Article

Effect of Aggressive Components of the Marine Environment the Protective Properties of the Textile Materials

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

The article provides the details on the influence of marine environment on textile materials. It justifies the aggressive components of marine environment in contact with clothing surface: sea salt and oil. Sea salt is an integral part of sea water and accumulates in the structure of clothing. Oil becomes a part of sea water in contingency situations at offshore oil and oil products production and transportation facilities. This causes a variation of the properties of textile materials that depend on the concentration of aggressive components in the structure of textile materials. Active concentration of aggressive components in the textile is defined based on its liquid absorption capacity. The article establishes the peculiarities of volume variation for different textile fibers interfacing with liquids. It identifies the structure of sea salt and chemical composition of oil that cause a variation of the properties of textile in contact with them. It was established that the presence of sea salt in humid environment contacting with the surface of special cotton based fabric causes reduction of capillarity in all material samples. It was established that the packages of materials based on fabrics with mixed fibers have crude oil permeation less than cotton surfaces of clothing. Meanwhile, use of thermal insulation, like Hollofiber together with such materials, reduces the level of clothing saturation with subject liquids. The article presents experimentally obtained data on sea water and oil permeation into special clothing materials.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... Активность проникновения морской соли в текстильные материалы во многом зависит от способности к впитыванию влаги текстильными волокнами [5]. В таблице 1 представлены систематизированные данные об уровне увеличения объема волокон различной природы при контакте с жидкостью [7]. Разная способность текстильных волокон к изменению объема и взаимодействию с жидкостями объясняется их химическим составом, молекулярной структурой и характеристиками жидкости. ...
... На основе проведенных исследований [7] в соответствии с рисунком 1 установлено, что наличие морской соли во влажной контактной среде с поверхностью специальной ткани на хлопчатобумажной основе для всех образцов материалов приводит к снижению их капиллярности. Установлено, что пакеты материалов на основе тканей из смешанных волокон имеют показатели проницаемости по отношению к сырой нефти ниже хлопчатобумажных поверхностей одежды. ...
Article
Full-text available
The article presents data on the influence of the marine environment on textile materials. Aggressive components of the marine environment that contact the surface of clothing (sea salt and oil) are justified. Sea salt is an integral part of seawater. It accumulates in the clothing structure. Oil is included in the components of seawater in emergency situations at offshore oil and petroleum products and sea transport facilities. This leads to a change in the properties of textile materials, which depend on the concentration of aggressive components in the structure of textile materials. The active concentration of aggressive components in textiles is determined by its ability to absorb liquid. Specific features of changing the volume of various textile fibers during interaction with liquids are established. Structure of sea salt and the chemical composition of oil. This determines the change in the properties of the textile in contact with them. The structure of sea salt and the chemical composition of oil is justified. This determines the change in the properties of textiles. As a result of the systematization of modern data on clothing materials that are used in marine technology, the information base of the leading modern fibrous materials for protective clothing was formed. The reference materials for research are allocated. It was found that the presence of sea salt in a moist contact medium with a surface of a special fabric on a cotton basis for all samples of materials led to a decrease in their capillarity. It has been established that packages of materials based on mixed-fiber fabrics have permeability parameters with respect to crude oil below the cotton garment surfaces. The application in combination with such materials of holofiber insulation reduces the level of saturation of clothing with the liquids examined. The article presents experimental data on the permeability of sea water and oil in special materials for clothing. The work was supported by the Ministry of Education and Science of Russia in the Don State Technical University within the framework of the State task 2017-2019 under the project No. 11.9194.2017/БЧ.
... The strain of materials in single-layer garments during the assembly of structural parts provides their desired shape [5]. As a rule, the functional properties of such products are determined by the properties of the material surface with respect to the environment and to human skin [6]. This is due to the material being thin, which characteristic for the cloth. ...
... The operation principle of the device developed for the study of the heat-insulating properties of textile materials is as follows: The heat source is the surface of a copper cylinder (6) preheated to a set temperature and insulated by a cover in the upper part (3) and by a supporting structure in its lower part (2) made of a heat-insulating material (polyurethane foam). The working unit (cylinder) is placed in special cut-outs of the support section of the structure (2). ...
Article
Full-text available
The article represents trends and results of world investigations for safety of textile materials for humans and environment. The algorithm for identification of potential influence vector of chemical emissions from textile and the environmentally aimed methods based on the alternative chemical substances for textile wet processing were presented. Using the procedure for oleophobic effect determination, the oil resistance levels of a number of modern fabrics for clothes were established. The experimental research results of the oil products concentration in the textile materials after chemical treatment based on the method of the capillary gas chromatography were presented. It was found out that hydrocarbons from C14H30 Tetradecane to С36Н74 Hexatriacontane are the main components with high level of contaminants concentration. The average values of hydrocarbon concentration on the cleaned up samples for the main areas of the clothe surface were determined. Accumulation of residual contaminations, based on saturated hydrocarbons (С17Н36 – С25Н52 block) and related special-purpose clothes areas, was identified. Recommendations for target-oriented correlation of the clothes protective properties were proposed. UWO (unified work order). The research was made in Don State Technical University within the framework of State Assignment of the Ministry of education and science of Russia under the project 11.9194.2017/BCh.
Article
In the article research results are presented, the aim of which is to provide high quality and reliability while using heat-protective structures for machines and people. Textile materials perform important function contacting moisture in the atmosphere. Results of moist environment textile structure and properties research are also presented here. It was established that multilayer structure with free elementary cells, including knitwear, for the purposes of barrier maintenance of moisture level is not sufficient. Based on the performed experimental research, new characteristics and properties pattern defining behavior of materials while contacting liquids (wetting, capillarity, moisture, hygroscopy) are established. Recommendations relating to groups and samples of textile materials are given. The research was made in Don State Technical University within the framework of State Assignment of the Ministry of education and science of Russia under the project 11.9194.2017/BCh.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The article presents the research in order to create a new level of computer tools for effective design of clothing for underwater kinds of activity. This report covers the consideration , sub-stantiation, and proposals relating to the ways for improving the mathematical models built into integrated CAD systems to be used in creation of underwater outfits. In order to ensure precise solutions for stocking the outfit object with materials with respect to the underwater conditions selected, the experimental studies of deformation of modern expanded polymer materials under the action of external pressure and local stretching have been performed in this research. Such multiaxial deformations lead to redistribution of the thickness of of autonomous fixing the deformation of expanded material thickness has been developed for conduction of such investigations. Basing on the method proposed, the authors have developed a fundamental solution for a special device for autonomous measurements of the deformation characteristics of expanded polymer materials, in particular, in the conditions of direct hydrostatic pressure on the clothing. The results of experimental studies obtained have allowed to derive relations for the behaviour of deformation characteristics of expanded materials.
Article
Full-text available
Sea salt aerosols (SSA) are dominant particles in the Arctic atmosphere and determine the polar radiative balance. SSA react with acidic pollutants that lead to changes in physical and chemical properties of their surface, which in turn alter their hygroscopic and optical properties. Transmission electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry was used to analyze morphology, composition, size, and mixing state of individual SSA at Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard, in summertime. Individual fresh SSA contained cubic NaCl coated by certain amounts of MgCl2 and CaSO4. Individual partially aged SSA contained irregular NaCl coated by a mixture of NaNO3, Na2SO4, Mg(NO3)2, and MgSO4. The comparison suggests the hydrophilic MgCl2 coating in fresh SSA likely intrigued the heterogeneous reactions at the beginning of SSA and acidic gases. Individual fully aged SSA normally had Na2SO4 cores and an amorphous coating of NaNO3. Elemental mappings of individual SSA particles revealed that as the particles ageing Cl gradually decreased, the C, N, O, and S content increased. 12C- mapping from nanoscale secondary ion mass spectrometry indicates that organic matter increased in the aged SSA compared with the fresh SSA. 12C- line scan further shows that organic matter was mainly concentrated on the aged SSA surface. These new findings indicate that this mixture of organic matter and NaNO3 on particle surfaces likely determines their hygroscopic and optical properties. These abundant SSA as reactive surfaces adsorbing inorganic and organic acidic gases can shorten acidic gas lifetime and influence the possible gaseous reactions in the Arctic atmosphere, which need to be incorporated into atmospheric chemical models in the Arctic troposphere.
Article
Full-text available
With the aim that to confirm the need for humidity control in the environment in which textile sample are visually and instrumentally analyzed, three different pre-conditioned fabrics sample of cotton, polyester and silk were treated at a fix temperature of 21˚C. The relative humidity adjusted to four levels: 55%, 65%, 75% and 85% RH for a conditioning time of 24 hours as specified in ASTM D-1776-98. It has been observed that as the relative humidity increase from 55% to 85% cotton increase its tensile strength, silk losses its strength and there was no significant change observed in the tensile strength of polyester fabric.
Data
Full-text available
1] Although gypsum has been predicted to precipitate in sea ice, it has never been observed. Here we provide the first report on gypsum precipitation in both experimental and natural sea ice. Crystals were identified by X-ray diffraction analysis. Based on their apparent distinguishing characteristics, the gypsum crystals were identified as being authigenic. The FREeZing CHEMistry (FREZCHEM) model results support our observations of both gypsum and ikaite precipitation at typical in situ sea ice temperatures and confirms the "Gitterman pathway" where gypsum is predicted to precipitate. The occurrence of authigenic gypsum in sea ice during its formation represents a new observation of precipitate formation and potential marine deposition in polar seas.
Article
Full-text available
The objectives of the project were to compare essential oil extraction methods from the double-flower variety of tuberose (Polianthes tuberosa L.). The flowers were extracted by cold or hot enfleurage, or by solvent extraction with hexane or petroleum ether. The chemical composition of the tuberose absolutes was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The results showed that percentage yields of tuberose oil from cold enfleurage, hot enfleurage, hexane and petroleum ether extractions were 0.3137%, 6.5808%, 0.0279% and 0.0182%, respectively. The main chemical component detected in both enfleurage absolutes was methyl benzoate, while benzyl benzoate and pentacosane were found to be the main chemical components in hexane and petroleum ether absolutes, respectively.
Article
The article is dedicated to the researches of the structure of special materials for uniform. It is done due to the necessity of achieving success in human protection against heat, fire, water and noise. The discovered correlations between composition and structure of textile materials and their combinations with additional enhanced layers and the physical properties of uniform allow to provide for a more effective personal protection. For evaluation of the effectiveness of such protection a method monitoring of human comfort is suggested.
Article
A simple rheological model has been used to describe foam flow through moving textile assemblies. The validity of this model was tested, and the nature and the relative magnitude of deviations from the model evaluated for several different substrates. Neglecting foam degeneration during transport, the model was found to represent a valuable means of evaluating some rheological and geometrical deviations. The model can be used in a semi-quantitative way to describe absorbency during foam application. Liquid absorption experiments done off-line, absorption during foam application and some earlier results could be described using different theoretical approaches. Some rheological anomalies have been discussed.
A study of the influence of sea salt on performance properties of garment materials
  • I V Cherunova
  • A M Korinteli
The development of the research techniques of structure and properties of composite textile materials when interacting with viscous fractions of hydrocarbon
  • P V Cherunov
  • I V Cherunova
  • S V Knyazeva
  • M P Stenkina
  • E B Stefanova
  • N V Kornev
Lesnikova, Assessment of human activity on the floating technical means for designing clothes
  • T Yu
  • I V Lesnikova
  • M Cherunova
  • Yu
World market of transport services: Russian subjects, The Russian Federation today
  • N V Lukyanovich
The influence of operating conditions on the protective properties of workwear for oil and gas complex of Scientific works
  • O V Kononova
  • I V Kurenova
  • I V Cherunova
  • D M Kuznetsov
  • M N Rumak
  • Yu A Ibragimova
The protective properties of workwear in oil production conditions, Garment industry
  • I V Cherunova
  • I V Kurenova
  • E A Schenikova
  • S A Kolesnik
Evaluation of the permeability properties of modern textiles, Garment industry
  • D M Kuznetsov
  • E S Cherunova
  • I V Cherunova
  • I V Kurenova