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Abstract

Mushrooms have been used extensively, owing to their nutritional and medicinal value, for thousands of years. Modern research confirms the therapeutic effect of traditionally used species. Inflammation is a natural response of the immune system to damaging factors, e.g. physical, chemical and pathogenic. Deficiencies of antioxidants, vitamins, and microelements, as well as physiological processes, such as aging, can affect the body’s ability to resolve inflammation. Mushrooms are rich in anti-inflammatory components, such as polysaccharides, phenolic and indolic compounds, mycosteroids, fatty acids, carotenoids, vitamins, and biometals. Metabolites from mushrooms of the Basidiomycota taxon possess antioxidant, anticancer, and most significantly, anti-inflammatory properties. Recent reports indicate that edible mushroom extracts exhibit favourable therapeutic and health-promoting benefits, particularly in relation to diseases associated with inflammation. In all certainty, edible mushrooms can be referred to as a “superfood” and are recommended as a valuable constituent of the daily diet.

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... Phenolic compounds are classified according to their chemical structure, based on the number of aromatic rings with attached hydroxyl groups (Figure 3). Numerous in vitro and in vivo studies highlight their antioxidative and anti-inflammatory properties, flavonoids being the most studied polyphenols [76][77][78]. They exert these properties through different mechanisms, including antioxidant activity restoration, inhibition of pro-inflammatory enzymes, and modulation of mediators and transcription factors involved in inflammatory processes [79]. ...
... NF-κB is the main transcription factor involved in inflammatory processes, which translocates to the nucleus after phosphorylation of IκB, activating the expression of pro-inflammatory genes [71]. Terpenes and terpenoids exert their inflammatory actions through reducing activity of NF-κB pathway, thus ameliorating expression of pro-inflammatory mediators [77,84]. ...
Article
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Inflammation is a physiological process involved in the defenses of the body and the repair of tissues. It is acutely activated by infections, trauma, toxins, or allergic reactions. However, if it becomes chronic, inflammation can end up stimulating the development of diseases such as cardiovascular disease, autoimmune disease, neurological disease, or cancer. Additionally, during aging, inflammation becomes increasingly more chronic. Furthermore, we found that certain foods, such as saturated fats, have pro-inflammatory activity. Taking this into account, in this review we have discussed different diets with possible anti-inflammatory activity, the commonly ingested components of each diet and their active compounds. In addition, we have proposed some dietary guidelines, as well as a list of compounds present in foods with anti-inflammatory activity, outlining how to combine them to achieve optimal anti-inflammatory effects. Therefore, we can conclude that the compounds in our diet with anti-inflammatory activity could help alleviate the inflammatory processes derived from diseases and unhealthy diets, and thereby promote healthy aging.
... An accumulating number of evidence suggested that the consumption of mushrooms performed against breast cancer (Martin & Brophy, 2010). Mushrooms were known to consist of secondary metabolites having beneficial properties like anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-bacterial, etc (Muszyńska et al., 2018). Many mushrooms had an anti-proliferative effect on breast cancer which affected countless women worldwide (Wong et al., 2020). ...
... Primarily, linoleic acid, oleic acid, and palmitic acid were found in most of the mushroom species and reported to have a protective effect against hormonedependent breast cancer. The protective mechanism involves the inhibition of the estrogen synthesis enzyme, that is, aromatase enzyme (Muszyńska et al., 2018). Our NMR result clearly indicated the presence of fatty acid in component F, which may be attributed to high anti-tumor activity against breast cancer cells. ...
Article
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Bovistella sinensis (BS) Lloyd was medically used by Chinese folks and associated with various bioactivities. In this study, dry fruiting body of Bovistella sinensis (BS) Lloyd was self‐fermented to improve the anti‐breast‐cancer activity and the mitochondrial ROS‐induced apoptosis of key compound was investigated. BS extracts obtained with petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, n‐butanol, ethanol, and distilled water showed various inhibitory effects on the proliferation of MDA‐MB‐231. The various self‐fermented BS extracts had a better effect on inhibition of MDA‐MB‐231 proliferation than that of untreated. And the ethyl acetate extract was found having the highest inhibitory effect on MDA‐MB‐231 proliferation, which was further separated into seven fractions. And among these fractions, fraction 6 exhibited the highest performance, where the major component F was obtained. The inhibition rate of 50 μg/ml of component F on MDA‐MB‐231, MCF‐7, and MCF‐10A were 60.12%, 56.16%, and 6.45%, respectively, showed the low toxicity in normal cell line. When treated with F, the activity and the mitochondrial membrane potential of MDA‐MB‐231 cells decreased significantly, while the intracellular reactive oxygen species increased, showed that the mitochondrial pathway was induced by reactive oxygen species. The HPLC, ¹H NMR, ¹³C NMR, and 2D NMR analysis showed component F may be a kind of fatty acid or ester. Therefore, self‐fermentation may be an efficient technology that could improve anti‐tumor activity and component F from self‐fermented BS might be considered as an anti‐cancer ingredient applied in functional food and anti‐carcinogen. Practical applications Anti‐breast‐cancer activity and mechanism of self‐fermented Bovistella sinensis Lloyd extract were investigated. The ethyl acetate extract showed a comparatively higher inhibitory effect and was separated into seven fractions. Fraction 6 showed the strongest cytotoxic activity against MDA‐MB‐231 breast cancer cell line and obtained a major component F with low cytotoxicity in a normal cell line. Component F had the potential to be used as natural anti‐cancer agents.
... Mushrooms comprise a low-calorie diet, approximately between 250 and 350 calories/kg of fresh mushrooms owing to their low-fat content (Panneerselvam, et al., 2009;S anchez, 2010;Muszy nska et al., 2018). Mushrooms contain nearly 19%-35% proteins, 50%-65% total carbohydrates and 2%-6% fat (Rathore et al., 2017). ...
... In addition, they also contain alcoholic sugars, such as trehalose and mannitol. Even though mushrooms have low-fat content, they are rich in saturated, mono-and polyunsaturated fatty acids (Kavishree et al., 2008;Jain & Roy, 2009;Muszy nska et al., 2018). ...
Article
Dietary fibres and high fibre‐containing foods have been a huge attraction among researchers and nutraceutical industries due to their health‐promoting benefits. From Greek and Roman times, edible mushrooms are considered the “elixir of life” and are often stated as a new source of dietary fibre. Containing rich sources of essential amino acids and polysaccharides, mushrooms are viewed as an advantage over protein sources of both animal and plant origin. Additionally, the ability of mushrooms to grow under controlled conditions and attain high yield in a short span has made this added‐value food of extreme interest. Nowadays, mushrooms and their by‐products have been used to fortify various food products as well as for use in animal feed owing to their bioactive, therapeutic and nutritional value. Hence, this review intends to highlight the current knowledge on edible mushrooms and their waste for food and feed enrichment and nutritional purposes, along with their role in human and animal diet.
... Mushrooms contain all essential amino acids, digestible carbohydrates (trehalose, glycogen, mannitol, and glucose), and indigestible carbohydrates (chitin, mannans, and β-glucans) or carbohydrate complexes (polysaccharopeptides or polysaccharide proteins). They also contain phenolic compounds, sterols, lipids, terpenoids, essential fatty acids (predominantly linoleic, oleic, and linolenic acids [5••]), poly-unsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), mono-unsaturated fatty acids, lipids, minerals, vitamins [6], and lectins [1,7]. Mushroom PUFA content tends to be proportionally higher than saturated fatty acids [5••]. ...
... Compounds in mushrooms display antitumor [4], antioxidant, immunomodulating, radical scavenging, cholesterol-lowering, cardiovascular, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory [7], hepatoprotective, antiobesity, antidiabetic, and analgesic properties [8-10••]. Although biologically active specialised metabolites in mushrooms belong to several structural classes [1,11••], polysaccharides and triterpenoids dominate the research landscape [12,13]. ...
Article
In this review, we offer our opinion of current and expected trends regarding the use of mushrooms and mycelia in food and feed. Mushrooms have provided food for millennia and production methods and species diversity have recently expanded. Beyond mushrooms, cultured fungal mycelia are now harvested as a primary product for food. Mushrooms and mycelia provide dietary protein, lipids and fatty acids, vitamins, fibre, and flavour, and can improve the organoleptic properties of processed foods (including meat analogues). Further, they are often key ingredients in nutritional or therapeutic supplements because of diverse specialised metabolites. Mycelia can also improve feed conversion efficiency, gut health, and wellbeing in livestock. New molecular tools, coupled with quality genetic data, are improving production technologies, enabling the synthesis of specialised metabolites, and creating new processing and valorisation opportunities. Production systems for submerged culture are capital intensive, but investment is required considering the scale of the protein market.
... Improper intervention or maladjustment in this process may disrupt the balance of the internal environment and induce chronic diseases, such as neurodegenerative diseases, cardiovascular diseases, obesity, type 2 diabetes, and cancer (Kotas and Medzhitov 2015;Okin and Medzhitov 2012). Terpenoids in edible fungi are common anti-inflammatory substances, the primary mechanism of which is the inhibition of NF-κB and AP-1 signal pathways and suppression of biosynthesis of inflammatory mediators, including cytokines, nitric oxide (NO), interleukin, and prostaglandins (Muszyńska et al. 2018). ...
... Inhibiting the excessive production of intracellular NO may prevent the occurrence of inflammatory diseases. Excessive production of NO can be induced in RAW264.7 macrophages stimulated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS), which can be detected and quantified by photometry (Muszyńska et al. 2018). On this basis, the inhibitory effect of terpenoids and other active substances on NO production by RAW264.7 macrophages can be evaluated. ...
Article
The edible fungi have both edible and medicinal functions, in which terpenoids are one of the most important active ingredients. Terpenoids possess a wide range of biological activities and show great potential in the pharmaceutical and healthcare industries. In this review, the diverse biological activities of edible fungi terpenoids were summarized with emphasis on the mechanism of anti-cancer and anti-inflammation. Subsequently, this review focuses on advances in knowledge and understanding of the biosynthesis of terpenoids in edible fungi, especially in the generation of sesquiterpenes, diterpenes, and triterpenes. This paper is aim to provide an overview of biological functions and biosynthesis developed for utilizing the terpenoids in edible fungi.
... Mushrooms are rich in antioxidant, anticancer, and anti-inflammatory components including polysaccharides, antioxidants, polyphenols, proteins, lipids, and vitamins (Muszyńska et al. 2018). They also contain bioactive molecules like β-glucans and triterpenoids that can act as immune-modulators (Rathore et al. 2017). ...
Chapter
The chapter reviews applications of pulsed electric fields (PEF) for the efficient extraction of intercellular components from food plants. Mechanisms of cell membrane permeabilization by PEF including electroporation of plane membranes, spherical cells, cells with different shapes and sizes, and ensembles of cells and plant tissues are discussed. Different techniques to detect electroporation, PEF protocols, treatment chambers, and methods for optimization of PEF treatment are presented. Solid/liquid expression and solvent extraction assisted by PEF are described in detail. Numerous practical examples of PEF-enhanced extraction of intracellular compounds from foods (potatoes, apples, sugar crops, citruses, grapes, etc.) are presented.
... In this regard, mushrooms are nutrient-rich food with many phytochemicals that exert free radical scavenging ability on human body. Mushrooms, usually grow in the soil, are the fungi with spore-bearing substrates, recognized as a delicacy in many countries (Khan et al. 2013;Muszyńska et al., 2018). Considering the therapeutic effect of mushrooms, it has been regarded as a guaranteed natural source for developing medicines (Gawlikowski, Romek, and Satora 2015;Xu, Beelman, and Lambert 2012;Zhang et al. 2014). ...
Article
Tricholoma matsutake (TM) is a valuable edible mushroom that has attracted increasing attention due to its potential medicinal values and functional uses. However, the chemical composition and molecular mechanisms behinds TM are not specifically summarized yet. Hence, this review aims to systematically analyze the research progress on the characterization of chemical compositions and the reported health effects of TM in the last 20 years. The myochemical profiles of TM consist of proteins with amino acids, fatty acids, nucleic acids with their derivatives, polysaccharides, minerals, volatile components, phenolic compounds, and steroids. The bioactive substances in TM exert their health effects mainly by regulating body immunity and restoring the balance of the redox system. NF-κB signaling pathway and its downstream cytokines such as TNF-α and IL-6 are the key molecular mechanisms. In addition, MAPK, PI3K-Akt, and JAK-STAT are also involved. NF-κB, MAPK, and PI3K-Akt are also highly related to cancer regulation and thus TM has great anticancer potential. Considering that most studies have only investigated the dosage and inhibition rate of TM on cancer cell lines, more extensive studies need to focus on the specific molecular mechanisms behind these anticancer effects in the future.
... The minerals assimilated by mushrooms have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties (Muszyńska et al. 2018). This is attributed to the role of minerals such as selenium, copper, iron as cofactors to enzymes with antioxidant functions (Kozarski et al. 2015). ...
Article
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Submerged fermentation of Tuber borchii and T. maculatum was performed to produce mycelia towards evaluating their bioactive potential and probable toxicity. Truffle mycelia had been mostly explored for biopolymers previously. Methanolic extraction yield, polyphenol content, and flavonoid content varied with species and period of fermentation. In vitro DPPH, FRAP, ABTS and ORAC radical scavenging activity of mycelial extracts of T. maculatum and T. borchii at 7 and 10 days of bioreactor fermentation corroborated with phenolics content. Absence of toxicity and antimutagenicity in lag and log phases in Saccharomyces cerevisiae D7 cells supported possibly safe nutraceutical use of mycelia of both truffles. Mineral content showed variation with species and fermentation time for macro- (calcium, potassium, phosphorus, sodium, iron, magnesium, and manganese) and trace elements (zinc, selenium, copper, chromium, and nickel). Mineral bioaccumulation can be explored for food-fortification applications. The demonstrated activities and detected constituents show potential applications in food, pharmaceutical, cosmetics and nutraceuticals.
... Mushrooms are considered an excellent option for the treatment of hypertension because they contain active antihypertensives such as peptides D-mannitol, D-glucose, D-galactose, D-mannose, triterpenes, and potassium [33]. In addition, their positive effects on neurological health, synaptic and neuroregenerative plasticity, neurite growth, and inhibition of acetylcholinesterase and β-secretase have been studied [34][35][36], which are crucially involved in the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease, dementia, depressive disorder, and cognitive decline [37,38]. ...
Article
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The production and consumption of fresh mushrooms has experienced a significant increase in recent decades. This trend has been driven mainly by their nutritional value and by the presence of bioactive and nutraceutical components that are associated with health benefits, which has led some to consider them a functional food. Mushrooms represent an attractive food for vegetarian and vegan consumers due to their high contents of high-biological-value proteins and vitamin D. However, due to their high respiratory rate, high water content, and lack of a cuticular structure, mushrooms rapidly lose quality and have a short shelf life after harvest, which limits their commercialization in the fresh state. Several traditional preservation methods are used to maintain their quality and extend their shelf life. This article reviews some preservation methods that are commonly used to preserve fresh mushrooms and promising new preservation techniques, highlighting the use of new packaging systems and regulations aimed at the development of more sustainable packaging.
... According to resource status, pine-mushroom has been listed as a national key of protected species. Pine-mushroom contains many unique bioactive components, as polysaccharides, polyphenolics, ergosterols, and volatile organic compounds, which were found to show antibacterial, antiviral, anti-tumor, immunomodulating, antioxidant, and antidiabetic properties (Hernández-Mesa, Escourrou, Monteau, Le Bizec, & Dervilly-Pinel, 2017;Kim et al., 2014;Meng, Liang, & Luo, 2016;Muszynska, Grzywacz-Kisielewska, Kala, & Gdula-Argasinska, 2018). Besides its health promoting and medicinal effects, pine-mushroom could also be selected as a favorable cuisine ingredient for unique flavor. ...
Article
Pine-mushrooms is rich in bioactive compounds, possess a unique aroma profile for culinary art. In China, pine-mushroom has been produced in Southwest and Northeast area. However, the discrepancy of volatile profiles in pine-mushrooms from two regions was unclear due to different extraction and detection method applied in researches. This study attempted to compare the volatile profiles of four pine-mushrooms from Southwest (LS) and Northeast (HEB, SY, MDJ) using Headspace Solid Phase Microextraction coupled with Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (HS-SPME/GC-MS) and Electronic nose (E-nose). Results showed a significant difference in aroma profiles among samples. A total of 100 volatile compounds were identified, and separated into 11 classes. Benzaldehyde and hexanal were detected in all samples, which could be the pivotal aroma components in pine-mushrooms. Aromatic components, were present in LS pine-mushroom from Southwest China, including abundant of methyl (Z)-N-hydroxybenzenecarboximidate, benzaldehyde, and methyl 3-phenylprop-2-enoate. Meanwhile, some alcohols (such as oct-1-en-3-ol, hexan-1-ol) were characteristic compounds present in HEB, SY and MDJ samples. Principal component analysis (PCA) of E-nose data showed a clear distinction among samples. In addition, this study also highlighted the correlation between key volatile compounds detected by GC-MS and E-nose sensors, which could be benefit for further explanation to the origin of differences in sensory quality of pine-mushrooms.
... Also, their exceptional chemical characteristics can be valorized in the fabrication of nutraceuticals or pharmaceutical products, exploring the synergies of the large group of bioactive compounds [5, [16][17][18][19]. Figure 1 gives a summary of the range of beneficial properties of wild edible mushrooms, such as antioxidative, antibacterial, antiviral, anticancer, and anti-inflammatory properties, strengthening the immune system as well as the ability to improve the functioning of the cardiovascular system [14, 20,21]. This explains why wild edible mushrooms are becoming more and more important in the definition of a balanced diet for humans all over the world, achieving exploitation of the health benefits and functioning mechanisms of mushrooms which give good results in the prevention of major diseases, such as cancer, heart and nervous problems [22,23]. ...
Chapter
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Nowadays, and considering the increasing pieces of evidence of health-promoting abilities of numerous food classes, a pronounced market pressure has been observed both in agricultural and biotechnological industries. Thus, while the development of functional foods seems to be conceived as an interesting trend with large market potential, the increasing demand and interest of sustainable food ingredients seems also promissory. In order to contribute to this approach, the proposal chapter will provides a comprehensive overview of the healthy and sustainable ingredients as edible mushrooms, legumes and bison emphasizing the characterization and application of those as natural ingredients in functional food products.
... Notably, senescent cells that accumulate in the skin during aging play a significant role in driving skin inflammation (Pilkington et al., 2021). The anti-inflammatory properties of naturally active polysaccharides have been widely recognized (Muszyńska et al., 2018), and our results have demonstrated this again. Currently, there is still a lack of universal biomarkers of aging. ...
Article
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Benincasa hispida Cogn. (B. hispida) is a popular vegetable in China, and studies have been reported on B. hispida polysaccharides (BPS) preparation. However, few studies have been reported on its physicochemical and skincare properties. In this study, we analyzed the physicochemical properties of BPS, free radical scavenging capability, moisturizing and antioxidant activities in vitro and in vivo, respectively. Our results show that BPS was an inhomogeneous acidic polysaccharide that could scavenge a variety of free radicals. Also, BPS had a good moisturizing and antioxidant capability both in vitro and in vivo. Specifically, BPS could alter some key antioxidant enzyme activities and pro-inflammatory factor levels via activating the NRF2/HO-1 pathway, thereby preventing H2O2-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and apoptosis of HDF-1 cells. Our results suggest that BPS exhibited favorable moisturizing and anti-aging properties and might be an attractive candidate for the development of anti-aging skincare products.
... There is a common belief that supplementation of mushrooms in dietary meals reduces the health care expenditure and remove the fear of the influenza outbreak 23 . Recent pharmacological studies indicated that mushrooms are an exceptional source of several bioactive molecules, possessing antiviral 24,25 , anti-inflammatory 26,27 , antioxidants, antifungal, anticancer, antibacterial, and inhibition of platelet aggregation activities 28 . Mushrooms exhibited strong anti-viral properties when used against influenza-A virus [29][30][31] , Dengue virus serotype 2 32 , HIV-1, HIV-2 33,34 , type-2 herpes simplex viruses 35 , pandemic H1N1 and human H3N2 36 . ...
Article
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Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is highly pathogenic to humans and has created health care threats worldwide. This urgent situation has focused the researchers worldwide towards the development of novel vaccine or small molecule therapeutics for SARS-CoV-2. Although several vaccines have already been discovered and are in use for the masses, no therapeutic medication has yet been approved by FDA for the treatment of COVID-19. Keeping this in view, in the present study, we have identified promising hits against the main protease (M pro ) of SARS-CoV-2 from edible mushrooms. Structure-based virtual screening (VS) of 2433 compounds derived from mushrooms was performed with M pro protein (6LU7). Four promising hits, namely, Kynapcin-12 (M_78), Kynapcin-28 (M_82), Kynapcin-24 (M_83), and Neonambiterphenyls-A (M_366) were identified based on the result of docking, Lipinski’s rule, 100 ns molecular dynamics (MD) simulation and MM/PBSA binding free energy calculations. Finally, the inhibitory properties of these hits were compared with three known inhibitors, baicalein ( 1 ), baicalin ( 2 ), and biflavonoid ( 3 ). Data indicated that M_78, M_82 and M_83 compounds present in edible mushroom Polyozellus multiplex were potent inhibitors of M pro protein (6LU7). It could be concluded that edible mushroom Polyozellus multiplex has potential activity against SARS-CoV-2 infection and identified molecules could be further explored as therapeutic inhibitors against SARS-CoV-2.
... Mushrooms are sources of bioactive compounds with antiviral properties [10]. Moreover [11,12], found that some of these compounds have anti-inflammatory properties. Since ancient times, mushrooms have been used for various purposes [13,14]. ...
Preprint
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The emerging mosquito-borne Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection is a massive threat in tropical areas and is rapidly expanding towards the temperate zones. This virus is causing recent epidemics worldwide, predominantly in Europe and North America. Moreover, CHIKV has a mounting impact on persons with possibly painful arthritis. Millions of positive cases have already been recorded in more than 100 countries worldwide. This virus is also capable of infecting new areas by travelers, which has made it more dreadful. However, for the dearth of approved therapeutics or vaccines to prevent or control the virus, it is essential to identify new and effective medicinal compounds to address this. Therefore, the non-structural protein nsP3 macro domain, nsP2 protease, and envelope proteins responsible for viral replication are the new target sites for therapeutic development. Mushrooms are abundant in bioactive compounds with antiviral properties. Thus, we performed molecular docking (MD) and dynamics simulation to identify the top candidates for nsP3 macro domains, nsP2 protease, and envelope glycoprotein complex inhibitors, as well as to predict possible therapeutic candidates. We then predicted the drug similarity for the best candidates based on higher binding affinity. Our findings suggest that mushroom-derived heliantriol F, semicochliodinol A, and semicochliodinol B are the best inhibitors. Based on the ligand, the predicted drugs allylestrenol (DB01431), calcitriol (DB00136), calcidiol (DB00146), benzonatate (DB02659), and gallamine triethiodide (DB00459) are recommended as alternative therapies for CHIKV.
... Mushrooms possess antioxidant properties, which aids in the antioxidant defence mechanisms of cells [17]. They have anti-inflammatory properties and reduce the risk of obesity-related dyslipidaemia and hypertension [7,8,[18][19][20][21][22][23][24][25][26][27][28]. Mushroom consumption on a regular basis is useful in curing metabolic disorders that include obesity. ...
Article
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Obesity, usually indicated by a body mass index of more than 30 kg/m2, is a worsening global health issue. It leads to chronic diseases, including type II diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular diseases. Conventional treatments for obesity include physical activity and maintaining a negative energy balance. However, physical activity alone cannot determine body weight as several other factors play a role in the overall energy balance. Alternatively, weight loss may be achieved by medication and surgery. However, these options can be expensive or have side effects. Therefore, dietary factors, including dietary modifications, nutraceutical preparations, and functional foods have been investigated recently. For example, edible mushrooms have beneficial effects on human health. Polysaccharides (essentially β-D-glucans), chitinous substances, heteroglycans, proteoglycans, peptidoglycans, alkaloids, lactones, lectins, alkaloids, flavonoids, steroids, terpenoids, terpenes, phenols, nucleotides, glycoproteins, proteins, amino acids, antimicrobials, and minerals are the major bioactive compounds in these mushrooms. These bioactive compounds have chemo-preventive, anti-obesity, anti-diabetic, cardioprotective, and neuroprotective properties. Consumption of edible mushrooms reduces plasma triglyceride, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, and plasma glucose levels. Polysaccharides from edible mushrooms suppress mRNA expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, contributing to their anti-obesity properties. Therefore, edible mushrooms or their active ingredients may help prevent obesity and other chronic ailments.
... Edible mushrooms have attracted a great deal of attention due to their high nutritional content and diverse bioactivities that will support overall health maintenance and disease prevention. Mushrooms have antioxidant (Lu et al. 2018), anti-inflammatory (Muszyńska et al. 2018), and anti-diabetic activities (Khursheed et al. 2020). Among those, the anti-inflammatory activity of mushrooms has been studied in depth. ...
Article
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Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder. Recently, sustained neuroinflammatory response in microglia and astrocytes has been found to cause the deposition of amyloid beta plaques and the hyperphosphorylation of tau protein, thereby accelerating AD progression. The lipoxin A4-transcription factor nuclear factor-kappa B and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways have been shown to play important roles in the regulation of inflammatory processes. There is growing research-based evidence suggesting that dietary whole-plant foods, such as mushrooms and berries, may be used as inhibitors for anti-neuroinflammation. The beneficial effects of whole-plant foods were mainly attributed to their high contents of functional macromolecules including polysaccharides, polyphenols, and bioactive peptides. This review provides up-to-date information on important molecular signaling pathways of neuroinflammation and discusses the anti-neuroinflammatory effects of whole-plant foods. Further, a critical evaluation of plants’ macromolecular components that have the potential to prevent and/or relieve AD is provided. This work will contribute to better understanding the pathogenetic mechanism of neuroinflammation in AD and provide new approaches for AD therapy.
... Such mushrooms are rich in anti-inflammatory compounds, namely, polysaccharides, phenol, and indole compounds, steroids, fatty acids, carotenoids, vitamins, and metals. Edible mushrooms are used as functional foods due to their antagonistic role against the tumor, virus, cholesterol, blood glucose, and free radicals [69,70]. ...
Article
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Throughout history, mushrooms have occupied an inseparable part of the diet in many countries. Mushrooms are considered a rich source of phytonutrients such as polysaccharides, dietary fibers, and other micronutrients, in addition to various essential amino acids, which are building blocks of vital proteins. In general, mushrooms offer a wide range of health benefits with a large spectrum of pharmacological properties, including antidiabetic, antioxidative, antiviral, antibacterial, osteoprotective, nephroprotective, hepatoprotective, etc. Both wild edible and medicinal mushrooms possess strong therapeutic and biological activities, which are evident from their in vivo and in vitro assays. The multifunctional activities of the mushroom extracts and the targeted potential of each of the compounds in the extracts have a broad range of applications, especially in the healing and repair of various organs and cells in humans. Owing to the presence of the aforementioned properties and rich phytocomposition, mushrooms are being used in the production of nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals. This review aims to provide a clear insight on the commercially cultivated, wild edible, and medicinal mushrooms with comprehensive information on their phytochemical constituents and properties as part of food and medicine for futuristic exploitation. Future outlook and prospective challenges associated with the cultivation and processing of these medicinal mushrooms as functional foods are also discussed.
... Bioactive compounds have been proven to be a potent anti-tumor agent, which exerts pleiotropic and synergistic effects with chemotherapy drugs, and targets multiple pathways of cancer (4). As one of the basic substances of life, polysaccharides are well-known for their anti-oxidation, immunomodulatory, anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory, and hypoglycemic activity (5)(6)(7)(8)(9). Since the discovery of anti-tumor activity in yeast polysaccharides in 1950, multiple types of polysaccharides with anti-tumor activity have been identified (10). ...
Article
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Cancer, as one of the most life-threatening diseases, has attracted the attention of researchers to develop drugs with minimal side effects. The bioactive macromolecules, such as the polysaccharides, are considered the potential candidates against cancer due to their anti-tumor activities and non-toxic characteristics. The present review provides an overview on polysaccharides' extraction, isolation, purification, mechanisms for their anti-tumor activities, structure-activity relationships, absorption and metabolism of polysaccharides, and the applications of polysaccharides in anti-tumor therapy. Numerous research showed extraction methods of polysaccharides had a significant influence on their activities. Additionally, the anti-tumor activities of the polysaccharides are closely related to their structure, while molecular modification and high bioavailability may enhance the anti-tumor activity. Moreover, most of the polysaccharides exerted an anti-tumor activity mainly through the cell cycle arrest, anti-angiogenesis, apoptosis, and immunomodulation mechanisms. Also, recommendations were made to utilize the polysaccharides against cancer.
... Niacin inhibits fatty acid flux from adipose tissue to liver, reduces hepatic triglyceride synthesis and increases hepatic lipid oxidation [28]. Mushrooms provide antioxidants and anti-inflammatory agents, such as minerals, polyphenols, vitamins and polysaccharides [29,30]. Those nutrients could protect from oxidative stress and inflammation, which are major risk factors of NAFLD [31,32]. ...
Article
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Background This study aimed to examine the impact of dietary compositions and patterns on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) morbidity in Japanese men. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study of 281 individuals who underwent comprehensive medical examinations during health screening. Dietary intake was assessed using a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire, and factor analysis was performed to detect dietary patterns. NAFLD was diagnosed by the presence of fatty liver on abdominal ultrasonography in nondrinkers (< 30 g/day), and patients were categorized into control (n = 192) and NAFLD groups (n = 89). Results Compared with the control group, the NAFLD group consumed fewer mushrooms. Three dietary patterns were identified, namely, a healthy pattern, a western pattern, and a snack pattern. The score of healthy pattern was negatively correlated with the risk of NAFLD. Compared with the lowest tertile of the healthy pattern, the middle tertile was associated with a lower risk of NAFLD after adjusting for age, physical activity, and smoking (odds ratio: 0.47, 95% confidence interval: 0.25–0.91). After further adjustments for body mass index, the middle tertile was associated with a lower risk of NAFLD (odds ratio: 0.46, 95% confidence interval: 0.23–0.92). Conclusions A healthy dietary pattern comprising frequent intake of seaweeds, vegetables, mushrooms, pulses, and potatoes and starches was associated with a lower risk of NAFLD in Japanese men. In our opinion, this healthy pattern closely resembles the Japanese Washoku diet, indicating that adherence to Washoku may help prevent NAFLD.
... Studies also identified fatty acids from P. oeus, such as octadenoic acid, which has antibacterial potential against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, and Klebsiella pneumonia (Suseem & Saral, 2013). Similarly, Muszyńska et al. (2018) reported the biological potential of these substances, especially for the basidiomycetes Imleria badia, Cantharellus cibarius, and Agaricus bisporus, which demonstrated anti-inflammatory potential in RAW 264.7 macrophages, therapeutic potential in diseases associated with inflammation, and protection against hormone-dependent breast cancer, respectively. From the nutritional perspective, edible mushrooms can be used as nutraceuticals because the combination of bioactive compounds and essential fatty acids improves nutritional factors and health. ...
Article
Pleurotus is an edible mushroom from the well-known genus of Basidiomycetes; it is the second-most commonly consumed mushroom worldwide. This genus is characterized by the presence of steroids, fatty acids, and polysaccharides. Recently, Pleurotus has become popular as a functional food owing to its health benefits, primarily because they are a source of vitamins, fibers, minerals, and lipids. In natural products chemistry, dereplication techniques identify bioactive molecules from natural sources such as plants and fungi without isolating or characterizing molecules. We used dereplication techniques aided by the Global Natural Products Social Molecular Network to analyze the chemical composition of the methanolic extracts of six Pleurotus species (P. sapidus, P. ostreaus, P. ostreaus var. Florida, P. djamor, P. citrinopielatus, and P. pulmonarius), to identify bioactive molecules with nutraceutical properties. Using this technique, we identified several molecular families, including eight fatty acids and seven steroids. Our findings suggest that dereplication is a relatively rapid tool for characterizing fungal species and determining their nutraceutical value.
... However, many unresolved questions may limit its further application in the prevention and treatment of diseases. Firstly, although there are many associations between dietary mushrooms and diseases (Martel et al., 2017;Wong et al., 2017), in addition to EGT, mushrooms also have other possible beneficial ingredients which have been shown to have certain antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities (Muszyńska et al., 2018;Tsiantas et al., 2021). Table 1 summarized human studies on the possible associations of dietary mushrooms or EGT supplementation with health and diseases (Table 1), and more in vivo and clinical studies concerning the prevention or treatment of oxidative stressrelated diseases by EGT supplements are strongly encouraged. ...
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L-Ergothioneine (EGT) is a natural antioxidant derived from microorganisms, especially in edible mushrooms. EGT is found to be highly accumulated in tissues that are susceptible to oxidative damage, and it has attracted extensive attention due to its powerful antioxidant activity and the tight relationships of this natural product with various oxidative stress-related diseases. Herein, we 1) introduce the biological source and in vivo distribution of EGT; 2) review the currently available evidence concerning the relationships of EGT with diabetes, ischemia-reperfusion injury-related diseases like cardiovascular diseases and liver diseases, neurodegenerative diseases, and other diseases pathogenically associated with oxidative stress; 3) summarize the potential action mechanisms of EGT against these diseases; 4) discuss the advantages of EGT over other antioxidants; and 5) also propose several future research perspectives for EGT. These may help to promote the future application of this attractive natural antioxidant.
... Mushrooms are rich in proteins (19-35% of dry weight), carbohydrates (50-65% of dry weight), fat (2-6% of dry weight), vitamins (thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, biotin, and ascorbic acid), and minerals (Ca, K, Mg, Na, P, Cu, Fe, Mn, Cd, Pb, and Se) (Rathore et al., 2017;Copetti, 2019;Vetter, 2019). Various mushrooms play an important role in the treatment of various diseases, including viral, bacterial, and fungal infections (Chang and Buswell, 1996;Khatua et al., 2013;Muszyńska et al., 2018). The mushroom kingdom contains many compounds with antioxidant properties, which include ergothioneine (a compound occurring in relatively few organisms) and glutathione (an insufficiently explored compound) (Kalaras et al., 2017;Quintero-Cabello et al., 2021). ...
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In addition to their nutritional properties, mushrooms have emerged as a health supplement because of their medicinal potential. Many studies have shown that mushrooms exhibit important biological activities. Here, the antioxi-dant and antimicrobial activities of Hohenbuehelia myxotricha (Lév.) Singer mycelia cultivated on Sabouraud dext-rose broth (SDB) and glucose peptone yeast (GPY) medium were studied. The total antioxidant status (TAS), total oxidant status (TOS), and oxidative stress index (OSI) of ethanolic extracts of mycelia were measured using Rel Assay kits. The antioxidant and oxidant potentials of H. myxotricha mycelial extracts were determined for the first time in the present study. The highest TAS, TOS, and OSI values of H. myxotricha were 5.416 ± 0.150 mmol/l, 1.320 ± 0.156 μmol/l, and 0.024 ± 0.003, respectively. Ethanolic mycelial extracts of H. myxotricha showed anti-microbial activities at concentrations from 25 to 200 μg/ml against all the studied bacteria (Acinetobacter bau-mannii, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-resistant S. aureus, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and fungi (Candida albicans, C. glabrata, and Issatchenkia orientalis) tested by the agar dilution method. The antifungal activity of the extract was more significant than its antibacterial activity. The anti-oxidant, oxidant, and antimicrobial potentials of H. myxotricha mycelia varied depending on the culture media used. GPY medium was more suitable for the synthesis of antibiotic compounds against E. coli, while SDB medium was more appropriate for producing metabolites with antioxidant and antifungal properties. Based on the results, ethanolic extract of H. myxotricha mycelia showed a significant pharmacological potential and could be used as a natural antioxidative and antimicrobial source for health benefit.
... They exert many types of impact on living organisms, including humans. The compounds have antioxidant [1][2][3][4][5], anti-inflammatory, immunomodulating, antibiotic (antibacterial and antifungal), antiviral, anticancer, antidiabetic [2,6,7], hepatoprotective [8], anti-angiogenic [4,6,9], hypocholesterolomic [10], hemostasismodulating [11][12][13][14], and wound healing [15] properties. It should be emphasized that many bioactive preparations obtained from fungal biomass or secretome have some or even all these properties. ...
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In this study, the influence of two subfractions (with previously proven anti-cancer properties) isolated from wood rot fungus Cerrena unicolor on the formation of a fibrin clot was investigated in the context of potential use as fibrin glue and sealant enhancers and potential wound healing agents. With the use of ROTEM thromboelastometry, we demonstrated that, in the presence of fibrinogen and thrombin, the S6 fraction accelerated the formation of a fibrin clot, had a positive effect on its elasticity modulus, and enhanced the degree of fibrin cross-linking. The S5 fraction alone showed no influence on the fibrin coagulation process; however, in the presence of fibrin, it exhibited a decrease in anti-proliferative properties against the HT-29 line, while it increased the proliferation of cells in general at a concentration of 100 µg/mL. Both fractions retained their proapoptotic properties to a lesser degree. In combination with the S6 fraction in the ratio of 1:1 and 1:3, the fractions contributed to increased inhibition of the activity of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). This may suggest anti-metastatic activity of the combined fractions. In conclusion, the potential of the fractions isolated from the C. unicolor secretome to be used as a means of improving the wound healing process was presented. The potential for delivering agents with cytostatic properties introduced far from the site of action or exerting a pro-proliferative effect at the wound site with the aid of a fibrin sealant was demonstrated.
... Recently, research effort has been devoted to the discovery of natural anti-inflammatory compounds that are without the harmful side effects associated with NSAIDs ( Ambriz-Pérez et al., 2016 ). Mushrooms have emerged as a safe bioresource with secondary metabolites that have been reported to inhibit the inflammation process ( Muszy ń ska et al., 2018 ). Extracts from several mushroom species, as well as their bioactive metabolites, have been shown to have antiinflammatory properties. ...
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Background : Mushrooms include a wide variety of bioactive compounds that have been linked to therapeutic and nutritional benefits, making them a potential source of new medications and functional foods. Objective : This study reviewed the inhibitory effects of mushrooms on the inflammation process through the modulation of the pro-inflammatory mediators and associated signaling pathways. Methods : A literature search in PubMed and Google Scholar was conducted for the relevant original research and review articles on the anti-inflammatory effects of mushrooms. Related articles published in English were selected, studied and discussed. Results : As revealed by the selected articles, bioactive molecules which include peptides, polysaccharides, terpenes, sterols, fatty acids, and phenols have been extracted from the powder, concentrate, and different solvent extracts of edible mushrooms. These bioactive molecules have shown significant efficacy in inhibiting the major pro-inflammatory biomarkers and associated pathways in in vivo and in vitro settings. Conclusion : This review demonstrated that mushrooms significantly inhibit the production of pro-inflammatory mediators and can be developed for clinical use as anti-inflammatory agents. Further research is required to establish the comparative efficacy between mushrooms and NSAID especially in the in-vivo inhibitory activity against the production of cyclooxygenase and pro-inflammatory cytokines.
... The non-enzymatic lectins with unique sugar-binding characteristics are ubiquitous proteins capable of reversible discrete interaction with cell surface carbohydrate associated structures and involved in diverse biological and pathological functions (He et al. 2015;Muszyńska et al. 2018;Nascimento et al. 2020;Perduca et al. 2020). Aside from being a remarkable tool in blood group determination, lectins also perform defense-related functions . ...
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This study investigated the larvicidal activity on Culex quinquefasciatus of lectin purified from fresh fruiting bodies of woodland mushroom, Agaricus semotus. A. semotus lectin (ASL) was purified via ion-exchange chromatography on DEAE-cellulose A-25 and size exclusion chromatography on Sephadex G-100 matrix. Molecular weight (16.6 kDa) was estimated by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The effects of temperature, pH, metal chelation- and larvicidal activity of ASL were also investigated. The ASL indifferently agglutinated the erythrocytes of the human ABO blood system and was stable at acidic pH and below 50 °C whereas 66% of its activity was lost at 60 °C with complete inactivation at 70 °C. ASL is a metalloprotein requiring barium ion as chelation of metals by 50 mM EDTA rendered the lectin inactive, while the addition of BaCl2, among other metal salts, restored the activity. ASL showed larvicidal activity against C. quinquefasciatus larvae after 24 h with a mortality of 5 and 95% at 5 and 25 mg/mL respectively, and LC50 of 13.80 mg/mL. This study concluded that purified A. semotus lectin showed impressive larvicidal activity, which could be exploited in its development as an insecticidal agent.
... Lentinan has been recognized as a functional food due to its low toxicity and biological activity, including antioxidant capacity, inhibition of cancer growth and prevention of viral infection [63,64]. Therefore, it is very important to detect the polysaccharide content in dried shiitake mushrooms. ...
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The effect of an electrohydrodynamic (EHD) drying system on the drying kinetics, microstructure and nutritional composition of shiitake mushrooms was studied. Shiitake mushroom slices were dried at 0, 18, 22, 26, 30 and 34 kV. The results showed that the drying rate, effective moisture diffusion coefficient and shrinkage of the EHD treatment group were significantly higher than those of the control group. The 34 kV treatment group had the highest drying rate (0.24 g W/g DM × h) and the highest effective moisture diffusion coefficient (1.45 × 10−6 m2/s), which were 6.75 and 7.41 times higher than those of the control group, respectively. The control group had the highest rehydration ratio (7.72) and showed unsatisfactory color performance. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) results showed that compared with the control group, the surface of samples dried by EHD exhibited different degrees of encrustation, and the area of encrustation increased with increasing voltage. After analysis by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, it was found that the samples of both the EHD-treated and control groups had similar absorption peak positions, but the intensity of the absorption peak of the EHD-dried samples was greater. Compared with the control group, the shiitake mushroom slices dried by EHD had a higher protein content and polysaccharide content. The polysaccharide content in 22 kV treatment group was the highest (4.67 g/100 g), and the protein content in 26 kV and 34 kV treatment groups was the highest (17.0 g/100 g). This study provides an experimental and theoretical basis for an in-depth study of the drying kinetics of shiitake mushrooms and provides theoretical guidance and clues for the wider application of EHD drying technology.
... Nevertheless, in the present study, the overall findings were in line with previous findings [32,33]; salty foods (e.g., salty seafood, white root kimchi, legumes), refined grains (total rice), and sugary foods (e.g., dessert and coffee additives) tended to have proinflammatory weights. In particular, four of the seven food groups commonly selected in the DAI-S and DAI-R showed the following expected findings: total rice, which has a high GI and GL, may induce inflammation by activating inflammatory cytokines [34]; the high level of antioxidants in mushrooms [35] and other beverages (citron tea, plum tea, aloe, persimmon punch, ginseng tea, sikhye, jujube tea, black herbal tea, etc.) [36], which are mainly traditional beverages, and poultry with relatively lower concentrations of iron, instead of red meat or processed meat [37], may be an explanation for their anti-inflammatory weight. ...
Article
Dietary patterns based on pathways of diseases such as subclinical atherosclerosis can predict diet-disease associations better than dietary quality indices or data-driven indices. We aimed to develop and validate a novel dietary atherogenic index (DAI) in adults using the common carotid artery-intima media thickness (c-IMT) in Korean adults. Participants aged ≥40 years from the Yangpyeong cohort were enrolled in the development set (n=1,373). Two DAIs were developed using 38 pre-defined food groups as predictors and c-IMT as response variable, using stepwise linear regression (SLR) and reduced rank regression (RRR) models. Based on the associations between DAI and c-IMT, DAIs were then validated in the total, men, and women, internally in 1,000 bootstrap sets, and externally in a set combined with two other populations (n=2,476). The DAI-S by SLR and the DAI-R by RRR included 7 anti- and 10 pro-inflammatory food groups and 2 anti- and 6 pro-inflammatory food groups, respectively. Total rice and white root kimchi were pro-inflammatory and mushrooms, other beverages (mostly traditional beverages), poultry, processed seafood, and pizza/hamburger were anti-inflammatory in both the DAI-S and DAI-R. They were internally valid in the multivariable-adjusted models, showing a significant linear trend in all three sets; they were also valid in the bootstrap at 95% confidence interval. In the external validation, only the DAI-S was significantly associated with the c-IMT (P-trend = 0.0004, 0.0133, and 0.0212 in total, men, and women, respectively). This study indicated that DAIs, particularly DAI-S, may be useful for assessing the atherogenic potential of food-based total diets.
... However, the SAFP and OME groups exhibited the healthy microbiota community, among which, the SAFPH group (400 mg/kg) showed the best regulation effect on gut microbiota. Some polysaccharides, such as Bupleurum polysaccharides, may act as prebiotics to prevent changes in the intestinal microbial communities [16]. The abundance of Firmicutes was associated with energy absorption and higher levels of inflammation [44]. ...
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Sarcodon aspratus is a popular edible fungus for its tasty flavour and can be used as a dietary supplement for its functional substances. This study was conducted to evaluate the potential health benefits of Sarcodon aspratus polysaccharides (SAFP) on water immersion and restraint stress (WIRS)-induced gastric ulcer in rats. The results indicated that SAFP could decrease myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and plasma corticosterone levels, as well as enhance Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and Nitrate/nitrite (NOx) concentration in rats. Furthermore, SAFP significantly attenuated the stress damage, inflammation, pathological changes and gastric mucosal lesion in rats. Moreover, high-throughput pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA suggested that SAFP modulated the dysbiosis of gut microbiota by enhancing the relative abundance of probiotics, decreasing WIRS-triggered bacteria proliferation. In summary, these results provided the evidence that SAFP exerted a beneficial effect on a WIRS-induced gastric ulcer via blocking the TLR4 signaling pathway and activating the Nrf2 signaling pathway. Notably, SAFP could modulate the WIRS-induced dysbiosis of gut microbiota. Thus, SAFP might be explored as a natural gastric mucosal protective agent in the prevention of gastric ulcers and other related diseases in the food and pharmaceutical industries.
... According to literature reports, arabinogalactan, galactomannan, and pectin polysaccharides derived from higher plants have been shown to have significant antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities [50,51]. The biological activities of most polysaccharides are closely related to their molecular weight, the way of glycosidic linkages and the composition of monosaccharides [52]. ...
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Traditional Chinese Medicine is generally used as a decoction to guard health. Many active ingredients in the decoction are chemical ingredients that are not usually paid attention to in phytochemical research, such as polysaccharides, etc. Based on research interest in Chinese herbal decoction, crude polysaccharides from G. wilfordii (GCP) were purified to obtain two relatively homogeneous polysaccharides, a neutral polysaccharide (GNP), and an acid polysaccharide (GAP) by various chromatographic separation methods, which were initially characterized by GC-MS, NMR, IR, and methylation analysis. Studies on the hepatoprotective activity of GCP in vivo showed that GCP might be a potential agent for the prevention and treatment of acute liver injury by inhibiting the secretion levels of ALT, AST, IL-6, IL-1β, TNF-α, and MDA expression levels, increasing SOD, and the GSH-Px activity value. Further, in vitro assays, GNP and GAP, decrease the inflammatory response by inhibiting the secretion of IL-6 and TNF-α, involved in the STAT1/T-bet signaling pathway.
... Mushrooms are rich in bioactive substances with antiviral activities [21]. Furthermore, some of the compounds were discovered to be anti-inflammatory by [22,23]. As a result, mushrooms have been employed for a variety of purposes because of their antiquity [24,25]. ...
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The Marburg virus (MV) is a highly etiological agent of hemorrhagic fever in humans and has spread across the world, including America, Australia, Europe, and other Asian countries. MV is responsible for the occurrence of the most dangerous known human diseases, with previous outbreaks demonstrating high pathogenicity and a human death rate of (23–90) %. Despite the discovery of MV over 50 years ago, there are no licensed preventative or therapeutic countermeasures available. Besides, this virus frequently counteracts immune responses through multifunctional VP35 and VP40, which are required for viral RNA synthesis, assembly, and structure; thus, these two proteins are possible therapeutic targets. To develop candidate therapeutics, different natural products containing bioactive compounds are a suitable option. In addition, bioactive substances with antiviral activity are found in traditional plants such as mushrooms. Thus, we used a systematic screening technique to identify the best candidates for VP40 and VP35 inhibitors, as well as to anticipate potential treatment possibilities for developing MV. Finally, the results of the present study suggest that Semicochliodinol B, found in mushroom-derived fungi, was the best inhibitor. The predicted drugs based on the ligand, benzonatate (DB00868), mycophenolate mofetil (DB00688), gallamine triethiodide (DB00483), capreomycin (DB00314), and latamoxef (DB04570) could be exploited and developed as an alternative or complementary therapy for the treatment of MV.
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Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia in elderly people with a high incidence rate and complicated pathogenesis, and causes progressive cognitive deficit and memory impairment. Some natural products and bioactive compounds from natural sources show great potential in the prevention and treatment of AD, such as apple, blueberries, grapes, chili pepper, Monsonia angustifolia, cruciferous vegetables, Herba epimedii, Angelica tenuissima, Embelia ribes, sea cucumber, Cucumaria frondosa, green tea, Puer tea, Amanita caesarea and Inonotus obliquus, via reducing amyloid beta (Aβ) deposition, decreasing Tau hyperphosphorylation, regulating cholinergic system, reducing oxidative stress, inhibiting apoptosis and ameliorating inflammation. This review mainly summarizes the effects of some natural products and their bioactive compounds on AD with the potential molecular mechanisms.
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Bioassay-guided fractionation led to the isolation of a series of triterpenoids (1−46) including 12 new ones (1−12) from the mushroom Inonotus obliquus. The structures of all the compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic analysis as well as by comparison with literature data. Triterpenoids 1−3, 6, 7, 16, 24, 25, 27, 38, 43, 44 and 46 showed strong α-glucosidase inhibition, with IC50 values from 11.5 to 81.8 μM. Their structure–activity relationships were discussed. Inonotusol F (24) showed the strongest inhibitory activity and it presented noncompetitive inhibition against α-glucosidase. Molecular docking and molecular dynamics stimulation further demonstrated that GLU302 and PHE298 were key amino acids for the inhibition of inonotusol F (24) towards α-glucosidase. This study indicates the vital role of triterpenoids in explaining hypoglycemic effect of Inonotus obliquus and provides important evidence for further development and utilization of this mushroom.
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Inflammation occurs when the immune system responses to external harmful stimuli and infection. Chronic inflammation induces various diseases. A variety of foods are prescribed in the traditional medicines of many countries all over the world, which gave birth to the concept of medicine food homology. Over the past few decades, a number of secondary metabolites from medicine food homology plants have been demonstrated to have anti-inflammatory effects. In the present review, the effects and mechanisms of the medicine food homology plants-derived active components on relieving inflammation and inflammation-mediated diseases were summarized and discussed. The information provided in this review is valuable to future studies on anti-inflammatory ingredients derived from medicine food homology plants as drugs or food supplements.
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Boletes are recognized as a worldwide delicacy. Adulteration of the expired and low‐value sliced boletes is a pressing problem in the supply chain of commercial sliced boletes. This study aimed at developing a rapid method to identify the storage duration and species of sliced boletes, using near‐infrared (NIR) spectroscopy. In the study, 1376 fruiting bodies of wild‐grown boletes were collected from 2017 to 2020 in Yunnan, containing four common species of edible boletes. A NIR spectroscopy‐based strategy was proposed, that is, identify the storage duration of sliced boletes to ensure that they are within the shelf life firstly; then identify the species of sliced boletes within the shelf life to evaluate their economic value. Three supervised methods, partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS‐DA), extreme learning machine (ELM), and two‐dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2DCOS) images with residual convolutional neural network (ResNet) model were applied to identify. The results showed that PLS‐DA model cannot accurately identify the storage duration and species of sliced boletes, and the ELM model can identify the storage duration of boletes samples, but cannot accurately discriminate different species of samples. And ResNet model established by 2DCOS images showed superiority in classification performance, 100% accuracy was obtained for both the storage duration and species classification. Moreover, compared to traditional methods, the 2DCOS images with ResNet model was free of complicated data preprocessing. The results obtained in the present study indicated a promising way of combining 2DCOS images with ResNet methods, in tandem with NIR for the rapid identification of the storage duration and species of sliced boletes. In the boletes supply chain, the method can be considered as a reliable method for testing the authenticity of boletes slices. The current study can also provide a reference for quality control of other edible mushroom.
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Mushroom production has been growing in Brazil due to the culinary versatility of this food and its high nutritional value. However, few studies associating the aspects of its quality with the profile and preference of its consumers can be found in literature. Thus, in this study, we aimed to evaluate the firmness and biochemical composition of Shimeji and Shitake, as well as, the consumers’ profile and preference for purchasing these mushrooms. The mushrooms were characterized by firmness, protein and lipid content, total phenolic compounds, total flavonoids and antioxidation activity. In addition we carried out a survey on opinion of 308 mushroom consumers. The two mushrooms contain high protein content and low lipid content, and also expressive concentrations of bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity, suitable for these demanding functional food consumers. Shitake is approximately 4 times firmer than Shimeji and the highest levels for all analyzed biochemical attributes did not differ between the two studied mushrooms, except for protein content. The opinion survey indicated that young and adult women consume more mushrooms than men. Most of them buy mushrooms in supermarkets, and they are mostly higher educated people. No significant higher consumer preference for one of the two mushrooms analyzed was verified; however, most participants reported that they prioritize mushrooms which have characteristic aroma and flavor, smooth and juicy texture, being a convenient ingredient for a quick-cooking meal.
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Pleurotus spp is one of the most widely consumed mushroom genera in the world. But how the culture medium affects the synthesis of bioactive compounds by this fungus is still unclear. This study evaluated nine strains of Pleurotus spp. from Brazil, grown in Pinus sp. sawdust (SCM-PSW), organic grape waste (OGW), or coffee grounds (CG) on productivity, nutritional composition, ergothioneine, and lovastatin synthesis. Strains cultivated in SCM-PSW presented similar values of yield, biological efficiency, and productivity, while those cultivated in OGW or CG presented superior results. Strains cultivated in CG presented higher protein content (41D; 46.60 ± 0.09 g/100 g). Maltose was the most abundant sugar detected in the SCM-PSW medium (PS-2001; 17.51 ± 0.12 g/100 g). Strains grown in SCM-PSW also presented higher dietary fiber content compared to CG and OGW. Basidiome of 41D strain, grown in SCM-PSW and CG, showed the highest ergothioneine content. For mycelium grown in Petri dish, the highest ergothioneine content was in 122H.5 strain, whereas, for those from submerged cultivation, it was obtained in PS-2001. Higher content of lovastatin was detected in the 41D strain. Results suggest that Pleurotus spp. can expand its content of ergothioneine and lovastatin using OGW as substrate.
Chapter
Designer foods provide health functions in addition to the typical essential nutrients, such as vitamins and minerals. These health functions are naturally present in food or added through fortification. Designer foods are often consumed as part of the human diet to promote health due to their disease preventative ability. This chapter highlighted the recent progress in designer foods processed from four major sources: plants, animals, insects, and bacteria. It also discussed the effect of fortification on the disease preventative ability of food with the aid of advanced technologies. Available benefits, such as nutraceutical, medicinal, and pharmacological values of designer foods to human health were also examined. Information in this chapter could be of great interest and use to both research and medical-nutrition communities, as well as food industries for the development of designer foods that are expected to benefit consumers.
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Cerebrosides are important high-value dietary molecules with unique biological functions which are found extensively in mushrooms. However, tedious detection/extraction methods and lack of adequate reports led mushrooms to be an under-utilized cerebroside source. In this study, two of glycosphingolipids, cerebrosides B and E were identified and further confirmed from seven edible mushrooms (Pleurotus eryngii, Agaricus bisporus, Hypsizygus marmoreus, Pleurotus ostreatus, Agrocybe aegerita, Flammulina velutipes and Lentinus edodes) by high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry and hydrogen-1/carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance. A rapid method using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with an evaporative light-scattering detector (HPLC-ELSD) was explicitly developed to detect and isolate cerebrosides from edible fungal matrices. The developed method accurately quantified cerebrosides B (0.15-1.05 mg/g, dry matter) and E (0.18-1.80 mg/g, dry matter), thus verified its applicability. Furthermore, silica solid-phase extraction was established to obtain cerebroside-rich extracts from shiitake mushroom (>46%, peak area %) and was later advanced to semi-preparative HPLC, which led to the isolation of cerebroside molecules (>98% purity, peak area %). The current work presents a one-step, cost-effective, sensitive HPLC-ELSD method that accurately quantified cerebrosides from edible mushrooms and can be easily adapted for other fungal species.
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Pleurotus spp. is one of the most precious and common edible fungi, polysaccharides were the main active component. The structural, biological activities and structure-activity relationship (SAR) of polysaccharides from Pleurotus spp. were systematically reviewed. On the basis of structure and biological activity, structure-activity relationships were also analyzed and discussed to look forward to its future research direction and application prospect. In the past 5 years, about 30 kinds of polysaccharides were isolated from Pleurotus spp., and their preliminary structures were studied, but the fine structures were seldomly reported. The polysaccharides showed the activities of immunomodulatory, hypoglycemic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-ageing, hepatoprotective, anti-tumor, hypolipidemic and regulating intestinal flora, but the mechanism was needed further study. There were few studies on the SAR of polysaccharides from Pleurotus, and the polysaccharides of P. eryngii were studied. It was found that the biological activities of polysaccharides were affected by molecular weight, monosaccharide composition, sugar chain structure and configuration. In addition, sulfonation and selenization could significantly increase the bioactivities of polysaccharides. These findings might help to better understand the research status of polysaccharides from Pleurotus spp. and provided a scientific basis for their application as functional foods.
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This study evaluated quality attributes and in vivo antioxidant activity of Auricularia cornea var. Li polysaccharide (ACP)-fortified set yogurt during 21 days of storage (4 °C). Set yogurt was manufactured using a commercial yogurt culture, and 3% (w/v) ACP was added. Physicochemical (pH, titratable acidity, and water-holding capacity), textural, rheological, microstructural, flavor, and antioxidant properties of set yogurt were investigated. The results showed that the addition of ACP significantly enhanced WHC, viscosity, firmness, and cohesiveness, while inhibiting post-acidification of set yogurt during storage. The yogurt supplemented with ACP showed a larger hysteresis area and higher G′ and G″ values, formed a porous, dense, mesh-like structure and exhibited a unique mushroom flavor. Antioxidant results showed that administration of ACP-fortified yogurt significantly decreased serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase enzyme activities and malondialdehyde levels, while increasing superoxide dismutase, catalase, phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase, and total antioxidant capacity in the liver and hippocampus of the mice. ACP-fortified yogurt might alleviate hepatic damage and hippocampal neuroinflammation induced by d-galactose. Additionally, ACP-fortified yogurt downregulated the expression of Keap1 and upregulated the expression of Nrf2 and HO-1 in the liver. In conclusion, ACP may be used as an ingredient to produce yogurt with desired properties.
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A controlled environment and composition of the compost used for the commercial production of Agaricus bisporus can allow fruiting bodies with increased nutritional value to be obtained. The present study aimed first to investigate the content of bioelements in fruiting bodies of A. bisporus harvested from three flushes of cultivation and to estimate which elements are accumulated most effectively by determination of bioconcentration factor (BCF). The second aim of the study is to determine the amount of selected organic compounds in the A. bisporus fruiting bodies harvested from three flushes of cultivation and to evaluate their antioxidant activity. Among the three examined A. bisporus flushes, the first is considered the most valuable, since it was rich in dietary and nutritional substances, and has shown promise of antioxidant and antidepressant activities. The present study is the first to describe a complex evaluation of the content of bioactive substances and antioxidant activity in three different cultivation flushes of A. bisporus fruiting bodies.
Chapter
The medicinal value of mushrooms is long known, but there is increasing awareness of their health benefits and interest in utilizing these in diet as food or nutritional supplement. In this chapter, we discuss the characteristics of 20 wild mushrooms and results from our work on their antioxidant activity, ability to promote nerve growth factor (NGF) synthesis and to convert the glycosylated forms of isoflavones to usable aglycon forms in soybeans fermented with their mycelia. Of the 20 mushroom types, we found that Hericium ramosum (H. ramosum) mycelia had higher antioxidant activity and showed greater capability for increasing the levels of aglycons, such as daidzein, glycitein, and genistein when used for fermentation of soybeans. In general, soybeans fermented with mushrooms increased the levels of aglycons compared to non-fermented ones. Taken together, all these results suggest that mushroom mycelia have a huge potential to be used as food and nutritional supplements for the health benefits they offer and present the prospects for utilizing them in soybean fermentation as natural resources for the large-scale production of aglycons.
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With the rapid growth of global economy and population, the production of solid waste has been increased remarkably, where mushrooms are gaining popularity among researchers for their ability to turn waste into nutrients. However, a large number of by‐products are produced during the industrial processing of mushrooms. Traditional waste management focusing on the utilization and disposal of mushroom by‐products has attracted people's attention. Meanwhile, circular economy has become a multidisciplinary research field, and valorization of mushroom by‐products is a very important part of circular economy research. Various by‐products of mushroom are reviewed in this paper. By‐products are used in food as raw materials or functional components, in livestock and poultry feed after grinding/fermentation, as well as electrochemical materials and papermaking materials. The by‐products can also be used to produce ethanol and other biological energy, as absorbing substances in sewage treatment, as fertilizer in soil amendment. Mushroom processing by‐products can be applied in various fields. To improve the production efficiency, new extraction technology (including supercritical fluid technology and microwave extraction technology) can be adopted to increase the content of bioactive substances in the by‐products. In addition, choosing appropriate processing temperature, time and other processing conditions can also enhance the product quality. Finally, more research is needed on the cost‐effective utilization of the by‐products and the feasibility of industrialization. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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Boletus edulis is an edible mushroom with nutritious, delicacy, and pharmacological properties. It is rich in carbohydrates, proteins, minerals, and taste compounds, while low in fat and calories. Diverse bioactive compounds, including polysaccharides, phenolic compounds, and phytosterols, have been found in B. edulis. In addition, bioactive compounds and chemical extracts from B. edulis have been verified to possess constipation prevention, antioxidant, antineoplastic, anti-inflammatory, hepato-protective, antibacterial, and antiviral activities. This paper provides an overview of B. edulis research in recent two decades, emphasizing the nutrition constituents, taste and flavor components, bioactive compounds, and health-promoting effects of B. edulis. Boletus edulis appeared to have health-promoting effects that may effectively prevent or treat various chronic diseases. The potential of B. edulis as a functional food and medicine needs to be further investigated and confirmed.
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Functionalization and bestowing high values upon bioactive tea polysaccharides have been focused recently. For this purpose, the immune activation effect on RAW264.7 macrophages promoted by Lu’an Guapian polysaccharide (LGP-1, 2.35 × 10⁵ Da) was investigated firstly. LGP-1 was obtained and characterized via DEAE 52 ion exchange column, high performance liquid chromatography and atomic force microscope. Immunological assay manifested a remarkable promotion effect on macrophages. LGP-1 could significantly stimulate the phagocytosis of macrophages, promote NO generation and trigger TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β release dose-dependently. Fluorescence labeling tests confirmed the production level of reactive oxygen species increased obviously. Western blot results demonstrated that the treated macrophages were able to increase PI3K expression and p65 nuclear translocation, indicated that LGP-1 enhanced macrophage immunity via PI3K/AKT and NF-κB signaling pathways. Moreover, TLR4 was involved in the process. These results made clear that LGP-1 could be explored as a bioactive substance applied in functional foods.
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Poria cocos Wolf, a medicinal fungus, is widely used in traditional medicines in East Asian countries owing to its various therapeutic potentials. Although several studies have demonstrated the anti-inflammatory activity of this fungus, its underlying mechanisms have not yet been clearly defined. In the present study, we have demonstrated the anti-inflammatory effects of ethanol extract of P. cocos (EEPC) in lipopolysaccaride (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. As inflammatory parameters, the productions of nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), interleukin (IL)-1beta and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha were evaluated. We also examined the EEPC's effect on the nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) signaling pathway. Our results indicated that EEPC exhibits a potent inhibitory effect on NO production and inhibits PGE2 release in LPS-induced macrophages without affecting cell viability. EEPC also significantly attenuated LPS-induced secretion of inflammatory cytokines IL-1beta and TNF-alpha. Additionally, LPS-induced expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, IL-1beta, and TNF-alpha was decreased by pre-treatment with EEPC at the transcriptional level. Moreover, EEPC clearly inhibited LPS-induced nuclear translocation of NF-kappaB p65 subunits, which correlated with EEPC's inhibitory effects on inhibitor kappaB (IkappaB) degradation. Moreover, EEPC clearly suppressed the LPS-induced DNA-binding activity of NF-kappaB, as well as the nuclear translocation of the NF-kappaB p65, which correlated with EEPC's inhibitory effects on inhibitor kappaB (IkappaB) degradation. Taken together, our data indicates that EEPC targets the inflammatory response of macrophages via inhibition of iNOS, COX-2, IL-1beta, and TNF-alpha through inactivation of the NF-kappaB signaling pathway, supporting the pharmacological basis of P. cocos as a traditional herbal medicine for treatment of inflammation and its associated disorders.
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Clinical reports indicate that patients with allergy/asthma commonly have associated symptoms of anxiety/depression. Anxiety/depression can be reduced by 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) supplementation. However, it is not known whether 5-HTP reduces allergic inflammation. Therefore, we determined whether 5-HTP supplementation reduces allergic inflammation. We also determined whether 5-HTP decreases passage of leukocytes through the endothelial barrier by regulating endothelial cell function. For these studies, C57BL/6 mice were supplemented with 5-HTP, treated with ovalbumin fraction V (OVA), house dust mite (HDM) extract, or IL-4, and examined for allergic lung inflammation and OVA-induced airway responsiveness. To determine whether 5-HTP reduces leukocyte or eosinophil transendothelial migration, endothelial cells were pretreated with 5-HTP, washed and then used in an in vitro transendothelial migration assay under laminar flow. Interestingly, 5-HTP reduced allergic lung inflammation by 70-90% and reduced antigen-induced airway responsiveness without affecting body weight, blood eosinophils, cytokines, or chemokines. 5-HTP reduced allergen-induced transglutaminase 2 (TG2) expression and serotonylation (serotonin conjugation to proteins) in lung endothelial cells. Consistent with the regulation of endothelial serotonylation in vivo, in vitro pretreatment of endothelial cells with 5-HTP reduced TNF-α-induced endothelial cell serotonylation and reduced leukocyte transendothelial migration. Furthermore, eosinophil and leukocyte transendothelial migration was reduced by inhibitors of transglutaminase and by inhibition of endothelial cell serotonin synthesis, suggesting that endothelial cell serotonylation is key for leukocyte transendothelial migration. In summary, 5-HTP supplementation inhibits endothelial serotonylation, leukocyte recruitment, and allergic inflammation. These data identify novel potential targets for intervention in allergy/asthma.
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The popular edible bay mushroom, Imleria badia, is rich in phenolic and indole compounds, unsaturated fatty acids, and elements that have anti-inflammatory activity, including zinc. The aim of this study was to evaluate the pro- or anti-inflammatory impact of I. badia biomass extracts on RAW 264.7 cells. We analyzed the influence of I. badia extracts and/or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) cotreatment on the fatty acid profile of cell membranes. We also analyzed cyclooxygenase-2, prostaglandin E synthase, glutathione S transferase Mul, and nuclear factor (NF)-κB p50 and p65 protein expression, as well as the activity of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ and NF-κB transcription factors. Incubation of cells with I. badia extracts resulted in a decreased expression of cyclooxygenase-2 and prostaglandin E2 synthase when compared with the LPS-activated macrophages. Glutathione S transferase Mul expression increased after incubation of cells with I. badia extracts. p50 And p65 NF-κB protein levels were lower in macrophages after extract treatment. Lower activity of NF-κB and higher activity of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ was observed in cells treated with I. badia extracts in the presence of LPS when compared with cells activated by LPS alone. Our findings suggest the anti-inflammatory properties of I. badia biomass extracts from in vitro cultures, which could contribute to the development of new strategies in the treatment of inflammation.
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This paper presents a study on fruiting bodies of Boletus badius, Boletus edulis, Cantharellus cibarius, Lactarius deliciosus, Leccinum scabrum, Suillus bovinus, Suillus luteus, Pleurotus ostreatus, Tricholoma equestre, Armillaria mellea, Agaricus bisporus, and Auricularia polytricha. The amounts of their health-promoting bioelements and physiologically significant indole and phenolic compounds were determined. The significance of edible mushrooms in the human diet and in disease prevention were also established. The high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to assess the contents of indole compounds and phenolic acids. The atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) was applied to determine bioelements. In all samples, the content of 5-hydroxy-L-tryptophan was studied. The highest extraction amount of serotonin was found for P. ostreatus species. Phenolic compounds were determined in the conditions described in the present study for the first time. Additionally, protocatechuic, p-hydroxybenzoic, syringic, and gallic acids were determined.
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Vitamin D has been known for its anti-inflammatory properties. Extracts derived from Lentinula edodes (Shiitake) edible mushroom exert an anti-inflammatory effect. These extracts contain high levels of ergosterol, which converts into ergocalciferol (vitamin D2) following exposure to ultraviolet light, followed by absorption and hydroxylation into the active form 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D]. To determine the anti-inflammatory effect of overexpression of vitamin D in edible mushrooms, L. edodes mushrooms were exposed to ultraviolet-B light, freeze-dried, followed by measurement of vitamin D2 contents, in their dry weight. C57B1/6 mice were orally treated with vitamin D2-enriched or nonenriched mushroom extract prior and during concanavalin A-immune-mediated liver injury. Exposure to ultraviolet light increased vitamin D2 content in Shiitake edible mushrooms. Following feeding of vitamin D-enriched mushroom extracts to mice with immune-mediated hepatitis, a significant decrease in liver damage was noted. This was shown by a decrease in alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase serum levels, a decrease in proportion of mice with severe liver injury, and by improvement in liver histology. These effects were associated with a decrease in serum interferon gamma levels. A synergistic effect was noted between the anti-inflammatory effect of the mushroom extracts and that of vitamin D. Oral administration of vitamin D-enriched L. edodes edible mushroom exerts a synergistic anti-inflammatory effect in the immune-mediated hepatitis. The data support its potential use as safe immunomodulatory adjuvant for the treatment of HCV and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis.
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Structurally related lanostane-type triterpenes, ganoderic acid A, F and H (GA-A, GA-F, GA-H), were identified in an oriental medicinal mushroom Ganoderma lucidum. In the present study we evaluated the effect of GA-A, GA-H and GA-F on highly invasive human breast cancer cells. We showed that GA-A and GA-H suppressed growth (cell proliferation and colony formation) and invasive behavior (adhesion, migration and invasion) of MDA-MB-231 cells. Our results suggest that GA-A and GA-H mediate their biological effects through the inhibition of transcription factors AP-1 and NF-kappa B, resulting in the down-regulation of expression of Cdk4 and the suppression of secretion of uPA, respectively. Furthermore, the activity of ganoderic acids is linked to the hydroxylation in the position 7 and 15 (GA-A) and 3 (GA-H) in their triterpene lanostane structure. In conclusion, hydroxylated triterpenes from G. lucidum could be promising natural agents for the therapy of invasive breast cancers.
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Lectins are proteins/glycoproteins of non-immune origin, which are widely distributed in nature. They have at least one non-catalytic domain, which binds reversibly to specific monosaccharides or oligosaccharides. Lectins recognizing sugar moieties in cell walls or cell membranes alter the membrane physiology and trigger biochemical changes in the cell. Thus, various applications of lectins have been described, for example as tools to identify aberrant glycans expressed by neoplastic cells and as antitumor agents by inducing apoptosis by various mechanisms. In order to widen applications of anti-tumor lectins, a detailed investigation of their action mechanism is required. Mushrooms are a valuable source of novel lectins with unique specificities and potentials for biotechnological and biomedical applications. This article reviews information on anti-proliferative activity of mushroom lectins obtained in-vitro and in-vivo. The possible role of lectins as cancer therapeutics is discussed together with the mechanisms underlying the anti-proliferative activity, which may help to exploit these biomolecules as potential novel antitumor drugs in near future.