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A Collaborative Model for the Design and Engineering of a Textile Hybrid Structure

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In 2016 and 2017 a master class was held at the Hafencity University Hamburg (HCU) which focused on collaborative design and engineering methods using textile hybrid structures as a case study. After an initial design competition where individual student groups explored design and modelling techniques, the winning design was chosen as a case study to build to scale. The challenge was then to set up a parametric work flow which allowed a large number of students, divided into expert groups, to work on one single design model. The expert groups covered the fields of design, form-finding, structural analysis, material testing, detailing, manufacturing and project management. A collaborative workflow template was set up, which equally addressed complex analysis as well as the need for continuous geometric adjustment to achieve a model which interactively functioned on design, structural and material level. The paper will discuss the workflow models, including the principles that allowed the iterative development of the initial and final form finding, detail design and fabrication planning, as well as material testing across different computational design platforms. It will also provide an overview of the development process through a design narrative. In order to critically discuss the key methods supporting communication between architects and engineers within computational design development and secure project specific design processes, a productive learning environment for all members involved was established. The built case study structure will be exhibited in the foyer of the HCU during the IASS conference.
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Proceedings of the IASS Annual Symposium 2017
“Interfaces: architecture . engineering . science”
September 25 - 28th, 2017, Hamburg, Germany
Annette Bögle, Manfred Grohmann (eds.)
Copyright © 2017 by Julian LIENHARD, Christian BERGMANN, Riccardo LA MAGNA, Jonas RUNBERGER
Published by the International Association for Shell and Spatial Structures (IASS) with permission.
A Collaborative Model for the Design and Engineering of a
Textile Hybrid Structure
Julian LIENHARDa *, Christian BERGMANNb, Riccardo LA MAGNAc, Jonas RUNBERGERd
astr.ucture GmbH, Lindenspürstr. 32, 70176 Stuttgart (Germany), Visiting Prof. HCU Hamburg
lienhard@str-ucture
b Hadi Teherani Architects GmbH, Hamburg
c Konstruktives Entwerfen und Tragwerksplanung (KET), UdK Berlin
d White arkitekter AB, Stockholm, Artistic Prof. Chalmers Dep. of Architecture and Civil Engineering
Abstract
In 2016 and 2017 a master class was held at the Hafencity University Hamburg (HCU) which focused
on collaborative design and engineering methods using textile hybrid structures as a case study.
After an initial design competition where individual student groups explored design and modelling
techniques, the winning design was chosen as a case study to build to scale. The challenge was then to
set up a parametric work flow which allowed a large number of students, divided into expert groups, to
work on one single design model. The expert groups covered the fields of design, form-finding,
structural analysis, material testing, detailing, manufacturing and project management. A collaborative
workflow template was set up, which equally addressed complex analysis as well as the need for
continuous geometric adjustment to achieve a model which interactively functioned on design, structural
and material level.
The paper will discuss the workflow models, including the principles that allowed the iterative
development of the initial and final form finding, detail design and fabrication planning, as well as
material testing across different computational design platforms. It will also provide an overview of the
development process through a design narrative. In order to critically discuss the key methods
supporting communication between architects and engineers within computational design development
and secure project specific design processes, a productive learning environment for all members
involved was established.
The built case study structure will be exhibited in the foyer of the HCU during the IASS conference.
Keywords: workflow, form-finding, bending-active
1. Introduction
Hybrid constructions are created by combining two load-bearing systems with different mechanical
behaviour into a single, more efficient structure with new mechanical characteristics. They cannot be
generalized by either typologies, nor are they characterized by similarities in their original load-transfer
mechanism. Textile Hybrids are created when combining form-active and bending-active structures.
This interdependence of form and force of mechanically pre-stressed textile membranes and bending-
active beam elements is classified as a Textile Hybrid (Lienhard and Knippers [1]).
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Interfaces: architecture.engineering.science
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Working with hybrid structures requires an in-depth understanding of material, mechanics and design
in order to unveil the architectural and load-bearing potentials of the hybrid in an iterative and often
interdisciplinary planning process.
For such integrated planning processes, we now have access to digital planning and simulation methods
which enable the linking of different design and analysis environments. These new possibilities in
developing digital information models which can describe design, as well as geometrical and mechanical
interconnections, present new challenges to architects and civil engineers. While we are increasingly
engaged in communication and planning processes and thereby develop a common language, the
complexity of the task demands a deepened and increasingly specialized expertise within the individual
disciplines.
Architecture and civil engineering students from the HCU Hamburg, took up the challenge of such
planning processes during the master class 'Textile Hybrids' 2016/2017. The results presented in this
paper show the interdisciplinary approach of working on a digital information model which combines
material, structure, form and manufacturing data. After an initial design competition where individual
student groups explored design and modelling techniques, the winning design was chosen as a case
study to build to scale. The design specifically focused on the development of a hybrid in textile
materials: elastically bent fibre composite rods and mechanically pre-stressed membrane surfaces. The
inseparable form-structure relationship in such ‘textile hybrid’ systems presents a particular challenge
for the entire planning process (Ahlquist et.al [2]). The students' work engaged with the processes of
parametric modelling and the resulting design of a textile hybrid space structure which expresses an
integral team process.
2. Design Process
Although computational form-finding methods have made a fully digital planning process possible,
physical models for form-finding are still very helpful in the conceptual design phase of textile hybrid
structures. Only until a few years ago, membrane engineers would still recommend a working method
which started with physical models and used computational form-finding once the general definitions
were made. In today’s praxis however, the advanced graphical interfaces and interactive simulation
possibilities have made physical models rare in the design and development of membrane structures.
The computational means for simulating bending-active structures, however, have not been developed
so extensively. Here, physical structural models have preserved their importance as a form-finding tool
in the early design stages. The output from such experiments serve to provide topological data where
more precise geometric and mechanical behaviour can be explored computationally.
Looking at the design process of the Textile Hybrid, two moments of creativity can be highlighted. The
first is situated at the beginning of the process where physical modelling is used as a quick but materially
informed method to create the basis of a physically feasible system from an infinite room of possibilities.
The second moment lies between the form-finding and the structural design phase, where adaptations
and specifications in the design are made to enable the construction phase. Here, Finite Element Analysis
processes information between the form-finding and the structural design, and thereby becomes part of
the actual design phase rather than a mirroring instrument to check in parallel the feasibility of a decision
taken in other modelling environments. This integration of FEM within the creative process of a design
methodology requires the setup of bidirectional information flow to enable fast iterations during the
creative design phases.
2.1. Experimental approach
Initial design studies were carried out with physical models. An immediate feedback of the mechanical
behaviour is experienced during the construction of a physical model and is indispensable to find ways
for short-cutting forces in an intricate equilibrium system. Holding an elastically bent element in your
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hands directly shows the spring back tendency of the system and therefore holds information for the
position and direction of necessary constraints. As an initial effort in the design exploration of Textile
Hybrids, physical form-finding enabled the development of geometries for the interaction of pre-
stressed membranes and configurations of bending-active elements. The output from such experiments
served to provide topological data for further computational simulations.
Figure 1 shows a selection of early design studies with physical models. The model in Figure 1b already
represents a scaled model of the final design, built to test cutting patterns and optimize the layout and
direction of guy
cables.
Figure 1: Physical models:
a. experimental models with soapfilm and GFRP rods.
b. design study models with textile and GFRP rods
c. form-finding models with textile and GFRP rods
2.1. Digital form-finding and collaborative modelling
The challenge in the design process was the setup of a parametric workflow which allowed a large
number of students, divided into expert groups, to work on one single design model. The expert groups
covered the fields of design, form-finding, structural analysis, material testing, detailing, manufacturing
and project management. A collaborative workflow template was set up, which equally addressed
complex analysis as well as the need for continuous geometric adjustments to achieve a model which
interactively functioned on the design, structural and material level.
Robert Woodbury [2] describes designers as “amateur programmers”; employing a mode of
programming that focuses on given isolated tasks rather than a greater strategy for development. Given
this, the presented workshop faced several challenges. With an objective of progressing through an
iterative process in which proposals could be evaluated and refined according to both material
performance and aesthetic outcome, the association of several software packages required parallel and
collaborative development. The participating students had various levels of expertise, and the design
explorations were combined within a learning process where each student depended on each other’s
disciplinary knowledge as well as their understanding of programming and visual scripting. The parallel
development also set up requirements hard to fulfil by the specific software packages – the possibility
to work object oriented between many different designers and developers.
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Figure 2: a. Visual script using the Dsearch Template for Grasshopper, b. Flux for cloud based data exchange
While graphic scripting environments such as Grasshopper are node based, i.e. the functionality of a
visual scripting definition depends only on how each node is associated and connected to its neighbours,
the legibility of such definitions have been shown to depend heavily on how the definition is visually
organized beyond its topology (Davis et al. [3]). With a collaborative learning environment, dependent
on ease of communication, a framework of standards and conventions developed in professional
architectural practice was introduced to the teams at the starting point of development of the selected
competition proposal (Magnusson and Runberger [4]). A main feature of the framework was an
approach to clustering parts of the graphical definition into layered hierarchies, with a color-coded
legend that further improved legibility (Figure 2a). Important aspects such as Input (geometry from
Rhino), Import (geometry and data external to Rhino), Control (parametric control of definition) and
Exchange (geometry and data exported external to Rhino) proved to be of particular importance.
2.1.1. Cloud-based information models
The presented framework also included principles for how to integrate Flux as a cloud-based data
exchange [5] (Figure 2b). Flux provided important links between Grasshopper and Excel (used for bill
of quantities and material order sheets), but also between Grasshopper definitions dedicated to handle
imports and exports from and to SOFiSTiK, as well as design files for particular development such as
overall context for the installation and detailing. Flux currently requires the setting up of specific
datakeys external to Grasshopper, and this required a particular set-up to handle versioning through the
iterative process. With this set-up, it was possible to work on the detail design based on the form-finding
results of an earlier version key while this form-finding was optimized and updated for a current version
key. This set-up proved to be very powerful as the design had to be changed at a very late stage of the
realization process (Figure 3).
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Figure 3: Digital workflow model
2.2. Integrated FEM analysis
The rising interest in structures that employ form-finding as a form giving strategy has been lately
accompanied by a wide range of computational tools and different approaches to simulation. Many of
these approaches have focused on explicit and dynamic formulations, as they appear to be particularly
appealing from an implementation point of view and well suited as a form-finding tool, especially in
regard to large deformations and nonlinear structural response. Nonetheless, the simulation of large
elastic deformations, like in the case of bending-active structures, does not pose a problem for modern
nonlinear Finite Element Analysis, the de facto standard in the field of engineering simulation
(Schleicher et al.[7]). Finite Elements still remains the most reliable tool for structural analysis, offering
the complete picture of the situation and the most accurate mechanical description of the analysed
system. However, until recently available Finite Element programs did not serve particularly well as a
design environment. It was notoriously complex to organize a complete simulation setup for quick
design explorations with almost any FE program. Despite the apparent complexity, recent advances and
a wider availability of computational tools to the design and engineering community have been lately
filling the gap between the two disciplines. In this way, a tighter interaction between early design
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developments and mechanical analysis feedback is becoming more commonplace in daily praxis.
Particularly the advent of parametric tools initially meant as design platforms has been steadily trickling
down to the engineering community, offering more agile environments to simulate, test and plan wider
arrays of design variation. This paradigm shift is well reflected in typologies that actively employ the
behaviour of materials as a form-giving strategy, the design of which is tightly coupled to a concurrent
structural feedback.
The necessity and advantage of Finite Element Analysis in the development of Textile Hybrids lies in
the possibility of a thorough and complete mechanical description of the system (Figure 4). Provided
that form-finding solvers are included in the software, the possibility of freely combining shell, beam,
cable, coupling and spring elements enables FEM to simulate the exact physical properties of the system
in an uninterrupted mechanical description. These include: mechanical material properties,
asymmetrical and varying cross-sections, eccentricities coupling and interaction of individual
components, nonlinear stress-stiffening effects, nonlinear simulation of stresses and deflections under
external loads (e.g. wind and snow), patterning and compensation (Figure 5).
In the context of the Textile Hybrid project presented here, multiple tools were employed to ease the
communication between design and analysis platforms. Working primarily in Rhino for the modelling
and Grasshopper for the parametric organization of the prototype, a direct exchange of data was
achieved with the aid of the STiKbug plugin for Grasshopper. Currently under development, STiKbug
creates a direct link from the parametric modelling environment Grasshopper and the Finite Element
Analysis software SOFiSTiK which was used for the analysis of the structure. The plugin enables a
bidirectional flow of information to and from both software environments. In this way, the creation of
input geometry can be seamlessly coupled to the output of the structural analysis and vice versa. This
gave the students the opportunity to easily interact between seemingly separate software settings,
besides elaborating and validating multiple design purposes supported by detailed structural feedback.
The communication between the two software environments happens in both directions by parsing and
marshalling the data. The geometry information created in Rhino/Grasshopper is translated and parsed
into SOFiSTiK friendly code which serves as the primary input for the Finite Element simulation. The
flow of information in the opposite direction happens through marshalling of the C++ database of the
results into .NET compliant classes. For each object in the database, a correspondent .NET object class
exists, allowing for a seamless transition and flow of information to and from both environments. No
additional translation of the information is required, as the plugin takes completely care of bridging the
different data representation. In this way, the description of the system can be purely geometry based,
rather than having to rely on platform specific code representations.
Figure 4: First form-finding step and edge radius optimization
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Figure 5: Full mechanical description in FEM model
2.2.1. Feedback from FEM to design and manufacturing
In the final stage, the design system was equipped to feed geometric information from the FEM form-
finding back into the information model whilst maintaining the data keys logic used to transfer
information through Flux. With this setup it was possible to stream production data from the FEM model
into the CAD environment for detail design and cutting length of beams and cables (Figure 6). The same
data was also streamed to Excel sheets to update the bill of quantities and organize material ordering.
Figure 6: Generating production data streamed from FEM back into the central information model
Given the possibility to generate membrane cutting patterns with SOFiSTiK’s package ‘TEXTILE’, the
production data for the membrane itself could also be handled within the design system. In this case, an
isolated membrane model with a more refined mesh was generated from the global form-found models
of the membrane surfaces. Since the membrane was cut and sewn manually by the students, the unrolled
patterns had to be organized into separate nesting routines. A first nesting routine was optimized for the
available paper width (1.5m) to plot and cut the templates. A second nesting then optimized the patterns
for minimal material waste of the raw membrane material with 2.66m width (Figure 7)
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Figure 7: Patterning and nesting
3. Equilibria of form, force and perception
Form defined by force equilibrium ultimately leads to a design process which following common
sense – seems to weaken the role of the designer. Physical dependencies determine the spatial effect,
the outcome of every decision seems to be derived from quantifiable data only. However, using an
integral digital model to analyse and control form and define parameters in order to keep the force
equilibrium along the entire design process, leads to the exact opposite: design decisions cannot solely
be made by individual judgment but moreover on the basis of thorough information exchange in a team.
Such information can, as witnessed over the course of this project, be almost of any kind and come at
any time – not just from an engineering background. According to Bateson [8], information is “a
difference that makes a difference”. It is important to perceive this information and discuss the
differences it evokes within the team to decide how to control the model. Communication takes the
centre stage. The role of the designer has to adapt to this non-hierarchical process, maximizing the effect
of the expertise at hand. This quantifiable information leads to a minimum use of materials; the resulting
design a representation of the fact that everything is in balance.
In the end, the theoretical research aimed to lead to the creation of a sculpture in the entrance atrium of
the HCU (Figure 8). As such, it did not only have to hold up to the very own expectations of the students
involved but also to the perception of the uninformed visitor. In this sense: If a sculpture is not able to
inspire or at least evoke questions, would it have a right to exist in the first place? A strong design
approach and key targets which inform the model on a pure basis of unquantifiable quality such as
quality of concept, quality of spatial perception and quality of execution – are essential to any sculptural
work publicly on show. Therefore, these unquantifiable parameters informed the design process equally
strongly as the quantifiable ones leading to an intriguing final design. This target in turn helped the
diverse characters and experts involved in crossing the borders of their very own disciplines and
communicating on common academic ground both digitally and physically - to the benefit of the
design. As a result, the digital model and workflow were flexible enough to adapt to almost any
challenge while keeping the force equilibrium within the constantly changing form.
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Figure 8: Impressions of the installed structure
5. Conclusions
When bridging the gap between teaching and research we inevitably move into unknown territory where
a project’s success is not only dependent on people’s commitment but also on the results and findings
coming from that very research. The two critical moments in the Textile Hybrid workshop were found
to be in the digital communication and the physics based modelling. First of all the setting up of a digital
communication platform which allowed independent expert parties to work on a single and
interdependent information model. In the second place the engineered hybrid equilibrium system had to
work at full-scale with little possibility of adjustment after its erection. In the case of the Textile Hybrid
workshop, several teams achieved very advanced results: they not only carried through workflow-
related conventions, but also contributed to new findings. Even so, the process faced critical conditions
at several points in time. At a late stage an initially included mirroring surface had to be removed since
no appropriate product could be found. Here, the design system and the frameworks set up allowed for
design adjustments and the generation of a new equilibrium, the detailing and production data in the
timespan of one week, thus proving the power of the comprehensive parametric digital system. Several
issues such as fire and smoke led to the use of a non-coated glass-fibre fabric with a compensation of
less than 0.2%, something that posed a major challenge to the team while cutting and sewing the
membrane which became visible in the final outcome in terms of wrinkling. As an additional challenge,
the GFRP rods the team had planned and calculated could not be delivered in time, therefore an
alternative, much stiffer rod had to be used. This led to additional challenges while pre-stressing the
membrane. As such it can be concluded that the challenges in focus, concerning digital communication
and achieving a full-scale equilibrium system were successfully managed. In detail, however the
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accumulation of seemingly less important factors led to challenges in perfectly pre-stressing the
membrane.
The challenges concerning digital communication methods and those of physical nature are similar to
those observed in the entire planning and building industry – especially when it comes to the shift from
pure theoretical design and planning to manufacturing and building to scale. They still are one of the
major burdens for innovation and sustainability and heuristically can only be overcome with a systemic
cultural approach on a strategic level (Bergmann [9]).
Acknowledgements
Student Team: Marcelo Acevedo Pardo, Fabrizio M. Amoruso, Vasileios Angelakoudis, Nick Dimke,
Kaspar Ehrhardt, Luisa Höltig, Timo van der Horst, Tobias Hövermann, Michel Kokorus, Dennis
Mönkemeyer, Anies Ruhani-Shishevan, Gert Salzer, Anton Samoruko, Dino Tomasello, Zeliha Atabek,
Björn Bahnsen, Niklas Dürr, Maria Fritzenschaft, Matthis Gericke, Mahmoud Ghazala Einieh, Can-
Peter Grothmann, Moritz Seifert, Timo Volkmann.
Surveying: Erik Jensen, Dominik Trau.
Supervision: Lehrstuhl Tragwerksentwurf Prof. Michael Staffa, Wiebke Brahms.
Membrane Manufacturing workshop: Jakob Frick.
HCU Labs: Thomas Kniephoff, Jens Ohlendieck, Kai Schramme.
Fire Simulation: Ingenieurgesellschaft Stürzl GmbH.
Sponsors: MAX HOFFMANN, SOFiSTiK, Serge Ferrari, Textilbau GmbH.
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for Shell and Spatial Structures 03/2015; 56(1):37
[2] Ahlquist, S., Lienhard, J., Knippers, J. and Menges, A. Physical and Numerical Prototyping for
Integrated Bending and Form-Active Textile Hybrid Structures. In: Gengnagel, C., Kilian, A.,
Nembrini, J. and Scheurer, F. (eds.) Rethinking Prototyping: Proceeding of the Design Modelling
Symposium, Berlin, October 2013, pp. 1-14. (ISBN: 978-3-89462-243-5)
[3] Woodbury, Robert, Elements of Parametric Design, Routledge, New York, 2010
[4] Davis D., Burry J. and Burry M., Untangling Parametric Schemata: Enhancing Collaboration
through Modular Programming, in CAAD Futures 2011 Proceedings, University of Liége, 2011
[5] Magnusson F. and Runberger J., Harnessing the Informal Processes around the Computational
Design Model, in Modelling Behaviour, proceedings of the Design Modelling Symposium, 2015,
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[6] https://flux.io/
[7] Schleicher S., Rastetter A., La Magna R., Schönbrunner A., Haberbosch N. and Knippers J., Form-
Finding and Design Potentials of Bending-Active Plate Structures, in Modelling Behaviour,
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[8] Bateson G., Steps to an Ecology of Mind: Collected Essays in Anthropology, Psychiatry, Evolution,
and Epistemology, University of Chicago Press, 2000
[9] Bergmann C., Prozessneugestaltung im Bauen – Eine Strategie, Doctoral dissertation, University
of Stuttgart, 2013
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In this paper, we are presenting a design to fabrication system, which allows to produce efficiently and highly automated customised knitted textile elements for architectural application on industrial computer-controlled knitting machines (Computer Numerical Control (CNC) knitting machines). These textile elements can, in this way, be individual in both geometry, detailing and material behaviour. This work extends recent work on CNC knitted tensile members and presents a set of innovations in design and manufacturing, which together allow to build structural systems, in which highly individualised membrane members allow a structure to take on multiple structural states. Underlying these innovations is a shift from the focus on geometry and homogeneity in material and behaviour, expressed in current state-of-the-art membrane structures and materials. Instead our research lays the foundation for a new class of membrane materials with varying bespoke local material properties. In this paper we present the underlying digital tools and processes for design, analysis and manufacturing of these hyper specified textile membranes. We showcase and evaluate the potentials of Computational Knit for novel structural membrane systems through the large-scale installation Isoropia designed and built for the Danish Pavilion in the 2018 Venice Architectural Biennale.
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Form-finding processes are an integral part of structural design. Because of their limitations, the classic approaches to finding a form – such as hanging models and the soap-film analogy – play only a minor role. The various possibilities of digital experimentation in the context of structural optimisation create new options for the designer generating forms, while enabling control over a wide variety of parameters. A complete mapping of the mechanical properties of a structure in a continuum mechanics model is possible but so are simplified modelling strategies which take into account only the most important properties of the structure, such as iteratively approximating to a solution via representations of kinematic states. Form finding is thus an extremely complex process, determined both by the freely selected parameters and by design decisions.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper describes research for the development and implementation of a functionally and structurally intricate textile hybrid architecture, entitled M1, built in Monthoiron, France as a part of the La Tour de l’Architecte complex. The term textile hybrid stands for the mutual exchange of structural action between bending- and form-active systems based on textile material behaviour. The implementation of such a structural logic is critical to this particular project as its presence is minimally impactful to the site which houses a historically-protected and decrepit stone tower from the 1500’s. To explore the complexities for minimal site imposition, lightweight material deployment and spatial differentiation, a set of multi-scalar and multi-modal prototyping procedures are developed. In both physical and numerical simulation, data towards eventual full-scale implementation is cumulatively compiled and calibrated, interleaving aspects of topology, material specification, force distribution and geometry. This paper defines prototyping as the interplay between modes of design in physical form-finding, approximated simulation through spring-based methods, and finite element analysis to form, articulate and materialise the textile hybrid structure. A particular feature in the exchange between and within these modes of design is the consideration of geometric input as a critical variable in the form-finding of bending-active behaviour.
Book
With contributions from Brady Peters, Onur Yuce Gun and Mehdi Sheikholeslami Design is change. Parametric modeling represents change. It is an old idea, indeed one of the very first ideas in computer-aided design. In his 1963 PhD thesis, Ivan Sutherland was right in putting parametric change at the centre of the Sketchpad system. His invention of a representation that could adapt to changing context both created and foresaw one of the chief features of the computer aided design (CAD) systems to come. The devices of the day prevented Sutherland from fully expressing what he might well have seen, that parametric representations could deeply change design work itself. I believe that, today, the key to both using and making these systems lies in another, older idea. People do design. Planning and implementing change in the world around u one of the key things that make us human. Language is what we say; design and making is what we do. Computers are simply a new medium for this ancient enterprise. True, they are the first truly active medium. They are general symbol processors, almost limitless in the kind of tool that they can present. With much craft and care, we can program them to do much of what we call design. But not all. Designers continue to amaze us in with new function and form. Sometimes new work embodies wisdom, a precious commodity in a finite world. To the human enterprise of design, parametric systems bring fresh and needed new capabilities in adapting to context and contingency and exploring the possibilities inherent in an idea. What is the new knowledge and skill designers need to master the parametric? How can we learn and use it? That is what this book is about. It aims to help designers realize the potential of the parameter in their work. It does so by combining basic ideas of parametric systems themselves with equally basic ideas from both geometry and computer programming.
Article
Gregory Bateson was a philosopher, anthropologist, photographer, naturalist, and poet, as well as the husband and collaborator of Margaret Mead. With a new foreword by his daughter Mary Katherine Bateson, this classic anthology of his major work will continue to delight and inform generations of readers. "This collection amounts to a retrospective exhibition of a working life. . . . Bateson has come to this position during a career that carried him not only into anthropology, for which he was first trained, but into psychiatry, genetics, and communication theory. . . . He . . . examines the nature of the mind, seeing it not as a nebulous something, somehow lodged somewhere in the body of each man, but as a network of interactions relating the individual with his society and his species and with the universe at large."—D. W. Harding, New York Review of Books "[Bateson's] view of the world, of science, of culture, and of man is vast and challenging. His efforts at synthesis are tantalizingly and cryptically suggestive. . . .This is a book we should all read and ponder."—Roger Keesing, American Anthropologist Gregory Bateson (1904-1980) was the author of Naven and Mind and Nature.
Untangling Parametric Schemata: Enhancing Collaboration through Modular Programming
  • D Davis
  • J Burry
  • M Burry
Davis D., Burry J. and Burry M., Untangling Parametric Schemata: Enhancing Collaboration through Modular Programming, in CAAD Futures 2011 Proceedings, University of Liége, 2011
Harnessing the Informal Processes around the Computational Design Model
  • F Magnusson
  • J Runberger
Magnusson F. and Runberger J., Harnessing the Informal Processes around the Computational Design Model, in Modelling Behaviour, proceedings of the Design Modelling Symposium, 2015, Springer.
Form-Finding and Design Potentials of Bending-Active Plate Structures
  • S Schleicher
  • A Rastetter
  • La Magna
  • R Schönbrunner
  • A Haberbosch
  • N Knippers
Schleicher S., Rastetter A., La Magna R., Schönbrunner A., Haberbosch N. and Knippers J., Form-Finding and Design Potentials of Bending-Active Plate Structures, in Modelling Behaviour, proceedings of the Design Modelling Symposium, 2015, Springer.
Prozessneugestaltung im Bauen -Eine Strategie, Doctoral dissertation
  • C Bergmann
Bergmann C., Prozessneugestaltung im Bauen -Eine Strategie, Doctoral dissertation, University of Stuttgart, 2013