Wistar female rats (3 wk, 60 ± 10 gr). Then rats were divided into 6 groups (n = 6/each): control; PCOS-induced (DHEA 60 mg/kg/sc); PCOS+ Metformine (30 mg/kg); and three experimental groups receiving DHEA + hydroalcoholic extract of N. sativa seeds in doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg, respectively. Blood samples were taken for the evaluation of sexual hormones, oxidative stress, glucose, and insulin after 30 days of treatment. Ovarian tissue was used for histopathological study. Results: The serum levels of luteinizing hormone, testosterone, glucose, insulin resistance, malondialdehyde, and insulin (p ≤ 0.001) and estrogen increased while the levels of progesterone (p = 0.01) and antioxidant enzymes in the PCOS group decreased (p ≤ 0.001). Conclusion: The administration of the N. sativa extract to the PCOS rats resulted in remarkable changes in the serumic factors relative to the PCOS group. In addition, the extract improved the structure of the ovarian tissue in the PCOS rat. The histopathological results which are in accordance with biochemical findings imply that N. sativa seed could be useful in the treatment of PCOS, the higher doses of the extract being more effective.
... Nigella sativa (NS), which is commonly called black caraway, is a traditional medicine that has been used in Middle Eastern countries, Asia, Southern Europe, India, Pakistan, Syria, Saudi Arabia, Turkey, and the Southern Mediterranean countries. NS is a herbal plant from the family Ranunculaceae (buttercup), which contains many therapeutic benefits such as a bronchodilator, gastroprotective, hepatoprotective, antitumor, antidiabetic, antihypertensive, antioxidant, antifungal, immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antiviral, antipyretic, contraceptive, antimicrobial, anticonvulsant, antitussive, anticancer, antihyperlipidemic, and antibacterial effects [1][2][3][4][5]. e bioactive contents of NS are thymoquinone with derivatives such as dithymoquinone, thymohydroquinone, and thymol (30-48%), p-cymene (7%-15%), carvacrol (6%-12%), 4terpineol (2%-7%), t-anethole (1%-4%), sesquiterpene longifolene (1%-8%), safranal, α-thujene, thymol, α-pinene, and α-terpinene which have been shown to have therapeutic effect for various diseases [6][7][8][9]. ...
... Hadi et al. [13] Hadi et al. [14] Namazi et al. [ Hadi et al. [13] Hadi et al. [14] Namazi et al. [15] Nikkhah-Bodaghi et al. [16] WMD (95%CI) e Scientific World Journal 5 NS contains a high amount of thymoquinone which has been proven to enhance the enzyme function in lipid metabolism and protect cells against lipid peroxidation [1]. ymoquinone from NS has been shown to be able to increase the SOD activity [35]. ...
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Introduction: Nigella sativa is a commonly used traditional medicine which has been shown to have antioxidant properties. However, its supplementation in patients of clinical trials showed conflicting results. Materials and Method. Relevant articles were searched through PubMed/Medline, SCOPUS, and Google Scholar databases using "Nigella sativa" or "black seed" or "black caraway" or "thymoquinone" and "oxidative stress" or "antioxidant" and "clinical trial" keywords. Randomized, placebo-controlled human interventions using Nigella sativa were included in this study. The methodological quality of studies was assessed using Jadad's quality scales. Results: Five studies using 293 subjects met the inclusion criteria. The overall quality of all included trials was determined based on the low risk of bias and the high quality of reported information (Jadad score ≥ 3). Meta-analysis of 293 eligible subjects showed that treatment with Nigella sativa improved the superoxide dismutase (SOD) level (48.18; 95% CI 30.29 to 66.08; p < 0.01), but there was no significant effect on the malondialdehyde (MDA) level (-5.32; 95% CI -1.19 to 0.128; p=0.114) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) level (0.219; 95% CI -0.136 to 0.573; p = 0.227). Conclusion: This meta-analysis suggests that Nigella sativa supplementation in humans may benefit as an antioxidant by increasing SOD levels but has no significant effect on the MDA level and TAC level.
... Nigella sativa L. belongs to the Ranunculaceae family, and it was known for more than 2000 years, It grows in Eastern Europe, the Middle East and West of Asia (24). This lant is known for its medicinal value, due to its high concentration of essential oils (5,15), from which it derived, its important therapeutic properties such as antiinflammatory (3,16), antidiabetic (4), antihypertensive (10), antihistamine (8), antioxidant (21), antitumor (11), antibacterial (2), antihyperlipidemic and immune-system effects (20), anticancer and antimicrobial (11,20), as well as digestive, diuretics, analgesics, anti-diarrheal and appetite stimulant (12,19,23). Plant tissue culture technology is one of the most modern and widely used methods of providing raw materials that can be used for therapeutic purposes or in the pharmaceutical industry. ...
... Nigella sativa L. belongs to the Ranunculaceae family, and it was known for more than 2000 years, It grows in Eastern Europe, the Middle East and West of Asia (24). This lant is known for its medicinal value, due to its high concentration of essential oils (5,15), from which it derived, its important therapeutic properties such as antiinflammatory (3,16), antidiabetic (4), antihypertensive (10), antihistamine (8), antioxidant (21), antitumor (11), antibacterial (2), antihyperlipidemic and immune-system effects (20), anticancer and antimicrobial (11,20), as well as digestive, diuretics, analgesics, anti-diarrheal and appetite stimulant (12,19,23). Plant tissue culture technology is one of the most modern and widely used methods of providing raw materials that can be used for therapeutic purposes or in the pharmaceutical industry. ...
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This experiment was conducted to study the effect of explant and poly ethylene glycol (PEG) on the production of monoterpeniods compounds in the callus of Nigella sativa. The explant type had a significant effect on callus induction from the hypocotyl giving a significant increase on fresh and dry weight of 282.8 and 25.25 mg. respectively. as well, as the production of the borneol compound at 26.70 μg.100mg⁻¹ dry weight.The callus inducted from the cotyledon has a significant increase of the thujone, α-pinene, camphene and carvacrol compounds at 24.01, 20.58, 13.58 and 23.80 μg.100mg⁻¹ dry weight, respectively. The increasing concentrations of PEG resulted in a significant reduction in fresh and dry weight. Also, the addition of PEG stimulated the production of terpeniods with the PEG concentration of 100g.L⁻¹ producing the highest amount of borneol and carvacrol at 36.60 and 37.80 μg.100mg⁻¹ dry weight. Meanwhile, 150 g.L⁻¹ PEG treatment produced the highest amount of thujone, α-pinene, camphene and mycene at 23.29, 21.13, 14.45 and 12.45 μg.100mg⁻¹ dry weight, respectively. The interaction between the two factors was significant, with the callus inducted from cotyledon treated with 100 g.L⁻¹ of PEG, showed the highest production of thujone, α-pinene and carvacrol at 27.57, 29.33 and 47.20 μg.100mg⁻¹ dry weight. Limonene reached 14.96 μg.100mg⁻¹ dry weight, at 150g.L⁻¹ of PEG treatment in callus inducted from the hypocotyl. © The Iraqi Journal of Agricultural Science - College of Agriculture \ Baghdad University 2015.
... The importance of black cumin has been counted a long history in the civilization of human beings as it was being used as a spice, traditional herbs, and food preservative and enhances the flavor of bakeries (Ermumucu and Sanlier, 2017). Black cumin seed for local consumption and other importance, such as oil and oleoresin for medicinal purposes, export market, crop diversification, income generation and others made black cumin as a best alternative crop under Ethiopian smaller land holdings (Dessalegn & Wubeshet, 2018). ...
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Nowadays black seed plays a vital role throughout the world because of its importance in health, pharmaceuticals, spices, and income-earning. The crop is cultivated throughout the world including Ethiopia. The households of Ethiopia use black cumin for a long period of time until today. Even though black cumin is important, the production and productivity obtained from the hectare are very low as compared to the other countries. The main reasons for the less productivity are mainly attributed to the lack of improved variety, lack of fertilizer management, lack of knowledge on cultural practices, and diseases and insect pest management. By considering those problems one can come up with a solution for the less productivity of black cumin. Therefore, the research should be conducted on fertilizer requirements, an adaptation of available varieties, recommendations for agronomic practices, disease and insect pest management, and the like.
... Nigella sativa has been used as a food preservative and to enhance flavour in many countries of the world for thousands of years and has also been used as a spice, and Nigella sativa seed and oil has been consumed for the treatment of many diseases in the world for many years. Today, it is believed to have antihypertensive, antihyperlipidemic, antidiabetic, anticancer, antioxidant, antimicrobial, antitumour, antibacterial, antiinflammtory and immune-system effects through its components (Merve and Nevin, 2017). Nigella sativa is used to decrease asthenia and depression, and to increase body resistance (Razavi & Hosseinzadeh, 2014). ...
... It is originating from the Mediterranean region but occurs in many countries of Europe and Asia, too (Saleh et al., 2018). N. sativa has many biological effects such as anti-inflammatory, antihyperlipidemic, antimicrobial, anticancer, antioxidant, antidiabetic, antihypertensive as well as effects on the reproductive, digestive, immune and central nervous system such as anticonvulsive and analgesic activity (Ermumcu and Şanlıer, 2017;Toma et al., 2010;Khan et al., 2011;Kooti et al., 2016;Sharma et al., 2009). According to Takruri and Dameh (1998), proteins, fats, dietary fiber, iron, zinc, phosphorus, calcium, thiamin, cyanine, folic acid, isoquinoline alkaloids, nigelin, and nigelinin are involved in the composition of N. Sativa seeds. ...
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Phytochemical composition of black cumin seeds (Nigella sativa L.) of Turkish origin was evaluated. The following results (on a dry-weight basis) were obtained: essential oil (0.59%), lipid fraction (37.00%), crude protein (22.10%), vitamins (3358 µg/100g), mineral elements (10922.03 µg/g), fiber (4.20%), and total carbohydrate (31.30%). The main constituents in the essential oil were p-cimene (26.01%), thymoquinone (21.09%), α-thujene (9.92%), thymol (8.42%), and γ-terpinene (5.16 %). The main unsaturated fatty acids in lipid fraction were linoleic acid (43.43%), followed by oleic acid (21.56%), while the main saturated fatty acid was palmitic acid (9.62%). Arginine (20.12 g/100 g protein), glutamic acid (16.25 g/100 g protein) and leucine (10.01 g/100 g protein) were the major amino acids present while cystine was the minor amino acid (0.42 g/100 g protein). Bl ack cumin seeds were determined as a rich source of niacin (2323 µg/100 g). The predominant minerals were Ca (3540.00 µg/g), K (3265.00 µg/g), and P (2234.01 µg/g). The black cumin seeds could be suggested as potential unconventional products with high nutritional value for the food industry.
... Nigella sativa seed extract is being used widely as edible items and also as medicine for the curative of many diseases. It is fairly investigated for its medicinal values [20,21]. The seeds, which used for culinary, as well as medical purposes, have been shown to contain high levels of antioxidants. ...
Article
In the present investigation, gold NPs (Au-NPs) were synthesized via seed decoction of Nigella sativa, in which, the aqueous seed extract of Nigella sativa acted as a reducing agent as well as coated on Au-NPs surface. Herein, an attempt was made to develop a rapid and biocompatible method to synthesize gold NPs by phytofabrication for anti-diabetic application. The Nigella sativa seed extract and the Au-NPs synthesized using Nigella sativa exhibited a good antioxidant property, which was determined by the 2, 2- Diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activity assay. These Au-NPs exhibited 78% of anti- diabetic property, which was confirmed by α- amylase method. The synthesized nanoparticle Au-NPs size was confirmed by using SEM and TEM. The functional groups (thymoqninone) present in the seed extract as well as Au-NPs were analysed by FTIR. The major functional group i.e. thymoquinone was confirmed by the anthraquinone test and it is responsible for the antioxidant, anti-diabetic, and anticancer properties of the Au-NPs. The phytochemical based nanoparticle prepared in this work showed efficient anti-diabetic activities and it can be considered for the medical applications. In addition, phytochemical based nanoparticle synthesis is safe, eco-friendly, biocompatible, and cost effective.
... 30 It is the main bioactive component of Nigella sativa and TQ could be accountable for its main biological actions. 31 Many researchers also believe that all benefits of Nigella sativa are actually due to the presence of TQ in its composition. [32][33][34][35][36][37] Post-brushing, micro-hardness values of the experimental group were significantly increased. ...
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Objective The aim of this study was to assess changes in micro-hardness level of enamel after it was exposed to thymoquinone (TQ). Materials and Methods Sixteen enamel blocks were prepared and divided into two groups (each group received eight blocks, n = 8); Gp 1 (control): enamel blocks kept in 100 mL artificial saliva (AS) for 24 hours and Gp 2: enamel blocks kept in a mixture of TQ powder (1 g) and AS (100 mL) for 24 hours. Post-immersion they were subjected to simulated brushing with each sample receiving 8,000 linear strokes. For brushing, 3 mL of AS and TQ oil was used for groups 1 and 2, respectively. Enamel surfaces were analyzed for changes in values of surface micro-hardness (pre-immersion, post-immersion, and post-brushing) by obtaining Vickers hardness number (VHN). Results The present study indicated improvement in micro-hardness levels for both groups although experimental group showed more enhancement. The mean baseline VHN for control group was 498.6, 500.4 for post-immersion, and 503.5 for post-brushing. The mean baseline VHN for experimental group was 448.7, 531 for post-immersion, and 610.3 for post-brushing. Statistically significant differences (p < 0.05) were observed when post-brushing VHN values of both groups were compared and also within the experimental group when post-brushing values were compared with baseline values. Statistical Analysis Wilcoxon signed-rank test was applied for the evaluation of pre- and post-exposure hardness values. Level of significance was ≤0.05. Conclusion The exposure of enamel to TQ led to an improvement in its micro-hardness levels. Further studies are required to understand the mechanism of action of TQ on human tissues.
Chapter
Nigella sativa (NS) has a strong historical basis and is a well-researched herb and has been used for medicinal applications in many countries. A large number of various studies have been evaluated of the biological activities of NS and its oil. NS has been used in the treatment of many diseases around the world. Its beneficial effects against noncommunicable diseases such as cancer, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases have been emphasized. It was shown that the NS oil has antiinflammatory, antioxidant, antitumor, antibacterial, and anticancer activities and may improve glucose homeostasis and lipid profile.
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Nigella sativa L., whose seeds are known as black cumin, takes place in the Ranunculaceae family and has been grown in different regions of the world covering South Asian and East Mediterranean countries. It is an annual flowering plant and has an average 20–30 cm tall. As the fruit ripes, it forms a capsule containing small and black-colored seeds. Black cumin seeds contain protein, lipids, carbohydrates, crude fiber and ash. They have high lipid content and this quantity involves fixed and essential oil. The essential oil content of the seeds is about 0.4–1.2%. In order to extract the essential oil, different methods can be used such as hydrodistillation, microwave-assisted extraction, and supercritical carbon dioxide extraction. The extraction process may be achieved directly from crushed seeds or after separation of fixed oil. The main chemical constituents of black cumin essential oil are different types of terpene-derived hydrocarbons such as p-cymene, thymoquinone, thymol, α-thujene, α-pinene, β-pinene, carvacrol and γ-terpinene. Other minor constituents, like camphor, camphene, sabinene, longicyclene, α-phellandrene, borneol, carvone are also found. Thymoquinone is only found in black cumin essential oil and most important bioactive chemical compounds thanks to its wide application range for medical traits. The main usage areas of black cumin essential oil in the food industry are for the prevention of lipid oxidation and microbial growth. Due to these antioxidant and antimicrobial characteristics of the essential oil, it also plays a role as a functional food component. Increasing interest in functional foods makes it more popular. Leading nutraceutical features of black cumin essential oil as functional food has been reported in many studies and antibacterial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-toxic, anticancer, anti-toxic, cardiovascular, analgesic, anticonvulsant, anti-ischemic, and immune system effects have been discussed. The preventive effect of the side impacts of chemotherapeutic agents has been also mentioned.
Article
Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common type of arthritis (inflammation of the joints). OA can affect all cartilage throughout the body, including the spine, but mainly attacks the legs from the pelvis, especially the knee to the ankle which affects about 10% of men and 18% of women over 60 years old. Pharmacotherapy, surgery, and complementary therapy are the currently managements of OA. Nigella sativa (NS) is one of the herbal plants which is part of the prophet's medicines in the Islamic world which still used. Thymoquinone (TQ) is one of NS compound, has an anti-inflammatory effect by inhibit the formation of eicosanoids in leukocytes and lipid peroxidation, or inhibit the expression of PF NF-κB subunits and p50 subunits with TNF-a promoters, and reduce levels of C-reactive protein (CRP). TQ also has a chondroprotective effects mechanism by decreases prostaglandin E2 (PGE) mediated by IL-1β and inhibits MMP synthesis in chondrocytes. Through its anti-inflammatory and chondroprotective effect, NS is a potential therapeutic agent which beneficial use for OA management without toxicological effects when given.
Chapter
There are several conventional oilseeds which are used to obtain edible oil such as soybean oil, sunflower oil, peanut oil, etc. However, few are nonconventional sources that play a crucial role in human health. Nigella sativa is one of the nonconventional oilseeds, which contains more than 30% (98.5% is fixed oil, 1.5% essential oil) oil. Fixed oil of nigella seed contains linoleic acid (48–62%) followed by oleic acid (19–25%) and limited amount of saturated fatty acids (arachidonic and eicosenoic acid), while the essential oil (volatile oil) contains a number of bioactive constitutes including thymoquinone (38.23%), p-cymene (28.61%), longifolene (5.4%), and 4-isopropyl-9-methoxy-1-methyl-1-cyclohexane (5.8%). Apart from oil, Nigella sativa seed also contains high levels of protein (up to 26%), dietary fiber, and micronutrients. A wide variation also exists in the nutritional value including minerals and vitamins of Nigella seeds owing to variation in growing conditions, region, climate, etc. Bioactive constituents of Nigella seeds exhibit strong health benefits including antidiabetic, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and antifungal activities. The present chapter covers the nutritional value, bioactive compounds, health benefits, and food uses of Nigella sativa.
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High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) has been shown in epidemiologic studies to be associated with cardiovascular (CV) risk and thus significant efforts have been focused on HDL-C modulation. Multiple pharmaceutical agents have been developed with the goal of increasing HDL-C. Niacin, the most widely used medication to raise HDL-C, increases HDL-C by up to 25 % and was shown in multiple surrogate end point studies to reduce CV risk. However, two large randomized controlled trials of niacin, AIM-HIGH and HPS2-THRIVE, have shown that despite its effects on HDL-C, niacin does not decrease the incidence of CV events and may have significant adverse effects. Studies of other classes of agents such as cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) inhibitors have also shown that even dramatic increases in HDL-C do not necessarily translate to reduction in clinical events. While these findings have cast doubt upon the importance of HDL-C modulation on CV risk, it is becoming increasingly clear that HDL function-related measures may be better targets for CV risk reduction. Increasing ApoA-I, the primary apolipoprotein associated with HDL, correlates with reduced risk of events, and HDL particle concentration (HDL-P) inversely associates with incident CV events adjusted for HDL-C and LDL particle measures. Cholesterol efflux, the mechanism by which macrophages in vessel walls secrete cholesterol outside cells, correlates with both surrogate end points and clinical events. The effects of niacin on these alternate measures of HDL have been conflicting. Further studies should determine if modulation of these HDL function markers translates to clinical benefits. Although the HDL cholesterol hypothesis may be defunct, the HDL function hypothesis is now poised to be rigorously tested.
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Thymoquinone (TQ) is a phytochemical compound found in the plant Nigella sativa. It has antioxidant and anti-cancer effects. This study investigated the effects of TQ on obesity and testicular structure of high-fat-diet (HFD) fed rats. Obese control (OC) and obese thymoquinone (OT) groups were fed a special diet containing 40% of total calories from fat. Non-obese control (NC) and non-thymoquinone (NT) groups were fed a standard diet for nine weeks. Then, intraperitoneal TQ injections were carried out to the OT and NT groups for six weeks and testes were removed. Catalase and myeloperoxidase activity were determined in rat testis tissue. Stereological, histopathological, and immunohistochemical changes were evaluated in the testes of the rats. In stereological studies, mean volumes of testis and seminiferous tubules, the number of spermatogenic cells and also Leydig cells in the OC group were reduced, but these values significantly increased in the OT group. Apoptotic cells were observed in the OC group in comparison to the OT group. The number of healthy sperms were reduced in the OC group, whereas the majority showed anomalies in the head, neck, and tail. The number of healthy sperm was increased and the anomalies significantly reduced by using TQ in both the NT, and especially the OT group. TQ like antioxidants may improve fertility by means of increasing the healthy sperm number and preventing sperm anomalies.
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Nigella sativa is the miraculous plant having a lot of nutritional and medicinal benefits, and attracts large number of nutrition and pharmacological researchers. N. sativa seed composition shows that it is the blessing of nature and it contains and many bioactive compounds like thymoquinone, α-hederin, alkaloids, flavonoids, antioxidants, fatty acids many other compounds that have positive effects on curing of different diseases. Several medicinal properties of N. sativa like its anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic, antioxidant activities and many others are well acknowledged. However, this article focuses on activity of N. sativa against cardiovascular diseases and cancer. For gathering required data the authors went through vast number of articles using search engines like Science direct, ELSEVIER, Pub Med, Willey on Line Library and Google scholar and the findings were classified on the basis of relevance of the topic and were reviewed in the article. N. sativa is rich source of different biologically active compounds and is found effective in controlling number of cardiovascular diseases and various cancers both in vivo and in vitro studies.
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Nigella sativa (N. sativa) is a spice plant which has been traditionally used for culinary and medicinal purposes. Different therapeutic properties including the beneficial effects on asthma and dyspnea, digestive and gynecology disorders have been described for the seeds of N. sativa. There is evidence of the relaxant effects of this plant and some of its constituents on different types of smooth muscle including rabbit aorta, rabbit jejunum and trachea. The relaxant effect of N. sativa could be of therapeutic importance such as bronchodilation in asthma, vasodilation in hypertension and therapeutic effect on digestive or urogenital disorders. Therefore in the present article, the relaxant effects of N. sativa and its constituents on smooth muscles and its possible mechanisms as well as clinical application of this effect were reviewed.
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Nigella sativa seeds have wide therapeutic effects and have been reported to have significant effects against many ailments such as skin diseases, jaundice, gastrointestinal problems, anorexia, conjunctivitis, dyspepsia, rheumatism, diabetes, hypertension, intrinsic hemorrhage, paralysis, amenorrhea, anorexia, asthma, cough, bronchitis, headache, fever, influenza and eczema. Thymoquinone (TQ) is one of the most active constituent and has different beneficial properties. Focus on antimicrobial effects, different extracts of N. sativa as well as TQ, have a broad antimicrobial spectrum including Gram-negative, Gram-positive bacteria, viruses, parasites, schistosoma and fungi. The effectiveness of N. sativa seeds and TQ is variable and depends on species of target microorganisms. The present review paper tries to describe all antimicrobial activities that have been carried out by various researchers.
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The aim of this open label crossover study was to investigate the effects of Nigella sativa on reproductive health and metabolic profile of perimenopausal women in Rawang, Malaysia. Sixty nine perimenopausal women aged 45 to 65 were allocated into the experimental group treated orally with 1600mg/day of encapsulated pure powdered N. sativa compared to control groups treated with placebo for 12 weeks. At the end of study, participants underwent washout period for fourteen days before being crossed over and continued for another cycle of treatment. Participants were abstained from taking any other drugs, herbal preparations or food supplements throughout the study. Body weight, height, waist circumference, blood pressure, biochemical parameters and hormonal levels were measured at baseline and at the end of experiment for both cycles. Face to face interview was carried out at baseline and every week to check for compliance, minimize dropouts and to record reproductive health and quality of life indicators using Greene climacteric and SF-36 instruments. The treatment groups in both cycles showed significant improvement with reference to low density lipoprotein cholesterol and blood glucose (P<0.05). There were no significant differences between groups in total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein and triglyceride concentration. Treatment with N. sativa induced a significant reduction of prevalence and severity of menopausal symptomsas well as significant improvement in some components of quality of life (P<0.05). These results suggested that treatment with N. sativa exert a therapeutic and protective effect by modifying weight gain, improving lipid profile and blood glucose as well as hormonal level which is believed to play an important role in the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome during menopause.
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Oxidative stress plays an important role in pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus and its complications. Our previous study has shown glucose lowering effect produced by 3 months supplementation of Nigella sativa (NS) in combination with oral hypoglycemic drugs among type 2 diabetics. This study explored the long term glucose lowering effect (over one year) of NS in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus on oral hypoglycemic drugs and to study its effect on redox status of such patients. 114 type 2 diabetic patients on standard oral hypoglycemic drugs were assigned into 2 groups by convenience. The control group (n = 57) received activated charcoal as placebo and NS group (n = 57) received 2g NS, daily, for one year in addition to their standard medications. Fasting blood glucose (FBG), glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), C- peptide, total antioxidant capacity (TAC), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) at the baseline, and every 3 months thereafter were determined. Insulin resistance and β-cell activity were calculated using HOMA 2 calculator. Comparison between the two groups showed a significant drop in FBG (from 180±5.75 to 180±5.59 in control Vs from 195±6.57 to 172 ±5.83 in NS group), HbA1c (from 8.2±0.12 to 8.5±0.14 in control VS from 8.6±0.13 to 8.2±0.14 in NS group), and TBARS (from 48.3±6.89 to 52.9 ±5.82 in control VS from 54.1±4.64 to 41.9 ±3.16 in NS group), in addition to a significant elevation in TAC, SOD and glutathione in NS patients compared to controls. In NS group, insulin resistance was significantly lower, while β-cell activity was significantly higher than the baseline values during the whole treatment period. Long term supplementation with Nigella sativa improves glucose homeostasis and enhances antioxidant defense system in type 2 diabetic patients treated with oral hypoglycemic drugs. Clinical Trials Registry-India (CTRI) CTRI/2013/06/003781.
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Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis revealed the major components in black cumin essential oils which were thymoquinone (37.6%) followed by p-cymene (31.2%), α -thujene (5.6%), thymohydroquinone (3.4%), and longifolene (2.0%), whereas the oleoresins extracted in different solvents contain linoleic acid as a major component. The antioxidant activity of essential oil and oleoresins was evaluated against linseed oil system at 200 ppm concentration by peroxide value, thiobarbituric acid value, ferric thiocyanate, ferrous ion chelating activity, and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging methods. The essential oil and ethyl acetate oleoresin were found to be better than synthetic antioxidants. The total phenol contents (gallic acid equivalents, mg GAE per g) in black cumin essential oil, ethyl acetate, ethanol, and n-hexane oleoresins were calculated as 11.47 ± 0.05, 10.88 ± 0.9, 9.68 ± 0.06, and 8.33 ± 0.01, respectively, by Folin-Ciocalteau method. The essential oil showed up to 90% zone inhibition against Fusarium moniliforme in inverted petri plate method. Using agar well diffusion method for evaluating antibacterial activity, the essential oil was found to be highly effective against Gram-positive bacteria.
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Inflammation has an important role in many diseases such as cystic fibrosis, allergies and cancer. The free radicals produced during inflammation, can induce gene mutations and posttranslational modifications of cancer related proteins. Nigella sativa L. (N. sativa) is herbaceous plant and commonly used as a natural food. It has many pharmacological effects including antibacterial, antifungal, antitumor, analgesic, antipyretic activity. The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatuar and anti-oxidant activity of N. sativa in acute inflammation. Thus we used the experimental lipopolysaccharides (LPS)-induced model. Intraperitoneal LPS 1 mg/kg was administered to groups. N. sativa (500 mg/kg) and essential oil (5 ml/kg) were given orally to treatment groups, after 24-h of intraperitoneal LPS-injection. To determine the lung inflammation, (18)F-fluoro-deoxy-D-glucose (0.8 ml/kg) was administrated under the anesthesia before the 1 h of PET-scanning. After the FDG-PET, samples were collected. Lung and liver (18)F-FDG-uptake was calculated. Serum AST, ALT, LDH and hcCRP levels were determined and liver, lung and erythrocyte SOD, MDA and CAT levels were measured. Liver and lung NO and DNA fragmentation levels were determined. MDA levels were decreased in treated inflammation groups whereas increased in untreated inflammation group. SOD and CAT activities in untreated inflammation group were significantly lower. According to the control group, increased AST and ALT levels were found in untreated inflammation group. (18)F-FDG uptake of inflammation groups were increased when compare the control group. We found increased (18)F-FDG uptake, DNA fragmentation and NO levels in LPS-induced inflammation groups. We conclude that, in LPS-induced inflammation, N. sativa have therapeutic and anti-oxidant effects.
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Purpose: This study was conducted in menopausal women to determine the metabolic impact of Nigella sativa. Methods: Thirty subjects who were menopausal women within the age limit of 45-60 were participated in this study and randomly allotted into two experimental groups. The treatment group was orally administered with N. sativa seeds powder in the form of capsules at a dose of 1g per day after breakfast for period of two months and compared to control group given placebo. Anthropometric and biochemical parameters were measured at baseline, 1st month, 2nd month and a month after treatment completed to determine their body weight, serum lipid profile and fasting blood glucose (FBG). Results: The treatment group showed slight reduction with no significant difference in body weight changes of the respondents. However, significant (p<0.05) improvement was observed in total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and blood glucose (p<0.05). Conclusion: These results suggested that treatment with N. sativa exert a protective effect by improving lipid profile and blood glucose which are in higher risk to be elevated during menopausal period.
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Obesity is the most prevalent health problem affecting all age groups, and leads to many complications in the form of chronic heart disease, diabetes mellitus Type 2 and stroke. A systematic review about safety and efficacy of herbal medicines in the management of obesity in human was carried out by searching bibliographic data bases such as, PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar, Web of Science, and IranMedex, for studies reported between 30th December 2008 to 23rd April 2012 on human or animals, investigating the beneficial and harmful effects of herbal medicine to treat obesity. Actually we limited our search to such a narrow window of time in order to update our article published before December of 2008. In this update, the search terms were “obesity” and (“herbal medicine” or “plant”, “plant medicinal” or “medicine traditional”) without narrowing or limiting search items. Publications with available abstracts were reviewed only. Total publications found in the initial search were 651. Total number of publications for review study was 33 by excluding publications related to animals study. Studies with Nigella Sativa, Camellia Sinensis, Crocus Sativus L, Seaweed laminaria Digitata, Xantigen, virgin olive oil, Catechin enriched green tea, Monoselect Camellia, Oolong tea, Yacon syrup, Irvingia Gabonensi, Weighlevel, RCM-104 compound of Camellia Sinensis, Pistachio, Psyllium fibre, black Chinese tea, sea buckthorn and bilberries show significant decreases in body weight. Only, alginate-based brown seaweed and Laminaria Digitata caused an abdominal bloating and upper respiratory tract infection as the side effect in the trial group. No other significant adverse effects were reported in all 33 trials included in this article. In conclusion, Nigella Sativa, Camellia Synensis, Green Tea, and Black Chinese Tea seem to have satisfactory anti-obesity effects. The effect size of these medicinal plants is a critical point that should be considered for interpretation. Although there was no report for side effect in these trials, we believe that safety of these plants still remains to be elucidated by further long-term studies.
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Background: The seeds of Nigella sativa plant have been used to promote health and fight disease for centuries especially in the Middle East and Southeast Asia. This plant has been a great focus of research. This clinical study was undertaken to determine the adjuvant effect of Nigella sativa oil on various clinical and biochemical parameters of the metabolic syndrome. Methodology: This prospective study was conducted at a tertiary health care centre in North India. After final diagnosis and considering inclusion and exclusion criteria, sixty patients were enrolled in this study. Informed and written consent was taken from all the patients enrolled. Approval from institutional ethical committee was obtained. Patients were divided into two groups of thirty. In group I (standard group) patients were given tablet Atorvastatin 10 mg once a day and tablet Metformin 500 mg twice a day for a period of six weeks. In group II (Nigella sativa) group, patients were given tablet Atorvastatin 10 mg once a day, tablet Metformin 500 mg twice a day and Nigella sativa oil 2.5 ml twice daily for a period of six weeks. Blood sugar, both fasting and postprandial, fasting lipid profile, body mass index, body weight and waist circumference were recorded before and after completion of therapy. Result: The above mentioned methodology was followed and it was found that the difference in percentage improvement in group II was significant with reference to total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL) and fasting blood glucose (p
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The atherogenic pattern of dyslipidemia associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) has been increasingly discussed. We have recently reported a hypoglycemic effect of Nigella sativa (NS) seeds in patients with type 2 DM. In this study we sought to assess the impact of NS seeds on lipid profile in type 2 diabetic patients. A total of 94 patients with type 2 DM were recruited and divided into 3 dose groups. Capsules containing NS were administered orally in a dose of 1, 2, and 3 g/day for 12 weeks. All patients were subjected to measurement of total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) before treatment and 4, 8, and 12 weeks thereafter. Patients receiving 1 g/day NS seeds for 12 weeks (group 1) showed nonsignificant changes in all the parameters except for a significant increase in HDL-c after 4 weeks of treatment. However, patients ingested 2 g/day NS displayed a significant decline in TC, TG, and LDL-c, and a significant elevation in HDL-c/LDL-c, compared with their baseline data and to group 1 patients. Increasing NS dose to 3 g/day failed to show any increase in the hypolipdemic effect produced by the 2 g/day dose. NS supplementation at a dose of 2 g/day for 12 weeks may improve the dyslipidemia associated with type 2 diabetic patients. Therefore, NS is a potential protective natural agent against atherosclerosis and cardiovascular complications in these patients.
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The seeds of Nigella sativa. L. (NS), a plant of the Runanculaceae family, are used in traditional medicine in North Africa and the Middle East for the treatment of diabetes. Despite widespread use and a number of scientific studies, the target tissues and cellular mechanisms of action of this plant product are not well understood. This study evaluated the effects of NS seed crude ethanol extract on insulin secretion in INS832/13 and β TC-tet lines of pancreatic β-cells and on glucose disposal by C2C12 skeletal muscle cells and 3T3-L1 adipocytes. An 18-h treatment with NS amplified glucose-stimulated insulin secretion by more than 35% without affecting sensitivity to glucose. NS treatment also accelerated β-cell proliferation. An 18-h treatment with NS increased basal glucose uptake by 55% (equivalent to approximately two-fold the effect of 100 nM insulin) in muscle cells and approximately by 400% (equal to the effect of 100 nM insulin) in adipocytes; this effect was perfectly additive to that of insulin in adipocytes. Finally, NS treatment of pre-adipocytes undergoing differentiation accelerated triglyceride accumulation comparably with treatment with 10 μ M rosiglitazone. It is concluded that the well-documented in vivo. antihyperglycemic effects of NS seed extract are attributable to a combination of therapeutically relevant insulinotropic and insulin-like properties.
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Black cumin (Nigella sativa L., Ranunculaceae) is an annual herb commonly used in the Middle East, India and nowadays gaining worldwide acceptance. Historical and traditional uses are extensively documented in ancient texts and historical documents. Black cumin seeds and oil are commonly used as a traditional tonic and remedy for many ailments as well as in confectionery and bakery. Little is known however about the mechanisms that allow the accumulation and localization of its active components in the seed. Chemical and anatomical evidence indicates the presence of active compounds in seed coats. Seed volatiles consist largely of olefinic and oxygenated monoterpenes, mainly p-cymene, thymohydroquinone, thymoquinone, γ-terpinene and α-thujene, with lower levels of sesquiterpenes, mainly longifolene. Monoterpene composition changes during seed maturation. γ-Terpinene and α-thujene are the major monoterpenes accumulated in immature seeds, and the former is gradually replaced by p-cymene, carvacrol, thymo-hydroquinone and thymoquinone upon seed development. These compounds, as well as the indazole alkaloids nigellidine and nigellicine, are almost exclusively accumulated in the seed coat. In contrast, organic and amino acids are primarily accumulated in the inner seed tissues. Sugars and sugar alcohols, as well as the amino alkaloid dopamine and the saponin α-hederin accumulate both in the seed coats and the inner seed tissues at different ratios. Chemical analyses shed light to the ample traditional and historical uses of this plant.
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Nigella sativa is a medicinal plant widely used in the Arabic and Islamic world against a number of human pathologies. In this present study the methanol extraction (85 % then 50 %) of plant seeds gave an important yield of 27 % of dry substance. The anti-hyperglycaemia effect of the crude methanolic extract and the commercial oil of these seeds were tested in alloxan-induced, intra peritoneal, diabetic rats (150 mg/kg). Effects of these two sub-stances on other diabetes-linked factors such as the reducing power of the plasma and the osmotic fragility of ery-throcytes. The daily orally administration of the crude methanolic extract (810 mg/kg/day) and the oil (2.5 ml/kg/day) for 25 days leads to a significant decrease of glycaemia, especially during the first 10 days of treat-ment (decreases of 58.09 and 73.27 % respectively). However, the dose of 270 mg/kg of crude methanolic extract had no effect, which is probably due to the low dose. In addition the antioxidant capacity, measured by the fer-ric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) technique, increased in all diabetic rats and the introduction of either the crude methanolic extract or the oil fraction showed any improvement on this factor. However, a slight resistance, not reaching significance, against the osmotic fragility of erythrocytes was induced in diabetic rats. The anti-hyperglycaemic effect of both substances is not related to inhibition of intestinal glucose absorption or stimula-tion of insulin secretion. We suggest that the action is a result of the inhibition of enzymes involved in the neoglucogenesis pathway in the liver. As shown the stress associated with the metabolic perturbation observed in diabetes induces a physiological anti-oxidant response, which probably masks the antioxidant effect of our two substances of this medicinal plant.
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Thymoquinone (TQ), derived from Nigella sativa seed, is an antioxidant. The present study investigated whether TQ attenuates the development of atherosclerosis, and/or reduces the serum lipid levels and oxidative stress in rabbits. New Zealand white female rabbits were assigned to four groups of six animals each: group I, control; group II, 1% cholesterol diet; group III, 1% cholesterol plus TQ (10 mg/kg/day; through a nasogastric tube) diet; and group IV, 1% cholesterol plus TQ (20 mg/kg/day; through a nasogastric tube) diet. Blood samples were collected at baseline and after four and eight weeks on the experimental diets for measurement of serum lipids, total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), TC/HDL-C ratio and oxidative stress biomarkers (malondialdehyde [MDA] and protein carbonyls). At the end of the eight weeks, the aorta was removed for the assessment of atherosclerotic changes, MDA and protein carbonyls. Group II animals developed atherosclerosis (45%±11% of the intimal surface of aorta was covered with atherosclerotic plaques), which was associated with an increase in the serum TC, TG, LDL-C, HDL-C, TC/HDL-C, MDA and protein carbonyls. In group III, TQ decreased serum TC, LDL-C, MDA and protein carbonyls by 26%, 29%, 85% and 62%, respectively, and aortic MDA by 73%, which was associated with a 40% reduction of the development of aortic atherosclerosis. The higher dose of TQ in group IV had effects similar to the lower dose (group III), except that this dose further decreased serum TG. It is concluded that TQ attenuates hypercholesterolemic atherosclerosis and this effect is associated with a decrease in serum lipids and oxidative stress.
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Ex vivo antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer and antibacterial activities of the essential oil from Tunisian Nigella sativa seeds and its main terpenes (p-cymene, γ-terpinene, thymoquinone, β-pinene, carvacrol, terpinen-4-ol and longifolene) were determined. The essential oil exhibited strong ex vivo antioxidant activity, inhibiting DCFH oxidation with an IC50 of 1.0 µg/ml, and high anti-inflammatory activity, inhibiting NO radical excretion with an IC50 value of 6.3 µg/ml. Thymoquinone was found to be the most active to decrease DCFH oxidation and NO excretion. The oil was found to significantly inhibit the growth of A-549 and DLD-1 cancer cell lines (IC50 values of 43.0 and 46.0 µg/ml, respectively) and to exert antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli with IC50 values of 12.0 and 62.0 µg/ml. The anticancer and antibacterial activities could be mainly due to the action of thymoquinone and longifolene.
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Nigella sativa (N. sativa) seed has been an important nutritional flavoring agent and natural remedy for many ailments for centuries in ancient systems of medicine, e.g. Unani, Ayurveda, Chinese and Arabic Medicines. Many active components have been isolated from N. sativa, including thymoquinone, thymohydroquinone, dithymoquinone, thymol, carvacrol, nigellimine-N-oxide, nigellicine, nigellidine and alpha-hederin. In addition, quite a few pharmacological effects of N. sativa seed, its oil, various extracts and active components have been identified to include immune stimulation, anti-inflammation, hypoglycemic, antihypertensive, antiasthmatic, antimicrobial, antiparasitic, antioxidant and anticancer effects. Only a few authors have reviewed the medicinal properties of N. sativa and given some description of the anticancer effects. A literature search has revealed that a lot more studies have been recently carried out related to the anticancer activities of N. sativa and some of its active compounds, such as thymoquinone and alpha-hederin. Acute and chronic toxicity studies have recently confirmed the safety of N. sativa oil and its most abundant active component, thymoquinone, particularly when given orally. The present work is aimed at summarizing the extremely valuable work done by various investigators on the effects of N. sativa seed, its extracts and active principles against cancer. Those related to the underlying mechanism of action, derivatives of thymoquinone, nano thymoquinone and combinations of thymoquinone with the currently used cytotoxic drugs are of particular interest. We hope this review will encourage interested researchers to conduct further preclinical and clinical studies to evaluate the anticancer activities of N. sativa, its active constituents and their derivatives.
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Seeds of Nigella sativa (N. sativa) have been used for thousands of years as a spice and food preservative. The oil and seed constituents have shown potential medicinal properties in traditional medicine. This review lists and discusses different therapeutic trials of N. sativa seeds and its active ingredients in many diseases affecting body systems. It has anti–oxidant effects through enhancing the oxidant scavenger system that leads to antitoxic effects induced by several insults. Its anti–inflammatory effects conduct through suppression of the inflammatory mediators’ prostaglandins and leukotriens. Its immunomodulatory properties were proved by augmenting the T cell and natural killer cell–mediated immune responses. It expresses antimicrobial and anti–tumor properties toward different microbes and cancers. It decreases DNA damage and thereby prevents initiation of carcinogenesis in colonic tissue secondary to exposure to toxic agents. N. sativa is of immense therapeutic benefit in DM. It stimulates glucose–induced secretion of insulin besides having a negative impact on glucose absorption from the intestinal mucosa. N. sativa administration protects hepatic tissue from deleterious effects of toxic substances and attenuates hepatic lipid peroxidation. N. sativa provides a promising strategy that combines anti–inflammatory, antioxidants, and antineoplastics modes of action. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2010; 9(5): 513-522]
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The seed extracts from Nigella sativa is used by Unani physicians of traditional medicine (Hakims or Tabibs) and Ayurvedic practitioners (Vaids) in the treatment of several medical disorders including dyslipidemia, obesity, and hypertension. It is, therefore, important to prove or disprove the effectiveness, safety, and tolerability of powdered N. sativa (Kalonji) seed in capsules on serum lipid levels, blood sugar, blood pressure, and body weight in adults. The study design was a randomized, double-blind trial. Conducted at Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, from February 2006 to January 2007. Half of the respondents received powdered N. sativa (Kalonji) seed in capsule and the rest received a placebo. INTERVENTION/OUTCOME: Baseline and after-intervention variables recorded were the following: body-mass index, waist-hip ratio, blood pressure, fasting blood sugar, serum lipids, serum alanine aminotransferase, and serum creatinine. One hundred and twenty-three (123) patients were recruited. Sixty-four (64) and 59 patients were randomized to the intervention and the control arms, respectively. Thirty-nine (39) patients in the intervention group and 34 in the control group completed the study. Favorable impact of powdered N. sativa (Kalonji) seed in capsule was noted on almost all variables, but results were not statistically significant because of small sample size. Favorable impact of powdered N. sativa (Kalonji) seed in capsule was noted on almost all variables, but results were not statistically significant. A larger study with adequate sample size is recommended.
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A study was carried out to compare the antiradical performance of some common and unusual vegetable oils from coriander, black cumin, cottonseed, peanut, sunflower, hampseed, walnut, linseed, olive oil and niger seed. Stable radicals 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) were added to vegetable oils, which would be decomposed by components having antioxidant properties. The disappearance of the DPPH radicals were determined spectrophotometrically and recorded. The order of effectiveness of oils in destroying free radicals was found to be as follows: coriander>black cumin>cottonseed>peanut>sunflower>walnut>hemp seed>linseed>olive>niger seed. Antioxidant potential of the selected oils was further evaluated by means of electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy using galvinoxyl radicals obtained as found in the DPPH studies.
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The essential oil of black cumin seeds, Nigella sativa L., was tested for a possible antioxidant activity. A rapid evaluation for antioxidants, using two TLC screening methods, showed that thymoquinone and the components carvacrol, t-anethole and 4-terpineol demonstrated respectable radical scavenging property. These four constituents and the essential oil possessed variable antioxidant activity when tested in the diphenylpicrylhydracyl assay for non-specific hydrogen atom or electron donating activity. They were also effective ·OH radical scavenging agents in the assay for non-enzymatic lipid peroxidation in liposomes and the deoxyribose degradation assay.
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Nigella sativa Linn. (Family-Ranunculaceae) is a widely used medicinal plant throughout India and popular in various Indigenous System of Medicine like Ayurveda, Siddha, Unani and Tibb. The seeds are used as astringent, bitter, stimulant, diuretic, emmenagogue and anthelmintic. They are also useful in jaundice, intermittent fever, dyspepsia, paralysis, piles and skin diseases. The present review is therefore, an effort to give a detailed survey of the literature on pharmacognosy, phytochemistry and pharmacological activities of the plant.
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Obesity is typically associated with increased risk factors of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Therefore, a therapeutic approach that aims to control body weight and metabolic profile might be effective in preventing CVDs. We aimed to determine the effects of Nigella Sativa (NS) oil with a low-calorie diet on cardiometabolic risk factors in obese women. In this double-blind randomized controlled clinical trial, 90 obese women were recruited. Participants were females aged 25-50 years old with body mass index (BMI) between 30 and 35 kg m(-2). They were randomly assigned to receive a low-calorie diet with 3 g per day (1 g before each meal) NS oil or placebo for 8 weeks. Anthropometric indices, dietary intake and biochemical parameters were measured at the baseline and after the intervention. Eighty-four females completed the trial (intervention n = 43, placebo n = 41). Two groups were similar in the baseline characteristics. After the intervention, dietary intake was changed in both groups compared to the baseline, but the differences were not significant between the two groups. In the NS group, weight (-6.0 vs. -3.6%; p < 0.01) and waist circumference (-6.9 vs. -3.4%; p < 0.01) decreased significantly compared with the placebo group at the end of the trial. Comparison of biochemical parameters presented a significant decline in triglyceride (-14.0 vs. 1.4%; p = 0.02) and very low density lipoprotein (-14.0 vs. 7%; p < 0.01) levels in the NS group compared to the placebo group. NS oil concurrent with a low-calorie diet can reduce cardiometabolic risk factors in obese women. However, more clinical trials are needed to elucidate efficacy of NS as a complementary therapy in obese subjects.
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L’objectif de cette revue est d’évaluer les effets de l’exposition exogène et endogène à la testostérone chez l’homme et aux estrogènes et à la progestérone chez la femme sur le sommeil. Les niveaux de testostérone sont maximaux lors du sommeil et la privation de sommeil supprime la testostérone. Peu d’études ont évalué les effets de la diminution de la testostérone avec l’âge sur les modifications de sommeil associées au vieillissement. Lors du vieillissement, les niveaux plus bas de testostérone seraient associés à une qualité moindre de sommeil et les effets de la privation de sommeil sur la testostérone seraient plus prononcés. Chez les femmes, les niveaux d’hormones sexuelles fluctuent lors du cycle menstruel et des étapes de la vie reproductive. Les modèles animaux indiquent que les estrogènes et la progestérone influencent le sommeil. La plupart des études ne montrent pas d’effet marqué du cycle menstruel sur le sommeil mais souvent avec un échantillon très petit ou un design expérimental non optimal. La grossesse et la période postpartum sont associées à des difficultés de sommeil mais leurs liens avec le milieu hormonal reste à déterminer. Finalement, la transition vers la ménopause s’accompagne d’une diminution de la qualité subjective du sommeil mais les études sur les variables objectives restent non concluantes. Le rôle des symptômes vasomoteurs dans la détérioration du sommeil lors de la ménopause devra également être déterminé. L’hormonothérapie semble améliorer le sommeil mais des questions cruciales restent à éclaircir, notamment les effets à long terme et l’efficacité des types offerts.
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Background Metabolic syndrome is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) occurrence and mortality. CVDs are leading cause of death worldwide. Recently, there has been an increasing interest in the use of herbal medicines with more efficiency and minimal undesirable effects than chemical drugs for a variety of disorders including CVD. Nigella sativa and its active constituent, thymoquinone, have been documented to exhibit antidiabetic, antiobesity, hypotensive and hypolipidemic properties. Aim In this review, we discussed the most relevant articles to find out the role of N. sativa in different components of metabolic syndrome and CVD risk factors including high blood pressure, obesity, dyslipidemia and high blood glucose. Conclusions This review suggests a potential role of N. sativa and TQ in the management of metabolic syndrome, however more studies should be conducted to evaluate their effectiveness.
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Nigella sativa is a one of the most commonly found aromatics in the Mediterranean kitchen. This plant is traditionally used for the treatment of several pathologies. In this study, the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer and antibacterial activities of the shoots, roots and seeds methanol extracts from N. sativa were studied. The three organs exhibited strong antioxidant activity using the oxygen radical absorbance capacity method and a cell-based assay. Furthermore, the seeds hexane fraction (SHF) of the methanol extract showed significant anti-inflammatory activity, inhibiting nitric oxide release with an IC50 value of 6.20 µg/mL in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. The SHF was found to be active against A-549 lung carcinoma cells and DLD-1 colon carcinoma, with IC50 values of 31.0 and 63.0 µg/mL, respectively, as well as against Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923) and Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922) bacteria with IC50 values of 38.0 and 80.0 µg/mL, respectively. The shoots methanol extract exhibited moderate anti-inflammatory activity but no anticancer and antibacterial activities. The results obtained suggest that Nigella sativa plant parts, including the shoots, the roots and the seeds, have the potential to be developed into dietary supplements as food preservative and for the improvement of human nutrition and health. In addition, the seeds could be useful for therapeutical purposes and could be developed as anticancer agent and as foodborne preservative as well as for the treatment of chronic inflammatory pathologies associated with overproduction of nitric oxide.
Article
Background: Thymoquinone (TQ) is the most abundant and active ingredient of Nigella sativa (NS) seeds. Its hepatic, renal, and cardiac protective effects have been demonstrated in animal models. Streptozotocin (STZ) is an antibiotic that is widely used experimentally as an agent capable of inducing insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM), also known as type I diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Objectives: This study was carried out in an attempt to highlight the possible beneficial effects of TQ in STZ-induced diabetes in rats and to determine the predictive value of mesenchymal and epithelial markers in the response of diabetic nephropathy to TQ. Materials and methods: Sixty adult male albino rats were divided in 3 groups: control, diabetic untreated, and diabetic treated with TQ. Results: Diabetic rats exhibited morphological changes in both renal glomeruli and tubules with immunohistochemical expression of the mesenchymal markers Fsp1, desmin, and MMP-17 and disappearance of the epithelial marker ZO-1 largely in the glomeruli of diabetic kidneys. Treatment with TQ significantly attenuated renal morphological and immunohistochemical changes in STZ-induced diabetic rats. Conclusions: Thymoquinone has protective effects on experimental diabetic nephropathy. Both mesenchymal and epithelial markers serve as excellent predictors of early kidney damage and indicators of TQ responsiveness in STZ-induced diabetic nephropathy.
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Yağlı besin maddelerinde ve canlı organizmada bulunan doymamış yağ asitlerinin serbest radikaller ile tepkimesi sonucu meydana gelen otooksidasyon; hem yağlı besin maddelerin raf ömrünün azalmasına hem de canlı organizmada erken yaşlanmaya ve birçok ölümcül hastalığın (kanser, kalp, damar vb.) daha hızlı ilerlemesine neden olmaktadır. Günümüzde bu olumsuz etkileri azaltmak için yağlı besinlere antioksidan olarak genellikle BHA (Bütillenmişhidroksianisol), BHT (Bütillenmişhidroksitoluen) gibi fenolik yapıdaki maddeler katılmaktadır. Ancak son yıllarda, bu maddelerin kansorojenik etkiye sahip olduğu yönündeki olumsuz açıklamalar, tüketicileri daha çok doğal antioksidan katkılı ürünler kullanmaya yönlendirmiştir. Bu çalışmada, Folin-Ciocalteau (toplam fenolik içerik), DPPH (1,1-difenil-2-pikrilhidrazil radikal süpürme etkisi) ve İndirgeme kapasitesi (Fe+3'ü Fe+2'ye indirgeme) gibi metotlar kullanılarak, Samsun ve Mısır kökenli çörekotu tohumlarının antioksidan kapasiteleri incelendi. Sonuç olarak, her iki çörekotu tohumununda sentetik antioksidanlara kıyasla daha iyi aktiviteye gösterdikleri ve elde edilen sonuçların literatürle uyum içinde olduğu belirlenmiştir.
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Medicinal plants gained momentous support in the recent era for their therapeutic potential. The core objective of the research study was to characterize the indigenous variety of black cumin (Nigella sativa L.), locally known as "Kalonji" and its fixed and essential oils. Compositional analysis revealed that it contains appreciable quantities of carbohydrates, proteins and fats. Moreover, potassium, calcium, phosphorous and magnesium were predominant minerals, whilst considerable quantities of sodium, iron, manganese, zinc and copper were also present. Characterization of fixed oil enumerated that polyunsaturated fatty acids were the dominating fraction i.e., 60.17±1.53% as compared to saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids i.e., 16.64±0.91 and 22.47±0.59%, respectively. Carotenoids and tocopherols were 450.66±16.21 mg/kg-oil, whereas thymoquinone contents were observed to be 201.31±13.17 mg/kg of seeds. In comparison, analysis of essential oil revealed that it contains functional ingredients like thymoquinone, dihydrothymoquinone, p-cymene, carvacrol, α-thujene, thymol, α-pinene, β-pinene and t-anethole as major constituents. Furthermore, In vitro antioxidant capacity indicated that fixed and essential oils inhibited lipid peroxidation by 25.62 and 92.56% and 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity by 32.32 and 80.25%, respectively. The present findings showed that black cumin fixed and essential oils are rich source of phytochemicals and can be utilized against lifestyle disorders like hyperglycemia and hypercholesterolemia.
Article
Nigella sativa L. seeds (N. sativa) have been used as a traditional remedy for a wide range of diseases including hypertension. The present study was performed to explore the effects of N. sativa oil on blood pressure (BP) in healthy volunteers. In a double-blind, randomized study, 70 healthy volunteers aged 34 to 63 years with systolic BP from 110 to 140 mmHg and diastolic BP from 60 to 90 mmHg were randomly allocated to receive 2.5 mL N. sativa oil or placebo two times a day for 8 weeks. The systolic and diastolic BPs, body mass index and blood levels of aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, creatinine and blood urea nitrogen were determined at baseline and endpoint. Results showed that in N. sativa oil treated group the systolic and diastolic BPs decreased significantly compared with baseline and placebo group at the endpoint. Other parameters did not significantly change in both groups at the endpoint. No adverse effects were reported. In conclusion, oral daily administration of 5 mL N. sativa oil to healthy volunteers for 8 weeks lowers systolic and diastolic BPs without any adverse effects. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Article
Obesity is closely associated with increased incidence of cardiovascular diseases, cancer, insulin resistance, and immune dysfunction, and thus obesity-mitigation strategies should take into account these secondary pathologies in addition to promoting weight loss. Recent studies indicate that black cumin (Nigella sativa) has cardio-protective, anti-cancer, anti-diabetic, antioxidant, and immune-modulatory properties. While black cumin and/or its major bioactive constituent, thymoquinone have demonstrated bioactivity in a variety of disease models, the mechanisms of action are largely unknown. Given the growing interest in and the use of functional foods and nutraceuticals, as well as the increase in obesity and chronic diseases worldwide, further research into the therapeutic/preventive effects of black cumin may be beneficial.
Article
to study the efficacy of Nigella sativa in central obese men on serum free testosterone, body weight, waist circumference, blood sugar, lipid, uric acid, adiponectin, hs-CRP, and side effects in the treatment group compare to control. an experimental, clinical test, double blinded with placebo control, pre-test and post-test design. Subjects are 30-45 years old, divided into the treatment and control groups, and evaluated weekly for 3 months. Data obtained were subjective complaints, body weight, waist circumference, and blood pressure, serum free testosterone, fasting blood sugar, triglyceride, HDL-Cholesterol, uric acid, creatinin, SGOT and SGPT, adiponectin, and hs-CRP. Data collected from March 2007 to June 2007 at Prof.Dr.RD Kandou General Hospital, Manado, North Sulawesi, Indonesia. Statistical analysis was performed using descriptive for subjects characteristic and drug's side effect, t independent to compare between two parametric independent variables, Mann-Whitney U to compare between two non-parametric independent variables, and Wilcoxon Signed Ranks test to compare between two non-parametric dependent variables. in the treatment group, complaints related to central obesity disappear in first week, very significant reduction of body weight, waist circumference, and systolic blood pressure, insignificant reduction in serum free testosterone, diastolic blood pressure, fasting blood sugar, triglyceride and cholesterol-HDL, uric acid, hs-CRP, and insignificant increase of adiponectin. On comparison between both groups, we found a very significant reduction on body weight and waist circumference, but the insignificant reduction on serum free testosterone, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and the unsignificant increase of adiponectin, meanwhile the reduction of serum free testosterone in the treatment group was smaller than the control group, that means Nigella sativa could inhibit the decreasing of serum free testosterone. No side effects were detected in the treatment group. although the other variables in the treatment group were not significantly different, we found them better than the control group, which can be a good sign for metabolic restoration in COM. It is suggested that larger dose and longer duration of NS consumption will give better results.
Article
Hypercholesterolemia, cholesterol-enriched diet and oxidative stress have been shown to increase serum total cholesterol (TC) and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) levels resulting in development of atherosclerosis. Antioxidants play an important role in inhibiting and scavenging free radicals, thus providing protection to humans against infectious and degenerative diseases. The present study was undertaken to examine the possible protective effects of propolis (a resinous hive product collected by honeybees from various plant sources) and thymoquinone (TQ, active constituent of Nigella. Sativa seeds oil) on serum lipid levels and early atherosclerotic lesions in hypercholestrolemic rabbits. New Zealand rabbits were fed on either standard chow or atherogenic diet during four weeks and concomitantly received either propolis or TQ. At the end of experiment period, serum samples were collected to determine lipid profile, kidney functions and antioxidant status. Tissues from aorta, pulmonary artery and kidney were taken for histopathological examination. The cholesterol-enriched diet induced a significant increase in serum TC, triglycerides, LDL-C, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances concentrations and a significant decrease in high density lipoprotein-cholesterol and in reduced glutathione levels compared to control group. Administration of propolis or TQ with cholesterol-enriched diet significantly (p < 0.05) reduced TC, LDL-C, triglycerides and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances concentrations, while increased high density lipoprotein-cholesterol concentration, as well as glutathione content compared to high cholesterol (HC) control group. Kidney function parameters were significantly affected by cholesterol diet and both propolis and TQ counterregulated the cholesterol-induced changes. Histopathologically, early atherosclerotic changes were observed in HC control group represented by endothelial damage and thickened foam cells while propolis or TQ provided protection against the HC-induced damage. In conclusion, the present study suggests the potential beneficial effects of both propolis and TQ in diminishing the risk of atherosclerosis via antioxidant mechanism.
Article
The aim of this study was to examine the effect of glycemic control using thymoquinone (TQ) on energy metabolism related enzymes in leukocytes of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. The treatment of both TQ and insulin commenced 4weeks after induction of diabetes. Plasma glucose, cholesterol and triglycerides levels were significantly reduced after TQ treatment, whereas immunoreactive insulin (IRI) showed significant increase. The activities of malate dehydrogenase (MDH) in cytosolic and mitochondrial fractions of peripheral blood leukocytes were significantly higher in rats treated with TQ and insulin as compared to that in diabetic controls. On the other hand the activities of lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) showed no significant changes between groups. ML ratio (cytosolic MDH/LDH specific activity ratio) was restored to those in the control rats. The results of this study demonstrate that TQ significantly increased insulin level and the activities of cytosolic and mitochondrial MDH in leukocytes of STZ-diabetic rats.
Article
Eryngium creticum, Nigella sativa, and Teucrium polium have been traditionally used for the treatment of inflammations, liver disorders, and arthritis. Various studies on these plants revealed anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective and antimutagenic activities. Previous results of our research group, however, indicate that aqueous extracts prepared as for the traditional use (tea) have neither cytoprotective nor antimutagenic activity. Instead, there is evidence for a mutagenic potential. Since the described antimutagenic activity may not be present in effective amounts in the aqueous extracts this study focuses on ethanolic extracts. Ethanolic extracts of the three plant species were prepared and tested against N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG), a directly acting mutagen. Since it cannot be excluded that the active constituents of the plant extracts require biotransformation or induce metabolic enzymes, causing antimutagenic or detoxifying effects, primary cultures of rat hepatocytes were used for this study. Plant ethanolic extracts were applied along with MNNG in three protocols: pre-treatment, combined treatment and post-treatment. The results of this investigation clearly indicate an inhibitory effect of the plant extracts on MNNG mutagenicity, while the extracts had no effect on cytotoxicity indicators such as necrosis and apoptosis. The effects obtained can be attributed to a direct antimutagenic activity and an increased recovery at the chromosomal level. In order to identify the responsible compounds extracts will in a next step have to be fractionated, tested and chemically analyzed.
Article
Background: Both hereditary and sporadic forms of chronic pancreatitis are associated with an increased risk of developing pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA). Inflammation has been identified as a significant factor in the development of solid tumour malignancies. We have recently shown that thymoquinone (Tq), the major constituent of Nigella sativa oil extract, induced apoptosis and inhibited proliferation in PDA cells. Tq also increased p21 WAF1 expression, inhibited histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity, and induced histone hyperacetylation. HDAC inhibitors have been shown to ameliorate inflammation-associated cancer. In this study, we evaluated the anti-inflammatory potential of Tq in PDA cells in comparison with that of a specific HDAC inhibitor, trichostatin A (TSA). Methods: PDA cells were treated with or without Tq (25-75 microM), with or without pre-treatment of tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha (25 ng/ml). The effect of Tq on the expression of different proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines was analysed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Luciferase-labelled promoter studies evaluated the effect of Tq on the transcription of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB). The effect of Tq on the constitutive and TNF-alpha-induced activation and nuclear translocation of NF-kappaB was examined by ELISA and immunohistochemistry. Results: Tq dose- and time-dependently significantly reduced PDA cell synthesis of MCP-1, TNF-alpha, interleukin (IL)-1beta and Cox-2. At 24 h, Tq almost completely abolished the expression of these cytokines, whereas TSA had a less dramatic effect. Tq, but not TSA, significantly and dose-dependently reduced the intrinsic activity of the MCP-1 promoter. Tq also inhibited the constitutive and TNF-alpha-mediated activation of NF-kappaB in PDA cells and reduced the transport of NF-kappaB from the cytosol to the nucleus. Conclusions: Our data demonstrate previously undescribed anti-inflammatory activities of Tq in PDA cells, which are paralleled by inhibition of NF-kappaB. Tq as a novel inhibitor of proinflammatory pathways provides a promising strategy that combines anti-inflammatory and proapoptotic modes of action.
Article
To investigate the effect of oral treatment of Wistar albino rats with different doses of Nigella sativa L. (NS) powdered seeds on the levels of serum lipids. This study was performed in the Medical Science Application and Research Center of Dicle University, Diyarbakir, Turkey, from February 2003 to December 2008. A total of 75 Wistar albino male rats, 60 of them with NS supplementation and 15 animals acting as controls, were included in the study. The NS groups were divided into 4 main groups of 15 each. Four doses of NS were used (100, 200, 400, and 600 mg/kg/day). Each dose group was further divided into 3 duration subgroups of 5 rats each, the feeding of NS seeds continued for one, 2, and 4 weeks. Control animals were divided into 3 main groups of 5 rats each. The rats were sacrificed at one, 2, and 4 weeks after feeding. Lipid parameters were measured. Rats treated with the 400mg dose for one week's duration showed a significant increase in high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels. There was a significant decrease in low density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels after one week for 400 and 600 mg doses, and all doses after 2 weeks and 4 weeks for 200 and 600 mg doses when compared to control groups. There was a significant decrease in very low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels after one week for 200, 400, and 600 mg doses, and all doses for 2 and 4 weeks. A 400 mg dose for 2 weeks, and all doses for 4 weeks caused a significant decrease in triglyceride levels. There was a significant decrease of total cholesterol levels in all doses after 4 weeks of NS feeding. These results indicate that NS may ameliorate the alteration in the lipid levels caused by diseases or toxic agents.
Article
Hypertension (HT) is a lifestyle-related disease and dietary modifications are effective for its management and prevention. We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to evaluate the efficacy of treatment with an oral Nigella sativa (NS) seed extract supplement in patients with mild HT. Subjects were randomized into three groups: a placebo and two test groups that received 100 and 200 mg of NS extract twice a day. After 8 weeks, systolic blood pressure (SBP) values in both case groups were found to be significantly reduced when compared with the baseline values for each group. In addition, the decrease in SBP in the two case groups was statistically significant relative to the placebo group (P < 0.05-0.01). Meanwhile, diastolic blood pressure (DBP) values in the case groups were found to be significantly reduced from the baseline and a significant reduction was also observed in these groups (P < 0.01) when compared with the placebo group. In addition, extract administration reduced both SBP and DBP in a dose-dependent manner. Meanwhile, NS extract caused a significant decline in the level of total and low-density-lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol relative to baseline data. No complications caused by NS were observed. The results suggest that the daily use of NS seed extract for 2 months may have a blood pressure-lowering effect in patients with mild HT.
Article
The objective of the present study was to determine the immunomodulatory role of thymoquinone (TQ) regarding its effect on the production of nitric oxide (NO) by rat peritoneal macrophages. Under certain conditions, macrophagesand certain other cells can produce high concentrations of NO from its precursor L-arginine via inducible nitricoxide synthase (iNOS)pathway. TQ has been established as the major component of the oil extracted from Nigella saliva plant seeds, which is being used frequently in herbal medicine. TQ (IC50 1.4-2.76 microM) dose- and time-dependently reduced nitrite production, a parameter for NO synthesis, in supematants of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated (5 microg/ml) macrophages without affecting the cell viability. The protein level of iNOS in peritoneal macrophages was also decreased by TQ in a concentration-dependent manner. In addition, TQ inhibited the increase in iNOS mRNA expression induced by LPS indicated by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). These inhibitory effects of TQ were confirmed by immunofluorescence staining of iNOS in macrophages which showed decreased immunoreactivity for iNOS after treatment with TQ if compared with the control LPS-stimulated cells. These results suggest that TQ suppresses the production of NO by macrophages; an effect which may be useful in ameliorating the inflammatory and autoimmune conditions.
Article
Thymoquinone (TQ) is likely responsible for the chemotherapeutic effects of N. sativa extract; however, the cellular mechanisms remain ill-defined. TQ-induced cytotoxicity was investigated using canine osteosarcoma (COS31), its cisplatin-resistant variant (COS31/rCDDP), human breast adenocarcinoma (MCF7), human ovarian adenocarcinoma (BG-1) and Madin-Darby canine (MDCK) cell lines. TQ-induced cytotoxicity was determined using a proliferation assay (MTT assay) and apoptosis assays. Effects of TQ on the cell cycle were determined using flow cytometry. COS31/rCDDP resistant cells were the most sensitive cell line to TQ and MDCK cells were the least sensitive. TQ (25 micro M) induced apoptosis of COS31 cells 6 h after treatment and decreased the number of COS31 cells in S-phase and increased cells in G1-phase, indicating cell cycle arrest at G1. These results suggest that TQ kills cancer cells by a process that involves apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. Non-cancerous cells are relatively resistant to TQ.
Article
N. Sativa L., an oriental spice, has long been used as a natural medicine for treatment of many acute as well as chronic conditions. It has been used in the treatment of diabetes, hypertension, and dermatological conditions. There has been very few studies on the effects of N. Sativa as cancer prevention/therapy. Our objective therefore, was to expose MCF-7 breast cancer cells to aqueous and alcohol extracts and in combination with H2O2 as an oxidative stressor. Measurement of cell survival under various concentrations and combinations was conducted using standard cell culture techniques, exposure protocols in 96 well plates and Fluoro-spectrosphotometry. Following cellular growth to 90% confluency, exposure to water (WE) and ethanol (AE) extracts of N. sativa and H2O2 was performed. Toxicity index (LC50) was calculated from percent survival using regression analysis. Results showed that the alcohol extract and its combinations were able to completely inactivate the MCF-7 cells (LC50 ranged from 377.16-573.79 in descending potency for H2O2 + AE, AE and Mix of WE and AE). H2O2 alone effectively inactivated MCF-7 cells (LC50 = 460.94). The least effective combinations in descending potency were WE + H2O2, WE + AE + H2O2, and WE (LC50 were 725.79, 765.94, and 940.5 respectively. Combinations other than AE + H2O2 showed possible interactions, which lead to reduction in their potency. In conclusion, N. Sativa alone or in combination with oxidative stress were found to be effective in vitro in inactivating MCF-7 breast cancer cells, unveiling opportunities for promising results in the field of prevention and treatment of cancer.
Article
The anticonvulsant effects of thymoquinone, the major constituent of Nigella sativa seeds, were investigated using pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)- and maximal electroshock (MES)-induced seizure models. We also studied the effect of thymoquinone on pentobarbital-induced hypnosis, locomotor activity, and motor coordination. In PTZ-induced seizure, the intraperitoneally injection of thymoquinone with doses of 40 and 80 mg/kg, prolonged the onset of seizures and reduced the duration of myoclonic seizures. The protective effect of thymoquinone against mortality was 71.4% and 100% in the mentioned doses, respectively. In MES model, thymoquinone failed to reduce the duration of seizure, whereas exhibited a complete protection against mortality. In PTZ model, flumazenil (10 mg/kg, i.p.), an antagonist of benzodiazepine (BZD) site in the GABAA-BZD receptor complex, inhibited the prolongation of seizure latency, but did not show any effect on the duration of myoclonic seizures. Also, pretreatment with naloxone (0.1 and 03 mg/kg, i.p.) inhibited the prolongation of myoclonic seizure latency and antagonized the reduction of myoclonic seizure duration induced by thymoquinone (40 and 80 mg/kg) in the PTZ model. Moreover, thymoquinone (40 and 80 mg/kg) did not have any hypnosis effect in the pentobarbital-induced hypnosis, but impaired the motor coordination and reduced the locomotor activity. These results indicate that thymoquinone may have anticonvulsant activity in the petit mal epilepsy probably through an opioid receptor-mediated increase in GABAergic tone.
Article
We studied the effect of a 4-week intragastric gavage with a petroleum ether extract of Nigella sativa seeds on blood glucose, insulin and lipids in the normal rat. Petroleum ether extract caused a 25% reduction in food intake that translated into a transient weight loss. No sign of toxicity of the plant could be seen in vivo or in vitro. Fasting plasma glucose remained stable throughout Nigella sativa treatment. At the end of the 4-week treatment, Nigella sativa-treated rats had lower fasting plasma levels of insulin and triglycerides, and higher HDL-cholesterol as compared to pair-fed controls. Response to insulin was evaluated in hepatocytes isolated from animals of all groups by Western blot analysis of phosphorylated MAPK p44/42erk and PKB. In vivo Nigella sativa treatment resulted in greater dose-dependent activation of MAPK and PKB in response to insulin. These results suggest that the petroleum ether extract of Nigella sativa has a slight anorexic effect, and that it contains the hypolipidemic activity previously obtained with the plant. More significantly, our data demonstrate that in vivo treatment with the petroleum ether extract exerts an insulin-sensitizing action by enhancing the activity of the two major intracellular signal transduction pathways of the hormone's receptor.
Article
Thymoquinone (TQ), the major biologically active component isolated from a traditional medicinal herb, Nigella sativa Linn, is a potential chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic compound. Despite the promising antineoplastic activities of TQ, the molecular mechanism of its pharmacologic effects is poorly understood. Here, we report that TQ exhibits antiproliferative effect, induces apoptosis, disrupts mitochondrial membrane potential and triggers the activation of caspases 8, 9 and 3 in myeloblastic leukemia HL-60 cells. The apoptosis induced by TQ was inhibited by a general caspase inhibitor, z-VAD-FMK; a caspase-3-specific inhibitor, z-DEVD-FMK; as well as a caspase-8-specific inhibitor, z-IETD-FMK. Moreover, the caspase-8 inhibitor blocked the TQ-induced activation of caspase-3, PARP cleavage and the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria into the cytoplasm. In addition, TQ treatment of HL-60 cells caused a marked increase in Bax/Bcl2 ratios due to upregulation of Bax and downregulation of Bcl2 proteins. These results indicate that TQ-induced apoptosis is associated with the activation of caspases 8, 9 and 3, with caspase-8 acting as an upstream activator. Activated caspase-8 initiates the release of cytochrome c during TQ-induced apoptosis. Overall, these results offer a potential mechanism for TQ-induced apoptosis in p53-null HL-60 cancer cells.