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Software-defined network (SDN) is a new programmable networking designed to perform tasks easier by enabling network administrators to add network control via a centralized control platform and open interfaces. Common network use procedures such as traffic shifts, troubleshooting and various types of device configuration. Thus devices are needed to reconfigure with the network, in order to create a reaction with events. In this paper, we have developed an SDN testbed using Zodiac FX a hardware switch for OpenFlow experiment. This research is utilized Zodiac FX a hardware switch to test the usage and discuss about the SDN controllers. Ryu controller is configured for testbed development. The main contribution of this paper in threefold as follows: first it provides the configuration of Ryu controller, second, it provides the configuration of Zodiac FX switch and lastly it develops a simple SDN testbed for OpenFlow.
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EAI Endorsed Transactions
on Scalable Information Systems Research Article
1
Software-Defined Network Testbed Using ZodiacFX a
Hardware Switch for OpenFlow
Fahad Nazir1*, Qazi Humayun2, R Badlishah Ahmad3, Shamsul Jamel Elias4
1,2
University Malaysia Perlis (UniMAP), Perlis Malaysia, 1E-mail: fahadnazirbhatti@gmail.com, 2E-mail: qazi@unimap.edu.my
3
4
Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin (UniSZA), Malaysia, 3E-mail: badli2002@gmail.com
Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM) Kedah, Malaysia, 4E-mail: shamsulje@kedah.uitm.edu.my
Abstract
Software-defined network (SDN) is a new programmable networking designed to perform tasks easier by enabling
network administrators to add network control via a centralized control platform and open interfaces. Common network
use procedures such as traffic shifts, troubleshooting and various types of device configuration. Thus devices are needed to
reconfigure with the network, in order to create a reaction with events. In this paper, we have developed an SDN testbed
using Zodiac FX a hardware switch for OpenFlow experiment. This research is utilized Zodiac FX a hardware switch to
test the usage and discuss about the SDN controllers. Ryu controller is configured for testbed development. The main
contribution of this paper in threefold as follows: first it provides the configuration of Ryu controller, second, it provides
the configuration of Zodiac FX switch and lastly it develops a simple SDN testbed for OpenFlow.
Keywords: Software-Defined Network (SDN), Ryu Controller, OpenFlow.
Received on 16 August 2017, accepted on 13 September 2017,published on 25 September 2017
Copyright © 2017 Fahad Nazir et al., licensed to EAI. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the
Creative Commons Attribution licence (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/), which permits unlimited use,
distribution and reproduction in any medium so long as the original work is properly cited.
doi: 10.4108/eai.25-9-2017.153150
*
Corresponding author. Email:fahadnazirbhatti@gmail.com
1. Introduction
The recent advent of Software-Defined Network (SDN) has
boosted the network infrastructure in different emerging
fields. The SDN is a promising solution for future networks
due to its open-nature network architecture. SDN is not an
innovative offer thus SDN is a redesign of previous
proposals through an examination of earlier models. A brief
explanation can be found [in 1, 2] which primarily deals
with programmable networks and control data plane division
tasks.
The main objective of SDN is to decouple the control
plane from the data plane of the OpenFlow switch. The aim
of this is to provide centralized control of the entire network.
The architecture of SDN is divided into three main layers
including data layer, control layer, and application layer.
The communication between data layer and control layer is
performed by an OpenFlow protocol.
The control layer contains a main entity known as a
controller that can be used to act as the heart for the entire
SDN infrastructure. The controller is responsible for
controlling the network devices in the data layer while
injecting different applications from the application layer.
The controller can communicate with another controller
connected through east and west bound interfaces. However,
the OpenFlow protocol uses southbound interface that is
further used to manage communication between switches
and the controller. OpenFlow is used by different
researchers to perform their experiments as SDN is in its
initial stage of implementation.
The SDN idea is based on separating control from the
network forwarding features such as switches and routers
[2]. The basic principle of the SDN is allied with OpenFlow
protocol. OpenFlow is a protocol which has been designed
by academia at Stanford University in 2008 [3]. OpenFlow
has proposed at the initial stage in [4], which it is executable
available for researchers to perform more experiments [5].
Open Networking Foundation (ONF), an open source
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Fahad Nazir et al.
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organization group, is progressively promoting and
troubleshooting the improvements of SDN and the
standardization of OpenFlow [6].
Various authors have discussed possible solutions to the
some problems/limitations, have uncovered new challenges
and provided a path to the better understanding of a
collaboration between simple/complex networks and end-
user applications and services. SDN has introduced an
external and programmable network’s control plane, which
is modeled as a simple and open interface to the network
data plane [1, 2, 7, 8].
Figure 1 shows the basic overview of SDN which
includes an Application layer, Control Layer and Data
Layer. The most important part of SDN is northbound-API
applications. This may offer information to the control plane
that can be controlled the data plane. In a broader sense, the
control plane can be influenced to enhance the network
control for better improvement in the user supposed Quality-
of-Experience (QoE) by altering the forwarding
performance of switches or by assigning more network’s
resources to a particular flow. These administrative tasks are
possibly on short time scales as well as a per-flow basis.
The main contribution of this paper is to design a simple
SDN testbed using Zodiac FX via Ryu open source SDN
controller. Zodiac FX consists of four ports network
implementation board and considered as a smallest network
implement board to perform modeling and designing for
SDN services and applications. The main purpose is to use
RYU for development a SDN testbed that Ryu supports
several protocols and deal with the network devices, such as
OpenFlow, Netconf, OF-config, etc. Ryu is a fully
developed in Python and codes are available under the
Apache 2.0 license. Furthermore, we surveyed SDN by
providing a comprehensive overview of the present
achievements in SDN. The rest of this paper is in the
following order. In section two, we presented definition and
overall design of OpenFlow, it is a standard protocol of
SDN. In third section, it describes the Ryu open source
controller, it is a stable framework of SDN and mostly used
due to its reliability and availability of codes, Ryu codes are
available as open source. In fourth section, to design and
development process of a SDN Testbed Setup using Zodiac
FX and Ryu open source SDN controller is presented. The
main contribution of this paper is development of SDN
testbed using Zodiac FX and Ryu controller, main focuses
on the configuration of Ryu and Zodiac FX switch is
highlighted in this section. In end, it concluded the overall
observation of SDN testbed.
Application
Layer
Unified Network Monitoring & Analysis
Network Access Con trol and Bring your own Device (BYOD)
Security Applications Other Business Applications
Network Virtualization
SDN
Controller
SDN
Controller
SDN
Controller
West-
Bound
API
East-
Bound
API
Southbound API
Network Devices Physical Switches Virtual Switches
Northbound API
Control
Layer
Infrastructure
Layer
Figure 1. The basic overview of SDN which includes an Application layer, Control Layer and Data Layer
2. OpenFlow Protocol
OpenFlow is a promising and promoted protocol, available
as open source for enabling SDN in real application scenario
[6-10]. Figure 2 shows the OpenFlow design, OpenFlow
normally required for the implementation of SDN scenario;
it is fully supported in hardware and software. It is available
for researchers, communities and industrial developers. It
can be utilized the present software and hardware to develop
new protocols for SDN scenario after development. It can
also be analyzed for performance. OpenFlow becomes an
important protocol of SDN that is globally commercialized
with accessible routers and switches as well.
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Software-Defined Network Testbed Using ZodiacFX a Hardware Switch for OpenFlow
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OpenFlow architecture has two building-blocks: First
OpenFlow Controller and multiple OpenFlow Switches.
Controller
Chan nel
Flow
Table
Group Table
Flow
Table
Flow
Table
OpenFlow Protocol
Openflow Switch
Figure 2. Overview of OpenFlow Design
It is enabled between the controller and switches that
maintain a table on every switch. The table contains the
“match and action” entry that is essential to examine at the
traffic flow. Furthermore, in the case of failure of any
matching entry, the controller can be determined by the
action upon that failure match entry to make a suitable
decision. OpenFlow packet processing deals with various
packet processing towards the Ethernet or IP. While it is
implemented in its design, therefore OpenFlow packet
processing can be done by hardware design.
Figure 3 shows the whole process of packet forwarding in
OpenFlow. In general, the process of reaching packets tested
by compared to a flow table. In the broad view, the table is
contained “match and action” sequence having n terms. The
unique match options, such as: in_port, dl_src, dl_dst,
dl_vlan, dl_type, nw_proto, nw_src, nw_dst, tp_src, tp_dst.
dl_are referred to the data link layer, nw_ is referred to the
network layer, tp_ is referred to the transport layer.
Figure 3. OpenFlow Packet Processing
3. Ryu SDN Framework
Ryu SDN framework is available as an open source with
its documentation, it is a tool-set for SDN development,
includes an OpenFlow controller, among other tools. This is
a component-based framework for SDN. It offers software
components with well-defined API that makes it easy to
create network management and control applications.
SDN
Apps
Ryu SDN Co ntroller
OpenFlo w
Switch
Well-Defined API
OpenFlow
Protocol
SDN
Apps
SDN
Apps
OpenFlow
Switch
Figure 4. Ryu SDN Controller
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Figure 4: shows the overview of Ryu controller. Ryu
supports several protocols for dealing with the network
devices, such as OpenFlow, Netconf, OF-config, etc. Ryu is
a fully developed in Python and codes are available under
the Apache 2.0 license [19, 20]. To configure Ryu controller
is available via command line is following.
#sudo apt-get install python
#python -v (check python version)
#sudo apt-get install python-pip
#sudo pip install ryu (including open virtual switch)
Ryu has provided well-organized documentation and
defined API for creating the different SDN scenario
applications. Figure 5 shows the Ryu controller connection
with Zodiac FX for SDN scenario. It is fully supported all
types of networks applications for example firewall,
Intrusion Detection Systems, Intrusion Privation Systems,
fault tolerance and load balancing can be designed under
Ryu controller. The main advantage of this controller is to
support all OpenFlow versions. At the initial stage, ryu-
manager appname.py command is executed the Ryu
controller.
SDN
Apps
Ryu SDN Controller
OpenFlow
Switch
Well-Defined API
OpenFlow
Protocol
SDN
Apps
SDN
Apps
OpenFlow
Switch
Zodiac FX
Switch
Figure 5. Ryu controller connection with Zodiac FX
4. SDN Testbed Setup
Zodiac FX is designed four ports network implement
board that is developed for researchers and developers for
modeling and design an SDN services and applications.
Figure 6 shows the Zodiac FX switch. It is considered the
smallest switch: flexible enough to fit on desktop users. The
size of the switch is 10 x 8 cm.
It is a low-cost board that can be performed various
experiments. At the first step, it was developed to let
inexpensive execution to OpenFlow hardware [21].
Figure 6. Zodiac FX a hardware Switch
It has provided firmware code that makes user flexible to
generate various own versions. It provides various type of
device such as the applications may have Router, Bridge,
Load Balancer, Web server, VPN concentrator, TOR client.
Zodiac FX command line is available via the USB port. To
configure Zodiac FX using gtkterm and process of
configuration is described as following, Figure 7 shows the
port for Zodiac Fx.
#sudo apt-get install gtkterm (Port configrator)
#ls /dev/tty*
#Sudo gtkterm
Figure 7. Connecting Zodiac FX port
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Fahad Nazir et al.
5
Gtkterm can be configured the zodiac FX which provides
the port to configure. It shows different ports are connected
in system while /dev/ttyACMO is representing to Zodiac
FX. Once chose the port, it can be configured Zodiac FX.
Figure 8 shows the configuration. As mentioned in Zodiac
FX manual port four is the OpenFlow control plane port and
while other ports are the OpenFlow forwarding plane ports.
Figure 8. Zodiac FX configuration
To design a simple SDN testbed, we have used Ryu
controller open source available codes, and Zodiac FX a
hardware switch. Zodiac FX is a four-port hardware, one
port is connected directly to Ryu controller while other ports
are connected to hosts, figure 9 shows the connectivity of
Ryu controller and Zodiac FX.
Controller
Port:6633
Zodiac Fx (S1)
OpenFlow Switch
Host1 (H1)
IP
Loopback
(127.0.0.1:6633)
Host1 (H3)
IP
Host1 (H2)
IP
S1-eth0
H1-eth0
S1-eth2
H3-eth0
S1-eth1
H2-eth0
Figure 9. FX connection with Ryu controller
3. Conclusion
In this paper, we developed SDN Testbed and surveyed the
design of OpenFlow and SDN Ryu Controller. It is observed
a real programmable network by setting up a Ryu SDN
controller and Zodiac FX for the SDN scenario. We
presented all possible configurations that show how to build
a real SDN scenario via a hardware switch Zodiac FX.
Furthermore, we have provided a detail of OpenFolow and
Ryu SDN controller that can provide a better observation of
the setup and design at the implementation level. Via
presented configuration, SDN Testbed can be further
analyzed through the performance. All possible
configurations are provided in this paper based on SDN
standard OpenFlow protocol and Ryu SDN open source
controller. Hence, it can say that SDN is more flexible than
traditional network and main advantage of SDN is a cost
efficient and programmable. Zodiac FX can be used to
perform more experiments and examine the performance via
Rya OpenFlow controller and other SDN controllers. It is
observed that the major limitation of SDN controllers that if
any active controller fails it can rapidly break down the
entire network.
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Fahad Nazir et al.
... У контексті зниження вартості реалізації доречним убачається використання поширеної програмноапаратної платформи Raspberry Pi як основи для OpenFlow-сумісного комутатора [13]. Альтернативою може вбачатися платформа ZodiacFX, яка, однак, майже втричі дорожча [14]. Ба більше, конкурентоспроможність платформи Raspberry Pi як альтернативи NetFPGA з позицій продуктивності (співставна) і вартості реалізації (рішення на базі Raspberry Pi має в десятки разів меншу вартість) вже була показана раніше [15, с. 759-761]. ...
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Wireshark & Ethereal Network Protocol Analyzer Toolkit (Jay Beale's EAI Endorsed Transactions on Scalable Information
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A. Orebaugh, G. Ramirez, J. Burke, and L. Pesce, Wireshark & Ethereal Network Protocol Analyzer Toolkit (Jay Beale's EAI Endorsed Transactions on Scalable Information Systems 07 2017-09 2017 | Volume 4 | Issue 14 | e
Available: http://code.nsnam.org/jpelkey3 A network in a laptop: Rapid prototyping for software-defined networks
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