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he main objectives of this Project Management Handbook (PMH) are to raise understanding regarding project management and provide an adaptable guidance for project implementation from the management perspective. This original PMH was created as part of the IECEU (Improving the Effectiveness of Capabilities in EU conflict prevention) project, which has received funding from the EU Framework Programme for Research and Innovation HORIZON 2020.
Content may be subject to copyright.
Kirsi Hyttinen
Kirsi Hyttinen
Copyright © authors and Laurea University of Applied Sciences
Cover photo: Shutterstock
Photo in page 9: iStockphoto
Photos on back cover: Shutterstock & iStockphoto
ISSN-L 2242-5241
ISSN: 2242-5225 (online)
ISBN: 978-951-799-452-1 (online)
This Handbook is prepared during the IECEU-project, which re-
ceived funding from the EU Framework Programme for Research
and Innovation HORIZON 2020under grant agreement no 653371.
The content of this document reects the authors’ view and the
European Commission is not responsible for any use that may be
made of the information it contains.
3.3 Financial Maers
3.4 Coordination System
3.5 Project Management Information Systems (PMIS)
4.1 Work Package Planning Process
4.2 Deliverable Production Process
4.3 ality Inspection and Review
5.1 Internal Communication
5.1.2 Internal communication tools
5.1.3 Project Templates
5.2 Dissemination/External Communication
list of acronyms
executive summary
2.1 Project management cycle
2.2 Knowledge management
2.3 Risk and Conict Management
2.4 Work Breakdown Structure (WBS)
2.5 Project Organisation Structure
3.1 Agreements and Legal Issues
3.2 Administrative Maers
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Hyinen Project Management Handbook
8 9
Hyinen Project Management Handbook
The main objectives of this Project Management Handbook (PMH) are to raise
understanding regarding project management and provide an adaptable
guidance for project implementation from the management perspective.
is original PMH was created as part of the IECEU (Improving the Eectiveness of
Capabilities in EU conict prevention) project, which has received funding from the
EU Framework Programme for Research and Innovation HORIZON 2020.
In this document we identify project management topics in order to successfuy
implement coordination and support projects in the eld of EU border and exter-
nal security for academic researchers, policy-makers, SMEs, governmental pub-
lic bodies and other project workers. is is done by rst seing the context and
background theory from previous years, and then dening the current practices of
project implementation in the IECEU project. We consider the key aspects, a couple
of which are mentioned here: project cycle, knowledge management, legal aspects,
administrative and nancial maers, and ethics, safety and security.
e project management priorities were identied by analysing the literature and
latest workshops related to EU projects. e published papers were analysed to
ensure that they meet with EU H2020 guidance according to project implementa-
tion. e literature analyses also include articles from other elds, in order to enable
learning from cross-sectorial elds. e PMH aims to dene clear support for border
and external security project implementation.
With regard to the project management background, this PMH resulted in the de-
nition of the project management cycle, knowledge management, risk and conict
management, work breakdown structures (WBS), and project organisation. e four
key areas of project implementation are listed as agreements and legal issues, admi-
nistrative maers, nancial maers, and coordination systems. ese aspects are
highly necessary in order to successfuy conduct a project. Moreover, the elabora-
tion of communication protocols, quality assurance, ethics, and safety and security
is included as part of this PMH.
Both theoretical and practical analyses supported the achievement of the set objec-
tives and have led to this practical handbook for project management. By seing the
practical guidance and clear gures for project management, the PMH can increase
the eciency and quality of project management, not only in this IECEU project, but
also in the future.
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Hyinen Project Management Handbook
e aim of the Project Management Handbook (PMH) is to provide an overa under-
standing of successful project management and project implementation. is pro-
duction gathers the key elements of project management, project implementation,
project management information systems, security, safety and ethical issues toget-
her. It facilitates project management from a wider perspective and denes a set of
approaches and concepts to support future projects and the delivery of day-to-day
project management work.
e Project Management Handbook (PMH) is a fundamental working tool that people
working on projects can benet from. Since wrien text in PMH was also designed
to reach a wider public audience than only those among the IECEU Consortium, this
handbook aims to support and help managers and project teams to the successful
completion of their projects. Readers wi nd the project management concepts,
suggested approaches, tools and data needed for project implementation. Moreover,
our goal is that people from a levels in dierent organisations wi nd this deli-
verable useful. e handbook is intended to meet the foowing design principles:
Appeal – the PMH should provide a generic and useful theoretical background
Flexibility and practicality – the PMH should provide practical and exible
Accessibility – the PMH should be easy to use and provide suitable ideas and
instruments to be adapted and applied
Firstly, this PMH emphasises what project management is and why it exists by
dening project management and, later, seing out a selection of project management
approaches. is conceptual framework of project management applies to a orga-
nisations in which projects are important for survival. A project management sec-
tions include ndings from the IECEU project.
Secondly, from the perspective of how project management works, the key aspects
are included in the chapter ‘Project implementation’ as an elaboration of the IECEU
project. It includes agreements and legal issues and rules to be agreed in terms of
administrative maers and reports, nancial maers, and coordination within a
consortium. Since technology is developing so rapidly, we have also taken project
management information systems (PMIS) into account. PMISs play an important role
in project management, communication, data exchange and the establishment of
web tools and soware.
e objective of the IECEU project is the enhancement of external European Union
(EU) activities. e consortium is coordinated by Laurea University of Applied
Sciences (Finland) and consists of a diverse group of civilian, research and mili-
tary organisations reecting the variety within EU missions. e overa goal of
the project is to identify approaches and solutions to respond to future chaenges
and threats. e IECEU consortium consists of a multinational team of 11 partners
from seven dierent countries (Finland, Denmark, Slovenia, Ireland, Austria, the
Netherlands and Belgium).
Case project: ieceu introduction
This project has received funding from the European
Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation
programme under grant agreement No 653371.
The IECEU consortium is coordinated by Laurea University of Applied Sciences (Finland) and
consists of a diverse group of research, governmental and private sector organisations.
Follow us: Website: | Twitter: @ieceuproject
Facebook: IECEU - Improving Effectiveness of Capabilities in EU Conict Prevention
Conicts and crisis devastate states and leave behind broken societies, broken
governmental structures, civilian victims and damages the capacity for future
economic and human development.
Effective interventions can help prevent
conict escalation, shorten its duration,
a reduce its devastating impact on society.
Solutions and approaches created by
the IECEU project will have signicant
environmental, societal, individual, and
economic benets.
A key issue for the EU is how to
improve its conict intervention
capabilities and create more
enduring impact on the ground.
IECEU - Improving the Effectiveness of
Capabilities in EU conflict prevention
IECEU is proposing new approaches and solutions to
long-term peacebuilding in EU external actions.
Analysing and assessing
the CSDP on-going and
past missions and
Learning from lessons provided
by these missions and assessing
the different options for conict
Providing new approaches
and recommendations for
EU to improve long-term
12 13
Hyinen Project Management Handbook
e project analyses and evaluates the missions’ and operations’ eectiveness in
three selected case study areas, where Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP)
activities are represented: the Balkans, Africa, and the Middle East/Asia. Such
compre hensive analysis of current external actions can provide beer answers for
creating more eective missions and operations. rough analyses and evaluations,
the project wi identify the best practices and develop new approaches and soluti-
ons. In order to achieve the set goals, the IECEU project aims to strengthen coope-
ration between dierent actors in the operational and political context. e project
looks to provide recommendations for the EU to guarantee long-term stability.
e IECEU project is funded by Horizon2020 programme as a coordination and sup-
port activity (CSA) type of action. Horizon 2020 is the biggest EU research and inno-
vation programme, with almost €80 biion of funding available over seven years
(2014 to 2020). e political backing for H2020 is provided by Europe’s leaders and
the Members of the European Parliament, who agreed that investment in research
and innovation is essential for Europe’s future. e goal of H2020 is to ensure Europe
produces world class science and technology that leads to economic growth.
e CSA activities in the IECEU project are divided and shared by each partner’s
organisational strengths. e main support activities are analyses and scientic
papers, policy papers, assessments and evaluations, and new concepts and metho-
dologies of eectiveness. A key idea of the project is to bring professional and experts
working in dierent environments (geographical) and in dierent organisations
(EU, UN, OSCE, NGOs, individual experts, etc.) to work together in the same envi-
ronment. e coordination is based on high-level experts and their strong commit-
ment to the success of the project. A participating organisations are responsible
for coordination activities.
When comparing CSA projects to innovation and research action projects, the key
dierence can be found in the implementation of the activities. Research and inno-
vation actions clearly tackle dened chaenges, which can lead to the development
of new knowledge or a new technology. Innovation actions should focus more on
closer-to-the-market activities (e.g. prototyping, testing, demonstrating, piloting,
scaling up), especiay if they aim to producing new products and services. CSA pro-
jects should aim to implement tasks and activities in coaboration with the con-
sortium, other projects, programmes and policies. is also means that the work
package implementation should be shared among partners to ensure cooperation
during the project. e CSA funding covers coordination and networking. 1
1 European Commission, (2014) ‘Horizon2020 in brief – e EU Framework Programme for Research and
Innovation’, European Union, 2014. Accessed 20 October 2015.
Project Management has become a core competency, and nearly every manager is
involved in managing one or more projects. Moreover, the role of projects in organi-
sations is receiving increasing aention.
is chapter introduces the background of the project management theory and
literature review and the selected key aspects regarding project management: the
project management cycle, knowledge management, risk and conict management,
work breakdown structure, and nay project organisation.
Turner (1998) dened a project as ‘...endeavour in which human (or machine), material
and nancial resources are organised in a novel way, to undertake a unique scope of work,
or given specication, within constraints of cost and time, so as to deliver benecial change
by quantitative and qualitative objectives.’2 According to Turner (1998), project-based
management includes ve functions: organisation, scope, time, quality and cost.
Kerzner3 argues that ‘a project is any series of activities and tasks that have a specic obje-
ctive to be completed within certain specications; have a dened start and end date; have
funding limits; consume money, people and equipment; and are multifunctional.’ Andersen
understands projects from an organisational perspective as ‘A project is a temporary
organization, established by its base organization to carry out an assignment on its behalf.’4
As a term, project management rst appeared in 1953 in the US defence-aerospace sec-
tor.5 Today, project management can be seen as a professional discipline with its
own body of knowledge and skis. Project management expertise can benet any
2 Turner, (1998) e Handbook of Project-Based Management: Improving the Process for Achieving
Strategic Objectives.
3 Kerzner, H. (2015) Project management: a systems approach to planning, scheduling, and controing,
11th edition. John Wiley & Sons, Hoboken, NJ. Accessed January 2016.
4 Andersen, E.S. (2008). Rethinking Project Management— An Organisational Perspective. Prentice
Ha, Harlow, England.
5 Johnson, S.B. (2013) e Secret of Apoo: Systems Management in American and European Space
Programs. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore.
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Hyinen Project Management Handbook
kind of organisation. In order to focus on how projects contribute to the strategic
goals of an organisation, a holistic, integrative view of project management provi-
des the most value. is view should also include the process of selecting projects
that can provide the best support for a particular organisation’s strategy.
Moreover, several project management models exist. A simple project management
model created by Mike Be includes ve key elements: scope, inputs, project, risks
and outputs. e scope sets the boundaries for the project implementation. Inputs
should be made based on the needs. e project is broken into ve phases: initiation,
planning, approval, delivery and closure. e outputs focus on what wi be delive-
red and are split into outputs and outcomes.6
According to Belout7, a project’s results are inuenced by managing people. In
2002, Cooke-Davies observed that ‘it is people who deliver projects, not processes or
systems.’8 Also, in 2005 it was indicated that project success or failure is based on
the people involved in the project.9 e change from project management tools
and techniques towards the social and behavioural aspects of the management of
projects has been increasing in recent years.10 Also, most projects are research and
development-oriented. is means that the projects aim to develop activities, pro-
vide recommendations and lead towards change. e wiingness of employees and
managers to accept the changes and recommendations provided by the projects is as
important as other topics related to project management.11
According to Svejvig and Andersen’s12 latest literature search, six dierent project
management categories have been dened: ‘contextualization (expanding the project
concept to encompass elements such as environment and organizational strategy), social and
political aspects, rethinking practice (alternative methods), complexity and uncertainty, the
actuality of projects (how projects are actuay carried out), and broader conceptualization.’
e tailoring of project methodology provides an adequate level of control to gua-
rantee the achievement of a successful project. For the project consortium, structu-
red project management foowing dened steps means managing the project in a
logical and organised way. e project management approach focuses on developing
6 Be, M. (2013) Eective and Ecient Project Management – A simple approach to structuring, running
and making projects successful. Simple Improvement Ltd. (2003). Accessed October 2015:
7 Belout, A. (1998). Eects of human resource management on project eectiveness and success: towards
a new conceptual framework. Int. J. Proj. Manag. 16 (1), p. 23.
8 Cooke-Davies, T. (2002). e ‘real’ success factors on projects. Int. J. Proj. Manag. 20 (3), page. 189.
9 Henrie, M., Sousa-Poza, A. (2005). Project management: a cultural literary review. Proj. Manag. J. 36
(2), p. 5.
10 Leybourne, S.A., (2007). e changing bias of project management research: a consideration of the
literatures and an application of extant theory. Proj. Manag. J. 38 (1), p.61.
11 Jetu, F., Riedl, R. (2012). Determinants of information systems and information technology project
team success: a literature review and a conceptual model. Commun. Assoc. Inf. Syst. 30 (article 27),
12 Svejvig, P. & Andersen, P. (2015) Rethinking project management: a structured literature review with
a critical look at the brave new world. p. 278-290.
in-depth feasibility projects and analysis upfront in order to create an appropriate
project strategy, governance and delivery structure. Foowing the project manage-
ment approach, detailed work breakdown structures, resource plans and delivery
timeline schedules wi be covered with the proposed methodology. is approach
helps to maximise project delivery performance (cost, time, scope and quality),
while minimising project risks. e selection of we-proven project management
tools supports project success and oers continuous control over the project. is
wi help project partners to concentrate on their work at the same time. A back-
ground theory of project management shares several aspects that lead to successful
project management.
Without a project management method, a project actors wi have dierent ideas
about how things should be organised and when the dierent aspects of the project
wi be completed. According to Prince2 Project Management methodology ‘…pro-
ject failures are a too common. e reasons for failure are wide and varied. Some common
causes are: Lack of coordination of resources and activities; lack of communication with inte-
rested parties; poor estimation of duration and costs; insucient measurables; inadequate
planning of resources, activities, and scheduling; lack of control over progress; lack of quality
control, resulting in the delivery of products that are unacceptable or unusable.’13
e majority of project management literature has not focused specicay on pro-
ject managers’ perspectives. e latest research conducted by Andersen showed
that project managers see their assignments dierently. is naturay leads to a
situation where beer and clearer recommendations on which project management
methods are used in project implementation. e overa understanding of a good
project management method wi support the project to achieve the desired results.
e key features dened in this deliverable regarding project management are: the
project management cycle, knowledge management, the work breakdown structure
(WBS), and project organisation structure.
13 JISCinfoNet Service. (2010). An Introduction to PRINCE. Project Management Methodologies.
1. “It is people who deliver projects, not processes or systems.”
2. “e wiingness of employees and managers to accept the changes
and recommendations provided by the projects is as important as
other topics related to project management”
3. “A project is a temporary organization, established by its base orga-
nization to carry out an assignment on its behalf
4. e tailoring of project methodology provides an adequate level of
control to guarantee the achievement of a successful project.”
1. Conceptualisation
- Project proposal = plan
- Scope and methodology
5. Capturing and Learning
- Capture and learning
- Sharing the learning
4. Analysing, Adapting,
- Analysis of data and
- Communication within the
3. Implementation
- work plans (development,
implementation, rene)
2. Plan and Monitor
Actions (WPs)
- Goals and objectives
- Monitoring plan
- Evaluation of risks and
16 17
Hyinen Project Management Handbook
2.1 Project Management Cycle
Dividing a project into phases simplies the process and enables leadership in
the best possible direction. e ve project process groups (1983 PMI PMBoK14) are
dened as:
1. Initiating
2. Planning
3. Execution
4. Monitoring and Controing
5. Closing
At the beginning of a project, the basic idea needs to be we explored and elabo-
rated. Moreover, this initial phase includes goals for the project, decisions concer-
ning the partners and parties to carry through the project implementation, and the
project leader writing the plan and/or proposal.
Even though the project management cycle and other project management met-
hods create a tight framework, the leadership should be visionary and motivating15.
‘Instead of looking at the project as a closed entity, this perspective sees the project as an open
organization in tight contact and cooperation with the base organization and its environ-
ment.’ 16
To be able to analyse and evaluate project management or project success, it is
necessary to dene the key measures or indicators. In an innovative project, the pro-
ject success can be seen as long-term impacts: ‘project success in consortia is evidently
a secondary and intermediary issue as compared to the expected longer-term impacts in the
industry and benets to member organizations. As primary measures of success, consortia
typicay seek for example industry-level success as compared to another country’s industry
in terms of market shares or prots.’17
14 Project Management Institute. (2013). A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge
(PMBOK® Guide), Fih Edition.
15 Bass, B.M. (1985). Leadership and Performance Beyond Expectations. Free Press, New York.
16 Andersen, E.S. (2016) Do project managers have dierent perspectives on project management? p.61.
17 Aro et al (2008). Project strategy: strategy types and their contents in innovation projects.
Case: project management cycle in ieceu consortium
Figure 1. IECEU project management cycle
A comprehensive project management cycle of the IECEU18 is strongly connected to
both technical cycles: the overa concept of the IECEU project and the work plan
(Grant Agreement: Technical Annex). e set of critical risks described in the project
planning phase has been notied when creating the project management cycle.
Conceptualisation: the elaboration of project scope and methodology sha be
dened during this rst project phase. is phase includes expanding and encom-
passing the project concept to relevant elements such as current understanding and
study elds. As a result, this phase provided a project plan at the beginning of the
Plan and monitor actions (WPs): in order for the project to meet the end users’
needs, this phase sha redene the goals and objectives for work package execution.
e overa project plan is the stable foundation for the detailed plans. e risks and
capacities must be updated and evaluated.
Implementation: if the earlier phases have been eectively conducted, project exe-
cution and implementation are uent processes. e activities in a CSA project vary
and they can include desk-based studies, eld studies, active data coection, orga-
nising panel discussions, presentations, end user events, dissemination, gathering
18 IECEU project (2015). D9.5 M1Conict Resolution Procedures.
18 19
Hyinen Project Management Handbook
and analysing needs and feedback, providing publications, making research studies
more available for public audiences, and utilising and exploiting relevant data for
political decision-makers and/or other end users.
Analysing, adapting and using: successful execution and implementation of the
project or work package provides information and results to be analysed, adapted
and used in relevant areas and elds. Depending on the objectives, the relevant
bodies for this phase/process can be project consortium organisations, external end
users (e.g. political decision-makers, industry, academics, technologies) or the gene-
ral public. e use of change management processes, dissemination strategy, com-
munications and exploitation is necessary during this phase.
Capturing and learning: at the end of the project or work package, one purpose
is to gain more knowledge and skis at a levels: individual, group (consortium),
organisational and public. Failures also provide platforms for the learning process.
By sharing one’s own experiences, the learning can happen in a wider framework
(e.g. higher education). is phase aims to integrate the project ndings to broader
conceptualisation levels.
e ality Assurance process is also concerned with discovering and handling
errors as early in the project life cycle as possible. In order to analyse and evaluate
eective project management, the IECEU project quality plan19 dened three data
categories in terms of how the data wi be coected:
19 IECEU project (2015). D9.2 M4 Project ality Plan.
the project
WP progressive
lled in by the
Figure 2. IECEU: evaluation of the project management.
Phase The specic questions to be answered
Initial and
1. Why does this project exist?
2. Who are the possible partners in this project?
3. What are the key objectives and the desired results?
4. What is the scope of the project (incl. boundaries)?
5. Which organisational resources are required?
1. Which are the key activities?
2. Which organisational capabilities are available?
3. How to engage internal and external stakeholders?
monitoring 1. How will the activities implementation be ensured?
2. Which are the criteria, methods and indicators in
monitoring, evaluation and quality assurance?
and end
1. Did we achieve the desired results? Why? Why not?
2. Which were the key lessons identied?
3. How can we ensure learning from the lessons?
4. Have we shared our ndings? How?
2.2 Knowledge Management
e aim of knowledge management structures is to provide a
multi-disciplined approach to achieving objectives.
e use of knowledge management theories in project management should aim to
support the development and research activities and the basic nature of the project
itself. According to the initial 1983 PMI PMBoK®20 (Project Management Body of
Knowledge) the nine knowledge areas in project management are:
20 Project Management Institute. A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK®
Guide) — 5th edition
1. Project Integration Management
2. Project Scope Management
3. Project Time Management
4. Project Cost Management
5. Project Quality Management
6. Project Human Resources Management
7. Project Communications Management
8. Project Risk Management
9. Project Procurement Management
Table 1. PMI PMBoK®: the nine knowledge areas
20 21
Hyinen Project Management Handbook
In 1995 Nonaka & Takeuchi dened organisational knowledge creation as ‘the
capability of a company as a whole to create new knowledge, disseminate it throughout
the organization, and embody it in products, services and systems.’21 ey built a theory
to describe how knowledge creation by individuals becomes organisational know-
ledge. ey dened two types of knowledge – tacit and explicit. Explicit knowledge
is the knowledge that can be wrien down and transferred from one person to the
next. Tacit knowledge is more dicult to articulate because it oen arises out of
experience. e knowledge ranges from individual to team, group, organisation and
beyond. Moreover, they described the models of knowledge: socialisation, exter-
nalisation, combination, and internalisation. ‘A spiral emerges when the interaction
between tacit and explicit knowledge is elevated dynamicay from a lower ontological level
to higher levels.’22 e knowledge spiral by Nonaka and Takeuchi is introduced below.
In practice, the opportunity for knowledge creation and management is as an enabler
for new developments. e purpose of the conceptual framework phase is to develop
an informed framework that provides an initial understanding and explanation of
the issue, problem or phenomenon that is the focus of the theory.23
How can we implement knowledge creation and management theories in
e knowledge theory introduced in this chapter is lacking the strong components
on how the theory should be transferred into practice. In project management, we
understand that the knowledge management operational tools need to be based
around a combination of communication and tacit knowledge-sharing as we as
transferring it to explicit knowledge rather than relying entirely on the wrien
documents as knowledge products. e management strategy dened within the
project should aim to support the view that people need to get together to share
experiences, knowledge and build understanding. ese processes must be a facili-
tated part of the project management.
In the IECEU project, we aimed to test Nonaka & Takeuchi’s knowledge spiral in the
project environment. IECEU project reects the work and activity of EU external
actions, which represents a combination of diplomatic service, foreign aairs and
security policy24. e combination of selected CSA activities wi facilitate the natu-
ral environments for knowledge creation, such as:
21 Nonaka & Takeuchi. (1995). e Knowledge-Creating Company. p.3.
22 Ibid, p.57.
23 Lynham (2002) e general method of theory-building research in applied disciplines. Advances in
Developing Human Resources 4(3), 221-241
24 European Union (2016) European External Action Service.
Case: knowledge management in ieceu
Co-creative workshops and policy-level discussions, which wi enable
open dialogue for project participants;
Literature-based desk studies, which wi transfer tacit knowledge to exp-
licit knowledge;
Testing and validation of project results at the political level, which wi
support the link between tacit and explicit knowledge;
Organising training and seminars, which wi enable the learning.
ese knowledge management areas can be implemented at a levels: project
manage ment, organisational, team, group and individual. To ensure eective know-
ledge management, we have tested the application of project management body of
knowledge to the IECEU project implementation. In the gure next page, the know-
ledge management areas are represented by a couple of examples at the operationa-
lisation level of project management.
management area
Operationalisation in project management
Project Management Level: Each beneciary: integration with partner strategies by
each beneciary
End User Community Level: integration with relevant training, education, research
and at the policy level
Project Scope
Project Management Level: Each beneciary: respond to internal objectives and
goals and situational awareness picture
End User Community: Dening the end user needs, key challenges and threats in
Project Time
Project Management Level: PMO: overall situation picture, Each beneciary: time
management (timesheets, work allocation)
End User Community: Introduction of the key ndings in order to support planning
and decision-making
Project Cost
Project Management Level: PMO: overall situation picture, Each beneciary: cost
management (PMs, travels and other costs)
Project Quality
Project Management Level: Quality Manager: overall situation and processes, Each
beneciary: implementation of the tasks
End User Community: External board and committee validations and assessments
Project Human
Project Management Level: Each beneciary: responsibilities by expertise areas,
continuous learning and development
End User Community: Participation to external boards and committees based on
Project Management Level: PMO and responsible WP: establishment and
implementation of communication
End User Community: Information sharing by selected communication means
Project Risk
Project Management Level: PMO: Overall risk management and update processes,
Each beneciary: dening, updating risks and risk mitigation plans
End User Community: External board and committees: support with updates on risks
and mitigation plans
Project Management Level: PMO: overall lead of procurement management Each
beneciary: subcontracting procurement processes
End User Community: Subcontracting if needed
Table 2. IECEU knowledge management areas
22 23
Hyinen Project Management Handbook
2.3 Risk And Conflict Management
Risk management aims to reduce the risk areas in the project life cycle. Proper risk
management helps to avoid project crises and improve problem solving by managing
risks early in the project life cycle.
Plenty of positive reasons for investing in eective risk management practices can
be found. Eective risk management provides a beer basis for decision-making at
strategic, tactical and operational levels when it builds logical, systematic and trans-
parent auditable processes. e use of those processes must end up by providing a
clear understanding of potential risk proles and options for dealing with them.25
In order to prevent possible risks and conicts, the denition of the possible cri-
tical risks in projects is necessary. Risk management starts with identifying poten-
tial problems and eliminating or reducing the damage the realisation of those risks
would cause. Risk assessment and management should be conducted at the start of
the project and also throughout the project life cycle, in order to ensure that risks are
acknowledged and controed appropriately. It is usuay impossible to eliminate a
risks, but they can be recognised and dealt with.26
e risk management process requires that each risk is assessed and measures are
formulated to prevent it (avoidance actions) or minimise its eect (amelioration
actions). Both need to be considered because avoidance measures may fail. Failure
to adequately manage risks wi threaten the success of the project. As the project
proceeds the nature of risks changes. Old risks disappear and new ones come up.
Consequently, risk management is a continuous process, so risks should be regu-
larly reviewed and reassessed. e rst step is to identify and evaluate the potential
risks in the planned work.
According to Binder (2007), the conict management process begins with the situa-
tion whereby two or more parties have a dierent viewpoint on the same topic, hin-
dering or improving the project performance .27
e conicts may arise among individuals, groups, teams or organisations. ey can
be based on the dierences of expectations, visions, opinions, intentions or inter-
pretations of the project plan.
In practice, a conict may appear among stakeholders sharing the same country
culture (intra-country), or among stakeholders from dierent countries with dif-
ferent cultural background (inter-country). A conict may be diverse, regarding
issues like gossips or rumours. Normay, a conict among individuals is a situation
25 Loosemoore, M., Raery, C.R., Higgon, D. (2006). Risk Management in projects – 2nd Edition. p.5.
26 IECEU- project (2015). Project ality Plan.
27 Binder, Jean. (2007)Global Project Management – Communication, Coaboration and Management
across Borders. ISBN13: 9780566087066.
where another person considers something to be right when another considers
it to be wrong. At some stage, modications to a project may lead to the contrac-
tual conicts. Conicts may arise when interpreting the project description of an
action or agreements. is can result in misunderstandings among partners. Also
‘bad’ project management strategy or lack of implementation of project manage-
ment strategy could lead to conicts.28 In order to have clear procedures for conict
management processes, these topics should be analysed and agreed at the project
manage ment level:
1. a clear project management/organisation chart;
2. a decision about the body in charge of major conicts must be made in the
early stages of the project;
3. a way of dealing with day-to-day conicts (e.g. open discussion);
4. a selection of conict resolution approach and procedures.
According to research, there is a connection between conict resolution styles and
work environment, and levels of stress and impact.29 Nevertheless, conicts can have
a harmful impact on project implementation in terms of eciency and eectiveness.
Also, a conict may lead to frustration and loss of eciency. From another point of
view, dierences in approaches and opinions can lead to improved ways of imple-
menting a project, if the conict resolution is carried out successfuy. Conict can
serve as a constructive mechanism or change. e awareness of project conict reso-
lution approaches and their consequences can support project managers to create
optimal work environments.
Risk management in the IECEU project30 takes place on three levels:
1. At the strategic level: it is concentrated on the relation between the project
and the consortium with its environment. Risk management at this level is
the responsibility of the project consortium.
2. At the tactical level: it is concentrated on the WPs’ contribution to the project
objective. Risk management at this level is the responsibility of the project
consortium and the project board/work package leaders.
3. At the operational level: it is concentrated on activities within the work pac-
kages, which are the responsibility of each work package leader.
At the beginning and during each work package (WP), it is the responsibility of the
WP leader and the sub-WP leaders to conduct a risk assessment, ensuring that due
consideration has been given to a risks associated with the WP that is to be com-
menced. e foowing gure explains the process behind risk analysis.
28 IECEU project (2015) Conict Resolution Procedures.
29 Friedman, R et al. (2000). What goes around comes around: the impact of personal conict style on
work. p. 32-55
30 IECEU project (2015). Project ality Plan.
Case: risk management in ieceu
To decrease the risks during the project, the critical risks relating to the project
implementation should be presented. e possible risks described in the project
work plan, for example, are: 1) defaulting partner, 2) schedule slippage, late delivery
and slow progress in general, 3) turnover of key personnel, 4) the methodology is not
aligned with appropriate needs. e table31 below foows Horizon2020 guidance for
dening the risks and risk mitigation measures:
Moreover, the establishment of external end user commiees and boards is an
important role in terms of the risk mitigation of security concerns, data protection
issues and ethics issues. Valuable information provided at a grassroots and practi-
cal level is necessary fora complete situation picture of overa project management.
Implementation of a risk management levels (e.g. risk analysis) is an active process
during the implementation of the IECEU project.
31 IECEU project (2015). Technical annex: Description of Action.
Conicts may appear and arise in multiple situations among project participants
or external members. Multinational projects (i.e. IECEU), with multiple locations,
organisations, time zones and cultures, can generate conicts due to cultural dif-
ferences, dierent behaviours, distribution of work/responsibilities/power, die-
rent native language, acceptable times for meetings, or working styles according to
norms or standards. To prevent such conicts from arising and ensure clear under-
standing of the actions in conict situations, the IECEU project has prepared a set of
procedures to be foowed if any conicts between consortia appear. Conict resolu-
tion can be seen as highly sensitive to cultural practices. In IECEU we are seeking to
resolve the conicts through cooperative and coaborative methods and practices.
In situations of conict, the IECEU project management oce (PMO) and especiay
the project coordinator wi always foster discussions to identify their potential
In order to reach the common purpose of the IECEU project, a conict resolution
working process can be used when opposing views or disagreements arise. Conict
resolution procedures are developed to provide a rapid and eective means to
resolve/sele conicts and disagreements. e procedures enable a comprehensive
environment in which to interpret situations as we as agreements. An overa goal
of conict resolution in IECEU is to minimise the conict and resolve it as soon as
possible. IECEU conict resolution procedures and methods to be used can be seen
from the picture below:
identify risks assess risks create action
plan to reduce
monitor &
review risk
Description of
Proposed risk mitigation measures
all e.g. ‘this risk will be handled by the
encouragement of the partner by the
project coordinator.
Schedule slippage,
late delivery and
slow progress in
all e.g. ‘this risk will be handled by the
periodic progress status assessments
performed by the project manager and
reported to the project coordinator and
the steering committee as part of progress
Turnover of key
all e.g. ‘this risk will be managed by
standardising the way of working across
the various teams so that remaining
personnel can temporarily compensate
for the absent one, while waiting for a
permanent substitution.’
24 25
Hyinen Project Management Handbook
Figure 4. IECEU risk analysis process
Table 3. IECEU risks and risk mitigation measures
Case: conict resolution management in ieceu
Day to day:
open discussion
(incl minutes)
(incl minutes)
letters to steering
by steering
Figure 5. IECEU conflict resolution procedures
2.4 Work Breakdown Structure (WBS)
Consequently, detailed planning has to be conducted at the start of the project.32 To
organise the scope of the project use of work breakdown structure (WBS) supports,
assigns the responsibility to plan and perform the work.33 WBS is supposed to reect
the total scope of work involved in the project.
‘e project work is organized around a work breakdown structure (WBS) that divides the
overa project goals into specic activities or tasks for each project area or component.’34 At
same time WBS should be the source for project cost estimations, risk mitigation
and schedule planning. Moreover, WBS should be based on either planned actions
or outcomes. If the project is a deliverable-oriented then the WBS should be created
based on these outcomes. e WBS normay covers the whole project scope. e
schedule of the project maps out the ow of work and creation of project delive-
rables. We-prepared WBS provides the information of both: ow of work and deli-
verable production.
e IECEU project WBS is created with a comprehensive understanding of project
scope, work ow, deliverable production and responsibilities, in order to provide the
overa picture for the project coordinator, project managers and consortium mem-
bers.35 e work breakdown structure (WBS) denes;
1. e division of work (Work Packages and Tasks)
2. e division of work during the project (Months)
3. e division of type of action/activities (Status)
4. e division of responsibilities between partner organisations and the pro-
ject (Leader)
5. e division of productions (List of deliverables)
32 Andersen (2016) Do project managers have dierent perspectives on project management? (2016)
33 Lawrence, P. Leach. (2014) Critical Chain Project Management. ird Edition. London. 2014.
34 PM4DEV (2007) Project Management Organizational Structures – project management for develop-
ment organizations. p. 5.
35 IECEU project. (2015). Annex 1 - Description of Action (DoA). Grant Agreement.
1st year 2nd year 3rd year List of Deliverables
Months: Leader 1234567891011 12 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
WP 1: Status WP1
Task 1.1 Strategic planning Task 1 ORG
Task 1.2 Mutual Learning Task 2 ORG
Task 1.3 Coordination btw MSs Task 3 ORG
Task 1.4 Policy Dialogue Task 4 ORG
Task 1.5 Communication Task 4 ORG
WP 2: Learning Study WP2 ORG
Task 2.1 Networking Task 2 ORG
Task 2.2 Networking Task 2 ORG
Task 2.3 Study Task 8 ORG
Task 2.4 Networking and
Task 9 ORG
Task 2.5 Awareness-raising Task 10 ORG
WP 3: Learning Study WP3 ORG
Task 3.1 Networking Task 11 ORG
Task 3.2 Networking Task 12 ORG
Task 3.3 Networking Task 13 ORG
Task 3.4 Networking Task 14 ORG
Task 3.5 Study Task 15 ORG
Task 3.6
Networking and
Task 16 ORG
Task 3.7 Awareness-raising Task 17 ORG
WP4: Learning Study WP4 ORG
Task 4.1 Networking Task 18 ORG
Task 4.2 Networking Task 19 ORG
Task 4.3 Study Task 20 ORG
Task 4.4 Networking and
Task 21 ORG
Task 4.5 Awareness-raising Task 22 ORG
WP 5: Coordination with
Task 5.1 Awareness-raising Task 23 ORG
Task 5.2 Design of new infra Task 24 ORG
Task 5.3 Design of new infra Task 25 ORG
Task 5.4 Mutual Learning Task 26 ORG
WP 6: Policy Dialogue WP6 ORG
Task 6.1 Coordination: MSs Task 27 ORG
Task 6.2 Strategic planning Task 28 ORG
Task 6.3 Strategic planning Task 29 ORG
Task 6.4 Strategic planning Task 30 ORG
WP7 Strategic planning WP7 ORG
Task 7.1 Strategic planning Task 31 ORG
Task 7.2 Awareness-raising Task 32 ORG
Task 7.3 Awareness-raising Task 33 ORG
Task 7.4 Awareness-raising Task 34 ORG
WP 8: Dissemination WP8 ORG
Task 8.1 Awareness-raising Task 35 ORG
Task 8.2 Networking, lear-
ning, discussions
Task 36 ORG
Task 8.3 Dissemination Task 37 ORG
Task 8.4 Dissemination Task 38 ORG
Task 8.5 Networking Task 39 ORG
WP 9: Coordination WP9 ORG
Task 9.1 Coordination Task 40 ORG
Task 9.2 Coordination Task 41 ORG
Task 9.3 Coordination Task 42 ORG
26 27
Hyinen Project Management Handbook
Case: work breakdown structure in ieceu
Figure 6: IECEU Work Breakdown Structure (WBS).
2.5 Project Organisation Structure
A we-designed project management structure is essential to project
success. e top of the organisation pyramid has more authority and
responsibility than members/partners located lower down.
e project structure must be created so that it meets with the various project needs
during dierent phases. It has been argued that two factors in particular inuence
the process of a developing project management structure: the level of specialisa-
tion and the need for coordination. For example, for large projects that have several
technical and specication areas, there is a need to design a project structure that
supports goals, approaches and methodologies. On the other hand, the educational
components need a more informal and open structure.36
e project management structure should be designed, covering a critical areas,
as a comprehensive framework for making coordinating and structural decisions. It
wi foster cooperation between a partners and the various stakeholders involved
in the project. e success of a project relies on the implementation of an ecient
management structure and adequate operative procedures capable of addressing
the chaenges normay encountered in such large cooperation and coaboration
In the coordination and support of projects, cooperation is one of the values and
it also guides project structure planning. In the IECEU project, it was ensured that
the various components are integrated so that their eorts contribute to the overa
project goal.
36 PM4DEV (2007) Project Management Organizational Structures – project management for develop-
ment organizations. p. 3-5.
wp leader
wp leader
steering level
project management
operational level
and pmo
Eective coaboration requires central coordination, clear rules for communication
and unambiguous mechanisms for decision-making.
e IECEU project’s organisation structure denes the hierarchy, the level of respon-
sibilities and authority between project members. Moreover, the specic roles and
their responsibilities are dened in the proposal phase and are foowed during the
project implementation.
Steering Commiee (SC)
e chairman (CM) wi provide strategic management as the highest decision-
making and arbitration authority in the project. Each of the partners in the consor-
tium wi appoint one representative contact that wi act as a focal point within the
consortium taking part in the SC (and in other management bodies, depending on
the responsibilities entrusted to them). e SC has an important role, since it cont-
ributes to the control and monitoring of impacts achieved by project activities. e
main responsibilities of the SC are:
supervising, approving and amending project and cost reports transmied
to the EC;
ensuring cooperation and coordination among the consortium members.
Project Coordinator (PC)
e coordinator wi be the intermediary between the parties and the funding autho-
rity. e PC is a managerial role, with responsibility for the project’s overa coor-
dination, acting as a point of contact for a administrative content while ensuring
that a guidelines established by the dierent decision bodies are observed. He/she
Conceptual framework
wp leaders
admin team
28 29
Hyinen Project Management Handbook
Figure 7. A simple project organisation structure
Case: project organisation of ieceu
Figure 8. IECEU organisation structure
Case: roles and responsibilities in ieceu
wi act as the ocial and only channel between the consortium and the European
Commission. He/she wi:
be responsible for day-to-day coordination tasks;
ensure that work package leaders implement the quality control measures;
address possible conicts, looking for the widest internal consensus and
taking care that project internal rules are respected, including legal and ethi-
cal obligations. In the event that consensus is not reached, he/she wi apply
the rules for problem management and conict resolution.
Project Management Oce [PMO]
In order to successfuy run a multi-stakeholder project, the existence of a perma-
nent project management oce (PMO) is necessary. e PMO sha comprise the
project coordinator (PC) and her/his sta, together with the SC and PAT, addressing
issues regarding (1) quality and risk opportunities management and (2) nancial and
administrative management. e main responsibilities of the PMO are to:
manage the EC contract and consortium agreement;
manage the computation of the distribution of funds among the partners;
coordinate and supervise the tasks;
organise steering commiee (SC) meetings (logistics, agenda, presenta-
tions, minutes);
ensure overa project coordination, with the aim of meeting the project
schedule and objectives;
provide a helpdesk for contractual and nancial issues;
manage day-to-day nancial administration.
ality Manager
e quality manager is responsible for the implementation of quality procedures
established in the project quality plan. He/she wi:
continuously guide, track and monitor the quality of the project’s activities
and products (together with the project coordinator);
monitor the WP activities with online questionnaires;
dra quality monitoring reports and submit these to the project coordinator;
advise the project coordinator on necessary actions to adjust, modify and
fasten the activity of a work package, if necessary.
Conceptual Framework Manager (CFM)
e CMF is responsible for ensuring successful conceptual scientic and academic
work in the project. e CFM is a managerial role that has the overa conceptual
framework responsibility in the project. She/he wi provide support to the PC where
conceptual framework and/or research themes are concerned.
Project Security Ocer (PSO)
e PSO wi be appointed in the rst SC meeting at the beginning of the project.
e role of the PSO is to ensure that security aspects are taken into account during
the project (with the SC and the security advisory board) and provide support for
security-related issues when the project members face them.
Dissemination Commiee (DC)
e DC is responsible for ensuring that the project results and achievements are dis-
seminated and exploited eectively. e DC proposes and takes care of the dissemi-
nation activities of the project, led by the main partner in charge of dissemination.
e DC sends the reports about the impact of the project to the PMO. e dissemina-
tion commiee is also responsible for the integration of the project results with the
relevant training and education programmes. In a nutshe, the responsibilities of
the DC are:
ensuring eective dissemination;
nding new solutions to disseminate information more eectively;
integrating the project results with relevant training programmes;
ensuring dissemination goals are achieved.
Ethics Commiee
e EC ensures that a the ethical requirements are taken into account throughout
the whole project. It also ensures that the IECEU ethics guidelines are established.
e EC wi directly report to the PMO if any ethical concerns need to be raised. e
responsibilities of the EC are:
ensuring the establishment of ethical requirements;
providing feedback regarding ethical issues;
building the ethical guidelines in cooperation with methodology and fra-
mework building.
Advisory Board (AB)
e advisory board sha consist of potential recipients and end users of the informa-
tion, relevant EU agencies and institutions, and independent experts in the relevant
elds. AB members sha be invited to sign a leer of interest (LoI) to formalise their
coaboration in the project. e responsibilities of the AB are to:
provide feedback and expert advice to the SC and conceptual framework
align the nal project outcome to the needs and standards.
30 31
Hyinen Project Management Handbook
Security Advisory Board (SAB)
e security advisory board wi be established in the rst SC meeting at the begin-
ning of the project and it wi include three members. e role of security advisory
board is to take into account the up-to-date security concerns and raise awareness
within the consortium.
Work Package Leaders (WPL)
e coordinator sha be assisted by the work package leaders, who wi be respon-
sible for the day-to-day technical management of the work undertaken within their
work package, coordinating the contributions from a subordinate work packages
or tasks, and ensuring that they comply with the work package description. ey
wi periodicay report to the coordinator. e responsibilities of WPLs are:
planning the execution of their work packages;
arranging meetings between work package participants;
monitoring the progress of each work package under their control;
identifying any current or potential future divergence from the plan;
identifying and maintaining a register of a signicant risks;
ensuring that a project deliverables are produced on time;
providing progress reports.
32 33
Hyinen Project Management Handbook
In terms of successful project management, the project implementation is ela-
borated in this chapter from the IECEU project implementation perspective.
is chapter aims to answer the foowing question: How does project manage-
ment work in practice? It includes relevant grassroots-level activities that are rele-
vant to multinational and inter-organisational project implementation.
e key elements of project implementation presented in this chapter are: agree-
ments and legal issues, administrative and nancial maers, coordination systems,
rules to be agreed in terms of inteectual property rights (IPR), quality assurance
of the project deliverables, and communication procedures within the project con-
sortium. In the IECEU project, these aspects are mainly managed as part of project
management tasks. Nevertheless, the conduct of the work and tasks is the responsi-
bility of every beneciary/partner. Moreover, safety, security and ethical issues must
be addressed and considered in project implementation. In this PHM, these topics
are the subject of their own chapters (chapters 5 and 6).
3.1 Agreements and Legal Issues
e implementation of the project usuay starts with nalising the specic agree-
ments among funders and partners. A project usuay has to negotiate a funding
agreement with the funder and a coaboration agreement with the partners.
Depending on the project, it may also be necessary to dra agreements on con-
dentiality, right of use of the material, ownership, and right of use of the results as
we as on the future utilisation and commercialisation of the results. Key agree-
ments must be to be agreed and signed by a funding body, project consortium and
possibly other relevant actors/stakeholders (e.g. advisory board). Multiple sets of
legal issues and rules need to be agreed in multi-stakeholder projects. In the case of
research, innovation and development activities during the project implementation
Table 4. EC Horizon2020 grant agreement
34 35
Hyinen Project Management Handbook
‘Consortium agreements are mandatory for a coaborative projects unless otherwise speci-
ed in the applicable work programme or ca for proposals. ey cover issues that wi or may
arise during the project (e.g. how to make decisions, resolve conicts or safeguard inteectual
property rights). e consortium agreement should be signed before the grant agreement.’37 A
partnership agreement may also be formed very lightly, for example when a com-
pany states in an email that they wi participate in the project. It is usuay advi-
sable to negotiate a wrien contract before work commences. It is easier to nego-
tiate the contract terms with the other partners before starting work on the project.
e funder’s conditions for funding usuay take priority over a other agreements.
erefore, the coaboration agreements must not include any conditions that are
not in accordance with the funding conditions. In EU projects, universities and hig-
her education institutions favour the DESCA model consortium agreement. More
information on this model can be found at hp:// e content
of the agreement may be as set out below, for example.
A leer of intent (LoI), a memorandum of understanding (MOU) or a leer of
interest is a binding force. Sometimes a contract is intended to obligate the signa-
tories to participate in a project, even if the details of the project wi only be agreed
on later. On the other hand, sometimes the agreement only expresses the signato-
ries’ interest in the project, and does not yet obligate the parties to participate in the
project. It is important to read through the contract carefuy in order to identify
whether the contract is binding or not.
37 European Commission (2014) Horizon2020 – Guide for Grant Agreement Preparation.
must be planned, decided and agreed on with ethical principles (e.g. European Code
of Conduct for Research Integrity) and applicable law (e.g. international, EU and
e funding agreement/contract is signed with the funder when necessary. Usuay
a funding application and the funders’ funding decision are sucient. If the funder
wants an agreement, it takes the initiative and provides the contract model. In inter-
national projects, the agreement is usuay made between the principal funder and
the applicant organisation, not between a implementers involved in the project.
e agreement with the funding body should include the relevant parts like terms
and conditions, description of work/action, estimated budget, accession forms and
nancial statements. e Horizon 2020 Grant Agreement is signed by a partners.
As an example:
In the Horizon 2020 Programme, the grant agreement is signed by Research
Executive Agency (REA) (’the agency’), under the power delegated by the European
Commission (’the Commission’), coordinator and all beneciaries. The agreement is
composed of:
Terms and conditions
Annex 1 Description of the Action (DoA)
Annex 2 Estimated budget for the action
Annex 3 Accession forms
Annex 4 Model for the nancial statements
Annex 5 Model for the certicate of the nancial statements
Annex 6 Model for the certicate of the methodology
By signing the agreement or the accession form, the beneciaries accept the grant
and agree to implement it under their own responsibility and in accordance with the
agreement, with all the obligations and conditions it sets out. The grant agreement
builds a clear set of procedures for project implementation and is the main guidance
e consortium agreement needs to be agreed and signed by the project consor-
tium partners. e consortium agreement is also signed by a the partners/bene-
ciaries. Coaboration and partnership agreements on various levels are signed in
a project, depending on the partners’ responsibilities and obligations and whether
any nancial obligations are involved, or on the funder’s instructions and require-
ments. Parties that commit to the project by oering work or other contributions
where no money is involved may also participate in the project. e cooperation
may, however, involve an obligation to report costs if the funder has approved it as
part of self-nancing (calculated contribution, voluntary work).
Consortium/ Partnership Agreement
Parties to the agreement
Purpose and goals of the agreement
Validity period
Responsibilities of the parties in the project
Finances and nancial reports as well as monetary transactions
Other reporting in the project
Project management
Rights of use for the results and material
Termination/cancellation of the agreement during the agreement period
Applicable law and settling disputes
Appendices of the contract
Table 5. Consortium/partnership agreement
36 37
Hyinen Project Management Handbook
A mandate leer is used in cases where one organisation authorises another to
apply for funding on its behalf. A non-disclosure agreement (NDA) is especiay
designed in the interests of companies to agree on condentiality. ere is oen a
desire to agree on condentiality when preparing the project, in which case a sepa-
rate non-disclosure agreement is signed because a coaboration agreement has not
been negotiated yet. e actual coaboration agreement also usuay contains a con-
dentiality clause.
A persons participating in the project on behalf of partner organisation (bene-
ciary) must sign a transfer of rights agreement on transferring the right arising
from the project to the participating organisation, i.e. a transfer of rights agreement.
Procurement legislation, the funder’s regulations on tendering, and organisational
procurement instructions must be complied with in a procurements. For subcont-
racting, a subcontract agreement has to be negotiated which, in addition to the
other conditions, e.g. payment, also takes into account the rights to ownership of
the results. e funder may limit subcontracting (buying external services) within
projects. e funder may require that a supply contract also be made for a other
e condition for granting a research permit and releasing information or material
is that the person conducting the research or writing the report commits to handling
the data in line with the legislation concerning the handling of personal data and
privacy protection. e person conducting the research/writing the report is obli-
ged to use the information or material in condence and solely for conducting the
research/writing the material in question, and to ensure the privacy and anonymity
of the persons studied. Aer carrying out the research/report, the material must be
disposed of in an appropriate way. In this context, the receiver of the research per-
mission also agrees on the practicalities of sending a questionnaire, for example.
If a person register such as that described in the Personal Data Act is formed
during the research, a description of the le for scientic research or a descrip-
tion of the le must be aached to it. When necessary, a preliminary assessment of
research ethics must be aached to the application. e researcher must commit
to complying with the regulations in the Personal Data Act in handling and secu-
ring information, and any possible research registries containing personal data on
individual persons formed during the research must be disposed of or stored in the
way required in the Personal Data Act. e legislation related to the EU Framework
Programme for Research and Innovation Horizon2020 is listed below38:
H2020 Framework Programme — Regulation (EU) No 1291/2013 of the
European Parliament and of the Council of 11 December 2013 establishing
Horizon 2020 – e Framework Programme for Research and Innovation
(2014-2020) (OJ 347, 20.12.2013, p. 104).
38 European Commission, (2015) e EU Framework Programme for Research and Innovation Horizon
2020. AGA – Annotated Model Grant Agreement, version 2.1, 30 October 2015. p. 5.
Euratom Research and Training Programme (2014-2018) — Council
Regulation (Euratom) No 1314/2013 of 16 December 2013 on the Research
and Training Programme of the European Atomic Energy Community
(2014-2018) complementing the Horizon 2020 – e Framework Programme
for Research and Innovation (OJ L 347, 20.12.2013, p. 948).
H2020 Specic Programme — Council Decision 2013/743/EU of 3 December
2013 establishing the Specic Programme Implementing Horizon 2020 – e
Framework Programme for Research and Innovation (2014-2020) (OJ L 347,
20.12.2013, p. 965).
Rules for Participation (RfP) — Regulation (EU) No 1290/2013 of the
European Parliament and of the Council of 11 of December 2013 laying down
the rules for the participation and dissemination in Horizon 2020 – the
Framework Programme for Research and Innovation (2014-2020) (OJ L 347,
20.12.2013, p.81).
Financial Regulation (FR) — Regulation (EC, Euratom) No 966/2012 of the
European Parliament and of the Council of 25 October 2012 on the nan-
cial rules applicable to the general budget of the European Union (OJ L 298,
26.10.2012, p.1).
Rules of Application (RAP) — Commission Regulation (EC, Euratom) No
1268/2012 of 29 October 2012 on the rules of application of l Regulation (EC,
Euratom) No 966/2012 of the European Parliament and of the Council on
the nancial rules applicable to the general budget of the Union (OJ L 298,
26.10.2012, p.1).
e term inteectual property rights (IPR(s)) refers to patents, patent applica-
tions and other statutory rights in inventions; copyrights (including without limi-
tation soware copyrights); registered design rights, applications for registered
design rights, unregistered design rights and other statutory rights in designs; and
other similar or equivalent forms of statutory protection, wherever in the world they
arise or are available, but excluding rights to condential information and/or trade
secrets. e IECEU project adheres to the consortium agreement according to IPRs.
For example, the results are owned by the party that generates them. Moreover, the
rights of authors of literature are protected by copyright.
3.2 Administrative Matters
Time and costs should be seen as delimitations or framework conditions for the pro-
ject. Administrative maers are devoted to the management activities for the day-to-
day life of the consortium, including administrative issues and tasks.
38 39
Hyinen Project Management Handbook
e arrangements must be planned and implemented as part of administrative
maers. Project events require administrative support with logistics (e.g. travel reser-
vations and accommodation). Moreover, the administrative tasks vary from draing
agendas and minutes of the meetings, preparing project presentations (e.g. master
PowerPoint presentations), maintaining CRM (custom relationship management)
systems, preparing and updating project descriptions, and nay supporting commu-
nications and internal dissemination.
Minutes (or memorandums) of the meetings are wrien and coected parts of admi-
nistrative maers. e minutes must be signed by the chairperson and the secretary
as we as the examiners of the minutes, or the minutes wi be examined and appro-
ved in the foowing meeting. Memorandums can be signed by the chairperson or the
secretary of the meeting. e minutes or memorandums must list those present. e
funder may also require lists of those present to be signed personay. e minutes
or memorandums must also state the location of the meeting and the time (start and
nish) as we as the maers discussed and decided.
e IECEU project management oce (PMO) acts as a responsible player in terms
of project administrative maers. e PMO coordinates and supervises the project
tasks. e contracts and agreements are conducted, developed and managed by
PMO administrative activities. e PMO is responsible for keeping the contracts in
the project up to date and preparing contracts with new organisations and persons
joining the project. In multi-stakeholder projects, the funds need to be distributed
among project partners. e funds are distributed by the project management admi-
nistrative oce. Together with the SC and the PC, the PMO also ensures the overa
project coordination with the aim of meeting the project schedule and objectives.
Ideay, the PMO includes experts from each responsibility area.
e project admin team (PAT) is a separate team in the PMO that is responsible
for the arrangements (logistics, agenda, presentations and minutes). e admi-
nistrative support and helpdesk should be available for partners for the entire dura-
tion of the project. e team consists of experts that have wide experience of the
Project sta monitors their working hours daily in a relevant project informa-
tion management system. A person must send a monthly working hours report
every month in order to have updated data. Normay, the internal/ and/or organi-
sational project manager approves the working time monitoring regarding his/her
project as soon as possible in order to enable the timely circulation of approvals.
e overa working time monitoring of a person should be approved by his/her
superior. In order to monitor working hours, the beneciaries might use a repor-
ting system online or basic Excel sheets. e selected monitoring system and/or
Excel sheet should include the basic data related the hours completed for the action/
Case: administrative issues in practice (ieceu)
1. Date of the action/work
2. Project with project number
3. Working hours per date
4. e type of cost (e.g. personnel cost, other cost, travel cost)
5. Selection of work package
6. Selection of task
7. Selection of unit where the task is completed
8. Description of the work
Administrative task Task completion
Logistics: booking travels
and accommodation
Immediately when the date of the task is
(but no later than one month earlier)
Preparation of an agenda No later than two weeks before the meeting
Preparation of a
No later than one week before the
Drafting minutes First draft immediately after the meeting
(drafted by secretariat)
Second draft with additions and revisions
(no more than two weeks later), Final
version (no more than three weeks after
the meeting)
Internal reports Consortium nancial reports every six
months (each partner)
WP progress reports every three months
(WP leader)
Monitor of working hours Monitoring on a daily basis
Acceptance by hierarchy every month
Table 6. Guidance of administrative tasks
3.3 Financial Matters
In multi-stakeholder projects, a beneciaries have an independent role in nancial
maers and reporting. e agreement/contract denes the general conditions for
costs to be eligible. e main categories in H2020 eligible costs are actual costs,
unit costs, at-rate costs, direct personnel costs, direct costs for subcontrac-
ting, and other direct costs (e.g. travel costs). Project-related invoices, accounting
transfers and corrections are handled as other accounting maers, and in addition
to instructions from the funding body, the same legislature and regulations apply as
with accounting for companies. A project number for separate monitoring is requi-
red. As a project progresses, the project number must be put on purchase, travel and
sales invoices so that the expenses are transferred for monitoring in accounting.
e project manager must check the project expenses monthly from the project’s
nominal ledger and report any changes and additions immediately. Accounting
transactions of projects can be monitored in an accounting information system and
sorted into project cost categories.
40 41
Hyinen Project Management Handbook
A invoices for the project must include the relevant target area number and
the information required by the funder as reference data. e invoice address for
invoices paid by the project (purchase invoices) is always the relevant partner orga-
nisation’s nancial services. Nowadays, an invoice request can be made using an ele-
ctronic form. Typicay, invoices are approved by the project manager and checked
by the nancial ocer. For accounting purposes, a invoices must be accompanied
with an adequate explanation about the reason for the cost in line with the funder’s
instructions and the Act on Public Contracts; in purchase invoices the information
is inserted into the comments eld, and in travel invoices the traveer includes it in
the travel description.
e PC/WP leader/task leader/project manager decides on the project-related trips
according to the project plan and work execution. A person gets an approval from
his/her principal. e reason for the trip and how the trip is linked to the project
must be included in the travel expenses report as we as the reasons for using any-
thing other than public transport (own car, taxi). A travel report must be submied
for trips. Typicay, travel invoices are checked by nancial services and approved
by the project manager. Copies of submied payment applications/cost accounting
documents are recorded in accounting information systems. e nancial unit wi
calculate and record the salary targeted at the project. e nancial service provides
an account of how the salaries have been calculated.
3.4 Coordination System
A we-planned coordination system ensures good project implementation.
e coordination system introduced in this section concentrates on European
Commission H2020 coordination processes. Nevertheless, the project manage-
ment by the project coordinator can be elaborated in other projects, grants, bids or
e IECEU coordination system includes three key phases: grant preparations,
grant management and project management. Each phase further explains the tasks
and activities to be ensured by the coordinator. e project management phase
iustrated below also includes practical coordination activities that are seen as ee-
ctive when coordinating project consortia.
Case: coordination in ieceu
coordination and submission
of the project proposal
legal and nancial issues
self-declared coordinators’
nancial capacity
management of permissions
and roles
processes in participant
monitoring of project
distribution of funding
submission of deliverables
Figure 9. IECEU coordination system
e grant preparation phase includes the overa coordination of the project pro-
posal and nay submission to the funding portal. e coordinator must coordinate
and manage the grant and he/she wi be the central contact point for the EC. e
legal and nancial issues need to be ensured and the permissions and roles must be
managed by the coordinator in the European Commission Participant Portal. At the
grant proposal phase, coordinators are asked to self-declare their nancial capacity.
e grant preparation phase enables agreement negotiations with the funder.
e grant management phase is mainly facilitated on the online Participant Portal.
e approved consortium is invited by the European Commission (EC) to prepare
and sign a grant agreement, which is a standard contract39 established between the
EC and the project coordinator. e project coordinator performs grant agreement
revisions and associated material. e European Commission Horizon2020 Grant
management is only organised electronicay, in the Participant Portal. e European
Commission (EC) has launched a Participant Portal for H2020-funded projects. It
gathers together the whole project process, from the application period until the
end of the project. e Participant Portal is a single gateway for a exchanges. To
enter the legal, administrative and nancial data, the minimum set-up of roles that
you need to prepare and conclude for the grant agreement in the Participant Portal
39 European Commission (2015) e EU Framework Programme for Research and Innovation
Horizon2020 – AGA Annotated Model Grant Agreement.
40 European Commission (2014) Horizon2020 – Guide for Grant Agreement Preparation.
42 43
Hyinen Project Management Handbook
1 primary coordinator contact (CoCo)
1 participant contact (PaCo) per beneciary
1 LEAR per organisation
1 legal signatory (LSIGN) per organisation
1 nancial signatory (FSIGN) per organisation.
e grant must be signed by the coordinator and each beneciary by the LSIGN
(legal signatory). e nal grant agreement should be prepared based on the pro-
posal selected for funding. e process of grant preparation and management in the
Participant Portal is iustrated in Figure 10.
e project management phase includes several key activities to be undertaken by
the project coordinator. e project coordinator monitors the progress and achieve-
ment of objectives in relation to work accomplished and the costs of the project.
Moreover, the payments are made for the coordinating organisation, which is in
charge of distributing the payments between the beneciaries/partners. e coor-
dinator is also responsible for submiing the technical and nancial reports to the
funder using the templates provided. Normay the reports need to be submied
in the language of the agreement. According to the Horizon2020 Annotated Model
Grant Agreement42, the project coordinator must:
41 European Commission (2014) Participant Portal Paperless Grant Management.
42 European Commission, (2015) e EU Framework Programme for Research and Innovation Horizon
2020. AGA – Annotated Model Grant Agreement, version 2.1, 30 October 2015.
Figure 10. Grant agreement process.
1. ensure that the action is implemented properly;
2. act as the intermediary for a communications between the beneciaries
and the EC;
3. request and review any documents or information required by the EC and
verify their completeness and correctness before passing them on to the EC;
4. submit the deliverables and reports to the Participant Portal;
5. ensure that a payments are made to the other beneciaries without unjus-
tied delay;
6. inform the EC of the amounts paid to each beneciary.
e PC is the most responsible beneciary in terms of the tasks listed above. e
PC monitors, requests and reviews documents, submit deliverables and reports, and
ensures the payments are successfuy completed. At times, draing and nalising
the minutes is not enough, so the project coordinator might use the coordination/
management diary in order to keep up with a necessary data. In the case of con-
ict, the established conict resolution procedures should aim to support the work
of the project coordinator.
e project coordinator also reports related to the grant agreement and EC liaison.
Interim reports are prepared by partners and WP leaders, and they report on the
progress of the given WP and the use of resources. Progress reports are prepared
by WP leaders and dene the progress of WPs, including the updated risks and risk
mitigation plans. Progress reports support the understanding of the project pro-
gress towards the project coordinator. Periodic reports are prepared by the PC and
they summarise the status of project work, use of resources, highlights and possible
deviations between actual and planned scenarios.
IECEU activities aiming to facilitate good coordination include:
Meetings: these can be arranged among partners, consortia and external
Workshops: the workshops wi increase social interaction and raise
Policy dialogues: to enhance understanding in the policy-making commu-
Dissemination: the results and achievements of the project must be disse-
Advisory and Integration Group: to enhance impact of the project
Secured online platform: to increase the online coordination with the
members (sharing documents, online discussions, etc.)
44 45
Hyinen Project Management Handbook
The decision of the quality assurance methods to be applied must be done
at an early stage of the project. e quality assurance framework should
aim to describe, compare, analyse and implement quality management and
quality assurance approaches. e IECEU applies ISO/IEC 19796-1 to its own opera-
tions. It serves to compare dierent existing approaches and to harmonise these
into a common quality model. IECEU outputs and processes wi be qualied and
quantied according to the quality assurance mechanism that is described in this
e IECEU’s approach to quality is based on implementing work
packages and creating deliverables throughout the project that
contri bute to delivering the required project output and impact.
In general, quality assurance in the project wi be carried out on two levels: the pro-
gress monitoring level, related to monitoring both the formal milestones of the pro-
ject as we as a set of WP-internal milestones of smaer granularity, and the project
output assessment level, related to the assessment of the dierent output types of
the project (e.g. content output, technical/soware output, evaluation/validation
output, dissemination/valorisation output, scientic output).
4.1 Work Package Planning Process
e work plan should include planning for work to be conducted, and the deve-
lopment of deliverable development plans. In these plans, the work package leader
responsible for a particular deliverable wi present the proposed structure of the
deliverable as we as the task aocation between project participants. e process
for developing a work package is described in the gure below.
45 is chapter is wrien according to the IECEU Project ality Plan (2015).
3.5 Project Management Information Systems (PMIS)
Project Management Information Systems (PMIS) usuay aim to support pro-
ject managers in decision-making, planning, organising and controing projects. A
big advantage of the PMIS is that it is not soware but an online-accessible database
that can be easily accessed by anyone who has access to the internet. Storing data
centray in an online database speeds up the whole project process and improves
the overa progress.43
When working on coaborative projects with academic institutions, private enter-
prises and government organisations, project management and document centra-
lisation divert large amounts of energy. is leads to several user roles with dierent
interests in the project, project management practices and requirements for PMIS.
erefore, PMIS should be adapted to the requirements and needs of these coabo-
rative projects and users.44 For coecting, organising, storing and processing project
information, the PMIS provides an exceent framework.
43 Raymond & Bergeron. (2015) Impact of Project Management Information Systems on Project
Performance. p. 1339.
44 Berzisa, S. et al (2015). Platform for Management of Business and Educational Projects. p.126
work plan
work plan
review by
work plan
work plan
by project
wp start 1st week
2nd week4th week
input by
review by
approval by
pc and sc
wp start - 8 weeks
- 6 weeks
- 4 weeks deliverable deadline
46 47
Hyinen Project Management Handbook
Figure 11. Work plan process
e work package leader wi be in charge of ensuring that the work is carried out
according to schedule and that the expected deliverables are produced. e work
package leader should submit a progress report every three months aer the start
date of the work package to the project coordinator. e report wi include infor-
mation on progress in relation to the work plan. e work package leader wi also
ensure that a steps of the work package development are fuy documented accor-
ding to the quality guidelines.
4.2 Deliverable Production Process
e deliverables must be created according to the project work scope. e delive-
rables are the ocial documents that serve as content-oriented reporting to the EC.
Once the deliverable development plan is conrmed by the project coordinator, a
project partners wi focus on providing appropriate content to the partner respon-
sible for the corresponding deliverable. Based on the received input, the WP leader
wi prepare the nal dra of the deliverable and wi circulate it to the relevant pro-
ject partners for feedback eight weeks before the deadline of the deliverable. e
review period for the reviewers takes one week.
e responsible partner wi have a period of one week to undertake a necessary
improvements and changes in the document and prepare a pre-nal version to be
sent for review to partners selected by the project coordinator, six weeks before the
deadline. e Figure 12 presents the phases and the timeframes of the deliverable
production process.
e nal version is sent to the project coordinator for approval and is then submied
to the EC Participant Portal.
Figure 12. Deliverable production process
4.3 Quality Inspection And Review
IECEU quality inspection is a systematic, structured assessment conducted in a
documented and organised fashion. is approach to quality inspection can be used:
during the implementation of Work Packages;
during the development of deliverables;
to mark the completion of work packages;
to mark the completion and approval of deliverables;
to complement testing, e.g. simply for checking test results.
e progress of work is tracked using the foowing indicators:
Quality Indicator Reference
e.g. the proposed contents are in
accordance with the objectives e.g. Description of Action (DoA)
e.g. the allocation of the tasks is
realistic and consistent with the
roles of the partners in the work
e.g. Description of Action (DoA)
e.g. The proposed timetable is realistic
and matches the deadline e.g. Description of Action (DoA)
Table 7. IECEU examples of general quality indicators.
general quality indicators
48 49
Hyinen Project Management Handbook
Quality Indicator Reference
e.g. the work package has been
implemented through cooperation e.g. Description of Action
e.g. the activity corresponds to the
project specications e.g. Description of Action
Table 8. IECEU examples of work package quality indicators
work package quality indicators
Quality Indicator Reference
e.g. the deliverable is in accordance
with the objectives stated in the
description of work
e.g. Description of Action (DoA)
e.g. the deliverable is compliant with
the templates and editing guidelines Templates provided by the PC
Table 9. IECEU examples of deliverables quality indicators
deliverables quality indicators
Quality Indicator Reference
The capability of the software product to provide functions
that meet stated and implied needs when the software is used
under specied conditions.
Table 10. Example of IECEU technology quality indicator
technology quality indicators
e use of a quality indicator wi ease and structure the project quality assurance
processes. e indicators are prepared by the PC and the QM, and nay agreed
with the whole consortium. When analysing the project development and the over-
a quality, the general quality indicators should be referenced. In order to analyse
the quality of a work package, the indicators specied for it must be used. Since
deliverables are the main products of a project, the quality review must be stressed
with deliverable processes as we. Special aention to technology quality indicators
must be paid in large research and development projects, but also in a projects that
develop any technology as primary or secondary products during the project (tools,
applications, websites, etc.)
In the IECEU project, quality assurance reviews are conducted with the use of an
online application. e agreed indicators with references are transferred into a
user-friendly online application. An IECEU partner, ENQUIRYA, is responsible for
maintaining and updating the QA application and sharing access rights with part-
ners when necessary. e application coects the data from every review and na-
lises reports as feedback for the WP/deliverable leader. Based on the QA report, the
recommendations and suggestions should be taken into consideration. In addition,
the online quality assurance application can be quality reviewed using technology
Project Communication Management is the knowledge area that employs the proces-
ses required to ensure timely and appropriate generation, coection, distribution,
storage, retrieval and ultimate disposition of project information. 46
e purpose of communication procedures is to assist the project team in enhancing
communication among a parties involved, identifying internal and external stake-
holders, and developing the project dissemination/communication plan. Eective
project communication ensures successful project working for the duration of the
whole project. e planning of communication at the strategic level is the dierence
between these projects and ad hoc eorts. Project communication can be divided
into two: internal and external project communication.
5.1 Internal Communication
Internal communication is vital for establishing a we-functioning network in
which the input of a internal stakeholders is needed for the successful achieve-
ment of project objectives. Eective internal communication can be created from
a combination of selected methods and tools to be used in project implementation.
e main target group for internal communication is the consortium members, but
maintaining a good ow of information between the consortium and the funder/
client is also very important.
e selection of internal communication methods must be decided on at the pro-
ject management level. e selected method(s) guide the members towards coherent
communication procedures for the duration of the entire project. e actors respon-
sible for communication planning start by specifying who needs the information,
when it is needed, who wi deliver it and how it should be delivered. Methods of
communication include the details for answering who, what, when and how. e
46 PMBOK® Guide—ird Edition
IECEU also adheres to the project organisation structure in internal communication
protocols. Beyond these internal communication methods and tools presented in
this chapter, work package leaders can set specic communication requirements in
the implementation plan for each work package.
Who needs information in the project organisation?
Partners’ point of contact (POC) needs the information regarding overa
project status
WP leaders need the information from other WP leaders
WP leaders need the information from task leaders
Task leaders need the updated information and work plans from WP leaders
External boards need the project results
Partner admin POCs need reporting guidance and details
PAT needs completed reports from partner admin POCs and partner POCs
Who delivers the information in the project organisation?
PMO/PC delivers the information to the beneciaries’ POCs
WP leaders deliver the work plans, updates and deliverables to PC
WP leaders deliver the work plans, updates and deliverables to task leaders
Task leaders deliver the results of the task
Expert/reviewer/researcher delivers information based on their competence
PAT delivers the reporting templates and deadlines to the partner admin
Partner admin POC delivers completed reports to PAT
5.1.1 Internal Communication Tools
e use of communication tools aims to answer to question: How should the infor-
mation be delivered?
e most common internal communication tools to be used by IECEU project
part ners are:
1. Email
Most of the communication between consortium members occurs via email.
Participants wi use electronic mail facilities to enable the distribution of docu-
ments by electronic means, thus reducing the delays associated with other methods
of distribution. Note that large aachments to emails should be zipped.
A mailing list of a contacts has been drawn up and is updated regularly. For specic
queries, direct mailing between concerned partners is preferred. e subject of a
project emails should begin with ‘[IECEU]:’ to aow users to lter emails using email
client facilities.
To The receivers related to the issue (e.g. project points of contact (POCs))
cc Other relevant receivers, to whom the information is ‘for your information’
(e.g. nance POCs, administrative POCs, steering committee POCs)
subject Project name: key message of the mail (e.g. IECEU: WP1 initial work plan)
message Key message and list of actions
2. Consortium meetings
Meetings of consortium partners (steering commiee) are to be held in order to
check progress, decide on further steps and supervise the management board (MB),
especiay relating to deliverables, milestones and any changes that might occur
during the project. Minutes wi be prepared aer the meeting and wi be sent to
partners for review and commentary. For the online meetings of the consortium/
steering commiee, the open data services wi be used to organise the meetings
and/or workshops. e agenda for the meetings wi be sent as agreed in the consor-
tium agreement.
3. WP leaders meetings
Meetings between related WP leaders should be organised whenever integration
and coordination between WPs is necessary. Minutes must be prepared in order to
inform other project participants as we.
4. Bilateral meetings
Some project issues must be handled through bilateral meetings either in person or
via selected devices (e.g. video, phone, online). Bilateral meetings should be consi-
dered when dealing with condential information or between a coordinator and a
5. Video conferences (e.g. Skype)
Whenever a certain important issue needs to be discussed in between meetings and
a prompt reaction by consortium members is required, a video conference may be
organised. Minutes should be draed based on the key conference ndings.
6. Teleconferences
Phone conferences are traditional and easy to organise at short notice. Minutes or
key notes should be draed based on the key ndings of the conference.
7. Restricted partner area on the website
A joint workspace (intranet) is an area on a webpage that is only accessible via pass-
word to the consortium members (or if appropriate, to other invited experts) that
serves as a communication platform and enables the consortium members to share
their experience, documents and tools.
50 51
Hyinen Project Management Handbook
Table 11. Email format
5.1.2 Project Templates
Successful implementation of the selected methods and tools requires good under-
standing of the technicalities of templates. e ocial project templates are to be
used for creating and presenting a documents for the EC (deliverables, progress
reports, etc.). ese deliverables must be provided by the PC. e template and
consequently the documents for the commission wi show the foowing pieces of
information on the cover page:
Title and logos: the title of the document wi be shown along with the rele-
vant logos, such as the project logo. According to the H2020 project manage-
ment guidelines, the European ag must be given appropriate prominence
when displayed together with the project’s logo.
Partners: the names of the partners that contributed to the document.
Dates, due and actual: the due submission date along with the actual sub-
mission date.
Leading organisation: the name of the lead organisation for the preparation
of the document must be indicated here.
Revision: this eld denotes the version of the document, which may be in the
form v1, v2, v01, etc. e value ‘Final’ denotes that the version of the docu-
ment is the submied one.
Dissemination level: in this eld, the list of persons or groups involved in
the document distribution is reported. e dissemination level eld can have
one of the foowing possible values:
PU: the document is open and public to everyone
PP: restricted to other programme participants (including the
RE: restricted to a group specied by the consortium (including the
CO: the document is condential, i.e. restricted to the consortium
members, including agency, commission and project reviewers.
e deliverables must always contain an executive summary and conclusions. An
executive summary is a report, proposal or portfolio, etc. in miniature (usuay one
to two pages). e executive summary contains enough information for the readers
to become acquainted with the fu document without reading it. Usuay, it con-
tains a statement of the problem, some background information, a description of
any alternatives, and the major conclusions. Someone reading an executive sum-
mary should get a good idea of the main points of the document without becoming
bogged down with details. An executive summary diers from an abstract in that
the former’s purpose is to inform the reader of the points to be covered in the report
without any aempt to te what is said about them. e foowing list wi introduce
the basic structure of the deliverable.
Table of contents.
List of gures.
List of tables.
List of abbreviations and terms: a list providing the fu titles and/or expla-
nations of the abbreviation and terms used in the document.
Introduction: this is a beginning section that states the purpose and goals
of the foowing text within the document. is is generay foowed by the
main body and conclusions.
Main body: the main body, as the name suggests, is the most important part
of the document.
Conclusions: this chapter is obligatory.
References: a reference is a previously published wrien work within acade-
mic publishing which has been used as a source for theory or claims refer-
red to, which are used in the document. References contain complete bib-
liographic information, so the interested reader can nd them in a library.
References are added either at the end of each document or at the end of the
relevant section.
Annexes: ese sections may contain a coection of supplementary material.
Internal communication should be based on clear guidance to deliver informa-
tion, with use of selected tools and agreed templates, deliverables and master
pc (pmo) expert
admin poc
52 53
Hyinen Project Management Handbook
e gure presents the overa understanding of IECEU internal communication.
Dening the dierent information types help the project participants to understand
the key information features. e information in the IECEU project is categorised
into types of decisions, principles/guidelines, observation and planning. For sha-
ring the information, the set of used tools must be agreed. In the IECEU project, the
main tools are email, conference/online cas, arranging meetings, social media and
online tools (e.g. secured website). Moreover, the project participants agree on the
use of common templates for presenting the information. Within the IECEU project,
there are three distinct documents types envisaged:
documents for the Commission: these documents include deliverables, inte-
rim and nal progress reports and cost statements.
PowerPoint presentations for internal and external use: e.g. for project mee-
tings, reviews, presentations during workshops, exhibitions, conferences,
Word documents for internal use: e.g. agendas, minutes, technical contribu-
tions, other contributions, etc.
5.2 Dissemination/External Communication
By dissemination we refer to activities being aimed at the broad spreading of infor-
mation and knowledge regarding some issue, which includes mainly information
provision and raising awareness among a we-targeted wider audience. Ecient
dissemination is a fundamental activity in any CSA, research, innovation or imple-
mentation project, since the success of these dissemination activities contributes
decisively to the short- and long-term success of the project. Since the dissemina-
tion activities are executed throughout the duration of the whole project, the ini-
tial dissemination strategy is to be revised and updated and sha be conducted in
such a way that benets the project until its completion, with successful results and
delivered products. e external communication/dissemination management of the
IECEU is constructed from four separate actions:
1. the development of the IECEU dissemination plan (focusing on external
2. the distribution of the nal plan between partners via a secured website;
3. the implementation and use of dened methods, means/tools, and devices
of dissemination;
4. the coection of recording of dissemination by each partner every three
Since dissemination concerns the development of communication strategies for
creating project visibility, the development of an eectively elaborated strategy is
critical. It aims at diusing the results of the project to its various target groups.
Usuay the dissemination plan constitutes ve main aspects of the dissemination
process, namely WHAT wi be disseminated, WHO wi disseminate it, TO WHOM
wi it be disseminated, HOW wi it be disseminated and WHY wi it be dissemi-
nated. In order to organise successful dissemination, a partners of the consortium
sha participate in the dissemination activities.
Although the dissemination and exploitation actions are oen planned separately
(as separate documents), near to the project end, dissemination activities sha be
directed towards exploitation purposes agreed by the consortium partners with
the intention of raising interest among long-term target groups of the project, who
might be interested in using the nal project solution. erefore, the dissemination
strategy has been planned to support the successful exploitability of results by the
end of the project. Eective external communication adapted to the needs of each
stakeholder wi take place throughout the project’s life. e main target groups
remain the same, with the connections and coaborations further developed. Some
new target can also be identied during the progress of the project and wi be acti-
vely involved in communication, dissemination and networking activities.
e dissemination means/tools can be divided into two main groups:
Dissemination material – ‘products’ created in order to more easily identify
the project (e.g. project’s logo or presentation template) and to spread the
project’s current achievements and updates (e.g. brochure or yer)
Dissemination activities – particular actions aiming at disseminating
information on the project (end user integration workshops, advisory mee-
tings, etc.)
e basic rule is agreed in the GA between the project consortium and the EC: the
visibility of EU funding needs to be ensured. e projects that have received EU
research and innovation funding via H2020 should ‘aim to demonstrate the ways in
which research and innovation is contributing to a European “Innovation Union” and
account for public spending by providing tangible proof that coaborative research adds
value by:
54 55
Hyinen Project Management Handbook
Title Title Title Title
types of
information decision principle/
guidelines observation planning
use of tools
use of
Figure 13. IECEU internal communication
showing how European coaboration has achieved more than would have
otherwise been possible, notably in achieving scientic exceence, contributing to
competitiveness and solving societal chaenges;
showing how the outcomes are relevant to our everyday lives, by creating
jobs, introducing novel technologies, or making our lives more comfortable in other
making beer use of the results, by making sure they are taken up by deci-
sion-makers to inuence policy-making and by industry and the scientic commu-
nity to ensure foow-up.’ 47
In the IECEU project, we included strategic external communication planning in
the dissemination work package, more specicay part of dissemination plan (D8.1
Dissemination Plan). In order to achieve communication objectives eectively, the
IECEU dissemination plan provided an overa framework for managing and coordi-
nating communications. e dissemination plan dened on a detailed level:
STAKEHOLDERS: who are the target groups of the IECEU?
INFORMATION: what messages does the IECEU want to convey to each target
TOOLS: how wi the message be communicated?
CHANNELS: who wi communicate the messages and how?
SCHEDULE: when wi the messages be communicated?
47 European Commission, (2014) Communicating EU research and innovation guidance for project
IECEU dissemination combines the key end user groups, external and internal dis-
semination tools and other means to ensure comprehensive dissemination, such as
scientic publications, conferences and workshops. e key stakeholders as target
groups must be identied at an early stage of the project. In the IECEU, we identied
ve dierent end user groups, which are: political decision-makers, international
organisations, respective countries, universities, and other projects and partners.
In order to reach target groups with valid information, the stakeholder needs must
be determined.
Depending on 1) the stakeholders and 2) stakeholder needs, the methods, products
and nal dissemination plan must be created. In order to successfuy share the
information of the project, the content of disseminated material (e.g. deliverable,
yer and product) needs to be adaptable, functional and logical. In the IECEU, we
decided to reach the target groups via multiple use of online tools, integration to
training, arranging workshops, and aending scientic conferences.
Depending on the key message and the target group regarding the product, ndings
or report, the selection of the parts should be made by those responsible for dis-
semination. In the IECEU project, we prefer the use of a deliverable dissemina-
tion note, which denes the key message and key target group(s). Depending on
the dissemination phase, dierent target groups may be addressed by dierent dis-
semination activities and material. Research conferences and journals wi aract
mainly research and academic communities, while thematicay related workshops/
conferences may be directed to end users and administration employees. Ideay, the
dissemination note would respond to Horizon2020 recommended questions:
How does the deliverable demonstrate European coaboration?
How are the outcomes of the deliverable relevant to our everyday life?
How wi it be ensured that the outcomes of the deliverable are taken
up by political decision-makers, industry or the scientic community?
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Hyinen Project Management Handbook
Case: ieceu communications
eug4 other
External online tools:
website, online discussion boards, social media
Comprehensive dissemination:
scientic publications, online tools, integration for training,
workshops, education programmes, conferences, exhibitions
Figure 14. IECEU dissemination
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Hyinen Project Management Handbook
It is recommended that ethical dimensions are foowed for the duration of the
whole project. As a driver of research exceence, ethics form an integral part.
A EU H2020-funded projects sha comply with ethical principles and relevant
national legislation.48 Ethics issues can be divided into two categories:
In almost every project case, the beneciaries are requested to provide the necessary
details regarding relevant ethical issues. Accordingly, the ethical and societal issues
concern the use of data and the integration of ethics to research and technology
processes, cases or business models. Projects sha dene the key ethical principles
they wi foow for the duration of the project. e funder may request specic
information related to data coection, type of research data, approvals for the col-
lection of personal data, details on the material to be handled in research processes,
relevant authorisations in case data is not publicly available, and approvals by the
competent ethics commiee in order to ensure ethical issues are addressed in pro-
ject implementation.
48 European Commission, (2014) ‘Horizon2020 in brief – e EU Framework Programme for Research
and Innovation’,
Relevant details of R&D materail and
processes (e.g. data collection, type of
research data, storing data)
Relevant clarications (authorisations,
approvals, actions in the case of possible
conicts of interest, etc.)
Processes to be followed
Ethical and societal aspects in
solutions to be developed or deployed
Figure 15. Ethics issues
e ethical guidelines provide the overa guidance to be foowed when conduc-
ting research, developing new tools and systems, and innovating processes and
solutions. Each researcher is responsible for performing the implementation of the
research by foowing the guidelines and research integrity (e.g. the European Code
of Conduct for Research Integrity). e ethical guidelines sha include a relevant
parts of ethical issues, such as:
1. Fundamental requirements and human rights;
2. Data coection and analysing processes;
3. Privacy and data protection;
4. Code of conduct; key principles, drawing boundaries for conduct;
5. Ethical considerations and possible sensitive issues;
6. Legal, moral and cultural issues;
7. ality criteria.
According to the Societal Impact Expert Working Group Report,49 fundamental
rights should be a necessary requirement, which could and should lead to drawing
boundaries on what is and what is not acceptable in EC-funded research initiatives.
Rights can be organised under the corresponding basic values: dignity, freedom,
equality, solidarity, citizens’ rights and justice.
Data coection and analysis processes must be clear and we-dened according to
selected fundamental requirements and human rights. In cases where the research
involves human participants, the researchers should provide informed consent
forms with an information sheet specifying the nature of the research. e research
must comply with the applicable international, EU and national law. In research,
there must be clear control of the coection, analysis, storage and usage of the data.
It might be relevant to dene the physical platforms where the data is stored and
analysed. Aer the data has been coected, data analysis techniques come into play
and may generate an increasing problem with privacy issues. Data fusion occurs
when data from dierent sources are brought into contact and new facts emerge.
Individuay, each data source may have a specic, limited purpose, but their com-
bination may uncover new meanings.50 Such new information, used appropriately,
may oen bring benets to individuals and society.
A common ethical chaenge is privacy and data protection. Personal data is any
information relating to an individual, whether it concerns his or her private, profes-
sional or public life. It can be anything from a name, a photo, an email address, bank
details, posts on social networking websites, medical information, and/or a com-
puter’s IP address. EU data protection rules apply when a person can be identied,
directly or indirectly, by such data. e EU Charter of Fundamental Rights states that
everyone has the right to personal data protection in a aspects of life: at home, at
work, whilst shopping, receiving medical treatment, at a police station or on the
49 Sosietal Impact Expert Working Group (2012). Societal Impact Expert Working Group EC DG ENTR
50 Executive Oce of the President (2014), Big data: seizing opportunities, preserving values.
60 61
Hyinen Project Management Handbook
internet.51 In terms of privacy, data protection and personal data protection, it is
recommended to foow the ongoing research and legal framework.
A code of conduct includes the principles that are to be further specied and
applied during the project work. A code of conduct is especiay relevant in cases
where development or innovation activities take place. e code must be planned
in close coaboration with end users, stakeholders and/or developers and/or inno-
vators. Moreover, a set of quality criteria is highly recommended in order to execute
each and every project to guarantee reliability and eectiveness.
A conict of interest (COI) is very important for a projects and organisations. e
OECD has dened that ‘in government and the public sector, conict of-interest situations
have long been the focus of specic policy; legislation and management approaches intended
to maintain integrity and disinterested decision-making in government and public instituti-
ons.’ Conicts of interest in both the public and private sectors have become a major
maer of public concern worldwide. A conict of interest is not corruption, but
there is increasing recognition that conict between public duties of public ocials
and the private interests can result in conict.52
According to McDonald,53 a conict of interest is ‘a situation in which a person, such as a public ocial,
an employee, or a professional, has a private or personal interest sucient to appear to inuence the
objective exercise of his or her ocial duties.’ e types of conict of interest are identied as54:
Real or actual: an individual is in a situation where her ocial duties can be
inuenced by her ‘private or personal’ interests
Apparent or perceived: an individual is in a situation where his ocial
duties appear to be inuenced by his ‘private or personal’ interests
Potential or foreseeable: an individual is in a situation where her ocial
duties may be inuenced in the future by her ‘private or personal’ interests.
If any real, perceived or potential conicts of interest exist, it is important to acknow-
ledge it and deal with them in a fair and transparent manner. In potential conict of
interest situations, the project members sha foow the national legislation, agree-
ments and organisational procedures. Generay, public bodies must implement the
relevant policy standards for promoting integrity, processes for identifying risks,
external and internal accountability mechanisms and management approaches.55
Nevertheless, there may be situations which are recognised during or are related to
project working. Resorting to the guidance on ethics is recommended, as this provi-
des practical examples of concrete steps to be taken for resolving conict of interest
51 European Commission (2012). Why do we need an EU data protection reform?
52 OECD (2005). Managing Conict of Interest in the Public Sector – A Toolkit. p. 96.
53 McDonald, M. (1999). Ethics and Conict of Interest.
54 CCIC (2008). A Practical Introduction to Managing Conict of Interest Situations. p. 2.
55 OECD (2005) Managing Conict of Interest in the Public Sector – a Toolkit. p. 97.
Everyone has an ethical responsibility regarding conict of interest issues in order
to take the necessary actions in various ways. A rst step to be foowed is to declare
the situation. Secondly, fu dialogue with group and decisions to be made by e.g.
chairperson needs to be addressed. irdly, the measures to mitigate or eliminate
the conict of interest sha be implemented according to what is appropriate.
Finay, it is important to produce proper documentation about what has been done
for relevant actors and stakeholders.56
In project implementation, the establishment of an ethics commiee is highly
recommended, so that external members can analyse, review and approve ethical
issues and ensure that they are addressed eectively in the project implementation.
It is recommended that the ethics commiee includes external commiee members
with relevant expertise and dierent core ethics backgrounds. In order to unders-
tand the whole process of ethical issues, a societal impact assessment (SIA) should
be launched before, during and aer the project implementation. Particularly tar-
geted at security research, the ASSERT project has demonstrated the SIA method,
implemented in three phases:57
56 Ibid. p. 3-6.
57 ASSERT project (2014) D3.2 Toolkit for Societal Impact Assessment in Security Research
Figure 16. Societal impact assessment method (ASSERT project)
research meets
the needs of
Possible negative
impacts on
Positive impacts
Ensuring that
research benets
1) Compromising:
negotiations and
enforment of changes
2) Development of
monitoring mechanims
raised and discussed
identifying coi situation
managing coi situation
resolving coi situation
1) Each individual
project member has
the responsibility
to provide relevant
information and
identify possible
2) Screening:
- External reviewers
shall observe
potential conicts
- Ethics committee
shall observe
potential conicts
- Identication of
relevant interests in
3) Building an open
culture for freely
raised and discussed
1) Review risk areas
2) Clear record in
formal documents (e.g.
3) Guidance:
procedures (public
bodies) and GA
4) Rearrangement
of the duties and
raised and discussed
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Hyinen Project Management Handbook
e practical guidance procedures in conict of interest situations in the IECEU pro-
ject are presented in gure below.
Case: procedures in potential conict of interest situations
Figure 17. IECEU procedures in conict of interest situations
The possible risks and risk mitigation plans sha be identied, updated and
maintained throughout the duration of the project. Risks and risk mitigation
plans are actions that form part of risk management processes. Moreover,
the relevant safety and security issues sha be considered in project management.
Security issues may become necessary in cases like research conducted in high-risk
areas (human safety) or where condential documents or information are used.
Good safety and security practices can reduce injuries and accidents, thus impro-
ving performance.
PMBOK proposes three processes that should be established parts of project safety
management: safety planning, the execution of safety and security management
and safety records. A key document related to safety and security in project manage-
ment is a security plan that provides guidelines for reducing accidents and increa-
sing property protection. ese guidelines should provide details such as individual
safety equipment, coective items, rst aid supplies, telephones and addresses use-
ful in the event of emergency. 58
To tackle the safety and security issues, the IECEU recommends that partners foow
the practical safety steps in order to successfuy conduct research in high-risk areas.
Moreover, in the IECEU project, partners must take a measures prescribed by their
National Security Authority/Designated Security Authority (NSA/DSA) for safeguar-
ding classied material.
58 Rocha, B. & Hippert, M. (2014) Integrated management systems in civil construction-based PMBOK
guide extension.
Case: ppractical steps for safety and security issues
64 65
Hyinen Project Management Handbook
Follow EU, national and own organisational guidelines and procedures
Follow the national safety and security regulations (e.g. information
provided by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs)
Always conduct a risk management assessment beforehand by analysing
the situation with use of security situation awareness reports
Consult Security Advisory Board and Project Security Ofcer
In cases where decisions are needed regarding security concerns,
please contact the Steering Committee or the Project Coordinator
Figure 18. IECEU safety steps
The main contents of this Project Management Handbook (PMH) is formed
of the theoretical background of project management itself, project imple-
mentation guidance, and considerations regarding quality assurance,
communication protocols, ethics, safety and security to be applied in the IECEU
(Improving the Eectiveness of the Capabilities in EU conict prevention) project
and other future projects.
e PMH creation foowed the selected principles set for the handbook: for it to
oer appeal (by providing a generic background), exibility and practicality (by
providing practical examples), accessibility (by providing suitable ideas and instru-
ments to be adapted) and a privacy policy (by protecting personal data and infor-
mation). is PMH aims to be a fundamental working tool that people working
on projects can benet from. e target audience of this PMH is dened into two
categories; IECEU consortium partners, and a wider public audience. e aim is to
see this deliverable reaching a wider audience, such as higher education students,
project managers, people participating in project implementation, decision-makers
and organisational management.
Johnson59 suggests that project management as a denition rst appeared in
1953 in the US defence and aerospace sector. e common project management
models, cycles and approaches are introduced and lessons learned are provided.
Nevertheless, in research are we sti lacking deeper analyses focused specicay
on project managers’ perspectives. e key features dened in this PMH regarding
project management are: the project management cycle, knowledge management,
work breakdown structure (WBS), and project organisation structure. Moreover,
project implementation analyses the practices regarding the legal framework,
59 Johnson, S.B. (2013) e Secret of Apoo: Systems Management in American and European Space
Programs. e Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore
e establishment of a project security advisory board (SAB) may ensure that secu-
rity concerns are taken into proper consideration. e SAB should appoint a chair-
man, who carries out the tasks of a project security ocer. e safety and security of
human life is always the top priority.
Andersen, E.S. (2008). Rethinking Project
Management – An Organisational Perspective.
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Hyinen Project Management Handbook
“Project Management has become a core competency, and nearly every
manager is involved in managing one or more projects. Moreover, the
role of projects in organisations is receiving increasing aention.”
In almost every organisation, projects are planned and run on a daily
basis. At the same time, we are living in a hectic world with no time for
massive reading exercises. is handbook aims to support both pers-
pectives: to run projects smoothly, and to quickly nd topics that are
relevant to readers.
e main objective of the Project Management Handbook (PMH) is to
provide an overa understanding of successful project management
and project implementation. It focuses to support and help managers
and project teams to the successful completion of their projects.
Kirsi Hyttinen
... Proyek didefinisikan sebagai usaha dimana terjadi pengaturan sumber daya manusia, mesin, material, dan keuangan dengan cara baru untuk menciptakan cakupan jobdesk dengan spesifikasi tertentu dalam batasan biaya dan waktu [10]. Sedangkan pemodelan suatu proses bisnis merupakan pendekatan manajemen yang membantu mengklasifikasi prosesproses yang ada dalam organisasi dengan tujuan untuk mengontrol jalannya proyek untuk mencapai goals [11]. ...
... Gambar 5 di atas memberikan gambaran bagaimana proses bisnis di dalam sebuah bisnis peternakan ayam petelur berhubungan dengan manajemen proyek yang sedang dicanangkan. Menurut acuan pada buku Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK), manajemen proyek terdiri atas lima fase yaitu fase inisiasi atau permulaan, kemudian dilanjutkan fase perencanaan proyek, fase pelaksanaan proyek, fase pengawasan & pengontrolan, serta fase penutupan proyek [10]. Dari kelima fase tersebut, proses bisnis peternakan ayam petelur yang telah diidentifikasi dengan analisis porter's value chain masuk pada fase pelaksanaan. ...
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Laying hens are all activities related to the production of laying hens from the chick stage to the adult stage. The business process of laying hens in general starts from the activities of the biosecurity system, breeding, rearing, housing, and the animal feed and health system. Based on three studies that have been carried out in the period 2017-2021, the business process of laying hens is still minimally modeled. The problem that arises when the laying hen's farm business process is not modeled is that many business activities are repeated and missed. Therefore, business process modeling needs to be done to improve coordination between process units. This research aims to model the business process of laying hens, which refers to Porter's value chain analysis. This study uses data taken from observations and interviews with local laying hens in Malang. The data used is related to details of business activities, the parties involved, and SOPs in the laying hens business. The method in this study uses the BPMN approach. This research begins with data collection, analysis of porter's value chains, analysis of the relationship between business processes, then denotes the process obtained with BPMN notation. This research produces a business process model for laying hens which BPMN denotes. This business process model can solve coordination problems in the laying hens business.
... Knowledge Area PENDAHULUAN Menurut Turner, proyek didefinisikan sebagai usaha dimana manusia atau mesin, material, dan sumber daya keuangan diatur dengan cara yang baru, untuk menciptakan cakupan pekerjaan yang unik, atau spesifikasi terntentu, dalam batasan biaya dan waktu, sehingga memberikan perubahan yang bermanfaat dengan tujuan kuantitaif dan kualitatif [1]. Proyek juga dapat didefinisikan sebagai upaya sementara untuk menciptakan atau membuat sebuah produk maupun layanan yang bersifat unik. ...
... Manajemen risiko proyek atau project risk management merupakan proses dimana dilakukan perencanaan dan pelaksanaan manajemen risiko yang berupa identifikasi masalah, analisis, perencanaan respon, juga pemantau risiko yang ada pada suatu proyek. Proses ini mensyaratkan bahwa setiap risiko dinilai, serta langkah-langkah dirumuskan dengan tujuan untuk menghindari risiko tersebut atau meminimalisir efeknya [1]. 9. Project Procurement Management. ...
Pada penelitian ini dilakukan breakdown untuk mengetahui tiap proses dan fase yang dilakukan dalam manajemen proyek, yang mengacu pada buku Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK). Masalah yang diangkat pada paper ini yakni ada banyaknya proses dalam tiap knowledge area dalam manajemen proyek yang perlu untuk diketahui masing-masing tahapannya, agar memudahkan dalam merencanakan dan membangun manajemen proyek. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui setiap kegiatan yang dilakukan pada tiap proses dalam masing-masing knowledge area sesuai yang ada pada buku PMBOK. Metode yang dilakukan pada penelitian ini dimulai dari pengumpulan data, pembuatan Work Breakdown Structure (WBS), dan menotasikan model proses dalam bentuk Business Process Modelling Notation (BPMN). Hasil dari penelitian ini berupa breakdown dari setiap proses yang dilakukan pada masing-masing knowledge area dalam manajemen proyek, yang dijabarkan dalam bentuk BPMN.
... According to Nabulu (2015) successful completion of an organizational project within budget allocation, scope, without delays is determined by the extent to which monitoring and evaluation (M&E) systems, laying of development project achieve success and completion (Musau, 2016). M&E practices are said to be effective when they can assist project managers to make corrective action and to make decisions that can aid in future project initiation and implementation (Albert, 2012). Implementation of monitoring and evaluation practices influences project performance (Benington & Moore, 2011). ...
... Icons made by Flat Icons from is licensed by CC 3.0 BY (Hyttinen, 2017) • A clear project management/organisation chart • A decision about the body in charge of major conflicts must be made in the early stages of the project Thanks! Any questions? ...
The main purpose of this research was to investigate Communities’ participation and project’s performance in Rwamagana photovoltaic solar power plant. This study used descriptive survey research with target population of three hundred and eighty (380) respondents. A Sample size of seventy-nine (70) respondents were determined using Nassiuma (2001) formula. Simple random sampling technique made the basis for selection of respondents from sample size. The researcher used drop and pick later method to distribute the study questionnaires. Data collected were coded and analyzed using descriptive (percentages and frequencies) while concept of statistics such regression and correlation analysis was used to determine relationships between the independent and dependent. The study’s results obtained indicate that project selection had moderate positive correlation (r =0.411 with a P value = 0.000) project planning had moderate positive correlation (r =0.366 with a P value = 0.000) while project execution had moderate positive correlation (r = 0.391 with a P value = 0.000) with project performance. The study further found that indicate that when independent variables (Project execution, Project planning and = Project selection) were held constant project performance is 1.000. a unit increase in project selection would lead increase project performance by 0.721 with P value of 0.000 a unit increase in project planning would lead increase project performance by 0.698 with P value of 0.000 while unit increase in project execution would increase project performance by 0.946 with P value of 0.000. The study draws a conclusion that all project should continue to use project selection, project planning and project execution identify and assess project performance. In addition, the study concludes that a project management team should identify the specific elements contributing to the project performance regard to how the project owners determine a project’s performance. The study recommends Rwamagana photovoltaic solar power plant to continue applying project selection, project planning and project execution process how they will involve Communities to assess projects before they are implemented. It is very crucial to involve Communities on all project stages. Project management team at Rwamagana photovoltaic solar power plant should identify specific elements contributing to the project performance. Finally, the study recommends Rwamagana photovoltaic solar power plant to establish another performance measuring tool to be used to analyze and evaluate all potential projects before resources are allocated. The study recommends future researchers to conduct research on the influence of community participation on project performance. Keywords: Community Participation, Project Performance, Solar Power Project, Rwanda
The research work is going to deal with the main research question; how can PPPs efficiently and effectively be implemented in the public administration? Generally, PPP policies and regulations of the two selected countries will be investigated in the research work. Furthermore, two fundamental research questions are consequently raised relating to the regulation and management of PPPs in the countries. These are: - How is the regulatory institutional framework worked out and created in Mongolia? - How are the PPP projects’ risks shared to the public and private partners? What specific features and country elements do Mongolia have that have influence on the risk sharing between the partners? - Could the PPP projects be effectively and efficiently implemented in the countries? What goals and aims do the partners have in the PPP relation? How is PPP projects’ efficiency measured and controlled in Mongolia?
Research Paper for Public Private Partnerships in regarding to the Institutional Economics Theory and considering on Mongolia institutional regulation on PPPs.
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This thesis is to investigate about the influence of stakeholders participation on performance of public projects in Rwanda
Today, in most large and small project-based organizations, senior managers, especially project managers, face many challenges in terms of resource allocation. Therefore, to reduce the cost and execution time as well as improve the quality of the project, the approach should be shifted from traditional management to scientific management to optimize the efficiency and performance of a project over its lifetime. To achieve this, an organized system for project management and planning will be needed. This study examines whether Iranian companies are familiar with project management in terms of cost, budget, and risk management. A questionnaire was designed to investigate how project funding (initial and during a project) is funded and how they manage risks throughout the project and are distributed to companies. Another reason is the severe international sanctions that have cast a heavy shadow over the Iranian economy and, unfortunately, cannot be ignored. No matter how economically self-sufficient a country is, the need for cooperation and exchange in neighboring or non-neighboring countries cannot be ignored. Therefore, this paper firstly reviews the theoretical framework of previous research on project management in Iran. Then the research methodology and how to collect and analyze the data are considered. The following is an overview of the problems encountered in the project management process in Iran. Finally, recommendations and suggestions will be provided.
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Project management information system (PMIS) is one of the main enablers of successful project management. Project management and document centralization are diverting large amounts of energy when working on collaborative projects with academic institutions, private enterprises and government organizations. Each of these organizations include different user roles with different interests for the project, project management practices and requirements for PMIS. Therefore PMIS should be adapted to the needs and requirements of these collaborative projects and users.
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This paper addresses two important current trends in PM research: the first relating to the changing emphasis of project-based research output, and the second relating to the development of a theory of project management. The first aspect is driven by evidence of a move from process-based research towards the interactions between people and projects. The second involves the alignment of certain aspects of the management of projects with more established theoretical domains. This paper applies a theoretical lens to some elements of the management of project-based work, in order to embed it within more robust theoretical imperatives.
This paper describes the methodology and results of content analysis research on culture within the leading project management peer review journals and recent published project management books. A review of 770 journal articles and 93 books was conducted, extending four earlier project management literature reviews while focusing on culture within project management. Emerging from this research are three primary themes: (1) knowledge and awareness of culture is important for project management professionals, (2) the percentage of culture-related articles remained fairly constant with earlier research, and (3) empirical-based project management research continues to be limited.
Do all project managers have the same perspective on project management? This paper argues that project management may be seen from different perspectives. The task perspective means that the project manager focuses on delivering on time, within budget and with specified quality. The organizational perspective implies that the project manager's focus is to support value creation in the receiving organization. The conducted survey reveals that different perspectives prevail among project managers. The implications are of importance. Every project has to decide at the outset which project management perspective shall rule the work of the project.
Project managers in construction and civil engineering need to base their decisions on realistic information about risk and public perceptions of risk. This second edition of the original practical and straightforward text retains the easy-to-read format, but has been expanded to encompass the entire risk management process and to give a fuller presentation of how risk is generally perceived.
This paper sets out a structured methodology for conducting a societal impact assessment (SIA) of security research and security measure implementation. It first provides an overview of the need for and role of SIA, then presents an account of the existing impact assessment methodologies that have influenced this guide. The paper then describes the core methodology based upon an iterative approach to six key sectors of impact, then provides analytical questions for use in this process, before setting out a step-by-step process guideline. This guideline includes guidance on identifying stakeholders and incorporating best practice in impact assessment. Guidance on the content of an SIA report is then provided. The paper concludes with recommendations as how to best embed such a methodology within the broader security research process. The methodology has particular relevance for security research conducted within the EU.
This paper presents the results of a structured review of the rethinking project management (RPM) literature based on the classification and analysis of 74 contributions and in addition takes a critical look at this brave new world. Through the analysis, a total of 6 overarching categories emerged: contextualization, social and political aspects, rethinking practice, complexity and uncertainty, actuality of projects and broader conceptualization. These categories cover a broad range of different contributions with diverse and alternative perspectives on project management. The early RPM literature dates back to the 1980s, while the majority was published in 2006 onwards, and the research stream appears to be still active. A critical look at this brave new world exhibits the overall challenge for RPM to become much more diffused and accepted.