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This article follows on from the double helix theory of the magnetic field. A closer look will be taken at the relationship between electromagnetic radiation on the one hand and a magnetic field on the other.
Electromagnetic Radiation in the Near Magnetic Field
Frederick David Tombe,
Northern Ireland, United Kingdom,
27th September 2017
Abstract. This article follows on from the double helix theory of the
magnetic field [1]. A closer look will be taken at the relationship between
electromagnetic radiation on the one hand and a magnetic field on the
I. The main feature of interest, as regards the near magnetic field surrounding
an electric current circuit, centres around the transient stage when this magnetic
field is originally forming. Energy is transferred from the source electric current
into the emerging magnetic field. The energy is transferred in the form of
electromagnetic radiation, however, while some of this energy is radiated away
altogether, some remains trapped in the field and returns to the circuit when the
power is switched off. The reason why some of this energy gets trapped will
now be investigated.
The Double Helix Theory of the Magnetic Field
II. The double helix theory of the magnetic field, [1], considers that space is a
dielectric filled with tiny dipolar vortices that act like miniature electric circuits
[2], [3], [4], [5]. These tiny electron-positron vortices are aligned, electron to
positron, in a double helix fashion along their mutual rotation axes, hence
tracing out the local magnetic lines of force. The electric fluid of the vortices is
otherwise known as the aether, and each vortex would comprise of an aether
sink (electron) in orbit with an aether source (positron). This would enable a
miniature electric circuit and magnetic field to be present everywhere in space.
The time varying electromagnetic induction process would take the form of
an overflow of pressurized aether from one vortex to its neighbour, in
conjunction with angular acceleration [5]. Although electric current involves the
motion of charged particles, it is proposed that this motion is tied up with a
deeper under-current of primary aether flow. Positive particles will be
accelerated by the increasing pressure that occurs when the power is first
connected, while negative particles will eat their way in the opposite direction
towards the source.
According to Maxwell in Part I of his 1861 paper, where he explains
Ampère’s Circuital law around about equation (9), the tiny vortices that already
exist in space will re-orientate with their rotation axes tracing out solenoidal
rings around a source electric current. The creation of this near magnetic field is
like the creation of smoke rings, and as well as being an alignment of tiny
aethereal vortices, a magnetic field is also a kind of storage tank of fine-grained
circulating aether pressure. As a magnetic field is being generated, pressurized
aether flows tangentially from the conducting wire into the field.
The Near Magnetic Field
III. In a DC circuit, when the power is first switched on, Ampère’s Circuital
law kicks in. The tiny electron-positron vortices that fill all of space, begin to
align around the current. Pressurized aether flows tangentially from the wire
into the vortices as in the same process that is involved in wireless EM
radiation, [6]. But because we are dealing with DC, the radiation stops when the
steady state is reached. When the magnetic alignment is complete, as when all
the vortices are aligned with their mutual rotation axes forming solenoidal
concentric rings around the source electric current, they will be spinning such
that the aether flow within them is in the opposite direction, at the point of
contact, to that of the aether that is flowing in the wire. This will prevent any
further aether from passing from the wire into the magnetic field, since flowing
aether cannot pass laterally through itself. As the current continues to rise, the
vortices will be induced by a combination of centrifugal force and conservation
of angular momentum to spin faster, and the magnetic field will increase in
intensity, but all the energy will be trapped in the field. There will be no far
field radiation.
It should be noted that the electrostatic aether pressure in a conducting wire
acts perpendicularly (radially) and adds to the precessional effect in the
surrounding vortices. While this will be a rapidly diminishing effect as we move
away from the wire, it is nevertheless of importance in cable telegraphy [7].
Far Field Radiation
IV. The mechanism for wireless electromagnetic radiation was explained in
Wireless Radiation Beyond the Near Magnetic Field [6]. It was demonstrated
how the electromagnetic quantities such as A, EK and H relate to the individual
electron-positron vortices that pervade all of space, and that the EM radiation
propagation mechanism is independent of what angle a ray passes through the
prevailing background magnetic field lines, which are themselves simply an
alignment, along their mutual rotation axes, of these same electron-positron
vortices. The emission process hinges on the fact that the angular momentum of
the vortices reverses repeatedly, and that as such, where an electric circuit is
used in the production of wireless waves, it must be AC. The precession of the
vortices is crucial as regards allowing pressurized aether to escape from the
conducting wire and on out into space. As explained in Section III above,
unless the vortices precess, centrifugal pressure in the magnetic field will block
further transfer of the aether from the wire into the field.
The Rotating Bar Magnet
V. In theory, time varying EM induction should occur in connection with a
rotating bar magnet. This proposition is deduced on the basis that the rotating
magnetic field will require an ongoing realignment of the constituent vortices.
This of course only happens when the magnet rotates on an axis other than its
magnetic axis. During the rotation, there will be a propagation of fine-grained
precession through the magnetic field which will open up a channel for the flow
of pressurized aether. We are therefore dealing with far field radiation that will
propagate beyond the near magnetic field. The initial torque is generated in the
bar magnet, and as expected in line with the conservation of energy, an equal
and opposite torque will cause the bar magnet itself to decelerate in the process.
In the case of a forced rotation involving work done, a steady flow of
pressurized aether is generated within the rotating magnet. There is only one
place that this aether could originate, and that is in the positrons of the all-
pervading background electron-positron sea. The forced rotation of the magnet
will amount to screwing aether out of the electron-positron sea. So, although
energy can be screwed out of the background electron-positron sea, work must
nevertheless be done to operate the pump.
Photon Theory
VI. In the context of black body radiation, the relationship between frequency
and energy in electromagnetic radiation is established by the Planck relation, E
= hf, where E is energy, f is frequency, and h is Plancks constant. Care must
however be taken, because this relationship is likely to have its origins within
the electron orbital configurations of the atoms and molecules involved in the
emission and absorption process. The idea that a frequency would be associated
with a discrete energy contradicts classical wave theory unless the discrete
energy packages have a direct association with a particular emission source.
Otherwise, the only way that we could link energy to frequency would be if we
were talking about energy density, as in pressure.
The Planck relation is usually associated with what is believed to be the
particle nature of radiation. A photon of light however, although possessing
momentum and being emitted as a discrete quantized pulse, is not the same as a
particle. A particle is a tangible and enduring sink or source that is surrounded
by a force field, and which can be accelerated to arbitrary speeds. The light or
gamma photon on the other hand has a fixed speed and no stationary existence,
and unlike in the case of ordinary particles, two photons can pass right through
each other. A photon is likely to be a discrete pulse of EM radiation associated
with a particular energy transition within an atom or a molecule, or in the case
of a gamma photon, it can be associated with electron-positron pair production
and annihilation [8]. Photon theory is therefore just a packaging theory which
bears no relationship to the deeper underlying wave theory of electromagnetic
radiation. An analogy would be a shipping container in which the transportation
system bears no relationship to the contents of the container itself.
Magnets in Motion
VI. When a magnet moves, its magnetic field moves with it. There is a
difference however, according to whether the magnet moves translationally or
whether it rotates. In the case of translational motion, any electromagnetic
induction that occurs with respect to a test charge will involve the convective
force F = qv×B, hence suggesting that the electron-positron sea is entrained
within the magnetic field during translational motion. For example, it makes no
difference whether we move a bar magnet into a coil or whether we move the
coil over the bar magnet. The result is the same. The velocity, v, is measured
relative to the electron-positron sea in both cases.
A DC transmission line pulse is a closed electric circulation moving like a
caterpillar track between two conducting wires at a speed believed to be equal
to the speed of light [7]. The surrounding near magnetic field is in a state of
translational motion and so this electric pulse is akin to a bar magnet trolling the
transmission line like a trolleybus, the difference though being, that the
transmission line pulse is not entraining its magnetic field. The magnetic field
surrounding a transmission line pulse is being continually renewed while the
energy circulates from the wire to the magnetic field at the front of the pulse
and back into the electric current again at the rear of the pulse.
As a mechanical body follows its straight-line inertial path, it will similarly
induce the background dipolar vortices to angularly accelerate as it shears past
them, while inducing a centrifugal force field akin to a weak magnetic field [9].
VIII. It is often wrongly assumed that electromagnetic induction only occurs
when the secondary circuit is placed within the region of the near magnetic field
of a primary circuit. But we know from the example of the toroidal transformer
that this is not necessarily the case. Apart from the fact that a near magnetic
field can mark out a zone for better flux linkage, its existence or lack of
existence has no relevance to the underlying principles of electromagnetic
induction that are involved in the dynamic state. A near magnetic field begins to
form around an electric circuit that is in the dynamic state, in a manner identical
to the process involved in the formation of electromagnetic waves. Energy is
radiated out from the conducting wire in the form of wireless electromagnetic
radiation, and it feeds the emerging near magnetic field. However, a point is
reached in the process when any further radiation is blocked from exiting the
zone of the field. The stored energy within the field is then returned into the
electric circuit when the power is switched off. The near magnetic field is in
fact just a storage tank of fine-grained rotational kinetic energy that has been
filled up from an electric circuit.
The reason why this radiated energy gets trapped in the near magnetic field
is because of the mutual alignment between the tiny rotating electron-positron
dipoles that make up the magnetic field pattern. As per Ampères circuital law,
they align with their mutual rotation axes forming concentric circles around the
source electric current. These dipoles then press against each other with
centrifugal force while striving to dilate. Electromagnetic radiation can only
occur when the electric fluid, of which these tiny dipolar vortices are comprised,
is free to pass from one vortex to its neighbour. The mutual alignment that
allows this energy transfer to occur, only happens before the final magnetic
alignment has been reached.
The near magnetic field in a DC circuit can play no part in EM radiation for
the especially important reason that the aether in the vortices, at the point where
they contact the source electric current, will be flowing in the opposite direction
to the electric current itself. This will seal off any further transfer of pressurized
aether from the wire into the magnetic field once the magnetic field alignment
has fully formed, since aether cannot pass laterally through itself.
The magnetic field is acting like a flywheel, and when the source power is
switched off, the stored rotational kinetic energy drives a final forward-surge of
current back into the conducting wire again.
It is said that in 1888, Heinrich Hertz proved Maxwells theory of
electromagnetic radiation when he transmitted a signal from an AC circuit,
through space to another circuit. Had the receiving circuit been placed within
the region of the primary circuits near magnetic field, this would have been
considered as a simple case of Faradays law of electromagnetic induction in
operation. But because the receiving circuit was too far away to be inside the
near field of the transmitting circuit, this was considered as proof of Maxwells
theory. Since this far field radiation has no directly measurable magnetic fields,
sceptics sometimes ask how we know that magnetic fields are involved. We
must assume however that the EK, A, and H vectors that are involved in radio
waves or starlight in distant space, lie in the domain of the individual tiny
electron-positron vortices that pervade all of space. Maxwells theory was a
theoretical prediction, and Hertzs emission circuit, by virtue of the fact that it
operated on the same principles as the primary circuit of an AC transformer,
would reasonably be considered to be an experimental proof of Maxwells
theory, bearing in mind that Faradays law was central to Maxwells derivation
of the electromagnetic wave equation.
[1] Tombe, F.D., “The Double Helix Theory of the Magnetic Field” (2006)
Galilean Electrodynamics, Volume 24, Number 2, p.34, (March/April 2013)
See also “The Double Helix and the Electron-Positron Aether” (2017)
[2] Maxwell, J.C., “On Physical Lines of Force”, Philosophical Magazine, Volume XXI,
Fourth Series, London, (1861)
[3] Whittaker, E.T., “A History of the Theories of Aether and Electricity”, Chapter 4, pages
100-102, (1910)
“All space, according to the younger Bernoulli, is permeated by a fluid aether, containing
an immense number of excessively small whirlpools. The elasticity which the aether
appears to possess, and in virtue of which it is able to transmit vibrations, is really due to
the presence of these whirlpools; for, owing to centrifugal force, each whirlpool is
continually striving to dilate, and so presses against the neighbouring whirlpools. It will be
seen that Bernoulli is a thorough Cartesian in spirit; not only does he reject action at a
distance, but he insists that even the elasticity of his aether shall be explicable in terms of
matter and motion. This aggregate of small vortices, or " fine-grained turbulent motion,"
as it came to be called a century and a half later,* is interspersed with solid corpuscles,
whose dimensions are small compared with their distances apart. These are pushed about
by the whirlpools whenever the aether is disturbed, but never travel far from their original
positions. A source of light communicates to its surroundings a disturbance which
condenses the nearest whirlpools; these by their condensation displace the contiguous
corpuscles from their equilibrium position; and these in turn produce condensations in the
whirlpools next beyond them, so that vibrations are propagated in every direction from the
luminous point. It is curious that Bernoulli speaks of these vibrations as longitudinal, and
actually contrasts them with those of a stretched cord, which, "when it is slightly displaced
from its rectilinear form, and then let go, performs transverse vibrations in a direction at
right angles to the direction of the cord." When it is remembered that the objection to
longitudinal vibrations, on the score of polarization, had already been clearly stated by
Newton, and that Bernoulli's aether closely resembles that which Maxwell invented in
1861-2 for the express purpose of securing transversality of vibration, one feels that
perhaps no man ever so narrowly missed a great discovery. Bernoulli explained refraction
by combining these ideas with those of his father. Within the pores of ponderable bodies
the whirlpools are compressed, so the centrifugal force must vary in intensity from one
medium to another. Thus a corpuscle situated in the interface between two media is acted
on by a greater elastic force from one medium than from the other; and by applying the
triangle of forces to find the- conditions of its equilibrium, the law of Snell and Descartes
may be obtained. * Cf . Lord Kelvin's vortex-sponge aether, described later in this work.”
[4] O’Neill, John J., “PRODIGAL GENIUS, Biography of Nikola Tesla”, Long Island, New
York, 15th July 1944, Fourth Part, paragraph 23, quoting Tesla from his 1907 paper “Man’s
Greatest Achievement” which was published in 1930 in the Milwaukee Sentinel,
“Long ago he (mankind) recognized that all perceptible matter comes from a primary
substance, of a tenuity beyond conception and filling all space - the Akasha or luminiferous
ether - which is acted upon by the life-giving Prana or creative force, calling into existence,
in never ending cycles, all things and phenomena. The primary substance, thrown into
infinitesimal whirls of prodigious velocity, becomes gross matter; the force subsiding, the
motion ceases and matter disappears, reverting to the primary substance”.
[5] Lodge, Sir Oliver, “Ether (in physics)”, Encyclopaedia Britannica, Fourteenth Edition,
Volume 8, Pages 751-755, (1937)
This quote is in relation to the speed of light,
“The most probable surmise or guess at present is that the ether is a perfectly
incompressible continuous fluid, in a state of fine-grained vortex motion, circulating with
that same enormous speed. For it has been partly, though as yet incompletely, shown that
such a vortex fluid would transmit waves of the same general nature as light waves i.e.,
periodic disturbances across the line of propagationand would transmit them at a rate of
the same order of magnitude as the vortex or circulation speed” (Sir Oliver Lodge, 1937)
The article then goes on to cite Lord Kelvin, “The Vortex Theory of Ether,” Phil. Mag.
(1887) and Math. and Phys. Papers, vol. iv. and passim; also G. F. FitzGerald, Proc. Roy.
Dub. Soc. (1899), or Collected Papers, pp. 154, 238, 472.
[6] Tombe, F.D., Wireless Radiation Beyond the Near Magnetic Field (2019)
[7] Tombe, F.D., Cable Telegraphy and Poyntings Theorem (2019) Section V's_Th
[8] Tombe, F.D., “The Positronium Orbit in the Electron-Positron Sea” (2020)
[9] Tombe, F.D., Straight Line Motion (2018)
... The centrifugal pressure field is an extension of the body's kinetic energy and it amounts to a weak magnetic field. See the full analysis in section VII below, and as regards the issue of leakage to far field radiation in low energy situations, see section II, 'Far Field Radiation', in "Electromagnetic Radiation in the Near Magnetic Field" [16]. It should be emphasized that centrifugal force is measured relative to a point and is hence represented by a position vector as opposed to a displacement vector. ...
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