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Lamprospora pseudoarvensis sp. nov. (Pezizales) – a lookalike tracked down

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Abstract

Lamprospora pseudoarvensis is described as a new species based on ecology, morphology and phylogenetic analyses. Differences from other bryophilous Pezizales occuring on species of Pleuridium are discussed as well as differences from morphologically similar bryophilous Pezizales. New statements on L. dicranellae are reported. A dichotomous key to L. pseudoarvensis and similar species is given.

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... In recent years, integrated taxonomy combining traditional morphological studies with new molecular techniques has proved a powerful tool in assessing biodiversity in all groups of organisms (e.g., Caparrós & al. 2016, Deniz & al. 2015, López-Bautista & al. 2006, Nater & al. 2017, Nedeljković & al. 2015, Zhao & al. 2019. Only recently has this approach also been applied to bryophilous Pezizales (Vega & al. 2017, 2019. One of the main discoveries from molecular investigations of bryophilous Pezizales was the very high host specificity of all investigated species. ...
... Along with sequences newly generated in this study, relevant data from the GenBank database were used (https://blast.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov; sequences originate from Perry & al. 2007, Hansen & al. 2013, Vega & al. 2017, and Egertová & al. 2018. Sequences were assembled, edited, and aligned using Geneious (ver. ...
... We also revised a specimen from K (listed in Medardi 2006) to L. dicranellae. We also studied two collections sequenced by Perry & al. (2007, GenBank accession numbers DQ220358 and DQ220361) that also have L. dicranellaelike ascospores, but their sequences do not cluster with other L. dicranellae samples (Vega & al. 2017), clearly indicating that further study is needed. Dicranella species were not found as hosts in any of these cases. ...
Article
Lamprospora benkertii is described as a new species based on collections from Georgia, Germany, Norway, Slovakia, and Switzerland. It is characterized by orange apothecia without a fimbriate margin, globose ascospores with a seaveri -type ornamentation comprising strong ridges forming a reticulum and a secondary reticulum formed by fine ridges within the meshes of the primary reticulum. The fungus infects rhizoids of Trichostomum crispulum . Delineation of the new species is supported by LSU and EF1α sequence analyses. Lamprospora benkertii is compared with other Lamprospora species with a seaveri -type or similar ascospore ornamentation: L. ascoboloides , L. cailletii , L. dicranellae , L. funigera , L. hispanica , L. irregulariata , L. leptodictya , L. norvegica , L. paechnatzii , L. seaveri. We also present an updated key for this group of species as well as a more complete description of L. hispanica based on our observations from several collections. New host specificity data are provided for L. hispanica , L. leptodictya , L. norvegica , and L. paechnatzii .
... With ascospore dimensions of species similar to L. densireticulata, L. carbonicola and L. dictydiola overlapping at times, a new partial key (after the ones given in Vega et al. 2016 andin Vega et al. 2017) would have to focus on the species' hosts primarily. Instead, we decided to provide a comparative table with two parameters only to facilitate identification (Table 3). ...
... The hosts of L. carbonicola (Funaria hygrometrica) and L. dictydiola (Tortula muralis) can even be recognized in Boudier's drawings (Boudier 1905(Boudier -1910, although the importance of this parasite/host-relationship was only discovered much later (Döbbeler 1980). These results support a high rate of host specificity of bryophilous Pezizales as already suggested by Benkert (1987Benkert ( , 2001 and confirmed also by molecular data (Egertová et al. 2018, Vega et al. 2017. Numerous other species with several reported hosts could thus in fact represent complexes of morphologically similar, but distinct species, which was shown to be the case in L. arvensis (Vega et al. 2017) and clearly applies also for the L. miniata complex. ...
... These results support a high rate of host specificity of bryophilous Pezizales as already suggested by Benkert (1987Benkert ( , 2001 and confirmed also by molecular data (Egertová et al. 2018, Vega et al. 2017. Numerous other species with several reported hosts could thus in fact represent complexes of morphologically similar, but distinct species, which was shown to be the case in L. arvensis (Vega et al. 2017) and clearly applies also for the L. miniata complex. ...
Article
Lamprospora densireticulata sp. nov. is described and illustrated based on fresh collections from Austria, Croatia, Cyprus, France, Germany, Hungary and Spain. Its most important distinguishing characters are subglobose ascospores ornamented with a fine, irregular dense net and the infection on rhizoids of its host moss Aloina ambigua. Two other similar species differing mainly in their host mosses and ecology are also described in detail: these are L. carbonicola infecting Funaria hygrometrica occuring on soil and L. dictydiola growing on Tortula muralis on walls, stones or rocks. Phylogenetic analyses of ITS and LSU rDNA show that the studied collections of all three species form well-supported monophyletic clades exhibiting only very little polymorphism within the individual species. Comparative tables listing other morphologically similar species of Lamprospora and Octospora are provided.
... Some of the Benkert`s encouraging papers (Benkert, 1987(Benkert, , 1993(Benkert, , 1995(Benkert, , 2007 are the main cause for a rapid boost of interest for bryomycology. Several dozens of new species have been described in the last couple of decades with new bryophilic taxa constantly emerging (Benkert & Brouwer, 2004;Benkert & Kristiansen, 2008;Benkert, 2011;Döbbeler, 2011;Döbbeler & Facher, 2014;Vega et al., 2016;Vega et al., 2017;Egertová et al., 2018), bringing as results worldwide distribution patterns of bryophilous Pezizales more clear. ...
Article
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Results from bryomycological field studies in the Mediterranean part of Bosnia and Herzegovina are reported in the paper. Five bryophilous taxa of ascomycetes have been recorded on few locations around the city of Neum and on the Klek peninsula. Three of them are new for the mycobiota of Bosnia and Herzegovina – Octospora gemmicola, Lamprospora miniata var. parvispora and Lamprospora miniatavar. ratisbonensis. Macromorphology and micro-characters with ecology, phenology and distribution patterns for eachspecies are presented and briefly discussed.
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The full PDF can be downloaded here: http://www.czechmycology.org/_cmo/CM74101.pdf The bryophilous ascomycete Octospora meslinii is a rarely reported species growing exclusively in cushions of the saxicolous moss Grimmia pulvinata. The taxon has been misunderstood in the past and hitherto reliably only reported from France and Germany. Many recent collections from Hungary have made it possible to get a better understanding of O. meslinii, which is comprehensively described and illustrated in this paper. Because of the lack of original material, we designate an illustration in the protologue as the lectotype and one of the recent collections as the epitype of this fungus. Octospora meslinii is compared with other species of Octospora growing in the same type of habitat or having similar ascospores. The most closely related species to O. meslinii is O. pseudoampezzana. Both share apothecia with blackish pigmentation, a unique feature compared to bryophilous Pezizales as a whole, ellipsoid ascospores ornamented with isolated warts, moss hosts in the family Grimmiaceae, and the infection inducing galls on the rhizoids. A phylogenetic analysis using the EF1a, LSU and SSU rDNA loci confirms our morphological findings showing that O. meslinii forms a monophyletic clade with O. pseudoampezzana, whereas other species with which O. meslinii was confused in the past, e.g. O. similis, are related only distantly.
Article
Lamprospora angularis sp. nov. is described and illustrated from finds in four different Tenerifan localities. The new species is characterised by a combination of the following features: orange to reddish-orange apothecia with a conspicuous fimbriate to shaggy margin, globose ascospores with distinctive regular areolate ornamentation, and infection of the rhizoids of its bryophyte host Campylopus pilifer. Phylogenetic analysis of SSu, LSu and EF1-α gene sequences show that the studied collections of this species form a well-supported monophyletic clade and clearly differ from all other sequenced species of bryophilous Pezizales. Comparisons have been made with similar members of Lamprospora that infect species of Campylopus, namely L. australis, L. campylopodis and L. verrucispora.
Article
Lamprospora bulbiformis M.Vega & Janošík, sp. nov., L. gibbosa M.Vega & Janošík, sp. nov. and L. thelespora Martínez-Gil, M.Vega & E.Rubio, sp. nov. are described and illustrated based on live collections from Cyprus, France, Portugal and Spain. Phylogenetic analyses of the concatenated LSU, SSU and EF1-α gene sequences show the studied collections of the three species form well supported monophyletic clades. Lamprospora bulbiformis sp. nov. infects Fissidens viridulus (Sw. ex anon.) Wahlenb., L. gibbosa sp. nov. has F. crassipes Wilson ex Bruch & Schimp. as host and L. the- lespora sp. nov. grows on Cheilothela chloropus (Brid.) Broth. Three Lamprospora De Not. species namely L. tuberculata Seaver, L. tuberculatella Seaver and L. spinulosa Seaver with a slightly similar ascospore ornamentation were described by Seaver from US collections. Results of our studies of their types and additional material collected by Seaver are presented. The host of L. tuberculata is Pleuridium subulatum (Hedw.) Rabenh., that of L. tuberculatella is a species of Weissia Hedw. and that of L. spinulosa is Physcomitrium pyriforme (Hedw.) Bruch & Schimp. It has yet to be proven that species of Lamprospora described from North America also occur in Europe. European collections assigned to any Lamprospora described from North America require revision. It is not unlikely that many or even all of them represent taxa yet to be described. A considerable part of existing literature on bryophilous Pezizales needs to be reevaluated.
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Döbbeler P, Büschlen A & Ecksein J. 2021. - Octospora bicarpa sp. nov. (Pezizales), the first species of the bryophilous genus Octospora Hedw. with ameroconidia. Ascomycete.org 13(2): 85-91. Octospora bicarpa Döbbeler, Büschlen & Eckstein (Pezizales) is described as a new species of operculate discomycete. It infects the corticolous moss Lewinskya speciosa (Nees) F. Lara, Garilleti & Goffinet (Orthotrichales). The documentation is based on several recent collections from Switzerland. The biotrophic parasite is characterized by small, orange apothecia formed between green leaves in the apical shoot regions. Inconspicuous, almost colourless conidial layers arise near the ascomata in the leaf axils and on the stems. Both morphs originate from the same mycelium, that has infection structures typical for Octospora s. lato, consisting of superficial appressoria and intracellular haustoria. The anamorph also develops independently from the teleomorph. Monoblastic, globose ameroconidia are produced by sterigma-like conidiogenous cells. Octospora bicarpa is the first species of more than 100 recognized octosporaceous fungi that has both ascomata and sporodochia-like conidiomata which produce one-celled conidia.
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Some considerations on the study of the genera Lamprospora, Octospora and Neottiella belonging to the bryophilous Pezizales are given. The authors emphasize the importance of the study of fresh material and suggest to extend the examination of specimens with morphological features neglected in the past.
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Lamprospora rehmii Benkert, a species of bryophilous Pezizales infecting the moss Pleuridium acuminatum Lindb., is presented from recent collections, one of which is designated as epitype. An illustration from the protologue is designated as lectotype. Sequence data from the LSU and ITS regions have been deposited in GenBank.
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Key words: bryophilous ascomycetes, bryoparasitism, Ascomycota, Pezizales, Lamprospora seaveri, Bryum argenteum. Abstract: The occurrence of species of the genera Lamprospora, Neottiella, Octospora, and Octosporopsis in the City of Hamburg is provided with some notes on interesting species.
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Recent collections of a cup-fungus identified as Lachnea poiraultii Boud. from the Iberian and Istrian (Croatia) peninsulas provided the opportunity to investigate its modern taxonomic position. An examination of the type specimen of this taxon confirmed the determination of Croatian, Portuguese and Spanish collections. Based on the results of multi-gene phylogenetic analyses which placed L. poiraultii within the Pyronemataceae with no support of affiliation with another genus, and the study of microscopic features in the living state, the new genus Paratricharina is proposed to accommodate L. poiraultii. The morphological similarities and differences from the most closely related species are discussed. A full description and illustrations of P. poiraultii are also provided
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MrBayes 3 performs Bayesian phylogenetic analysis combining information from different data partitions or subsets evolving under different stochastic evolutionary models. This allows the user to analyze heterogeneous data sets consisting of different data types—e.g. morphological, nucleotide, and protein—and to explore a wide variety of structured models mixing partition-unique and shared parameters. The program employs MPI to parallelize Metropolis coupling on Macintosh or UNIX clusters. Availability: http://morphbank.ebc.uu.se/mrbayes Contact: fredrik.ronquist@ebc.uu.se * To whom correspondence should be addressed.
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Pyronemataceae is the largest and most heterogeneous family of Pezizomycetes. It is morphologically and ecologically highly divers, comprising saprobic, ectomycorrhizal, bryosymbiotic and parasitic species, occurring in a broad range of habitats (on soil, burnt ground, debris, wood, dung and inside living bryophytes, plants and lichens). To assess the monophyly of Pyronemataceae and provide a phylogenetic hypothesis of the group, we compiled a four-gene dataset including one nuclear ribosomal and three protein-coding genes for 132 distinct Pezizomycetes species (4437 nucleotides with all markers available for 80% of the total 142 included taxa). This is the most comprehensive molecular phylogeny of Pyronemataceae, and Pezizomycetes, to date. Three hundred ninety-four new sequences were generated during this project, with the following numbers for each gene: RPB1 (124), RPB2 (99), EF-1α (120) and LSU rDNA (51). The dataset includes 93 unique species from 40 genera of Pyronemataceae, and 34 species from 25 genera representing an additional 12 families of the class. Parsimony, maximum likelihood and Bayesian analyses suggest that Pyronemataceae is paraphyletic due to the nesting of both Ascodesmidaceae and Glaziellaceae within the family. Four lineages with taxa currently classified in the family, the Boubovia, Geopyxis, Pseudombrophila and Pulvinula lineages, form a monophyletic group with Ascodemidaceae and Glaziellaceae. We advocate the exclusion of these four lineages in order to recognize a monophyletic Pyronemataceae. The genus Coprotus (Thelebolales, Leotiomycetes) is shown to belong to Pezizomycetes, forming a strongly supported monophyletic group with Boubovia. Ten strongly supported lineages are identified within Pyronemataceae s. str. Of these, the Pyropyxis and Otidea lineages are identified as successive sister lineages to the rest of Pyronemataceae s. str. The highly reduced (gymnohymenial) Monascella is shown to belong to Pezizomycetes and is for the first time suggested to be closely related to the cleistothecial Warcupia, as a sister group to the primarily apothecial Otidea. None of the lineages of pyronemataceous taxa identified here correspond to previous families or subfamily classifications. Ancestral character state reconstructions (ASR) using a Bayesian approach support that the ancestors of Pezizomycetes and Pyronemataceae were soil inhabiting and saprobic. Ectomycorrhizae have arisen within both lineages A, B and C of Pezizomycetes and are suggested to have evolved independently seven to eight times within Pyronemataceae s.l., whereas an obligate bryosymbiotic lifestyle has arisen only twice. No reversals to a free-living, saprobic lifestyle have happened from symbiotic or parasitic Pyronemataceae. Specializations to various substrates (e.g. burnt ground and dung) are suggested to have occurred several times in mainly saprobic lineages. Although carotenoids in the apothecia are shown to have arisen at least four times in Pezizomycetes, the ancestor of Pyronemataceae s. str., excluding the Pyropyxis and Otidea lineages, most likely produced carotenoids, which were then subsequently lost in some clades (- and possibly gained again). Excipular hairs were found with a high probability to be absent from apothecia in the deepest nodes of Pezizomycetes and in the ancestor of Pyronemataceae s. str. True hairs are restricted to the core group of Pyronemataceae s. str., but are also found in Lasiobolus (Ascodesmidaceae), the Pseudombrophila lineage and the clade of Chorioactidaceae, Sarcoscyphaceae and Sarcosomataceae. The number of gains and losses of true hairs within Pyronemataceae s.str., however, remains uncertain. The ASR of ascospore guttulation under binary coding (present or absent) indicates that this character is fast evolving and prone to shifts.
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Detailed restriction analyses of many samples often require substantial amounts of time and effort for DNA extraction, restriction digests, Southern blotting, and hybridization. We describe a novel approach that uses the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for rapid simplified restriction typing and mapping of DNA from many different isolates. DNA fragments up to 2 kilobase pairs in length were efficiently amplified from crude DNA samples of several pathogenic Cryptococcus species, including C. neoformans, C. albidus, C. laurentii, and C. uniguttulatus. Digestion and electrophoresis of the PCR products by using frequent-cutting restriction enzymes produced complex restriction phenotypes (fingerprints) that were often unique for each strain or species. We used the PCR to amplify and analyze restriction pattern variation within three major portions of the ribosomal DNA (rDNA) repeats from these fungi. Detailed mapping of many restriction sites within the rDNA locus was determined by fingerprint analysis of progressively larger PCR fragments sharing a common primer site at one end. As judged by PCR fingerprints, the rDNA of 19 C. neoformans isolates showed no variation for four restriction enzymes that we surveyed. Other Cryptococcus spp. showed varying levels of restriction pattern variation within their rDNAs and were shown to be genetically distinct from C. neoformans. The PCR primers used in this study have also been successfully applied for amplification of rDNAs from other pathogenic and nonpathogenic fungi, including Candida spp., and ought to have wide applicability for clinical detection and other studies.
Ascomycota) aus der Bundesrepublik Deutschland und Auflistung der aus Deutschland bisher nachgewiesenen Arten mit Kurzdiagnostik
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