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Few papers describe the reproductive physiology of the jaguar female, and copulatory behavior was described only by two works of the 1970s. We evaluated 229 videos that showed the sexual behavior of couples of this species, being evaluated the behaviors from the attempt to the copulation. The results were compared with those described by Lanier & Dewsbury (1976). It is essential to know the reproductive behavior of the largest Brazilian predator, needing to intensify research in this sphere.

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Leopards (Panthera pardus) are a poorly understood, solitary felid, and additional study could provide novel insights into both evolution and conservation management. We studied the reproductive biology of 7 adult female and 2 adult male leopards on Karongwe, South Africa, from 1999 to 2005. We intensively researched copulatory biology from 2001 to 2003, during which we observed 19 consortships and 4,855 copulations (1,809 copulations visually) during 2,449 h of following consort pairs. Leopards copulated on average 4 times per hour, with an average of 256 copulations per consortship. Conception rate was low, resulting, on average, after 2.3 consortships (SE = 0.4 consortships). All reproductive parameters except gestation length were shorter than those in published literature, which we suspect reflected a facultative response to superabundant resources. Although females produced the expected 1.6 cubs per year, lifetime reproductive rates on Karongwe Reserve were approximately half that reported elsewhere due to lower female survival resulting from intraspecific factors. These results offer encouragement for founding new populations of endangered felids in areas of high prey availability and resource abundance, provided factors affecting population regulation can be managed.
A total of 109 copulations was observed in six male-female pairs from four species of large Felidae. The mean intromission durations were 3.0 sec for Asian leopards (Panthera pardus), 3.3 sec for African leopards (Panthera pardus), 12.9 sec for snow leopards (Uncia uncia), 2.3 sec for spotted jaguars (Panthera onca), 3.3 sec for black jaguars (Panthera onca), and 12.4 sec for Siberian tigers (Panthera tigris). Behavioural patterns were qualitatively similar across species; all displayed a copulatory pattern with no lock, no intra-vaginal thrusting, ejaculation on a single insertion, and multiple ejaculations. Whereas domestic cats are reported to assume a neck grip and to tread prior to insertion, these larger Felidae generally did so after intromission had been achieved. After copulation, females of some pairs swiped at the male and displayed a rolling after-reaction.
Breeding jaguars at Ostrava Zoo. International Zoo Yearbook, v. 11, n. 1
  • J Stehlik
STEHLIK, J. Breeding jaguars at Ostrava Zoo. International Zoo Yearbook, v. 11, n. 1, p. 116-118, 1971. Reunião da Associação Brasileira de Andrologia Animal (ABRAA) (2. : 2017 : Uberlândia, MG).
A time with leopards
  • D Hancock
HANCOCK, D. A time with leopards. Cape Town, South Africa: Black Eagle Publishing, 2000.