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A dialogic theory of teaching thinking

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... Two recent large-scale studies have identified that some aspects of dialogue are related to learning gains (Alexander, 2018;Howe, Hennessy, Mercer, Vrikki, and Wheatley, 2019). Through dialogic teaching (Alexander, 2004), teachers can probe and promote students' higher-thinking skills (Wegerif, 2018), which resonates with the idea of 'second-order concepts' in historical thinking and reasoning (HTR; Lee and Ashby, 2000;Seixas, 1996Seixas, , 2017van Boxtel, 2008, 2018;Wineburg, 2001). To connect these two ideas, van Boxtel and van Drie (2017) argue that, based on Wegerif's (2013) notion of dialogic space, teachers could open up and broaden the use of dialogue to stimulate students' HTR. ...
... To move away from the dichotomy between monologic and dialogic surface structure (Boyd, 2015) and epistemological and ontological perspectives, Wegerif (2018) proposes the chiasm theory for dialogic theory, underpinned by Merleau-Ponty's concept of the 'chiasm' (1968), which implies the reversibility of a subject and an object. 'I see the world: the world sees me' is an example by Merleau-Ponty to demonstrate the transcendence perspective between inside-out and outside-in. ...
... The text above also argues that the opposites transform into each other and are mutually complementary to each other. Similar to the idea of chiasm in dialogic theory (Merleau-Ponty, 1964;Wegerif, 2018), Yin and Yang symbolising monologue and dialogue depicts how these two concepts are co-emerged, accompanied, and contradicted but harmonise each other (see also Hui, 2016 on the discussion of relational thinking based on Yin-Yang; Poon and Poon, 2020), as illustrated in Figure 2.1, which depicts the theoretical framework of this research. The white area represents Yang, the dialogue; and the black, Yin, illustrates the concept of monologue. ...
Thesis
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The study reported in this dissertation explored: (1) teachers’ use of dialogue to facilitate students’ historical thinking and (2) the trajectory of historical personal epistemology through a design-based approach. Empirical evidence emerging in previous decades has acknowledged that good quality classroom dialogue could have a positive impact on students’ learning. Through dialogic teaching, it has been argued that teachers could probe and promote students’ higher thinking skills. However, how dialogue is being used in history classes as well as the cultural context of dialogic education in East Asia was a salient gap in current research. The first research aim was to explore both teachers’ and students’ epistemic beliefs regarding the domain of history, which has been largely neglected in this field of study. The aim of this research was also to propose a new perspective on dialogic education that might not only bridge the dichotomy of the monologic and dialogic forms of teaching, but also address the pedagogical dilemma in history education raised by the latest Taiwanese national curriculum reform. Finally, another major aim of the research was to design a teacher professional development programme to change teachers’ epistemic beliefs and their teaching practice towards dialogic history education for promoting historical thinking. Adopting the notion of design-based research, a teaching professional programme was designed and administered throughout the one-academic year to 7 high school teachers. Three students of each participating teacher were chosen for semi-structured interviews to explore their personal epistemology, which were later analysed with an innovative discourse analysis method: Epistemic Network Analysis (ENA). Data concerning classroom dialogue was collected from monthly class observations and then analysed with a reconceptualised coding framework adapted from the Teacher’s Scheme for Educational Dialogue Analysis (T-SEDA, Hennessy, et al., 2021) and an observational instrument for historical thinking (Gestsdóttir, et al., 2018). In regard to personal epistemology, the findings reported a mixture of results with only a few students seeing a significant change in their epistemic beliefs after the programme. However, a pattern-based model for analysing historical epistemic beliefs reported from this study, has been generated resulting in four major patterns of beliefs being identified. In terms of classroom dialogue, the results found a positive increase in teachers’ use of dialogue. A hybrid form of dialogue informed by current dialogic theories synthesised with Confucianism and Taoism allowed dialogue to transgress away from the dichotomy of structural forms of monologue and dialogue was also put forward and characterised from the analysis. The contributions of this present study are discussed in terms of theoretical, methodological and practical uses.
... What you describe as mutually receptive-responsive relationships in nature, Bakthin sees as the self's perpetual, dialogue with its particular physical, social or cultural environment. Our encounters with alterity generate dialogic tension and involve perpetual creative struggle as new ideas and potential understandings are formed (Wegerif, 2018). Whilst this flow grants us moments of resolve, it also anticipates the infinite, perpetual expansion of understanding without a predetermined point of ultimate closure. ...
... It also goes beyond the competition around winning or losing an argument. Instead, it is active, inquisitive, empathetic and relational -serving mutual enrichment (Vass, 2017;Wegerif, 2018). responsive dialogue that we hope to promote in classrooms. ...
Article
Full-text available
For millennia, the Western mindset has been predisposed to the inherited custom to split mind and matter, emotion and cognition, art and science, the spiritual and the intellectual, the inner and outer, contemplation and objective inquiry. Our contemporary sense of dislocation from nature has arisen from this objectivistic perception. The current societal, economic and environmental crises urge us to break down the pervasive conceptual boundaries and binary distinctions and rethink what science is or what it can become. Covid 19 has exposed the iniquities and deep fault lines in the political and economic structure of globalized modern society founded on false division or unification of individual from or with group. We see Natural Inclusionality as the path to begin to resurrect and cultivate a new normal of co-creative community from the wreckage of the old normal of cultural tyranny (Rayner, 2020). The most ground-breaking dimension of the NI perception lies in its rejection of both extremes of dualism: the narrow objectivistic view of the world as dividable into discrete entities and the equally limiting monistic view of the world as some sort of uniform oneness. We propose to unpack these insights through dialogue: an ongoing professional dialogue between two authors, between two philosophical orientations, between natural and social sciences and between science and art. Our intentions are to show Natural Inclusional awareness as humanity’s ultimate resource for a resurgence from crisis—breaching the Great Lie that isolates individual from common good. In particular, we discuss the significance of these considerations in the context of educational science and practice.
... Furthermore, it is important to recall that philosophy is always born and carried out in relationship with others, for the simple reason that human beings are relational beings. Consequently, this dialogic relationship is not simply external, but rather it determines a change in the specific inner thought of each person and can never, therefore, be understood as a monologic process (Wegerif, 2018). Aristotle said that human beings live with the aim of being happy and so nothing gives greater happiness than spending time with friends and practising philosophy revista española de pedagogía year 78, n. 275, January-April 2020, 103-118 together (Aristotle, 2014). ...
... Además, hay que recordar que la filosofía nace y se desarrolla siempre en la relación con los demás, por la simple razón de que los seres humanos somos seres relacionales. Consecuentemente, esta relación dialógica no es simplemente exterior, sino que determina un cambio en la propia interioridad de cada cual, nunca, por lo tanto, puede concebirse como un evento monologante (Wegerif, 2018). Ya Aristóteles decía que los seres humanos vivimos con el fin de ser felices y, según el filósofo griego, nada procura más felicidad que pasar el tiempo con los amigos, haciendo filosofía juntos (Aristóteles trad. ...
... For example, considerations of inclusivity and diversity might come more clearly into view as one's perspective shifts, but it is only with increasing awareness of the subtleties of contextual, cultural, political and social factors that these considerations can begin to weave themselves throughout one's practice and discourse. The creation of space within postgraduate programmes for dialogue around multifaceted challenges, reflexive interrogation of teaching and workplace settings, and comparison across settings is conducive to the development of an appreciation of complexity (Rupert, 2018). Yet, we acknowledge that the realisation of theme 4 may be beyond what can be taught and learned through postgraduate educational programmes, because it relies on students working out their own ways to effect change as integrated parts of their workplace environments, and will need to be done over a longer time than this period of study. ...
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Clinicians develop as teachers via many activities, from on-the-job training to formal academic programmes. Yet, understanding how clinicians develop the sensibilities of an educator and an appreciation of the complexity of educational environments is challenging. Studies of teacher development have maintained a relatively narrow definition of educational practice. A more expansive view encompasses clinical teachers’ roles in relation to elements beyond learners or content, such as the cultures and other structures of healthcare institutions. In our online Postgraduate Certificate in Clinical Education, space and structure are intentionally created for teachers to think and talk about education with colleagues in other disciplinary contexts. We interviewed 17 students about how their approaches to teaching had changed over a year of part-time study, using their teaching philosophies, written at the start of the programme, as points of contrast. We took an abductive approach to data analysis, drawing on the literature and, unavoidably, our own reflexive interpretations of our practice outside of the research context, such as conversations with students and colleagues; our experiences of teaching and our concurrent research and scholarship. Our themes of repertoire building, perspective shifting, embodied practice, and appreciation of context, describe the increasing complexity of individuals’ considerations of teaching. We use our analysis as the basis for a discussion of the blurring of boundaries between staff and students on such programmes as both groups are engaged in an ongoing continuum of development as all teachers, continue to be learners of educational practice. These insights can inform the ways in which postgraduate programmes can make space for clinical teachers to share and reflect on practices, perspectives and contexts.
... In contrast to the packagable, quality assured, homogenized learning that is implicit in commercialized and instrumentalised discourses, much important pedagogical literature has emphasized social, cultural, embodied and contextualized education (e.g. Vygotsky 1978;Lave and Wenger 1999;Fenwick et al. 2011;Wegerif 2018), that is not clearly bounded in space or time. In this paper, we have argued that we are in danger of allowing the evaluation of the former to overwhelm the benefits of the latter. ...
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Current evaluation of higher education programmes is driven primarily by economic concerns, with a resulting imbalance towards the summative assessment of teaching and away from faculty development. These agendas are advanced through datafication, in which the transformation of social and material activity into digital data is producing a narrow, instrumental view of education. Taking a postdigital perspective on contemporary practices of evaluation outlined in higher education literature, we argue for an ecological view, in which evaluation must take account of those aspects of teaching, learning, and educational context, missing from digital data. We position quality as distributed across teacher, student, institution and context, arguing for the cross-fertilization of diverse kinds of data and non-datafied understandings, along with greater involvement of teachers and students in ways that enhance their agency, and develop their evaluative judgement of the quality of educational practices. We conclude that datafied practices can complement expert judgement when situated within a trusting, formative environment, and informed by an understanding of both pedagogy and technology, and clarity of educational purpose.
... Moreover, it possesses a very peculiar status, since it always entails a horizontal dynamic of mutual understanding and questioning-given that the dialogue is always open to dissension (Peters 2016)-that infringes on the majority of our commonly accepted social and economic relations. As Wegerif (2018) puts it: 'In real dialogue you are part of me, I am part of you and we together are part of the surrounding world'. ...
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Education is commonly considered to be a transformational practice that contributes both to forging the personality of individuals and to promoting social entanglements. For this reason, education always has a normative character that rests on a particular concept of what humanity and society should be. However, educational policies and practices are frequently unaware of these theoretical presuppositions, and for this reason, they frequently appear to act in a naïve and superficial manner. This is particularly the case for citizenship education, which, if superficially implemented, risks being distorted into a form of civic education that reproduces established norms and social relations, without promoting any meaningful social change. Thus, the first part of this article aims to deepen the notion of citizenship, in particular by studying what the concept of ‘consensus’ means, conceiving of it not as a synonym of social resignation, but rather as a collective conspiracy towards a common political project. Accordingly, the article defines the basic characteristics that education should always possess to effectively promote a democratic and participative citizenship education. In particular, it identifies five constitutive contrasts in relation to the ways in which information is transmitted, reasoned, emotionally perceived, and then discussed and countered both by individuals and society. The article therefore presents an overall theory of education, seen as a momentous practice of dialogue and common action that opens the way for a democracy in progress.
... proposed for the 21 st Century, the '4Cs' of collaboration, communication, creativity and critical thinking, are all aspects of dialogue (Wegerif, 2018). Learning to learn together (L2L2) with new technology has been put forward as perhaps the core complex competence required for the future (Wegerif, 2015). ...
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This chapter outlines key components of an emerging new dialogic theory of education appropriate for the Internet Age. The affordances of print literacy have shaped what we currently understand by education. The Internet offers new possibilities. The dialogic theory put forward in this chapter offers answers to the questions that any theory of education needs to address: How do students learn? What should we teach? How should we teach it? Education is understood as a response to being called into dialogue by others: specific others such as parents, generalized others such as the voice of Mathematics, and otherness in general referred to as the 'Infinite Other'. Learning involves some distinctively dialogic mechanisms including opening dialogic space(s) and promoting dialogic switches in perspective around a dialogic gap. Education implies the expansion of dialogic space-time; this expansion is the bringing together of initially separate islands of experience into dialogue with each other. Teaching builds a two-way bridge between local face-to-face dialogues and the global long-term dialogue of culture now carried by the Internet. Putting these components together gives us a distinctive new theory of education which responds to some of the challenges and the opportunities for education in the Internet Age.
... Two more points should brie y be made about the educational value of dialogue, although a deep exploration of them is beyond the scope of this chapter. First, there is growing evidence that dialogic education is an e ective way to teach general and transferable thinking skills and dispositions (Sutherland, 2006;Wegerif, 2018). This is based on the view that thinking can be described as an attribute of dialogue. ...
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COVID-19 and its imposed social confinement entailed a radical shift in research, supervision and learning in doctoral education. Heightened flexibility in delivery, sensitivity and compassion and greater reliance on technology sought to address not merely scholars’ pedagogical but holistic needs, which became more prominent during the pandemic. Face-to-face doctoral supervision and academic events were conducted online to overcome hurdles presented by ‘social distancing’. We examine how the dynamics of our group supervision for international doctoral scholars changed after shifting to online mode. We employed an autoethnographic approach to highlight evolving rewards and challenges in conducting online meetings with a group of international scholars. Focusing on this group is timely since the ‘working-from-home’ mode contributed to doctoral scholars’ isolation and stress that they experienced. This paper: a) exemplifies the psychological benefits fostered by online meetings; and b) highlights creative virtual pedagogies and practices worth adopting even after the pandemic is over.
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This chapter focuses on the agency of teachers and explores the ways in which teachers make decisions about what to teach in light of how their pupils respond. The complexity of what teachers do is described with reference to different sources of knowledge they draw on for their practice and the ways in which they orientate themselves to their pupils and to the curriculum. How teachers adopt different communicative approaches within pedagogy is described with reference to the concept of dialogic teaching. This is presented as the most effective approach to pedagogy, one that sees pupils as agentive and supports the idea of a good education. Case study examples of the learning experiences of autistic pupils in mainstream schools are used to illustrate the relevance of this approach to this group.
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Socializing Intelligence Through Academic Talk and Dialogue focuses on a fast-growing topic in education research. Over the course of 34 chapters, the contributors discuss theories and case studies that shed light on the effects of dialogic participation in and outside the classroom. This rich, transdisciplinary endeavor will appeal to scholars and researchers in education and many related disciplines, including learning and cognitive sciences, educational psychology, instructional science, and linguistics, as well as to teachers, curriculum designers, and educational policy makers. https://ebooks.aera.net/catalog/book/socializing-intelligence-through-academic-talk-and-dialogue
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This chapter addresses teacher agency in interpreting an educational change effort within the context of two Finnish schools. Specifically, the study examines the display of agentic orientations in teachers’ accounts while they reflect on the uptake of a new digital learning environment (called the FUSE Studio) at their schools as they adapt to a new core curriculum. Informed by sociocultural theorising, the approach employed in this chapter underscores a temporal perspective to researching teacher agency and agentic orientations in the context of educational reform. The data comprise 23 teachers’ semi-structured interviews after a 2-day in-service FUSE training programme and were analysed using qualitative content analysis. Our analysis revealed four agentic orientations with distinct temporal dimensions of agency that the teachers displayed towards the educational change efforts their schools were undergoing: practical-evaluative, reproductive, critical-projective, and creative-projective orientation. These agentic orientations and their temporal features unpack the dynamic processes of how teachers manage educational reforms to address their personal and local needs. The chapter concludes by discussing future directions for research on teacher agency amid educational change.
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We argue that dialogic theory, inspired by the Russian scholar Mikhail Bakhtin, has a distinct contribution to the analysis of the genesis of understanding in the mathematics classroom. We begin by contrasting dialogic theory to other leading theoretical approaches to understanding conceptual development in mathematics influenced by Jean Piaget and Lev Vygotsky. We argue that both Piagetian and Vygotskian traditions in mathematics education overlook important dialogic causal processes enabling or hindering switches in perspective between voices in relationship. To illustrate this argument, we use Piagetian-, Vygotskian- and Bakhtinian-inspired approaches to analyse a short extract of classroom data in which two 12-year-old boys using TinkerPlots software change their understanding of a probability problem. While all three analyses have something useful to offer, our dialogic analysis reveals aspects of the episode, in particular the significance of the emotional engagement and the laughter of the students, which are occluded by the other two approaches.
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We now understand that human intelligence, once thought to be determined almost solely by heredity, is malleable. In developed countries, average intelligence test scores have increased substantially since the tests began to be administered 100 years ago. In school settings, however, intelligence is often still treated as a fixed attribute that limits many students' ability to learn. We argue that schools can and should create intelligence. A body of research has now shown that participating in certain forms of discussion-based instruction can lead to gains in performance, not only in the subject taught, but also in other, distant domains. This means that schools can actually ‘grow the mind.’ Here, we look at a few powerful examples of dialogic teaching and learning, and discuss some of the implications for the future of education.