ArticlePublisher preview available

Time course of recovery following resistance training leading or not to failure

Authors:
Article

Time course of recovery following resistance training leading or not to failure

If you want to read the PDF, try requesting it from the authors.

Abstract and Figures

Purpose: To describe the acute and delayed time course of recovery following resistance training (RT) protocols differing in the number of repetitions (R) performed in each set (S) out of the maximum possible number (P). Methods: Ten resistance-trained men undertook three RT protocols [S × R(P)]: (1) 3 × 5(10), (2) 6 × 5(10), and (3) 3 × 10(10) in the bench press (BP) and full squat (SQ) exercises. Selected mechanical and biochemical variables were assessed at seven time points (from - 12 h to + 72 h post-exercise). Countermovement jump height (CMJ) and movement velocity against the load that elicited a 1 m s(-1) mean propulsive velocity (V1) and 75% 1RM in the BP and SQ were used as mechanical indicators of neuromuscular performance. Results: Training to muscle failure in each set [3 × 10(10)], even when compared to completing the same total exercise volume [6 × 5(10)], resulted in a significantly higher acute decline of CMJ and velocity against the V1 and 75% 1RM loads in both BP and SQ. In contrast, recovery from the 3 × 5(10) and 6 × 5(10) protocols was significantly faster between 24 and 48 h post-exercise compared to 3 × 10(10). Markers of acute (ammonia, growth hormone) and delayed (creatine kinase) fatigue showed a markedly different course of recovery between protocols, suggesting that training to failure slows down recovery up to 24-48 h post-exercise. Conclusions: RT leading to failure considerably increases the time needed for the recovery of neuromuscular function and metabolic and hormonal homeostasis. Avoiding failure would allow athletes to be in a better neuromuscular condition to undertake a new training session or competition in a shorter period of time.
This content is subject to copyright. Terms and conditions apply.
Vol.:(0123456789)
1 3
Eur J Appl Physiol (2017) 117:2387–2399
DOI 10.1007/s00421-017-3725-7
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Time course ofrecovery followingresistance training leading
ornotto failure
RicardoMorán‑Navarro1,2· CarlosE.Pérez3· RicardoMora‑Rodríguez2·
ErnestodelaCruz‑Sánchez1· JuanJoséGonzález‑Badillo4· LuisSánchez‑Medina5·
JesúsG.Pallarés1,2
Received: 18 June 2017 / Accepted: 20 September 2017 / Published online: 30 September 2017
© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany 2017
3 × 5(10) and 6 × 5(10) protocols was significantly faster
between 24 and 48h post-exercise compared to 3 × 10(10).
Markers of acute (ammonia, growth hormone) and delayed
(creatine kinase) fatigue showed a markedly different course
of recovery between protocols, suggesting that training to
failure slows down recovery up to 24–48h post-exercise.
Conclusions RT leading to failure considerably increases
the time needed for the recovery of neuromuscular function
and metabolic and hormonal homeostasis. Avoiding failure
would allow athletes to be in a better neuromuscular condi-
tion to undertake a new training session or competition in a
shorter period of time.
Keywords Muscle strength· Weight training· Hormonal
response· Bench press· Back squat
Abbreviations
ANOVA Analysis of variance
Basal AM The same morning of the resistance training
protocol at 8:00h
Basal PM The day before the resistance training proto-
col at 18:00h
BP Bench press
CK Creatine kinase
CMJ Countermovement jump
ES Effect size
GH Growth hormone
MPV Mean propulsive velocity
Post 0h Immediately following each resistance train-
ing protocol (11:00h)
Post 6h Same evening of resistance training, at
18:00h
Post 24h 24h after the resistance training protocol
Post 48h 48h after the resistance training protocol
Post 72h 72h after the resistance training protocol
Abstract
Purpose To describe the acute and delayed time course of
recovery following resistance training (RT) protocols differ-
ing in the number of repetitions (R) performed in each set
(S) out of the maximum possible number (P).
Methods Ten resistance-trained men undertook three
RT protocols [S × R(P)]: (1) 3 × 5(10), (2) 6 × 5(10), and
(3) 3 × 10(10) in the bench press (BP) and full squat (SQ)
exercises. Selected mechanical and biochemical variables
were assessed at seven time points (from − 12h to + 72h
post-exercise). Countermovement jump height (CMJ) and
movement velocity against the load that elicited a 1ms−1
mean propulsive velocity (V1) and 75% 1RM in the BP and
SQ were used as mechanical indicators of neuromuscular
performance.
Results Training to muscle failure in each set [3 × 10(10)],
even when compared to completing the same total exercise
volume [6 × 5(10)], resulted in a significantly higher acute
decline of CMJ and velocity against the V1 and 75% 1RM
loads in both BP and SQ. In contrast, recovery from the
Communicated by William J. Kraemer.
* Jesús G. Pallarés
jgpallares@um.es
1 Human Performance andSports Science Laboratory,
University ofMurcia, C/Argentina, s/n, Santiago de la
Ribera, Murcia, Spain
2 Exercise Physiology Laboratory, University ofCastilla-La
Mancha, Toledo, Spain
3 Sports Medicine Centre, University ofMurcia, Murcia, Spain
4 Faculty ofSport, Pablo de Olavide University, Seville, Spain
5 Centre forStudies, Research & Sports Medicine, Government
ofNavarre, Pamplona, Spain
Content courtesy of Springer Nature, terms of use apply. Rights reserved.
... Different priming exercises have been demonstrated to increase upper and lower limb performance as well as to modify the psychological readiness of the athletes (B Mason et al., 2020), while other research suggests that these types of sessions did not increase performance (Raastad & Hallén, 2000) depending on the strength level of the participants (Nishioka & Okada, 2022). The interaction among the different methods used in the priming exercise such us training volume, rest time between sets and repetitions, external load and level of effort prescribed impacts recovery patterns (Morán-Navarro et al., 2017;Pareja-Blanco et al., 2018) and therefore neuromuscular performance after the priming exercise (Harrison et al., 2019). In this respect, Cook et al. (2014) demonstrated that a priming exercise performed to failure (3 × 50% 3RM; 3 × 80% 3RM; 3 × 90% 3RM and 3 × 100% 3RM bench press and back squat) increased CMJ peak power output in rugby union players. ...
... Two sets with 80%RM, with a velocity loss of around 20% regarding the fastest half-squat repetition, were performed as a priming exercise (González-García et al., 2020). This velocity loss threshold was selected to limit biochemical markers of fatigue (Morán-Navarro et al., 2017). Descriptive characteristics of the priming interventions are shown in Table 1. ...
... From a practical standpoint, strength and conditioning or sports coaches should be aware that there are several factors (i.e., recovery timing (Harrison et al., 2021), external load (González-García et al., 2020), level of effort (Morán-Navarro et al., 2017) or lower limb strength level (Nishioka & Okada, 2022) that can affect the response after priming exercises. Therefore, it seems necessary to identify the athletes' individual responses after a lowvolume priming exercise during training periods to apply the positive effects or to avoid any possible negative responses following a priming exercise alone or in combination with caffeine. ...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: Morning priming exercise and caffeine intake have been previously suggested as an effective strategy to increase within-day performance and readiness. However, the concurrent effect of both strategies is unknown. The present research aimed to map the within-day time course of recovery and performance of countermovement jump (CMJ) outcomes, kinetics, and strategy and readiness after priming alone and in combination with caffeine. Methods: Eleven participants performed a control, a priming exercise (Priming) and a priming with concurrent caffeine intake (PrimingCaf) in a double-blind randomized, crossover design. CMJ metrics were assessed before, post, and 2 h, 4 h, and 6 h after each condition while readiness was assessed at 6 h. Results: Perceived physical, mental performance capability and activation balance were higher at 6 h after Priming and PrimingCaf conditions. Immediate reductions in jump height (5.45 to 6.25%; p < .046), concentric peak velocity (2.40 to 2.59%; p < .041) and reactive strength index-modified (RSImod) (9.06 to 9.23% p < .051) after Priming and PrimingCaf were observed, being recovered at 2 h (p > .99). Concentric impulse was restored in PrimingCaf (p > .754; d = -0.03 to-0.08) despite lower concentric mean force/BM (p < .662; d = -0.18 to -0.26) as concentric duration was increased (p > .513; d = 0.15 to 0.21). Individual analysis revealed that some participants benefit from both strategies as they showed increases in jump height over the smallest worthwhile change while others did not. Conclusions: Psychological readiness was increased after both priming conditions at 6 h; however, it seems necessary to consider individual changes to achieve the positive effects of the priming or the priming in combination with caffeine on jumping outcomes.
... (1) Theme A: Studies comparing a group(s) performing RT to momentary muscular failure to a non-failure group(s) (Amdi et al., 2021;Fonseca et al., 2020;Gantois et al., 2021;Kassiano et al., 2021;Lacerda et al., 2020;Lasevicius et al., 2019;Mangine et al., 2022;S Martorelli et al., 2017;Nobrega et al., 2018;Santanielo et al., 2020;Santos et al., 2019). (2) Theme B: Studies comparing a group(s) performing RT to set failure (defined as anything other than the definition of momentary muscular failure) to a non-failure group(s) (Bergamasco et al., 2020;Costa et al., 2021;Garcia-Ramos et al., 2020;Gonzalez-Badillo et al., 2016;Gonzalez-Hernandez et al., 2021;Gorostiaga et al., 2012Gorostiaga et al., , 2014Karsten et al., 2021;Linnamo et al., 2005;AS Martorelli et al., 2021;Moran-Navarro et al., 2017;Pareja-Blanco, Rodriguez-Rosell, et al., 2020; Pareja-Blanco, Rodriguez-Rosell, Sanchez-Medina, Ribas-Serna, et al., 2017; Raastad et al., 2000;Sampson & Groeller, 2016;Sanchez-Medina & Gonzalez-Badillo, 2011;Shibata et al., 2019;Terada et al., 2021;Vasquez et al., 2013). (3) Theme C: Studies theoretically comparing different proximities-to-failure (i.e., applying different velocityloss thresholds that modulate set termination and albeit indirectly, influence proximity-to-failure), with no inclusion of a group performing RT to momentary muscular failure per se (Andersen et al., 2021;Pareja-Blanco, Rodriguez-Rosell, Sanchez-Medina, Sanchis-Moysi, et al., 2017;Pareja-Blanco, Villalba-Fernandez, et al., 2019;Rodriguez-Rosell et al., 2018;Weakley et al., 2019). ...
... A number of studies (as part of Theme B) investigated neuromuscular fatigue and muscle damage in response to RT performed to set failure versus non-failure Garcia-Ramos et al., 2020;Gonzalez-Badillo et al., 2016;Gonzalez-Hernandez et al., 2021;Gorostiaga et al., 2012Gorostiaga et al., , 2014Linnamo et al., 2005;AS Martorelli et al., 2021;Moran-Navarro et al., 2017;Pareja-Blanco, Rodriguez-Rosell, et al., 2020Pareja-Blanco, Rodriguez-Rosell, Sanchez-Medina, Ribas-Serna, et al., 2017;Raastad et al., 2000;Sanchez-Medina & Gonzalez-Badillo, 2011;Shibata et al., 2019;Vasquez et al., 2013), with most studies demonstrating these short-term responses are exacerbated when RT is performed to set failure. For example, when RT was performed to set failure versus non-failure, greater delayed neuromuscular fatigue (assessed >30-min post-RT via jump height, lifting velocity, isometric force, or maximum voluntary contraction) was observed in six studies (Gonzalez-Badillo et al., 2016;Linnamo et al., 2005;Moran-Navarro et al., 2017;Pareja-Blanco, Rodriguez-Rosell, et al., 2020;Pareja-Blanco, Rodriguez-Rosell, Sanchez-Medina, Ribas-Serna, et al., 2017;Shibata et al., 2019) and greater acute neuromuscular fatigue (assessed ≤30-min post-RT via lifting velocity, peak power, or peak force) was observed in four studies (Garcia-Ramos et al., 2020;Linnamo et al., 2005;Sanchez-Medina & Gonzalez-Badillo, 2011;Vasquez et al., 2013). ...
... A number of studies (as part of Theme B) investigated neuromuscular fatigue and muscle damage in response to RT performed to set failure versus non-failure Garcia-Ramos et al., 2020;Gonzalez-Badillo et al., 2016;Gonzalez-Hernandez et al., 2021;Gorostiaga et al., 2012Gorostiaga et al., , 2014Linnamo et al., 2005;AS Martorelli et al., 2021;Moran-Navarro et al., 2017;Pareja-Blanco, Rodriguez-Rosell, et al., 2020Pareja-Blanco, Rodriguez-Rosell, Sanchez-Medina, Ribas-Serna, et al., 2017;Raastad et al., 2000;Sanchez-Medina & Gonzalez-Badillo, 2011;Shibata et al., 2019;Vasquez et al., 2013), with most studies demonstrating these short-term responses are exacerbated when RT is performed to set failure. For example, when RT was performed to set failure versus non-failure, greater delayed neuromuscular fatigue (assessed >30-min post-RT via jump height, lifting velocity, isometric force, or maximum voluntary contraction) was observed in six studies (Gonzalez-Badillo et al., 2016;Linnamo et al., 2005;Moran-Navarro et al., 2017;Pareja-Blanco, Rodriguez-Rosell, et al., 2020;Pareja-Blanco, Rodriguez-Rosell, Sanchez-Medina, Ribas-Serna, et al., 2017;Shibata et al., 2019) and greater acute neuromuscular fatigue (assessed ≤30-min post-RT via lifting velocity, peak power, or peak force) was observed in four studies (Garcia-Ramos et al., 2020;Linnamo et al., 2005;Sanchez-Medina & Gonzalez-Badillo, 2011;Vasquez et al., 2013). Indeed, numerous studies (Gonzalez-Badillo et al., 2016;Moran-Navarro et al., 2017;Pareja-Blanco, Rodriguez-Rosell, et al., 2020;Pareja-Blanco, Rodriguez-Rosell, Sanchez-Medina, Ribas-Serna, et al., 2017;Shibata et al., 2019) suggest the time-course for recovery of neuromuscular function was between 24-and 48-hours when RT was performed to set failure, supporting the notion that muscle groups should be trained less frequently if RT is performed to set failure, although the time course of recovery may also be influenced by the exercises performed (e.g., longer recovery periods may be required for multi-joint exercises (de Camargo Jbb et al., 2020)) and the volume-load completed. ...
Article
While proximity-to-failure is considered an important resistance training (RT) prescription variable, its influence on physiological adaptations and short-term responses to RT is uncertain. Given the ambiguity in the literature, a scoping review was undertaken to summarise evidence for the influence of proximity-to-failure on muscle hypertrophy, neuromuscular fatigue, muscle damage and perceived discomfort. Literature searching was performed according to PRISMA-ScR guidelines and identified three themes of studies comparing either: i) RT performed to momentary muscular failure versus non-failure, ii) RT performed to set failure (defined as anything other than momentary muscular failure) versus non-failure, and iii) RT performed to different velocity loss thresholds. The findings highlight that no consensus definition for "failure" exists in the literature, and the proximity-to-failure achieved in "non-failure" conditions is often ambiguous and variable across studies. This poses challenges when deriving practical recommendations for manipulating proximity-to-failure in RT to achieve desired outcomes. Based on the limited available evidence, RT to set failure is likely not superior to non-failure RT for inducing muscle hypertrophy, but may exacerbate neuromuscular fatigue, muscle damage, and post-set perceived discomfort versus non-failure RT. Together, these factors may impair post-exercise recovery and subsequent performance, and may also negatively influence long-term adherence to RT. KEY POINTS (1) This scoping review identified three broad themes of studies investigating proximity-to-failure in RT, based on the specific definition of set failure used (and therefore the research question being examined), to improve the validity of study comparisons and interpretations. (2) There is no consensus definition for set failure in RT, and the proximity-to-failure achieved during non-failure RT is often unclear and varies both within and between studies, which together poses challenges when interpreting study findings and deriving practical recommendations regarding the influence of RT proximity-to-failure on muscle hypertrophy and other short-term responses. (3) Based on the limited available evidence, performing RT to set failure is likely not superior to non-failure RT to maximise muscle hypertrophy, but the optimal proximity to failure in RT for muscle hypertrophy is unclear and may be moderated by other RT variables (e.g., load, volume-load). Also, RT performed to set failure likely induces greater neuromuscular fatigue, muscle damage, and perceived discomfort than non-failure RT, which may negatively influence RT performance, post-RT recovery, and long-term adherence.
... Although it is common practice for most coaches and strength and conditioning professionals to use a fixed number of repetitions to be completed in each exercise set for all participants, it appears that the level of effort or degree of fatigue depends on the velocity loss incurred in the set or group of sets [62][63][64][65] or, more precisely, on the "effort index" [9,10]. Consequently, if subjects who complete a different number of maximum repetitions against the same relative load (% 1RM) are required to perform a certain, fixed, number of repetitions per set, it is likely that they will experience different degrees of fatigue that will, in turn, elicit distinct training stimuli [7,59]. ...
Article
Full-text available
For more than a century, many concepts and several theories and principles pertaining to the goals, organization, methodology and evaluation of the effects of resistance training (RT) have been developed and discussed between coaches and scientists. This cumulative body of knowledge and practices has contributed substantially to the evolution of RT methodology. However, a detailed and rigorous examination of the existing literature reveals many inconsistencies that, unless resolved, could seriously hinder further progress in our field. The purpose of this review is to constructively expose, analyze and discuss a set of anomalies present in the current RT methodology, including: (a) the often inappropriate and misleading terminology used, (b) the need to clarify the aims of RT, (c) the very concept of maximal strength, (d) the control and monitoring of the resistance exercise dose, (e) the existing programming models and (f) the evaluation of training effects. A thorough and unbiased examination of these deficiencies could well lead to the adoption of a revised paradigm for RT. This new paradigm must guarantee a precise knowledge of the loads being applied, the effort they involve and their effects. To the best of our knowledge, currently this can only be achieved by monitoring repetition velocity during training. The main contribution of a velocity-based RT approach is that it provides the necessary information to know the actual training loads that induce a specific effect in each athlete. The correct adoption of this revised paradigm will provide coaches and strength and conditioning professionals with accurate and objective information concerning the applied load (relative load, level of effort and training effect). This knowledge is essential to make rational and informed decisions and to improve the training methodology itself.
... However, literature regarding this topic is still scarce. Acutely, several studies have reported that training to failure induces more pronounced decrements in neuromuscular performance, higher levels of muscle damage and biochemical fatigue (32,39,40,68), which must be considered when designing RT programs, especially regarding the weekly training frequency that each muscle group is stimulated. In addition, muscle activation, International Journal of Exercise Science http://www.intjexersci.com ...
Article
Full-text available
International Journal of Exercise Science 15(4): 910-933, 2022. The regular practice of resistance training (RT) has been shown to induce relevant increases in both muscle strength and size. In order to maximize these adaptations, the proper manipulation of RT variables is warranted. In this sense, the aim of the present study was to review the available literature that has examined the application of the acute training variables and their influence on strength and morphological adaptations of healthy young adults. The information presented in this study may represent a relevant approach to proper training design. Therefore, strength and conditioning coaches may acquire a fundamental understanding of RT-variables and the relevance of their practical application within exercise prescription.
... The priming exercise consists of two sets with the 80%1RM in the parallel squat, with a velocity loss of ~20% regarding the fastest repetition in each set [7,15]. This velocity loss was selected to limit metabolic and neuromuscular fatigue [16] due to reductions in the level of effort of each set [17]. ...
Article
This study aimed to identify the effects of same day resistance priming exercise on countermovement jump parameters and subjective readiness, and to identify whether baseline strength level influenced these outcomes. Fourteen participants performed two separate conditions (Priming [2 sets high-load parallel squats with a 20% velocity loss cut-off] and Control) in a randomized, counterbalanced crossover design. Countermovement jump was assessed at pre, post and 6h while readiness was assessed at pre and at 6h only. All countermovement jump force-time metrics were similar between conditions (p>0.05), but different individual responses were noted 6h after priming. Jump height was increased for 4/14, decreased for another 4/14 and maintained for 6/14 participants at 6h. Higher perceived physical performance capability (p<0.001) and activation balance (p=0.005) were observed after priming only. Positive relationships were observed between strength and the percentage change in jump height (r=0.47-0.50; p=0.033-0.042), concentric peak velocity (r=0.48-0.51; p=0.030-0.041) and impulse (r=0.47; p=0.030-0.045) at post and 6h after priming exercise. These findings suggest that velocity-based high-load low-volume priming exercise has potential to positively impact jump performance and subjective readiness later that day in certain individuals. Participant absolute strength level may influence this response but should be confirmed in subsequent studies.
... However, literature regarding this topic is still scarce. Acutely, several studies have reported that training to failure induces more pronounced decrements in neuromuscular performance, higher levels of muscle damage and biochemical fatigue (32,39,40,68), which must be considered when designing RT programs, especially regarding the weekly training frequency that each muscle group is stimulated. In addition, muscle activation, International Journal of Exercise Science http://www.intjexersci.com ...
Article
Full-text available
International Journal of Exercise Science 15(4): X-Y, 2022. The regular practice of resistance training (RT) has been shown to induce relevant increases in both muscle strength and size. In order to maximize these adaptations, the proper manipulation of RT variables is warranted. In this sense, the aim of the present study was to review the available literature that has examined the application of the acute training variables and their influence on strength and morphological adaptations of healthy young adults. The information presented in this study may represent a relevant approach to proper training design. Therefore, strength and conditioning coaches may acquire a fundamental understanding of RT-variables and the relevance of their practical application within exercise prescription.
... After 7 and 24 hours of recovery, plasma CK level was significantly greater following the eccentric exercise [14]. Meanwhile, Hicks et al. [25] and Moran-Navarro [26], following the 3×10 protocol, observed an elevation of CK activity overtime until 96 hours after an ex-ercise and 24 hours after the end of the protocol, respectively. The augmentation of CK activity was observed in high-and low-intensity resistance exercise groups till 24 hours after ending the exercise [27]. ...
Article
Full-text available
PURPOSE: This study aimed to assess alterations in serum creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels after perform- ing a lactate tolerance exercise test (LTET) in elite male swimmers. METHODS: Fourteen male adolescent swimmers participated in this study. All subjects performed LTET (8×100-meter swimming) with a 1-minute recovery interval between eight trainings. Plasma CK and LDH (markers of muscle damage) levels were measured 30 minute before and 24 hours after the test. A paired t-test was used for statistical analysis of data. RESULTS: Plasma CK and LDH levels increased immediately after LTET as compared to the values 30 minutes prior to exercise (188.91 ±34.04 vs. 148.83 ±29.63 mg/dL, p =.029; 318.17 ±53.89 vs. 272.08 ±52.93 mg/dL, p =.010, respectively). Both CK and LDH levels displayed a decreasing trend 24 hours post-LTET; however, there was no significant difference immediately after the test. CONCLUSIONS: Plasma CK and LDH levels increased following LTET, which is representative of muscle damage.
... Intra-set fatigue is conditioned by the number of repetitions performed within the set in relation to the maximum number of repetitions that could be completed (i.e., distance to muscle failure) [13,14]. Thus, the closer the set to muscle failure, the higher levels of mechanical and metabolic stress [15][16][17][18]. In turn, these acute stress markers lead to different physiological signals that modulate the direction and magnitude of the training adaptations [19]. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study aimed to systematically review the effects of the different velocity loss (VL) thresholds during resistance training (RT) on strength and athletic adaptations. The VL was analyzed as both a categorical and continuous variable. For the categorical analysis, individual VL thresholds were divided into Low-ModVL (≤25% VL) or Mod-HighVL (>25% VL). The efficacy of these VL thresholds was examined using between-group (Low-ModVL vs. Mod-HighVL) and within-group (pre–post effects in each group) analyses. For the continuous analysis, the relationship (R2) between each individual VL threshold and its respective effect size (ES) in each outcome was examined. Ten studies (308 resistance-trained young men) were finally included. The Low-ModVL group trained using a significantly (p ≤ 0.001) lower VL (16.1 ± 6.2 vs. 39.8 ± 9.0%) and volume (212.0 ± 102.3 vs. 384.0 ± 95.0 repetitions) compared with Mod-HighVL. Between-group analyses yielded higher efficacy of Low-ModVL over Mod-HighVL to increase performance against low (ES = 0.31, p = 0.01) and moderate/high loads (ES = 0.21, p = 0.07). Within-group analyses revealed superior effects after training using Low-ModVL thresholds in all strength (Low-ModVL, ES = 0.79–2.39 vs. Mod-HighVL, ES = 0.59–1.91) and athletic (Low-ModVL, ES = 0.35–0.59 vs. Mod-HighVL, ES = 0.05–0.36) parameters. Relationship analyses showed that the adaptations produced decreased as the VL threshold increased, especially for the low loads (R2 = 0.73, p = 0.01), local endurance (R2 = 0.93, p = 0.04), and sprint ability (R2 = 0.61, p = 0.06). These findings prove that low–moderate levels of intra-set fatigue (≤25% VL) are more effective and efficient stimuli than moderate–high levels (>25% VL) to promote strength and athletic adaptations.
Article
Full-text available
Bu çalışmanın amacı, farklı yüklerde modifiye edilmiş unilateral squat performansında çömelme derinliği ile bar hızı arasındaki ilişkinin incelenmesidir. Çalışmanın örneklem grubunu, Haliç Üniversitesi Beden Eğitimi ve Spor Yüksekokulu’nda okuyan, en az üç yıl boyunca aktif egzersiz yapan, unilateral (tek taraflı) ve bilateral (iki taraflı) egzersiz modellerine hâkim; yaş 22,90±1,28yıl; boy 175,90±5,36cm ve vücut ağırlığı 75,38±7,78kg olan 10 gönüllü erkek sporcu oluşturmuştur. Verilerin toplanmasında, bar hızının tespit edilmesi için doğrusal hız ölçer olarak PUSH Band™ Pro v2.0 ve squat performansı esnasında çömelme derinliği için üç boyutlu hareket analizi sistemi olan Qualisys Track Manager (QTM) 2020.3 Versiyon (AB, İsveç) kullanılmıştır. Sporcular; modifiye tek bacak squat egzersizi uygulamışlardır. Egzersizi arkadan tutuşta her iki ekstremitede önce ağırlıksız bar da (20kg), ardından random olarak; 1TM’nin %40, %60, %80 yüklerde 5 tekrar yapacak şekilde gerçekleştirmişlerdir. Ölçümlerde, bar üzerine yerleştirilen Push Band aracılığıyla bar hızı hesaplanmış; 3D hareket analiz sistemiyle de farklı yüklerdeki çömelme derinlikleri hesaplanmıştır. Verilerin istatistiksel analizi, IBM SPSS Versiyon 25 programı kullanılarak; tekrarlı ölçümlerde varyans analizi ve ikili karşılaştırmalarda T-testi uygulanarak yapılmıştır. Farklı relatif yüklerde bar hızlarının hemen hepsinde anlamlı farklılıklar elde edilmiştir (p<0,05). Yapılan korelasyon analizi sonucunda bar hızı ve çömelme derinliği arasında anlamlı bir ilişki olmadığı tespit edilmiştir (p>0,05). Sonuç olarak, farklı yüklerdeki bar hızı değişkenlerinin her iki ekstremite de yüklerin artmasıyla anlamlı değişikliklere sebep olmuştur. Yük miktarı, barı hızını azaltacak yönde etkileyen bir parametre olarak değerlendirilebilir.
Article
Lewis, MH, Siedler, MR, Lamadrid, P, Ford, S, Smith, T, SanFilippo, G, Waddell, B, Trexler, ET, Buckner, S, and Campbell, BI. Sex differences may exist for performance fatigue but not recovery after single-joint upper-body and lower-body resistance exercise. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2022-This study evaluated sex differences in performance recovery and fatigue during dynamic exercise. Twenty-eight resistance-trained males (n = 16) and females (n = 12) completed a repeated-measures, randomized, parallel-groups design. The protocol consisted of a baseline assessment, a recovery period (4, 24, or 48 hours), and a postrecovery assessment. The assessments were identical consisting of 4 sets of 10 repetition maximum (10RM) bicep curls and 4 sets of 10RM leg extensions to failure. Recovery was quantified as the number of total repetitions completed in the postrecovery bout. Fatigue was quantified as the number of repetitions completed set to set within the session. For analysis, we set the level of significance at p ≤ 0.05. No sex differences in performance recovery were observed across any of the investigated time periods for either exercise modality. Regarding fatigue, significant effects were observed for set (p < 0.001) and sex (p = 0.031) for bicep curls. Repetitions dropped in later sets, and females generally completed a greater number of repetitions than males (8.8 ± 0.5 vs. 7.2 ± 0.5). For leg extension, a significant sex × set interaction was observed (p = 0.003), but post hoc tests revealed these sex differences as marginal. Our results suggest that in dynamic bicep curls and leg extensions, other factors unrelated to sex may be more impactful on performance recovery. To optimize an athlete's desired adaptations, it may be more important to consider other variables unrelated to sex such as volume, perceived exertion, and training history when formulating training prescriptions for single-joint exercises.
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare the physiological responses of a high-volume (HV; 8 sets of 10 repetitions) versus high-intensity (HI; 8 sets of 3 repetitions) exercise protocol in resistance-trained men. Methods: Twelve men (24.5 ± 4.2 years; 82.3 ± 8.4 kg; 175.2 ± 5.5 cm) with 6.3 ± 3.4 years of resistance training experience performed each protocol in a counterbalanced, randomized order. Performance [counter movement jump peak power (CMJP), isokinetic (ISOK) and isometric leg extension (MVIC), isometric mid-thigh pull (IMTP), and isometric squat (ISQ)] and muscle morphological [cross-sectional area (CSA) of vastus lateralis] assessments were performed at baseline (BL), 30-min (P-30 min), 24-h (P-24 h), 48-h (P-48 h), and 72-h (P-72 h) post-exercise for each testing session. In addition, endocrine (testosterone and cortisol), inflammatory [interleukin-6 (IL-6) and C-reactive protein (CRP)], and markers of muscle damage [creatine kinase (CK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and myoglobin (Mb)] were assessed at the same time points. Results: Significantly greater reductions in CMJP (p < 0.001), and peak torque during both ISOK (p = 0.003) and MVIC (p = 0.008) at P-30 min were detected in HV compared to HI protocol. MVIC was still impaired at P-72 h following the HV protocol, while no differences were noted following HI. Markers of muscle damage (LDH, CK, and Mb) were significantly elevated following both HV and HI (p < 0.05), while cortisol and IL-6 concentrations were significantly elevated at P-30 min following HV only (p < 0.001 and p < 0.05, respectively). Conclusions: Results indicate that high-volume resistance exercise results in greater performance deficits, and a greater extent of muscle damage, than a bout of high-intensity resistance exercise.
Article
Full-text available
We reported, using a unilateral resistance training (RT) model, that training with high or low loads (mass per repetition) resulted in similar muscle hypertrophy and strength improvements in RT-naïve subjects. Here we aimed to determine whether the same was true in men with previous RT experience using a whole-body RT program and whether post-exercise systemic hormone concentrations were related to changes in hypertrophy and strength. Forty-nine resistance-trained men (mean ± SEM, 23 ± 1 y) performed 12 wk of whole-body RT. Subjects were randomly allocated into a higher-repetition (HR) group who lifted loads of ~30-50% of their maximal strength (1RM) for 20-25 repetitions/set (n=24) or a lower-repetition (LR) group (~75-90% 1RM, 8-12 repetitions/set, n=25), with all sets being performed to volitional failure. Skeletal muscle biopsies, strength testing, DXA scans, and acute changes in systemic hormone concentrations were examined pre- and post-training. In response to RT, 1RM strength increased for all exercises in both groups (p < 0.01), with only the change in bench press being significantly different between groups (HR: 9 ± 1 vs. LR: 14 ±1 kg, p = 0.012). Fat- and bone-free (lean) body mass, type I and type II muscle fibre cross sectional area increased following training (p < 0.01) with no significant differences between groups. No significant correlations between the acute post-exercise rise in any purported anabolic hormone and the change in strength or hypertrophy were found. In congruence with our previous work, acute post-exercise systemic hormonal rises are not related to or in any way indicative of RT-mediated gains in muscle mass or strength. Our data show that in resistance-trained individuals load, when exercises are performed to volitional failure, does not dictate hypertrophy or, for the most part, strength gains.
Article
Full-text available
Background It remains unclear whether repetitions leading to failure (failure training) or not leading to failure (non-failure training) lead to superior muscular strength gains during resistance exercise. Failure training may provide the stimulus needed to enhance muscular strength development. However, it is argued that non-failure training leads to similar increases in muscular strength without the need for high levels of discomfort and physical effort, which are associated with failure training. Objective We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to examine the effect of failure versus non-failure training on muscular strength. Methods Five electronic databases were searched using terms related to failure and non-failure training. Studies were deemed eligible for inclusion if they met the following criteria: (1) randomised and non-randomised studies; (2) resistance training intervention where repetitions were performed to failure; (3) a non-failure comparison group; (4) resistance training interventions with a total of ≥3 exercise sessions; and (5) muscular strength assessment pre- and post-training. Random-effects meta-analyses were performed to pool the results of the included studies and generate a weighted mean effect size (ES). Results Eight studies were included in the meta-analysis (combined studies). Training volume was controlled in four studies (volume controlled), while the remaining four studies did not control for training volume (volume uncontrolled). Non-failure training resulted in a 0.6–1.3 % greater strength increase than failure training. A small pooled effect favouring non-failure training was found (ES = 0.34; p = 0.02). Significant small pooled effects on muscular strength were also found for non-failure versus failure training with compound exercises (ES = 0.37–0.38; p = 0.03) and trained participants (ES = 0.37; p = 0.049). A slightly larger pooled effect favouring non-failure training was observed when volume-uncontrolled studies were included (ES = 0.41; p = 0.047). No significant effect was found for the volume-controlled studies, although there was a trend favouring non-failure training. The methodological quality of the included studies in the review was found to be moderate. Exercise compliance was high for the studies where this was reported (n = 5), although limited information on adverse events was provided. Conclusion Overall, the results suggest that despite statistically significant effects on muscular strength being found for non-failure compared with failure training, the small percentage of improvement shown for non-failure training is unlikely to be meaningful. Therefore, it appears that similar increases in muscular strength can be achieved with failure and non-failure training. Furthermore, it seems unnecessary to perform failure training to maximise muscular strength; however, if incorporated into a programme, training to failure should be performed sparingly to limit the risks of injuries and overtraining.
Article
Full-text available
This investigation sought to determine the effect of resistance training to failure on functional, structural and neural elbow flexor muscle adaptation. Twenty-eight males completed a 4-week familiarization period and were then counterbalanced on the basis of responsiveness across; non-failure rapid shortening (RS; rapid concentric, 2 s eccentric), non-failure stretch-shortening (SSC; rapid concentric, rapid eccentric), and failure control (C, 2 s concentric, 2 s eccentric), for a 12-week unilateral elbow flexor resistance training regimen, 3 × week using 85% of one repetition maximum (1RM). 1RM, maximal voluntary contraction (MVC), muscle cross-sectional area (CSA), and muscle activation (EMGRMS ) of the agonist, antagonist, and stabilizer muscles were assessed before and after the 12-week training period. The average number of repetitions per set was significantly lower in RS 4.2 [confidence interval (CI): 4.2, 4.3] and SSC 4.2 (CI: 4.2, 4.3) compared with C 6.1 (CI: 5.8, 6.4). A significant increase in 1RM (30.5%), MVC (13.3%), CSA (11.4%), and agonist EMGRMS (22.1%) was observed; however, no between-group differences were detected. In contrast, antagonist EMGRMS increased significantly in SSC (40.5%) and C (23.3%), but decreased in RS (13.5%). Similar adaptations across the three resistance training regimen suggest repetition failure is not critical to elicit significant neural and structural changes to skeletal muscle. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Article
The use of bar velocity to estimate relative load in the back squat exercise was examined. Eighty strength-trained men performed a progressive loading test to determine their one-repetition maximum (1RM) and load-velocity relationship. Mean (MV), mean propulsive (MPV) and peak (PV) velocity measures of the concentric phase were analyzed. Both MV and MPV showed a very close relationship to %1RM (R2 = 0.96), whereas a weaker association (R2 = 0.79) and larger SEE (0.14 vs. 0.06 m•s-1) was found for PV. Prediction equations to estimate load from velocity were obtained. When dividing the sample into three groups of different relative strength (1RM/body mass), no differences were found between groups for the MPV attained against each %1RM. MV attained with the 1RM was 0.32 ± 0.03 m•s-1. The propulsive phase accounted for 82% of concentric duration at 40% 1RM, and progressively increased until reaching 100% at 1RM. Provided that repetitions are performed at maximal intended velocity, a good estimation of load (%1RM) can be obtained from mean velocity as soon as the first repetition is completed. This finding provides an alternative to the often demanding, time-consuming and interfering 1RM or nRM tests and allows to implement a velocity-based resistance training approach.
Article
We compared the effects of two resistance training (RT) programs only differing in the repetition velocity loss allowed in each set: 20% (VL20) vs 40% (VL40) on muscle structural and functional adaptations. Twenty-two young males were randomly assigned to a VL20 (n = 12) or VL40 (n = 10) group. Subjects followed an 8-week velocity-based RT program using the squat exercise while monitoring repetition velocity. Pre- and post-training assessments included: magnetic resonance imaging, vastus lateralis biopsies for muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) and fiber type analyses, one-repetition maximum strength and full load-velocity squat profile, countermovement jump (CMJ), and 20-m sprint running. VL20 resulted in similar squat strength gains than VL40 and greater improvements in CMJ (9.5% vs 3.5%, P < 0.05), despite VL20 performing 40% fewer repetitions. Although both groups increased mean fiber CSA and whole quadriceps muscle volume, VL40 training elicited a greater hypertrophy of vastus lateralis and intermedius than VL20. Training resulted in a reduction of myosin heavy chain IIX percentage in VL40, whereas it was preserved in VL20. In conclusion, the progressive accumulation of muscle fatigue as indicated by a more pronounced repetition velocity loss appears as an important variable in the configuration of the resistance exercise stimulus as it influences functional and structural neuromuscular adaptations.
Article
This study compared the time course of recovery following two resistance exercise protocols differing in the number of repetitions per set with regard to the maximum possible (to failure) number. Ten men performed three sets of 6 versus 12 repetitions with their 70% 1RM (3 × 6 [12] versus 3 × 12 [12]) in the bench press (BP) and squat (SQ) exercises. Mechanical [CMJ height, velocity against the 1 m s(-1) load (V1 -load)], biochemical [testosterone, cortisol, growth hormone, prolactin, insulin-like growth factor-1, creatine kinase (CK)] and heart rate variability (HRV) and complexity (HRC) were assessed pre-, postexercise (Post) and at 6, 24 and 48 h-Post. Compared with 3 × 6 [12], the 3 × 12 [12] protocol resulted in significantly: higher repetition velocity loss within each set (BP: 65% versus 26%; SQ: 44% versus 20%); reduced V1 -load until 24 h-Post (BP) and 6 h-Post (SQ); decreased CMJ height up to 48 h-Post; greater increases in cortisol (Post), prolactin (Post, 48 h-Post) and CK (48 h-Post); and reductions in HRV and HRC at Post. This study shows that the mechanical, neuroendocrine and autonomic cardiovascular response is markedly different when manipulating the number of repetitions per set. Halving the number of repetitions in relation to the maximum number that can be completed serves to minimize fatigue and speed up recovery following resistance training.
Article
This study analyzed the time course of recovery following 2 resistance exercise protocols differing in level of effort: maximum (to failure) vs. half-maximum number of repetitions per set. 9 males performed 3 sets of 4 vs. 8 repetitions with their 80% 1RM load, 3×4(8) vs. 3×8(8), in the bench press and squat. Several time-points from 24 h pre- to 48 h post-exercise were established to assess the mechanical (countermovement jump height, CMJ; velocity against the 1 m·s(-1) load, V1-load), biochemical (testosterone, cortisol, GH, prolactin, IGF-1, CK) and heart rate variability (HRV) and complexity (HRC) response to exercise. 3×8(8) resulted in greater neuromuscular fatigue (higher reductions in repetition velocity and velocity against V1-load) than 3×4(8). CMJ remained reduced up to 48 h post-exercise following 3×8(8), whereas it was recovered after 6 h for 3×4(8). Significantly greater prolactin and IGF-1 levels were found for 3×8(8) vs. 3×4(8). Significant reductions in HRV and HRC were observed for 3×8(8) vs. 3×4(8) in the immediate recovery. Performing a half-maximum number of repetitions per set resulted in: 1) a stimulus of faster mean repetition velocities; 2) lower impairment of neuromuscular performance and faster recovery; 3) reduced hormonal response and muscle damage; and 4) lower reduction in HRV and HRC following exercise. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Article
Recent advances in molecular biology have elucidated some of the mechanisms that regulate skeletal muscle growth. Logically, muscle physiologists have applied these innovations to the study of resistance exercise (RE), as RE represents the most potent natural stimulus for growth in adult skeletal muscle. However, as this molecular-based line of research progresses to investigations in humans, scientists must appreciate the fundamental principles of RE to effectively design such experiments. Therefore, we present herein an updated paradigm of RE biology that integrates fundamental RE principles with the current knowledge of muscle cellular and molecular signalling. RE invokes a sequential cascade consisting of: (i) muscle activation; (ii) signalling events arising from mechanical deformation of muscle fibres, hormones, and immune/inflammatory responses; (iii) protein synthesis due to increased transcription and translation; and (iv) muscle fibre hypertrophy. In this paradigm, RE is considered an ‘upstream’ signal that determines specific downstream events. Therefore, manipulation of the acute RE programme variables (i.e. exercise choice, load, volume, rest period lengths, and exercise order) alters the unique ‘fingerprint’ of the RE stimulus and subsequently modifies the downstream cellular and molecular responses.