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O objetivo principal deste artigo foi identificar estudos que investigaram o transtorno de acumulação de animais. Além disso, buscou verificar as características sociodemográficas dos indivíduos com esse transtorno, as condições do ambiente e dos animais, quantidade e espécies de animais acumulados, critérios diagnósticos e as intervenções terapêuticas utilizadas. Analisou-se artigos empíricos ou documentais, redigidos na língua inglesa, espanhola ou portuguesa, sem restritor de tempo. Dentre os 75 artigos encontrados, analisou-se nove artigos. Observou-se que os acumuladores, são do sexo feminino e acumulam em média, mais de 30 animais. As condições das habitações eram insalubres, e os animais mais acumulados são cães e gatos. O transtorno produz grande sofrimento para o indivíduo, para sua família e também para os animais. Conclui-se que devido à carência estudos empíricos sobre a temática, pesquisas necessitam ser realizadas para sanar essa lacuna e, consequentemente, construir estratégias de intervenções.
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Porto Alegre, 2017; 48(3), 243-249
http://dx.doi.org/10.15448/1980-8623.2017.3.25325
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Revisão sistemática
ISSN 1980-8623
Psico
Animal hoarding disorder: a systematic review
Luis Henrique Paloski
Elisa Arrienti Ferreira
Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul, RS, Brasil
Dalton Breno Costa
Universidade Federal de Ciências da Saúde de Porto Alegre, RS, Brasil
María Laura del Huerto
Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul, RS, Brasil
Camila Rosa de Oliveira
Faculdade Meridional, RS, Brasil
Irani Iracema de Lima Argimon
Tatiana Quarti Irigaray
Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul, RS, Brasil
Abstract
The main objective of this systematic review was to identify studies that investigated Animal Hoarding Disorder. In addition, it
aimed to verify the sociodemographic characteristics about individuals with this disorder, conditions of the environment and the
animals, quantity and species of hoarded animals, the diagnostic criteria and the therapeutic interventions applied. Empirical or
documental articles written in English, Spanish or Portuguese were analyzed, with no use of time restrictors. Among 75 articles
found 9 were analyzed. It was observed that hoarders were females and approximately hoarded more than 30 animals. The
environments were found under unhealthy conditions and cats and dogs were the most hoarded animals. This disorder produces
great suffering for the individual, their families and also their animals. It is concluded that due to the lack of empirical studies on
the subject, researches need to be made in order to ll this gap and, consequently, to construct intervention strategies.
Keywords: Animal Hoarding Disorder; Diagnostic criteria; Characteristics of animal hoarders.
Transtorno de acumulação de animais: uma revisão sistemática
Resumo
O objetivo principal deste artigo foi identicar estudos que investigaram o transtorno de acumulação de animais. Além disso,
buscou vericar as características sociodemográcas dos indivíduos com esse transtorno, as condições do ambiente e dos animais,
quantidade e espécies de animais acumulados, critérios diagnósticos e as intervenções terapêuticas utilizadas. Analisou-se artigos
empíricos ou documentais, redigidos na língua inglesa, espanhola ou portuguesa, sem restritor de tempo. Dentre os 75 artigos
encontrados, analisou-se nove artigos. Observou-se que os acumuladores, são do sexo feminino e acumulam em média, mais de 30
animais. As condições das habitações eram insalubres, e os animais mais acumulados são cães e gatos. O transtorno produz grande
sofrimento para o indivíduo, para sua família e também para os animais. Conclui-se que devido à carência estudos empíricos sobre
a temática, pesquisas necessitam ser realizadas para sanar essa lacuna e, consequentemente, construir estratégias de intervenções.
Palavras-chave: Transtorno de Acumulação de Animais; Critérios diagnósticos; Características de acumuladores de animais.
Trastorno de acumulación de animales: una revisión sistemática
Resumen
El objetivo principal de este artículo fue identicar estudios que investigaran el trastorno de acumulación de animales. Además, se
buscó vericar características sociodemográcas de los individuos con este trastorno, las condiciones del ambiente e de los animales,
cantidad y especies de animales acumulados, los criterios diagnósticos y las intervenciones terapéuticas utilizadas. Se analizaron
artículos empíricos o documentales, escritos en lengua inglesa, española o portuguesa, sin restricción de tiempo. De los 75 artículos
encontrados, nueve fueron analizados. Se observó que los acumuladores, normalmente, eran de sexo femenino y acumulaban en
media más de 30 animales. Las condiciones de las viviendas eran insalubres y los animales más acumulados eran canes y gatos.
El trastorno produce gran sufrimiento para el individuo, su familia y también para los animales. Se concluye que debido a la falta
de estudios empíricos sobre el tema, necesitan ser realizadas investigaciones para llenar este vacío y, consecuentemente, construir
estrategias de intervención.
Palabras clave: Trastorno de Acumulación de Animales; Criterios diagnósticos; Características de acumuladores de animales.
Paloski, L. H. et al.
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Animal hoarding disorder 244
Psico (Porto Alegre), 2017; 48(3), 243-249
Animal Hoarding Disorder was described for the
rst time in the scientic community by Worth and
Beck (1981), under the nomenclature of “owners
of many animals”. The researchers investigated 31
individuals who owned many animals in New York.
Results demonstrated that these individuals owned,
approximately, 34 cats and 23 dogs per house. Most of
them were from low socioeconomic class and lived by
themselves. Both individuals and animals were found
in unhealthy conditions. The hoarding was a result
from incessant animal collection and the unstoppable
reproduction, besides the inability of the individual
donate animals.
Until the late 1990s, animal hoarding was not a
phenomenon studied and poorly described in scientic
literature. Patronek (1999) was the rst researcher to
propose diagnostic criteria to identify animal hoarders
and to present this condition as a Public Health
issue. Hoarding Disorder is considered a complex
phenomenon that causes public health problems.
It produces direct impact on the health of hoarders
and their families that live in contact with unhealthy
conditions and with high risk of zoonoses. The problem
extends to the environment and nearby neighbors, who
are also exposed to these risk factors and others such as
noise and bad smell. It is also possible to emphasize that
animals are affected by the state of hoarding, presenting
precarious conditions of health and malnutrition, and
conned in inadequate spaces (Bratiotis, Schmalisch,
& Steketee, 2011). Thus, there is a potential damage to
the health of the hoarder, the neighbors, and also the
animals (Svanberg & Arluke, 2016).
Nowadays, Animal Hoarding Disorder is described
as a special manifestation of hoarding disorder
(American Psychiatric Association, 2014). However,
previously neither the fourth edition of the Diagnostic
and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders DSM-
IV-TR (American Psychiatric Association, 2002) nor
the last Brazilian edition of International Statistical
Classication of Diseases ICD-10 of World Health
Organization (1993) presented descriptions of hoarding
disorder. In DSM-IV-TR (American Psychiatric
Association, 2002), hoarding was only described as
a symptom of Obsessive-Compulsive Personality
Disorder and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder.
Hoarding disorder is only contemplated as a
separate nosological category in the 5th Edition of
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders
(2014) that presents Animal Hoarding Disorder as a
special manifestation in a brief description of seven
lines. Basically for DSM-5, the criteria are hoarding
many animals and failure to provide minimum patterns
of nutrition, sanitation and veterinary care. Therefore,
animal hoarding is understood as a special manifestation
of hoarding disorder. The unhealthy conditions are
more expressive and the insight capacity is poorer
in animal hoarders, where may occur simultaneous
hoarding of inanimate objects (American Psychiatric
Association, 2014).
According to Williams (2014) more than the
number of animals hoarded, what denes the disorder
is the inability of the individual to offer minimum
necessary care to animals. These animals are found
living in precarious conditions. Besides, the individual
fails to recognize the suffering of animals, the
lack of sanitation in the domicile and uncontrolled
hoarding. The situation found, most part of the time,
is connement in small and inadequate spaces due to
the excessive quantity of domestic animals, especially
cats and dogs. However, birds and farm animals can
also be hoarded. These animals are often hungry,
caged, stacked and even dead. Hoarders insist and
continue hoarding animals, even with the progressive
deterioration of the environment.
Hoarding disorder brings several consequences
to hoarders, such as difculties in walking around the
house, cooking, cleaning, personal hygiene and even
sleeping. Their quality of life is considerably impaired.
In severe cases, hoarding may put the individuals in re
risk, fall risk (especially elderly), as well as submitting
to decient sanitary conditions and other health
risks. This disorder is associated with professional
impairment, poor physical health and intense utilization
of social services. Family relationships often become
complicated. The conict with neighbors and local
authorities is common, and a substantial proportion of
individuals with hoarding disorder have been or are
involved in legal proceedings (American Psychiatric
Association, 2014).
Data on the prevalence of hoarding disorder in the
Brazilian context are still not available. In international
scenery, United States and Europe estimate that the
disorder is present in approximately 2 to 6% of the
population (American Psychiatric Association, 2014).
The Animal Hoarding Disorder brings multiple
losses to hoarders and produces negative impact to
their families, close neighbors and also to animals. It
consists of a new eld of scientic study, unknown and
intriguing because involves psychopathological aspects
of human-animal relationship. However, the criteria
for its identication and classication are not well-
established yet, and it is necessary to improve the criteria
that characterize the disorder (Mataix-Cols, 2014).
In this perspective, the present study aims, through
a systematic review of the literature, to identify
studies that investigated Animal Hoarding Disorder. In
Paloski, L. H. et al.
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Animal hoarding disorder 245
Psico (Porto Alegre), 2017; 48(3), 243-249
addition, it attempted to verify the sociodemographic
characteristics of individuals with Animal Hoarding
Disorder, environmental and animal conditions,
quantity and species of hoarded animals, diagnostic
criteria and therapeutic interventions used.
Method
The present study followed the recommendations of
PRISMA Declaration that aims to guide the preparation
of systematic reviews of the literature and meta-
analyses in the health eld (Moher, Liberati, Tetzlaff,
& Altman, 2009). Searches were made in Cochrane
Data base of Systematic Review (CDSR), Database
of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE) in order
to verify the existence of previous systematic reviews
on the subject. In these searches, no studies were
specically found on the subject. With the descriptors
used, the search was not able to nd any systematic
review about the subject. This aspect highlights the
necessity for studies that contemplate the current
scenario of scientic publications on the theme and the
gaps that need to be addressed.
There is not a descriptor in Portuguese for Animal
Hoarder or Animal Hoarding Disorder in the tool
Descriptors of Health Sciences (DeHS). Therefore,
in the process of construction of the string, the
TermFinder tools were used for the PsychINFO base,
in the Medical SubjectHeadings (MeSH) index of the
Pubmed/Medline database. The descriptors “Animal
Hoarding” OR “Animal Hoarding Behavior” were
chosen. In order to contemplate the largest number of
studies, the Boolean operator “OR” was used.
In the search process in the databases, the descriptors
to retrieve the articles could be present in any part of the
article. In the process of search, quotation marks were
used in each descriptor. The search in the databases
was made by two researchers and were only included
in this review articles that meet the criteria of inclusion.
This procedure was made on May 10th, 2016.
The criteria of inclusion were: (1) Articles in
English, Spanish or Portuguese; (2) Empirical articles
involving individuals with Animal Hoarding Disorder;
(3) Documental articles that investigate detailed report
of animal hoarders. These criteria were applied through
the reading of the title and abstract of articles. The
criteria of exclusion were: (1) News on the subject; and
(2) Articles that did not address objects hoarding and
animal hoarding. No restrictor regarding the year of
the publication of the articles was applied, including all
studies that contemplate the previously described criteria.
Independently, the researchers analyzed the relevant
articles and delivered opinions on their inclusion or
exclusion in the review. In cases of divergences of
opinion, a third researcher was contacted. After the
process of selecting the studies and dening, those
that would be included in the review, the researchers
tabulated the data. A uxogram (Figure 1) of the choice
of articles is presented.
Results
In order to present information on articles included
in this systematic review, Table 1 is presented. It brings
synthetically the authorship of articles, objectives,
sample characteristics, types of hoarded animals and
the main ndings.
Among the nine articles that compose the review,
only two discussed the empirical studies directly made
with individuals affected by Animal Hoarding Disorder
(Cantillo & Nieto, 2015; Steketee et al., 2011). The
other six studies were documental type that had no
direct contact with the hoarders, only analyzed case
reports from governmental and non-governmental
institutions.
The nine articles analyzed included 238 participants,
180 (90%) women and 58 (10%) men, between the
ages of 18 to 98 years. The studies were published from
1999 to 2016. It was observed that there were more
women than men involved in research, and two studies
were composed only of female participants (Cantillo
& Nieto, 2015; Svanberg, Ingvar, Arluke, & Arnold
2016). Both participants of empirical studies and the
case reports were recruited in animal welfare institutes,
governmental and non-governmental.
Figure 1. The uxogram demonstrates the analysis of
inclusion and exclusion of the systematic review studies.
PsycINFO
(n = 11)
Medline
(n = 19)
Embase
(n = 21)
Web of Science
(n = 24)
Summation of Available Article
(n = 75)
Removed Duplicates
(n = 37)
Removed Due to
Exclusion Criteria
(n = 29)
Potentially Relevant
(n = 38)
Final Bank
(n = 9)
Paloski, L. H. et al.
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Animal hoarding disorder 246
Psico (Porto Alegre), 2017; 48(3), 243-249
TABLE 1
Data extraction from articles
Reference and
Country Research Question Design, participants and
documents
Types and number of
animals Main Findings
Patronek (1999) –
United Estates of
America
Characterize the
Animal Hoarding
Documental, 54 case
reports
Women = 41
Men = 13
Average age = 60 years old
Dogs, cats, farm
animals and birds
Average = 39
In 43 cases there was report of dead or ill
animals, and the individual was not able to
recognize the existence of problems with animals
in more than half of these cases. About 50% of
the hoarders lived by themselves. At least one
quarter of hoarders was later institutionalized or
went to reside under tutorship or supervised.
HARC (2002) –
Canada
Investigate the
commitment of daily
activities and sanitary
conditions of Animal
Hoarders’ residences
Documental, 71
professionals reports about
cases
Women = 59
Men = 12
Average age = 54 years old
Cats, dogs, birds,
reptiles, small mammals
and farm animals
Average = 84
Daily activities were compromised in most of
the cases. All cases presented object hoarding.
Hoarders between the ages of 50 and 64 years
old tend to hoard more animals when compared
to individuals less than 50 years old.
Reinisch (2009) –
Canada
Characterize cases of
Animal Hoarders
Documental, 6 case reports
Women = 05
Men = 01
Average age = 50 years old
Cats, dogs, rabbits and
horses
Average = 53
Women are more susceptible to Animal
Hoarding and, generally, elderly individuals
are more prone. In all cases veterinarians were
concerned on health and state of the animals
that were improper. In four of these cases, the
animals were in dreadful health conditions that
led the veterinarians to proceed with euthanasia.
Calvo, Duarte,
Bowen,
Bulbena,&Fatjó
(2014) – Spain
Obtain data on Animal
Hoarding
Documental, 27 reports
Women = 14
Men = 13
Average age = 65 years old
Dogs, cats and farm
animals
Average = 50
Among the cases, 44% hoarded other objects.
Only one case (woman) has recognized that
animals welfare were injured. The large number
of injured animals is explained by abandoned
animals collection (69%) and uncontrolled
reproduction (78%).
Steketee et al.,
(2011) – United
Statesof America
Investigate the
characteristics and
background that
may explain Animal
Hoarding
Transversal,
27 individuals.
Women = 25
Men = 2
Average age = 47 not
informed
Cats, dogs, horses,
sheep, goats, reptiles,
birds, rabbits, rodents
and wildlife
Average = 31
Explanatory model for hoarding:
1) inability to develop attachment early in life;
2) higher frequency of stressful events in
childhood;
3) negative affection in childhood;
4) decit function in decision-making skills and
organizational skills;
5) dependence on animals to provide emotional
comfort.
Joffe, Shannessy,
Dhand,Westman,
& Fawcett (2014) –
Australia
Investigate the
characteristics of
Animal Hoarding in
Australia and compare
with other studies
Documental, 29 reports.
Women = 21
Men = 8
Average age = 54,8 years
old
Dogs, cats, horses, birds
and farm animals.
Average = 41.
Dog was the most hoarded animal. Dead animals
were found in 41% of cases.
Similarities were found in Animal Hoarding in
Australia and in other countries. Most cases also
hoarded objects.
Ockenden, Groef,
&Marston (2014) –
Australia
Identify the
characteristics of
Animal Hoarding
Documental, 22 reports
Women = 13
Men = 9
Average age = 55 years old
Dogs, cats, rabbits,
wildlife and farm
animals
Does not present
average, but cases with
10 to 180 animals
The most common animal hoarded was cat.
The most common source of animals was
uncontrolled reproduction and 45% hoarded
objects. Most stories from hoarders involved
some traumatic event in their life.
Cantillo&Nieto
(2015) – Colombia
Report Animal
Hoarding case of an
elderly individual
Transversal involving 1
case
Women =1
Age = 83 years old
Dogs and cats
Average = 21
The neuropsychological evaluation demonstrated
a moderate cognitive impairment affecting the
higher functions, especially frontal-subcortical
organization. Attention decit was observed,
presenting decits in verbal and visual learning,
failing in encode and recall the information in an
organized manner.
Svanberg, Ingvar,
Arluke, & Arnold
(2016) – Sweden
Describe a case of
Animal Hoarding
Documental, reports and
interviews of 1 case
Women = 1
Age = 68 years old
Swan
Maximum = 11
The lady lived alone with animals in a 25m²
apartment very dirty. The apartment had 150
animals. The woman was tried, the court
considered negligent and she had submitted
the birds suffering, conning the animals in the
apartment in unsatisfactory conditions.
There were not made psychological assessments.
Paloski, L. H. et al.
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Psico (Porto Alegre), 2017; 48(3), 243-249
Concerning the average number of animals
hoarded per case, only one article does not indicate
this datum (Ockenden, Groef, & Marston, 2014). The
other eight articles presented the average number of
animals, ranging from 11 (Svanberg et al., 2016) to 84
per household (HARC, 2002). Considering the types
of hoarded animals, it was observed that hoarding of
dogs and cats were more frequent in eight of the nine
articles, the only exception was a study in Sweden
where swans were hoarded (Svanberg et al., 2016).
In relation to the objects hoarding associated to
animal hoarding, it was veried that three articles
indicated that all individuals of their sample, besides
animal hoarding, also hoarded inanimate objects
(Cantillo & Nieto, 2015; HARC, 2002; Svanberg et
al., 2016). Two articles did not present information on
the simultaneous existence of animals and objects in
simultaneous hoarding (Patronek, 1999; Shannessy,
Westman & Fawcett, 2014). The other four studies
demonstrate that approximately half of the sample did
not hoarded objects (Ockenden et al, 2014; Steketee et
al, 2011).
Only two studies presented information regarding
the difference in the number of animal hoarded by
women and men, in both cases women had a higher
average number of animals compared to men (HARC,
2002; Reinisch, 2009). Concerning the age group of
the animal hoarders, in eight articles approximately
30% of the sample presented individuals over 60
years old, only one study did not inform the age of
the participants (Steketee et al., 2011). Regarding the
sanitation conditions, all the articles emphasized that
hoarders lived in unhealthy conditions.
No data on the therapeutic interventions used with
the hoarders were found in the articles included in the
review. In four articles the animals were removed, but
due to the lack of therapeutic monitoring, returning
back to the residences of hoarders it was veried that
the hoarders were with a large number of animals again
(Cantillo & Nieto, 2015; HARC., 2002; Ockenden et
al, 2014; Reinisch, 2009; Svanberg et al, 2016).
None of the articles used DSM-5 criteria for
identifying the individual with Animal Hoarding
Disorder. Five articles (Cantillo & Nieto, 2015; HARC,
2002; Patronek, 1999; Reinisch, 2009; Svanberg et al,
2016) used the following denition: 1) A large number
of animals; 2) Precarity in nutrition, poor sanitation
and veterinary care; 3) Do not act on the state of
deterioration of animals and the environment or on the
negative effect of hoarders on the health and well-being
of other family members. 4) The individuals have an
inability to perceive the negative consequences of
hoarding.
Discussion
This article aimed to identify studies that
investigated Animal Hoarding Disorder. Furthermore,
this systematic review aimed to investigate the
sociodemographic characteristics, the condition
of environment and the condition of animals, the
diagnostic criteria and the interventions used. Due
to the lack of empirical studies on the subject, it
was decided to include documentary studies in this
systematic review.
The animal hoarders are mostly women and elderly
individuals who usually live alone. Based on the articles
included in the review, it was possible to conclude that
there is a positive association between the occurrence
of Animal Hoarding Disorder and the increasing age
(Ockenden, Groef & Marston, 2014).
The most frequently hoarded species of animals
were dogs and cats. This nding may be related to the
process of domestication of species by humans since
dogs and cats are highlighted among domestic species,
used as companion (Fuck, Fuck, Delarissa & Curt,
2006). The population of dogs and cats are increasing
in Brazil and in the world. The easy access to these
animals may be the main reason they are the most
hoarded animals.
Some studies have tried to differentiate animal
hoarding from individuals who have many animals, but
are not considered hoarders. For Steketee et al., (2011)
to have a large number of animals (for example 20 or
more) with proper treatment and lack of interference
in home or in functioning of individual personal, are
characteristics to differentiate hoarders from people
with many animals.
Considering that all studies report sick or dead
animals, it is possible to notice that the information
agrees with the diagnostic criteria of DSM-5. This
behavior, characterized as a loss in perceptual ability
or lack of empathy, may be associated with poor
insight that is present in the disorder, even presenting
difculties to remove animals after death (American
Psychiatric Association, 2014; Pertusa et al, 2010;
Lima, 2011). Often the situation is connement in small
spaces, insufcient for such large numbers of animals,
and the individual continues hoarding animals even
with the progressive deterioration of the environment
(Williams, 2014).
The Hoarding Disorder presents itself as a
special manifestation of Hoarding Disorder, because
environmental conditions are unhealthier and the
insight of hoarders is generally poorer (American
Psychiatric Association, 2014). More than the number
of animals, what denes the disorder is the inability
Paloski, L. H. et al.
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Animal hoarding disorder 248
Psico (Porto Alegre), 2017; 48(3), 243-249
of the individual to provide minimal necessary care
to the animals, providing precarious living conditions.
In addition, there are differences between hoarding
objects and "hoarding" animals. Inanimate objects do
not require attention, while animals require constant
care, even if the hoarders are only able to provide the
minimum (Nathanson, 2009; Reinisch, 2008).
Animal Hoarding Disorder can be characterized as a
serious public health problem since it has consequences
for hoarders, family, animals and community. In
addition, it generates economic consequences for the
city when the animals need to be removed from the
hoarders. While in the objects hoarding the items can
simply be discarded, in animal hoarding the fate of
the animals becomes an economic problem for the
city, which becomes responsible for their care and
maintenance. In the articles of this review it was veried
that when the process was remove the animals, they
were referred for adoption or were euthanized (Cantillo
& Nieto, 2015; HARC., 2002; Ockenden et al, 2014;
Reinisch, 2009; Svanberg et al, 2016), probably not to
generate costs for the city.
Based on the results, some common factors in
animal hoarding were perceived, such as psychological
and behavioral characteristics of individuals with
hoarding disorder, as poor insight capacity, difculties
in donating animals and decits organization. Some
studies report that beliefs about responsibility, the
need to control and excessive emotional connection
with animals are also common in these individuals
(Steketee et al., 2011). It is noted that certain factors
aggravate the hoarding, as abandonment of animals by
neighbors and also uncontrolled reproduction (HARC,
2002; Patronek, 1999).
Organizing the data collected in the review is
possible to think in an explanatory model for hoarders.
Some aspects would be probable predictors, as the
inability to develop affection early in life, with higher
frequency of stressful events in childhood, negative
affection in childhood, decient in decision-making
and organizational skills (HARC, 2002; Patronek 1999;
Steketee et al, 2011). It is observed in some cases the
dependency of animals to provide emotional comfort
for the individual (Steketee et al., 2011). These ndings
conrm the hypothesis by Cantillo and Nieto (2015),
that animal hoarders have impairment in the frontal
cortex. However, this hypothesis lacks of further
studies.
Other studies indicate that Animal Hoarding
Disorder is positively associated with dementia
processes, most often observed in elderly population
(HARC, 2002; Patronek, 1999; Beck & Worth, 1981).
Disorder of substance use, lack of impulse control and
privation of care in childhood are considered other
aspects related (Ramos Cruz, Ellis & Reche-Junior,
2013).
Studies suggest that hoarders may have comorbid
psychotic symptoms, such as delusional thoughts.
These individuals believe that they have a special
ability to understand and sympathize with their animals.
Despite all evidences contradicting their perception,
most hoarders believe and claim that their animals
are being well cared (Calvo et al. 2014; Frost, 2000;
Patronek, 1999).
High rates of psychopathology comorbid to
hoarding disorder are found in clinical populations
(Frost, Steketee, & Tolin, 2011). DSM-5 reports that
about 75% of individuals with hoarding disorder have
mood disorders or anxiety disorders. More frequent
comorbid psychopathologies are mentioned as major
depressive disorder (up to 50% of cases) and social and
generalized anxiety disorders. Obsessive-compulsive
disorder is also referred as possible comorbidity and
affects about 20% of individuals (American Psychiatric
Association, 2014). It is also mentioned in the scientic
literature, but in a less proportion, the panic disorder,
posttraumatic stress disorder, and eating disorder
(Pertusa, et al, 2008).
The ndings of this article present limitations. It
was not possible to perform a proper evaluation of
the scientic quality of the studies included in the
review since these articles present a heterogeneous
and small samples methodology. The articles found
are exploratory, where the main objectives were to
investigate the characteristics of individuals with
Animal Hoarding Disorder. The data presented by the
studies point to the need for a differentiated attention
in the treatment of these individuals. However, none
of the studies performed therapeutic interventions,
reinforcing the conclusion that there is a lack of
research in the area and the necessity for research that
may contribute to this problem.
Finally, it can be concluded that Animal Hoarding
Disorder produces signicant suffering for the
hoarder, for the family and neighborhood, especially
for the animals that live in precarious conditions
of space, sanitation, feeding and veterinary care.
This mental disorder should be dealt as a public
health problem, due to the high cost for the hoarder
and also for governmental and non-governmental
institutions. Therefore, this study emphasizes the
need for development of empirical studies with this
population still neglected and poorly studied. It is
important to understand this disorder and to develop
therapeutic strategies able to help in solving this
problem.
Paloski, L. H. et al.
|
Animal hoarding disorder 249
Psico (Porto Alegre), 2017; 48(3), 243-249
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Autores:
Luis Henrique Paloski – Doutorando, Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul.
Elisa Arrienti Ferreira – Doutoranda, Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul.
Dalton Breno Costa – Graduando, Universidade Federal de Ciências da Saúde de Porto Alegre.
María Laura del Huerto – Graduanda, Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul.
Camila Rosa de Oliveira – Doutora, Faculdade Meridional.
Irani Iracema de Lima Argimon – Doutora, Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul.
Tatiana Quarti Irigaray – Doutora, Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul.
Endereço para correspondência:
Luis Henrique Paloski
Av. Ipiranga, 6681 - P. 11 - 9º andar – sala 939
90619-900 – Porto Alegre, RS, Brasil.
<luishenriquepaloski@gmail.com>
Recebido em: 22.09.2016
Aceito em: 31.05.2017
... [10]. This definition is currently the subject of debate, as animal and object hoarding appear to have separate risk factors [11][12][13], although many animal hoarders may additionally hoard objects [12,13]. ...
... [10]. This definition is currently the subject of debate, as animal and object hoarding appear to have separate risk factors [11][12][13], although many animal hoarders may additionally hoard objects [12,13]. ...
... However, emerging work elsewhere in the world suggests that the phenomenon is widespread [4,5,7,[22][23][24]. A recent systematic review of animal hoarders described this population as "neglected and poorly studied", particularly in regard to potential interventions [13]. ...
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... The repercussions of this disorder are more extensive in long-term cases. The extreme clutter arising due to hoarding behavior impacts public health as it can lead to unsanitary community conditions and spread of diseases, particularly zoonoses [2,3]. These unsanitary conditions have an impact on the health of the individual with hoarding disorder and may lead to risks such as falling objects, fire hazards, and fire exit obstructions, which compromise their safety and welfare and lead to social vulnerability [4][5][6][7][8][9]. ...
... Family-related frustrations arising due to this behavior may cause conflict within relationships or may even lead to ending relationships. However, these conflicts often lead to the exacerbation of the disorder [3,9]. The conditions in hoarding households may worsen with animal hoarding [2,6] and the added animal noise and odor from feces can lead to an increase in neighborhood complaints [6,8,12,13]. ...
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... Comparing to individuals who hoarding objects, the insight of animal hoarders tends to be impoverished and environmental conditions are commonly more unhealthy [1]. According to Paloski et al. [18], some psychological and behavioral characteristics are more present in this population: impoverished insight, difficulties in donating animals and organizational deficits. Regarding animal hoarder profile, there is a prevalence of women and the elderly, mostly without partners [5,18]. ...
... According to Paloski et al. [18], some psychological and behavioral characteristics are more present in this population: impoverished insight, difficulties in donating animals and organizational deficits. Regarding animal hoarder profile, there is a prevalence of women and the elderly, mostly without partners [5,18]. ...
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