ArticlePDF Available

Effect of harvesting time on groundnut yield and yield components in Northern Mozambique

Authors:

Abstract and Figures

Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is one of the most important legume crop in Mozambique which is grown for food as well as cash. It's an indeterminate growth habit and below the ground nature of fruiting makes it difficult to determine the time of optimal maturity of pods. This results in reduced crop yields if either harvested too early or too late. The objectives of the study were therefore to evaluate the effect of harvesting time for optimum yield of groundnut pods for three Spanish varieties and to estimate yield losses as a result of harvesting time at two locations, namely; Nampula Research Station (PAN) and Mapupulo Agricultural Research Center (CIAM) in Nampula and Cabo Delgado provinces respectively. The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design in a split-plot arrangement with four replicates. The varieties (ICGV-SM-99568, ICGV-SM-01514 and JL-24) were the main factor and three harvesting times (10 days before physiological maturity, at physiological maturity and 10 days after physiological maturity) were the sub-plots. Highest pod yields of 1276.9 and 1503.6 kg/ha were recorded at CIAM and PAN as a result of harvesting at physiological maturity compared to harvesting 10 days before (904.6 and 950 kg/ha) and 10 days after (826.8 and 1047.4 kg/ha) physiological maturity. Furthermore, yield losses ranged from (16-25 %) and (30-40 %) as a result of harvesting groundnut 10 days before and 10 days after physiological maturity respectively. It is therefore advisable that farmers' harvest their groundnut crop at physiological maturity in order to obtain maximum pod yields of the groundnut.
Content may be subject to copyright.
* For correspondence: E. Zuza (Email: manzyzuzajnr@gmail.com)
ISSN
:
2348
-
4330
Journal of Postharvest Technology
2017, 05(2): 55-63
http://www.jpht.info
R E S E A R C H A R T I C L E
Effect of harvesting time on groundnut yield and
yield components in Northern Mozambique
Emmanuel Zuza Jnr1*, Amade Muitia2, Manuel I.V. Amane3, Rick L. Brandenburg4 and Ana M. Mondjana1
1 Eduardo Mondlane University, Faculty of Agriculture and Forestry Engineering, Department of Crop Protection, P.O. Box 257, Maputo,
Mozambique,
2 Nampula Research Station, Av. FPLM km 7, Via Corrane, Nampula, Mozambique
3 Institute of Agriculture Investigation of Mozambique, P.O. Box 3658, Maputo, Mozambique
4 North Carolina State University, Department of Entomology, Center for Turfgrass Environmental Research and Education, Box 7613,
Raleigh, Nc 27605-7613.
Received: 03.02.2017 Accepted: 30.03.2017
A B S T R A C T
Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is one of the most important legume crop in Mozambique which is grown for food as well as cash. It’s an
indeterminate growth habit and below the ground nature of fruiting makes it difficult to determine the time of optimal maturity of pods. This
results in reduced crop yields if either harvested too early or too late. The objectives of the study were therefore to evaluate the effect of
harvesting time for optimum yield of groundnut pods for three Spanish varieties and to estimate yield losses as a result of harvesting time at
two locations, namely; Nampula Research Station (PAN) and Mapupulo Agricultural Research Center (CIAM) in Nampula and Cabo Delgado
provinces respectively. The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design in a split-plot arrangement with four replicates.
The varieties (ICGV-SM-99568, ICGV-SM-01514 and JL-24) were the main factor and three harvesting times (10 days before physiological
maturity, at physiological maturity and 10 days after physiological maturity) were the sub-plots. Highest pod yields of 1276.9 and 1503.6 kg/ha
were recorded at CIAM and PAN as a result of harvesting at physiological maturity compared to harvesting 10 days before (904.6 and 950
kg/ha) and 10 days after (826.8 and 1047.4 kg/ha) physiological maturity. Furthermore, yield losses ranged from (16-25 %) and (30-40 %) as a
result of harvesting groundnut 10 days before and 10 days after physiological maturity respectively. It is therefore advisable that farmers’
harvest their groundnut crop at physiological maturity in order to obtain maximum pod yields of the groundnut.
Keywords: Groundnut, harvesting time, optimum pod yield, yield loss, Spanish varieties
Citation: Zuza, E.Jnr., Muitia, A., Amane, I.V.M., Brandenburg, R.L. and Mondjana, A.M. 2017. Effect of harvesting time on groundnut yield
and yield components in Northern Mozambique. Journal of Postharvest Technology, 5 (2): 55-63.
INTRODUCTION
The storage Groundnut is one of the most important food legumes in the world and is the third largest oilseed crop
after soybean and cotton seed globally. Additionally, it is an important source of vegetable protein and oil in sub-Saharan
Africa (Kaba et al., 2014). In Mozambique groundnut is the third most important crop after cassava and maize (Muitia, 2013).
Groundnut is an essential crop in northern Mozambique where it is grown both as a cash and food crop. The crop is grown
throughout the country, mainly by resource-poor small-scale farmers under rain-fed conditions. However, groundnut yields
realized by these small-scale farmers are reasonably low (400-600 kg/ha) and of poor quality (Muitia, 2005). The low yields
have been attributed to several constraints. Some of the major groundnut production constraints include; lack of improved
cultivars, poor cultural practices, insect pests, diseases, weeds and drought and the non-timely execution of agronomic
practices (Muitia, 2013; Jeffrey, 2011).
Zuza et al. (Effect of harvesting time on groundnut yield and yield components in Northern Mozambique)
J. Postharvest Technol., 2017, 05(2): 55-63 56
The timely execution of cultural and agronomic practices of groundnut farmers is very important as it contributes to
kernel yield and quality. In general, some activities are not executed on time, resulting in reduced crop yield. Among these
activities is harvesting of the crop. It has been observed that groundnut is always harvested several weeks before or after
physiological maturity in both Nampula and Cabo Delgado provinces, as farmers are always engaged in both farm and off-
farm activities. Furthermore, there is little information on the effect of early and delay of harvesting on the pod and kernel yield
of groundnut in Northern Mozambique. It was in the light of this that three Spanish groundnut varieties were subjected to
different harvesting times, starting from 10 days before the actual physiological maturity, to assess the pod and grain yield at
each harvesting time and grain quality with time.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Description of the Study Area
Due to The study was conducted during the 2015/2016 growing season in two locations, namely; Nampula Research
Station (PAN) and Mapupulo Agricultural Research Center (CIAM), located in Nampula and Cabo Delgado Provinces,
respectively. Nampula Research Station (PAN) is located about 7 km east of the Nampula city in Northern Mozambique (15°
09’ S, 39° 30’ E) and is elevated at 432 m above sea level. The soil type is sandy loam and the vegetation is predominantly
grassland. The average rainfall is slightly over 1000 mm which starts around November/December up to April/May, with its
peak in January. The maximum temperature in the region is about 39 °C and the minimum temperature is 19 °C (Muitia,
2013).
The Mapupulo Agricultural Research Center (CIAM) is located about 18 km south of Montepuez town about 200 km
west of Pemba the capital of the province, which lies at (13° 12’ S, 38° 53’ E) and is elevated at 476.7 m above sea level. The
soils are clay loam and deep brown loam. It receives annual precipitation of 1200 mm on average from November/December
to April/May, and the average temperature is between 20 and 25 °C (Muitia, 2013).
Experimental design and treatments
The experiments were laid out in a split plot arrangement of treatments in a randomized complete block design with
four replications. The main plot was made up of three groundnut varieties that take 90 days to mature while sub-plots were
three harvesting times. The test varieties were Spanish groundnut varieties, namely: ICGV-SM-99568, JL-24 and ICGV-SM-
01514. The harvesting times were (i) 10 days before physiological maturity indicated as H1; (ii) at physiological maturity
indicated as H2 and (iii) 10 days after physiological maturity indicated as H3. The net plots were 6 rows by 6 m long with one
seed per planting station, which were spaced at 50 cm between rows and 10 cm within rows.
Harvesting was carried out at each stage by either digging, using a hand-held hoe, when the soil was dry and by
uprooting the plant by hand when the soil was wet. Harvesting was carried out every 10 days with the first harvest at 10 days
before the actual physiological maturity.
Data collection
Data collected included; number of pods per plant, pod yield (kg/ha), kernel yield (kg/ha), 100-seed weight (g) and
shelling percentages (%).
Zuza et al. (Effect of harvesting time on groundnut yield and yield components in Northern Mozambique)
J. Postharvest Technol., 2017, 05(2): 55-63 57
Groundnut shelling % x 100
Pod yield per ha x 10000
Kernel yield per ha x 10000
Pod yield: Ten plants harvested from the middle of the rows from each net plot were used to estimate pod yield per hectare
using the expression:
Kernel yield: To estimate kernel yield per hectare it involved drying pods harvested from each net plot, after which the pods
were shelled and the following expression was used:
Shelling percentage %: To estimate the groundnut shelling percentage for the varieties the following expression was used:
Data analysis
The data on yield and yield components were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA) to establish treatment and
the interaction effect on the parameters measured. Statistical analyses were performed using the statistical software GenStat
Discovery edition 4 (Muitia, 2013). Groundnut varieties and harvesting times were treated as fixed effects and replication was
treated as a random effect. Main effects and all interactions were considered significant at 0.05 and 0.01 probability level of
the F-test. Means were separated using Fisher’s protected LSD test at P = 0.05.
RESULTS
Number of pods per plant
Results of number of pods per plant at different harvesting times are presented in Table 1. Significant differences in
the total number of pods per plant were observed in both study locations (P 0.01). The highest number of pods per plant
was recorded when harvesting was done at physiological maturity (H2) and the lowest when harvesting was executed 10 days
before physiological maturity (H1). The variety ICGV-SM-01514 produced the highest number of pods per plant (39 and 30)
while JL-24 produced the lowest number of pods per plant (18 and 21) at CIAM and PAN respectively. Additionally, harvesting
at H3 lead to a reduced number of pods per plant, however, these were to some extent higher than when harvesting was
executed at H1.
Pod and kernel yield
Pod yields among the groundnut varieties were directly related to the kernel yields. Significant differences were
observed in the total pod yields as a result of harvesting time (P ≤ 0.05) and (P ≤ 0.001) at CIAM and PAN respectively (Table
2). The highest pod yields among the groundnut varieties were recorded at PAN (1166.94 kg/ha) compared to that at CIAM
Zuza et al. (Effect of harvesting time on groundnut yield and yield components in Northern Mozambique)
J. Postharvest Technol., 2017, 05(2): 55-63 58
(1002.8 kg/ha). In general, harvesting the groundnut varieties at physiological maturity produced the highest pod yields than
the subsequent dates.
Table 1. Effect of harvesting time on number of pods among groundnut varieties.
Mapupulo Agricultural Research Center Nampula Research Station
Harvesting time Harvesting time
Variety H1 H2 H3 H1 H2 H3
ICGV-SM-99568 20d 32ab 27cd 23bc 25b 24bc
ICGV-SM-01514 20d 39a 28bc 21c 30a 20c
JL-24 18d 31bc 24c 21c 28ab 24c
CV (%) 17.9 9.9 11.9 41.2 29.8 37.5
Mean ± SE 26.0 ± 1.68 23.4 ± 1.40
Means followed by the same letter in the same column are not significantly different at (P ≤ 0.01).
The highest pod yields were obtained from ICGV-SM-01514 (1412.5 kg/ha) and JL-24 (1596.2 kg/ha) and the lowest
pod yields were obtained from JL-24 (693.1 kg/ha) and ICGV-SM 01514 (835.4 kg/ha) at CIAM and PAN respectively. Kernel
yields significantly differed among the groundnut varieties as a result of harvesting time (Fig 1). The highest kernel yields were
recorded at physiological maturity for all the groundnut varieties.
In addition, kernel yields tended to decline with harvesting 10 days before and 10 days after physiological maturity.
However, the kernel yields of harvesting at physiological maturity and harvesting 10 days after physiological maturity were
higher than that for harvesting at 10 days before physiological maturity.
The kernel yields ranged from 525 kg/ha for JL-24 and 668.7 kg/ha for ICGV-SM-01514 for harvesting 10 days before
physiological maturity to 1165.3 kg/ha for ICGV-SM-01514 and 1429.6 kg/ha for JL-24 for harvesting at physiological maturity
at CIAM and PAN respectively.
100-seed weight
100-seed weight of the three groundnut varieties differed significantly as a result of the effect of harvesting time
(Table 3). Maximum 100-seed weight (54.9g and 56.9g) was obtained from the variety ICGV-SM-99568 at CIAM and PAN
respectively when harvesting was executed at physiological maturity. In addition, the weight of JL-24 was significantly higher
than that of ICGV-SM-01514 which recorded the lowest kernel weight regardless of harvesting time. The bigger nuts of ICGV-
SM-99568 could be responsible for its higher kernel weight than the ICGV-SM-01514 variety which had the smallest kernel
weight. It has also been established that harvesting 10 days before physiological maturity recorded the lowest 100-kernel
weight than the succeeding harvesting times. The 100-kernel weight ranged from 22.4g for ICGV-SM-01514 for harvesting 10
days before physiological maturity to 56.9g for ICGV-SM-99568 for harvesting at physiological maturity.
Zuza et al. (Effect of harvesting time on groundnut yield and yield components in Northern Mozambique)
J. Postharvest Technol., 2017, 05(2): 55-63 59
Table 2. Effect of harvesting time on groundnut pod yield (kg/ha).
Mapupulo Agricultural Research Center Nampula Research Station
Harvesting time Harvesting time
Variety H1 H2 H3 H1 H2 H3
ICGV-SM-99568 1043b 1250a 786.1d 1102.1b 1479.9a
1150.6
b
ICGV-SM-01514 977.8c 1412.5a 873.6cd 835.4cd 1434.7a
966.7
c
JL-24 693.1
1168.1
820.8
cd
912.5
1596.2
a
1025
Level of sig. * * NS ** ** NS
CV (%) 23.6 15.2 16.6 29.1 17.9
28.1
Mean ± SE 1002.8 ± 3.21 1166.9 ± 5.62
Means followed by * are significant at 5% level, ** are significant at 1% level, NS are Not Significant.
Fig 1. Effect of harvesting time on groundnut kernel yield
Mean values followed by a common letter do not differ significantly according to Fisher’s protected LSD test at P = 0.05.
Visual observations (qualitative) on kernel quality showed that harvesting time had an influence on the kernel quality.
The highest quality among the three varieties was obtained at H2 whilst H1 was characterized with poorly formed immature
kernels which were shrinkled and small while as for H3 the kernels were characterized by damaged kernels as a result of
insect activity and some of which had started sprouting.
b
a
c
b
a
b
bc
a
cc
a
bc
c
ab
cc
a
b
0
200
400
600
800
1000
1200
1400
1600
1800
2000
H1
H2
H3
H1
H2
H3
Mapupulo Agricultural Research Center
Nampula Research Station
Groundnut Kernel Yield (Kg/Ha)
Location
ICGV-S M - 9956 8
ICGV-S M - 0151 4
JL-24
Groundnut Varieties
Zuza et al. (Effect of harvesting time on groundnut yield and yield components in Northern Mozambique)
J. Postharvest Technol., 2017, 05(2): 55-63 60
Table 3. Effect of harvesting time on groundnut 100-seed weight (g)
Mapupulo Agricultural Research Center Nampula Research Station
Harvesting time Harvesting time
Variety H1 H2 H3 H1 H2 H3
ICGV-SM-99568 42.1c 54.9a 49.9b
44.1
c 56.9a 51.9b
ICGV-SM-01514 22.4e 27.4d 26.2de
24.4
e 29.4d
28.2
de
JL-24 36.7bc 46.9ab 45.1ab
38.2
c 48.9ab
47.1
ab
CV (%) 4.1 4.3 2.2 4 4.1 2.1
Mean ± SE 49.1 ± 1.03 41.1 ± 1.05
Means followed by the same letter in the same column are not significantly different at (P 0.05)
Shelling percentage
Significant differences were observed in groundnut shelling percentages as a result of the influence of harvesting
time (Table 4). Maximum shelling percentages of the three groundnut varieties were observed when the crop was harvested
at physiological maturity. The variety ICGV-SM-99568 and JL-24 recorded the highest shelling percentages PAN and CIAM
respectively. Harvesting at 10 days before physiological maturity recorded the lowest shelling percentage compared to the
subsequent dates, this indicated a low amount of kernel production at the first harvest time.
Table 4: Effect of harvesting time on groundnut shelling percentage (%)
Mapupulo Agricultural Research Center Nampula Research Station
Harvesting time Harvesting time
Variety H1 H2 H3 H1 H2 H3
ICGV-SM-99568 72.2d 89.3a 73.4d 84.5ab 88.40a 85.2ab
ICGV-SM-01514 70.1d 83.1b 76.01cd 72.6c 88.08a 80.5bc
JL-24 76.2c 86.6a 78.8c 81.1bc 89.39a 82.4b
CV (%) 9.7 4.6 3.5 12.6 2.5 7
Mean ± SE 78.4 ± 2.57 83.6 ± 4.09
Means followed by a different letter in a column significantly different at P 0.001.
DISCUSSION
Appropriate harvest timing is critical for optimizing both yield and quality of groundnuts. It has been determined
through this study that harvesting time had significant effects on the yield and yield components of groundnut varieties.
Zuza et al. (Effect of harvesting time on groundnut yield and yield components in Northern Mozambique)
J. Postharvest Technol., 2017, 05(2): 55-63 61
Harvesting at physiological maturity recorded the highest groundnut pod and kernel yields compared to early and delayed
harvest. Furthermore, the groundnut quantitative traits (pod and kernel yields, number of pods per plant and 100-kernel
weights) significantly decreased with harvesting at 10 days before and 10 days after physiological maturity. This confirmed the
results found by (Marsalis et al., 2009) who reported that significant reductions in groundnut yields can occur if harvesting is
either executed too early or delayed too long. Additionally, the results of the study are consistent with the findings of (RELC,
2000) who reported that the timely execution of cultural and agronomic practices, especially harvesting time by groundnut
farmers is very important as it contributes to kernel yield and quality.
Harvesting groundnut 10 days before physiological maturity resulted in a reduced number of pods per plant which in-
turn resulted into low pod and kernel yields among the varieties. Yield losses of up to (22.5 %, 20.4 % and 16 %) and (23.3 %,
16.6 % and 18.5 %) for ICGV-SM-99568, ICGV-SM-01514 and JL-24 respectively, were incurred at CIAM and PAN
respectively as a result of harvesting the crop 10 days before physiological maturity. This was attributed to the level of
immaturity of pods and some which were empty and shrinkled kernels. This is concurrent with the study findings of Wright and
Porter (1991) who indicated that harvesting groundnut too early can reduce yield by 15 %. Furthermore, Kombiok (2012)
indicated that harvesting groundnuts too early resulted in immature nuts, low yields, and off flavors. Additionally, it has been
reported by Singh and Oswalt (1995) that premature harvesting of groundnut pods lowered the yield, oil content and seeds
quality of groundnuts due to immature pods and seeds.
Field observations from the planting of the groundnut crop to harvesting confirmed the suspicion that significant yield
losses occur when harvesting is delayed after physiological maturity. The consequence of this action led to the destruction of
the crop by pests especially termites. The results also showed that harvesting at physiological maturity gave the lowest
quantities of groundnut pods damaged by termites, then the subsequent harvesting time for all the varieties. Studies by Singh
and Oswalt (1995) found that insect damage to pods tended to increase with delay in harvesting due to an increase in insect
population with time agreeing with this study. Delayed harvesting also resulted in sprouting of nuts under the soil due to lack of
dormancy of the varieties which resulted into reduced pod and kernel yields. This is concurrent with the study findings of
Asibuo et al. (2008) who reported that pre-harvest sprouting in groundnut kernels is undesirable since it leads to substantial
loss of kernels, both in quantity and quality. Another factor that may have led to lower yields as a result of harvesting 10 days
after physiological maturity was adverse effects of dry weather which made uprooting by hand difficult as the soil was too dry
and hard. This resulted into harvesting by digging using hand hoes which led to most nuts being left in the soil as a result of
weakened pegs due to over maturity and others were physically damaged. This is consistent with the findings of Singh and
Oswalt (1995) who indicated that delay in harvesting after physiological maturity resulted in many pods left in the soil due to
weakening of pegs.
Yield losses of up to (31.7 %, 35.2 % and 33.1 %) and (36.6 %, 30.7 % and 32.6 %) for ICGV-SM-99568, ICGV-SM-
01514 and JL-24 respectively, were incurred at CIAM and PAN respectively as a result harvesting the crop 10 days after
physiological maturity. This phenomenon confirmed the findings of Young et al. (1982) who reported that delayed harvesting
resulted in groundnut pod losses of up to 40 %, depending on the variety and growing conditions. The current study has also
shown that there were variations among varietal kernel yields between the two study locations. Mapupulo Agricultural
Research Center recorded lowest kernel yields from the variety ICGV-SM-99568 (576.4 kg/ha), ICGV-SM-01514 (662.5 kg/ha)
and JL-24 (664.4 kg/ha) and Nampula Research Station recorded lowest kernel yields from the variety ICGV-SM-01514 (800.0
kg/ha), JL-24 (858.3 kg/ha) and ICGV-SM-99568 (983.3 kg/ha). These differences could be attributed to environmental
factors such as; rainfall, temperature and relative humidity, soil conditions and severity of late leaf spots between the two study
locations. These findings are in accordance with a similar study conducted in Northern Nigeria by Kamara et al. (2011) who
Zuza et al. (Effect of harvesting time on groundnut yield and yield components in Northern Mozambique)
J. Postharvest Technol., 2017, 05(2): 55-63 62
reported that different agricultural ecologies have different effects on the yield of groundnuts.
In both locations, ICGV-SM-99568 had significantly higher 100-kernel weight (heavier seeds) than ICGV-SM-01514
but was not significantly different with JL-24 at each harvesting time. Moreover, the kernel weight of JL-24 was significantly
higher than that of ICGV-SM-01514, which recorded the lowest kernel weight regardless of harvesting time. The bigger nuts of
ICGV-SM-99568 could be responsible for its higher 100-kernel weight than ICGV-SM-01514 which had the smallest kernel
size. Mean 100-kernel weight is an expression of the amount of dry matter allocated to the kernel development by treatments
which is attributed to plant or varietal factors (Kamara et al., 2011). The large kernel nature of ICGV-SM-99568 and JL-24
could be the reason farmers prefer to cultivate those varieties in Mapupulo and Nampula.
The shelling percentage (%) of the groundnut varieties varied significantly between the two study locations due to the
variation in harvesting time. However, shelling percentages were higher when the crop was harvested at physiological
maturity. Furthermore, the shelling percentages were affected by harvesting 10 days before and 10 days after physiological
maturity; this reduced the total kernel yields for those harvesting times. This confirmed the findings of Hartmond et al. (1996)
who found out that kernel yield was directly related to shelling percentage, so that the higher the shelling percentage the
higher the kernel yield of that variety.
CONCLUSION
The results of this study have indicated that harvesting at physiological maturity gave the highest groundnut pod and
kernel yield than harvesting 10 days before and 10 days after physiological maturity. Indicating that harvesting at physiological
maturity minimizes pod and kernel yield losses in groundnut. Moreover, the study findings have revealed that premature
harvesting of groundnut pods lowered the yield and kernel quality by 16-25 % and delayed harvesting resulted in yield losses
ranging from 30-40 %. It is, therefore, recommended that, for farmers to obtain maximum pod yields with high quality kernels,
make sure to harvest their crop at physiological maturity by keeping the date of planting which can assist in decision making
on when to execute harvesting.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
This publication was made possible through the support provided by the Office of Agriculture, Research and Policy,
Bureau of Food Security, U.S. Agency for International Development, under the terms of Award No. AID-ECG-A-00-07-0001 to
The University of Georgia as the management entity for the U.S. Feed the Future Innovation Lab on Peanut Productivity and
Mycotoxin Control. The opinions expressed herein are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the
U.S. Agency for International Development. The authors are very grateful to, Eduardo Mondlane University and the Institute of
Agriculture Investigation of Mozambique for providing the resources and time in support of the study.
REFERENCES
Asibuo J. Y., Akromah R., Safo-Kantanka O., Adu-Dapaah H., Kofi O.D.S. and Agyeman A. 2008. Inheritance of fresh seed
dormancy in groundnut. African Journal of Biotechnology, 7: 421-424.
Hartmond, U., Williams, J.H. and Lenz, F. 1996. Sources of variation in shelling percentage in peanut germplasm and crop
improvement for calcium deficiency-prone soils. Peanut Science, 23: 76-81.
Jeffrey, E.E. 2011. Groundnut Grower’s Guide for Mozambique:Production, Harvesting and Post-harvest Handling.
Mozambique. Nampula: CNFA.
Zuza et al. (Effect of harvesting time on groundnut yield and yield components in Northern Mozambique)
J. Postharvest Technol., 2017, 05(2): 55-63 63
Kaba, J.S., Ofori, K. and Kumaga, F.K. 2014. Inter-Relationships of Yield and Components of Yield at Different Stages of
Maturity in Three Groundnuts (Arachis hypogaea L) Varieties. International Journal of Life Sciences Research, 2: 43-
48.
Kamara, A.Y., Ekeleme F. Kwari, J.D., Omoigui, L.O. and Chikoye, D. 2011. Phosphorus effects on growth and yield of
groundnut varieties in the tropical savannas of northeast Nigeria. Journal of Tropical. Agriculture, 49 (1-2): 25-30.
Kombiok, J.M., Buah1, S. S. J., Dzomeku, I. K. and Abdulai, H. 2012. Sources of Pod Yield Losses in Groundnut in the
Northern Savanna Zone of Ghana. West African Journal of Applied Ecology, 20 (2): 53-63.
Marsalis, M.A., Puppala, N., Goldberg, N.P., Ashigh, J., Sanogo, S. and Trostle, C. 2009. New Mexico Peanut Production.
Circular, 645: 6-7.
Muitia, A. 2005. Combination of Root-Knot Nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.) Resistance and Edible Seed Quality for Peanut
(Arachis hypogaea L.) Production in Mozambique and in the U.S. MSc Thesis, Lubbock, Texas. Plant and Soil
Science, Texas Tech University.
Muitia, A. 2013. Farmer perceptions and genetic studies of rosette disease in groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) in northern
Mozambique. PhD Thesis, KwaZulu-Natal: African Centre for Crop Improvement.
RELC. 2000. Research- Extension-Linkage Committee. Annual Report, Accra, Ghana.
Singh, F. and Oswalt, D. L. 1995. "Groundnut Production Practices." ICRISAT. SAT | e-journal, 9: 29-32.Young, J.H., Person,
N.K., Donald, J.O. and Mayfield W.D. 1982. Harvesting, curing and energy utilization. In 'Peanut Science and
Technology. (Eds HE Pattee, CT Young). American Peanut Research and Education Society Inc: 458-48.
... The impact of late harvesting time are less water content and high percentage of mid-mature kernels [3]. The physiological maturity stage is a recommended measure for determining the harvesting time to obtain high pod yield and kernels quality [4]. Therefore, determination of harvest time is essential as it contributes to yield and productivity. ...
... Delaying harvesting time could increase yield, mature kernels, shelling percentage, pod number and pod yield per plant, 100-seed weight, oil and protein contents, and O/L ratio [7][8][9]. In contrast, delaying harvesting time may also increase yield loss. Premature harvesting reduced yield and kernel quality by 16-25% and delayed harvesting resulted in 30-40% yield losses [4]. Genotype with the highest harvest index is characterized by high yield, performances morphology, weight per pod and number of pod per m 2 [13]. ...
... An early harvesting time can reduce the number of pods per plant which lead to low pod and kernel yields. Pod yield of grondnut varieties directly related to kernel yield [4]. On the other hand, pod maturity can be determined by measuring changes in kernel weight and hull weight during maturity, chlorophyll content, amino acid content and maturity index [3]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Butterfly pea (Clitoria ternatea L.) belongs to legumes (Fabaceae family) and pod-shaped, and multifunction as natural dyes, ornamental plants, medicinal plants, forage fertilizers, and animal feed. This activity aims to determine the advance ploidization of butterfly pea on forage biomass production. This activity was carried out at the greenhouse of Cikeumeuh, ICABIOGRAD Bogor, from October 2019 until February 2020. The material genetics as butterfly pea ratoon have had growth and development good. This study was used a simple complete randomized design with three replications and then data had analyzed statistically. The results showed that accesion of butterfly pea have consisted of each ninth accesion of blue petal and white petal. In the flower type, all of butterfly pea accesions have a single petal type. Then fresh and dry weights of blue petal colour, accesion of numbers 1 (24 hours colchicine immersion), and 5 (72 hours oryzalin immersion) have had a higher weight than a control plant. At the fresh and dry weight of plants at white petal colour, all accesion butterfly pea had a higher weight than the control plant except accesion number of 3 and 4. The weight seed of butterfly pea were highest achieved by 6 and 7 accesion of blue petals, which were 2, 3, 6, 7, and 8 accesion white petals.
... For example, a significant difference in timing for planting and harvesting of groundnut was observed. Groundnut is very susceptible to poor germination and sprouting if planted and harvested, respectively, at the wrong time, thus reducing yield [37]. A significantly higher proportion of plots from MHHs were planted and harvested on time compared to plots from FHHs (Table 1). ...
Article
Full-text available
Poverty among smallholder farmers in sub-Saharan Africa has been associated with low agricultural productivity emanating from gender yield gaps among other factors. Using data collected from smallholder groundnut producers in Nigeria, we analyzed the gender yield gap by applying the exogenous switching regression (ESR) model and Oaxaca-Blinder (OB) decomposition framework. Results from the two complementary approaches showed a significant gender yield gap in favor of male headed households (MHHs). The main and significant source of the gap was differences in resources/endowments. We found that involving female headed households (FHHs) in prerequisite yield augmenting activities like technology validation trials, testing, and demonstrations is critical in closing the existing yield gap.
... The two high yielding cultivars ICGS-76 and ICGV-86590 recorded significantly (higher number of effective pods over others including local check. A strong positive correlation of these pod attributes with shelling percentage (r= 0.738 -0.921*, p<0.0005) and higher shelling percentage of more than 72% in these two cultivars further affirmed our assumption was in confirmation with the earlier reports (Jnr et al., 2017). Variation in production efficiency was highly influenced by the dry pod yield (per ha) produced by the respective cultivars and was evident from a strong positive correlation (r=0.94, ...
Article
Full-text available
Performance of 27 improved groundnut cultivars were assessed for agronomic and physiological traits associated to improve the productivity in degraded acid soils under rainfed hilly ecosystem. The cultivars ICGS 76 and ICGV 86590 produced significantly higher pod yield with more than 39% improvement over JL 24. The study also identified five more promising cultivars viz. ICGS 5, TKG 19 A, TG 37A, GG 11 and GG 21 with 19-38% higher yield over the check. The low productivity of cereals in the acidic and moisture stressed Jhum degraded upland soils of rainfed hilly ecosystem of Eastern Himalayan Region is a major concern for socio-economic improvement of resource poor farmers. Adoption of these cultivars is expected to increase the productivity and net income to a tune of 93.2% without incurring any additional costs to the prevailing production system.
... When peanuts are harvested late, some of the pods detach as the plant is dug up and remain in the soil. In experiments conducted in Mozambique, Zuza et al. (2017) showed that groundnuts harvested 10 days after attaining physiological maturity had up to 40% lower pod yield compared with those harvested at physiological maturity. Farmers in Malawi and Zambia usually try to recover detached pods from the soil, and even a few weeks after harvest, communities living around large farms are "allowed" to glean peanuts that have remained in the soil. ...
Article
Full-text available
Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is an important crop in Malawi and Zambia. The crop is valued for soil improvement in cereal-based cropping systems, for improving the livelihoods of farming households who consume it and also sell it for cash, and for earning foreign exchange when exported. Research and development efforts have resulted in an increase in both area under peanut production and productivity. However, a key challenge that still needs to be solved in these countries is how to produce peanuts with acceptable levels of aflatoxin contamination. Data continues to show that aflatoxin continues to be a problem in both formal and informal trade. As a result, unlike 30 years ago, most of the peanut trade has now shifted to domestic and regional markets that do not restrict the sale of aflatoxin-contaminated peanuts. Impacts of aflatoxin contamination on health and also on the full cost burden of control are not well documented. Technologies are available for mitigating against aflatoxin contamination. The advantages, disadvantages, and gaps associated with these technologies are discussed. A lot of money and effort continues to be invested in Malawi and Zambia into mitigating against aflatoxin contamination, but evidence of long-term success is limited. Based on past and current initiatives, the prospects of eliminating aflatoxin in the near future at the household level and in trade are not promising.
Article
Full-text available
Groundnut production in northeast Nigeria is constrained by low level of soil phosphorus. This study evaluated four groundnut varieties for their response to P fertilization in two Nigerian agro-ecological zones (Sudan and Northern Guinea savanna) during 2005 and 2006. The experimental design was split plot with 0, 20, and 40 kg P ha-1 in the main plots and groundnut varieties ('Samnut 22', 'local Wadabura', 'Samnut 21', and 'Samnut 23') in the subplots. Pod yield increased linearly with increasing P rates in both years. Mean pod yield was higher by 49.3% at 20 kg and by 57.8% at 40 kg P ha-1 compared with unfertilized plots. 'Samnut 23' gave more grain yield than other varieties at both locations in 2005 and in Damboa during 2006. It is also an early maturing variety, and can thus be recommended to the farmers in Sudan savanna, which experiences short rainy seasons. However, for farmers interested in fodder production for livestock in addition to grain, the local variety, 'Samnut 21', and 'Samnut 22' are more appropriate.
Article
Full-text available
The subterranean nature of fruiting in groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L) and its indeterminate growth habit makes it difficult to determine the time of maximum maturity of pods. The objectives of the study were to: determine the time to harvest groundnut for optimum yield of pods for varieties differing in flowering and maturity date, and estimate potential yield losses at different harvesting dates. Three groundnut genotypes (‘Chinese’, ‘F-Mix’ and ‘Kpedevi’) were harvested over a period of seven weeks. A split-plot design with four replications was used with the groundnut genotypes as main plots and the harvest dates as sub-plots. Data taken were: number of mature pods, number of immature pods, number of pegs, top shoot weight, days to 50% flowering and days to first flowering. The genotypes showed an increasing trend in the number of mature pods plant-1 as harvesting date delayed. Maximum mature pods of 27, 24, and 14 plant-1 was produced by ‘Kpedevi’, ‘F-Mix’ and ‘Chinese’ genotypes at 112, 105 and 98 DAS respectively. None of the three genotypes produced mature pods at 70 DAS. The number of immature pods and number of pegs were components of mature pods in the three genotypes. Top shoot reduction was an indicator of maturity in both ‘Chinese’ and ‘F-Mix’ genotypes but could result in yield loss due to late harvesting in ‘Kpedevi’.
Article
Full-text available
Pre-harvest sprouting in groundnut ( Arachis hypogaea L) seeds belonging to sub species fastigiata is undesirable since it leads to substantial loss of seeds, both in quantity and quality. A short period of dormancy is therefore desirable in this sub-species to reduce such losses. This study was conducted to determine the heritability of fresh seed dormancy in groundnut and to transfer this trait from exotic lines (ICGV 86158 and ICGV 87378) known to posses dormancy, into the genetic background of two groundnut varieties (Shitaochi and Aprewa) widely grown in Ghana but lack dormancy. Freshly harvested seeds of mature pods from parents, F1, F2 and the backcross populations were assessed for their dormancy by incubating in petri dishes in the laboratory. The F1 progenies from crosses between dormant and non-dormant parents were dormant. The F2 progenies fitted the expected 3 dormant to 1 non-dormant ratio. The study showed that seed dormancy is controlled by monogenic inheritance with dormancy dominant over non-dormant.
Article
Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) has gained prominence as a food and cash crop due to its increasing importance, both in the domestic and export markets. Its products, such as oil and cake, are for both domestic and industrial uses. However, farm level yields in Ghana have remained as low as 800 kg/ha compared to developed countries of more than 3,000 kg/ha. Variation in the yield of the groundnut crop has been found to be a genetic trait influenced by environment or the interaction of both. In order to identify the sources responsible for these low yields on farmers' fields, and to be able to advise them to increase their yields, a field experiment was conducted in 2007 and 2008 on a savanna soil at Nyankpala, involving three groundnut varieties, in a split-plot design replicated four times. The varieties (Chinese, Manipinta and Nkatie-Sari) were the main factor and three harvesting stages (at maturity of each variety, 1 week after and 2 weeks after the first harvest) were the sub-plots. Pod yields were between 2,500 kg/ha and 3,100 kg/ha for the three varieties in both years at physiological maturity, which were higher than yields from the subsequent harvest dates. The decline in pod yield when harvesting was delayed beyond physiological maturity was attributed to insect infestation of the pods, sprouting of the nuts in the soil and difficulties in harvesting, resulting in most of the nuts either not harvested or physically damaged. The Chinese variety had more sprouted nuts as well as nuts left not harvested in the soil probably due to its spreading nature compared to Manipinta and Nkatie-Sari, which can be described as the bunch types. Nkatie- Sari significantly gave the highest pod yield at each stage of harvest than the other varieties. It is advisable that farmers plant improved varieties, making sure they harvest at physiological maturity, before the onset of the dry season, in order to obtain optimum pod yields of the groundnut.
Article
Calcium (Ca) deficiency causes peanut pegs and pods to abort, resulting in decreased shelling percentages and yields. Environmental factors influencing calcium availability include soil Ca content and soil moisture. Genetic attributes that influence the sensitivity of cultivars to soil Ca supply include pod size, soil volume per pod (varied by plant growth habit), and pod wall attributes. Where Ca fertilization is not possible, genetic solutions to Ca deficiency are important, and breeders need information on the relative importance of these attributes. The objective of this research was to quantify the relative importance of these three sources of variation. Data from three trials were used to evaluate the relative importance of these attributes. The trials, sited on Ca-deficient alfisols, used between four and 12 germplasm lines with varied Ca sensitivity- determining attributes. Lines differed in growth habit (spreading or bunch), pod volume, pod yield, shelling percentage, and seed yield. The trial treatments and environments (sites and seasons) also varied Ca supply through soil type, fertilization, and water supply. Assuming that Ca supply has little impact on crop growth rates (CGR), a physiological model was used to set aside the contributions of CGR to yield differences between treatments. The three trials were analyzed separately and then combined for further regression analysis by defining each site and treatment combination as an environment. Within trials, variations in shelling percentage accounted for up to half the variations in seed yield between lines. In the combined analysis, easily selected attributes—pod volume (58% of germplasm sums of squares) and plant habit (8%) and their interaction (14%)—accounted for much of the variation in shelling percentage. The interaction was due to shelling percentage being less influenced by pod volume in spreading than in the bunch types. Thus, in Ca-limiting situations, the spreading growth habit allowed larger seeded peanuts to be grown than the bunch growth habit because of the greater pod dispersal of this type. Assuming that the lines tested typified peanuts for their relation between attributes and Ca deficiency-based shelling percentage variations, breeders should place the greatest emphasis on small pod size to decrease peanut sensitivity to Ca deficiency. Increased soil available to each pod by pod dispersal decreases the need for small pods to decrease sensitivity to Ca-deficient soils
Groundnut Grower's Guide for Mozambique:Production, Harvesting and Post-harvest Handling
  • E E Jeffrey
Jeffrey, E.E. 2011. Groundnut Grower's Guide for Mozambique:Production, Harvesting and Post-harvest Handling. Mozambique. Nampula: CNFA.
Farmer perceptions and genetic studies of rosette disease in groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) in northern Mozambique
  • A Muitia
Muitia, A. 2013. Farmer perceptions and genetic studies of rosette disease in groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) in northern Mozambique. PhD Thesis, KwaZulu-Natal: African Centre for Crop Improvement.
Research-Extension-Linkage Committee
  • Relc
RELC. 2000. Research-Extension-Linkage Committee. Annual Report, Accra, Ghana.
Harvesting, curing and energy utilization
  • F Singh
  • D L Oswalt
  • J H Young
  • N K Person
  • J O Donald
  • W D Mayfield
Singh, F. and Oswalt, D. L. 1995. "Groundnut Production Practices." ICRISAT. SAT | e-journal, 9: 29-32.Young, J.H., Person, N.K., Donald, J.O. and Mayfield W.D. 1982. Harvesting, curing and energy utilization. In 'Peanut Science and Technology. (Eds HE Pattee, CT Young). American Peanut Research and Education Society Inc: 458-48.