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Effects of Inclusive Leadership on Employee Voice Behavior and Team Performance: The Mediating Role of Caring Ethical Climate

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As an emerging research field of leadership, inclusive leadership reflects the new style of leadership demanded by researchers and practitioners. Is it a leadership style that can better integrate employees and organizations and adapt to new complex management situation? Based on theories of social exchange, organizational support, and self-determination, this study investigated the impact of inclusive leadership on employee voice behavior and team performance through caring ethical climate. We evaluated the model with a time-lagged data of 329 team members from 105 teams in six cities in China. Results indicated as following: inclusive leadership was positively correlated with employee voice behavior at the individual level and team performance at the team level; caring ethical climate mediated the relationship between inclusive leadership and employee voice behavior at the individual level, as well as mediated the relationship between inclusive leadership and team performance at the team level. This study revealed the mechanism of the positive cross-level effects of inclusive leadership on the caring ethical climate, employee voice behavior, and team performance. These findings also provided important contributions for human resource management and practice.
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September 2017 | Volume 2 | Article 81
ORIGINAL RESEARCH
published: 27 September 2017
doi: 10.3389/fcomm.2017.00008
Frontiers in Communication | www.frontiersin.org
Edited by:
Annamaria Di Fabio,
University of Florence, Italy
Reviewed by:
Gabriela Topa,
Universidad Nacional de Educación
a Distancia (UNED), Spain
Gary Lee Mangiofico,
Pepperdine University,
United States
*Correspondence:
Bing Liu
liubing@sdu.edu.cn
Specialty section:
This article was submitted to
Organizational Psychology,
a section of the journal
Frontiers in Communication
Received: 24February2017
Accepted: 07August2017
Published: 27September2017
Citation:
QiL and LiuB (2017) Effects of
Inclusive Leadership on Employee
Voice Behavior and Team
Performance: The Mediating Role
of Caring Ethical Climate.
Front. Commun. 2:8.
doi: 10.3389/fcomm.2017.00008
Effects of Inclusive Leadership on
Employee Voice Behavior and Team
Performance: The Mediating Role
of Caring Ethical Climate
Lei Qi and Bing Liu*
Department of Human Resource Management, School of Management, Shandong University, Jinan, China
As an emerging research field of leadership, inclusive leadership reflects the new style of
leadership demanded by researchers and practitioners. Is it a leadership style that can
better integrate employees and organizations and adapt to new complex management
situation? Based on theories of social exchange, organizational support, and self-
determination, this study investigated the impact of inclusive leadership on employee
voice behavior and team performance through caring ethical climate. We evaluated
the model with a time-lagged data of 329 team members from 105 teams in six cities
in China. Results indicated as following: inclusive leadership was positively correlated
with employee voice behavior at the individual level and team performance at the team
level; caring ethical climate mediated the relationship between inclusive leadership and
employee voice behavior at the individual level, as well as mediated the relationship
between inclusive leadership and team performance at the team level. This study
revealed the mechanism of the positive cross-level effects of inclusive leadership on the
caring ethical climate, employee voice behavior, and team performance. These findings
also provided important contributions for human resource management and practice.
Keywords: inclusive leadership, team ethical climate, employee voice behavior, team performance, cross-level
analysis
INTRODUCTION
Given the rapid changes in market environment and erce competition between companies,
how to improve organizational competence becomes an extremely important issue. As teams in
companies are more exible and organized than individuals in confronting complicated problems,
focusing on team behavior and performance provides numerous benets for the companies.
Currently, studies on factors inuencing team performance and eectiveness have identied team
leadership as the most important factor, particularly that which has the potential to motivate the
team member and improve team performance.
Team members’ constructive behaviors, such as employee voice, can improve organizational
performance (Hsiung, 2012) because, as a prosocial role behavior, the voice of the team member
can shape a team-based work context and establish a relationship between the team members and
thus benet performance. However, few studies have focused on evaluating the relation between
leadership with employee voice at the team level and the mechanism through which leadership
aect the voice of the team member in the context of teamwork.
FIGURE 1 | Research model.
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Frontiers in Communication | www.frontiersin.org September 2017 | Volume 2 | Article 8
In this study, we used the data pertaining to 105 teams
and 329 team members in China and conducted a multilevel
empirical study to investigate the inuence of an inclusive lead-
ership style on team performance. We also investigated caring
ethical climate as a mediator between inclusive leadership and
team-member voice. e model of this research is presented
in Figure1.
THEORETICAL BACKGROUND AND
HYPOTHESES
Inclusive Leadership and Employee Voice
Inclusive leadership was rst dened by Nembhard and
Edmondson (2006) as a relationship style that always accepts
the dierences of various members. Carmeli et al. (2010)
emphasized that “inclusive leadership refers to leaders who
exhibit openness, accessibility, and availability in their interac-
tions with followers.” According to Ospina etal. (2011), leader
inclusiveness does not only acknowledge the value of diversity
but is also responsible for this variance. Current research shows
that leadership inclusiveness correlates with diversity of team
member behavior (Kearney and Gebert, 2009). ese studies
agree that inclusive leadership can shape the comprehensive
work circumstance, overcome barriers between members with
dierent backgrounds, and improve work coordination and
other team performances (Wasserman etal., 2008; Shore etal.,
2011; Mor Barak, 2013).
Hirschman (2011), who rst proposed the denition of
employee voice, assessed that employees who were not satised
with their jobs would have two responses: to voice or to quit.
Voice is the method of solving problems by expressing opinions.
Employees willing to share their constructive suggestions can
benet the development of their organization. A number of
management studies have been published to encourage employee
voice (Farh etal., 2007).
Employee voice is a socially based behavior (Van D yne
and Le Pine, 1998). Suk et al. (2015) indicated that inclusive
leadership can positively aect employee work engagement.
Svendsen and Joensson (2016) demonstrated that transfor-
mational leadership can positively inuence employee voice,
productivity, and performance. Hirak etal. (2012) concluded
that leadership inclusiveness implies acceptance of new infor-
mation, listening to a new voice, and receiving a new chal-
lenge. ese behaviors can change employee work attitudes,
increase trust in leadership and the organization, and enhance
attachment to their organization. e inclusive leader can
also improve the psychological security (Hirak et al., 2012)
and team identity of the subordinates (Mitchell etal., 2015).
erefore, the inclusive leader can build team member trust
across the organization and increase attachment to the leader;
thus, it can improve employee voice. Specically, the following
hypotheses are presented:
Hypothesis 1: Team-level inclusive leadership is posi-
tively related to individual-level employee voice.
Inclusive Leadership and Team
Performance
To improve team-level performance, leaders consider not only
how to improve performance at the individual level but also the
need for team members to collaborate among themselves in order
to improve team performance. To achieve these aims, leaders
must rst show an inuential leadership. West (2004) suggested
that if the leader shares with the team members his idea and
information in the decision-making process, the team members
are more likely to acknowledge their responsibility in the team,
consequently improving team performance. Dionne etal. (2004)
asserted that transformational leadership can improve team
performance by improving individual performance as well as
teamwork process. In addition to eective leadership, building
a positive social environment in the context of teamwork is
likewise necessary; this method might be the most important
mediating mechanism to team output (Gladstein, 1984, Ancona
and Caldwell, 1992, Anderson and West, 1998).
In some ways, leader inclusiveness is a mixture of transfor-
mational leadership and transactional leadership. Both types of
leadership can positively aect team task performance. Inclusive
leaders perceive team members as contributors, acknowledging
everyone’s value. is behavior can increase the commitment
of team members and motivate team members to handle their
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work in a exible manner (Carmeli etal., 2010). In addition,
leader inclusiveness can more eectively promote member per-
ception of team goals, job satisfaction, and direct improvement
of team task performance. Hence, we expect that:
Hypothesis 2: Inclusive leadership will be positively
related to team performance.
Inclusive Leadership and Caring Ethical
Climate
Organizational ethical climate is a component of organizational
climate. It mainly refers to shared employee perceptions of
ethical norms and behavior. Ethical climate can guide the ethi-
cal attitude, belief, and motivation of employees; likewise, it can
aect ways to solve ethical problems at the organizational level.
Several studies have been conducted to explore the antecedent
of ethical climate (Rathert and Fleming, 2008, Mossholder etal.,
2011). e majority of these studies have agreed that leadership
exert a greater positive inuence on ethical climate than other
variables. On the one hand, if leader behavior conforms with
ethical demand, the behavior of low-level employees would be
more ethical because they regard leader behavior as a reference
point (Calabrese and Roberts, 2002; Treviño et al., 2003). On
the other hand, leaders are always given behavior criteria for
ethical issues, and some of these rules would be published
as institutional. ese activities can improve ethical climate
(Grojean etal., 2004).
Victor and Cullen (1988) proposed the ve dimensions of
ethical climate: “caring,” “rules,” “law and code,” “independence,
and “instrumental.” e inclusive leader pays close attention to
the dierent demands and characteristics of the subordinates
(Yukl, 2006). e inuence of this close interaction between
leader and members can be explained by social exchange theory.
First, those who feel encouraged tend to share their opinion and
knowledge, reinforcing knowledge sharing; second, frequent
communication can create a “strong situation,” and this situa-
tion can show kindness and concern, similar to caring climate.
Unlike other dimensions of ethical climate that need to match
a set of management activities, including organization routines
and HR systems, caring ethical climate can be attributed to social
processes. In the context of teamwork, leaders create an envi-
ronment to share their ethical cognitions and values, shaping a
caring ethical climate.
Hypothesis 3: Inclusive leadership is positively related
to team caring ethical climate.
Caring Ethical Climate and Team
Member Employee Voice
Caring ethical climate implies a shared manner of behavior in
an organization (Cullen etal., 2003). e team members tend
to share information and discuss the ethical issues directly,
similar to that in a motivating environment. ese activities can
increase the willingness of the members to open up on issues
concerning team development and put forward their own advice
for work issues.
When team members are in a caring ethical environment,
inuence becomes obvious. Concern for the needs of others
increases mutual trust within the team and emphasizes the
importance of helping others. Employee voice becomes louder in
this situation. e following hypothesis is thus proposed:
Hypothesis 4: Caring ethical climate can positively
inuence team member employee voice at the indi-
vidual level.
Caring Ethical Climate and Team
Performance
e ethical climate also exerts a positive eect on employee
performance and can inuence employee routines and norms
in ethical issues. Such overall guidance provides good logic for
employees in their job performance.
A caring ethical climate generally inuences the prevailing
thinking mode in a team. If everyone in the team cares about the
welfare of others, the team members would tend to cooperate in
complex tasks and eort and the eciency would increase. e
following hypothesis is thus proposed:
Hypothesis 5: Caring ethical climate positively aects
team performance.
e association of leadership with employee behavior has
been supported by a number of evidence. Inclusive leaders give
team members norms to develop, encourage full communica-
tion, take additional responsibilities, and speak out. Leaders
also have ability to create a new ethical climate. Employee voice
is a type of self-determined behavior (Meyer etal., 2002), and
ethical climate can subtly inuence the thought mode of the
employees. An inclusive leader can institute ethical guidelines
and encourage members to learn the boundaries for their behav-
ior and provide directions. Such an inclusive behavior is likely
to promote shared attention by team members. We therefore
propose:
Hypothesis 6: e positive relationship between inclu-
sive leadership at the team level and employee voice at
the individual level is mediated by caring ethical climate
at the team level.
Team leadership shows a close relationship with ethical cli-
mate in a team, and leaders always play the critical role in shaping
the thoughts and perceptions of team members (Schminke etal.,
2005), In addition, leaders also exert additional enforcement
through the institution and ethical codes. ese eects have been
cited in previous research.
Inclusive leaders can aect the perceptions of the team
member by showing acceptance and respect. In the context of
teamwork, the team member does not only care about the needs
of others but also take into serious consideration the advice of
the leader from dierent angles, all of which can substantially
improve team performance. Accordingly, we posit a mediated
hypothesis:
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Hypothesis 7: e positive relationship between inclu-
sive leadership and team performance is mediated by
caring ethical climate at the team level.
METHOD
Sample and Procedures
e study was conducted among teams of enterprises from six
major cities in China including bank, retail, law, oil, estate, and
information technology. A total of 364 employees were admin-
istered at random from 116 teams participated in this study.
To test our hypotheses, two separate survey questionnaires
were designed with a view of minimizing single source of data
bias. Questionnaire I was distributed to employees, it included
measures of demographical variables, inclusive leadership and
caring ethical climate. In addition, 3months later, the direct
supervisors of those employees received a second question-
naire in which they were asked to assess their subordinates on
employee voice behavior and team performance. All respondents
were given time to complete the survey during working hours
and were assured full condentiality. And they were instructed
to completed surveys directly with the envelopes sealed to the
researchers.
With the help of HR department, each of the questionnaire
was coded, so that 3 months later, each supervisor still knew
who he/she was rating. Aer the questionnaires were matched
based on code, the response rate was 90.8%. e questionnaires
of 35 employees were eliminated because they were incomplete
or failed to conform with the requirements. e nal sample
included 329 employees from 105 teams with an eective
recovery rate of 82%. e sample structure of the survey was as
follows: in terms of gender, males were dominant, with 55.2%
of the sample, and females comprised 44.8% of the sample; in
terms of age, the youngest was 26years old, whereas the oldest
was 55years old, with those in the 36–45years comprising 46.7%
of the sample.
Ethics Approval
An ethics approval was not required as per institutional guide-
lines and national laws regulations because there’s no unethical
behaviors existed in the research procedures. We just conducted
questionnaire survey and were exempt from further ethics board
approval since our research did not involve human clinical trials
or animal experiments. Also, the content of the questionnaire
does not involve any sensitive or personal privacy or ethical and
moral topics. In the rst page of the questionnaire, information
on consent procedures was included in information provided
to participants and participants were notied that consent was
to be obtained by virtue of survey completion. Meanwhile, we
informed that participants about the objectives of the study and
guaranteed their condentiality and anonymity. e way to ll
in the questionnaire is to take out the secret system, which can
further ensure the rights of the people who answer the question-
naire. All the participants were completely free to join or drop
out the survey. Only those who were willing to participate were
recruited.
Measures
All the assessments in the current study were conducted in
Chinese. We followed Brislin’s (Brislin, 1980) translation/back-
translation procedure to translate the English-based measures
into Chinese. Without exception, participants responded to all
measures using a ve-point Likert-type scale (1=strongly disa-
gree, 5=strongly agree).
Inclusive Leadership
Team members were asked to indicate, using a 9-item inclusive
leadership scale developed by Carmeli etal. (2010). e sample
items were as follows: “e team leader is open to hearing new
ideas,” “e leader is attentive to new opportunities to improve
work processes,” and “e manager is available for consultation
on problems.
Caring Ethical Climate
We used the Ethical Climate Questionnaire developed by
Victor and Cullen (1988) to measure caring ethical climates,
which included seven items. e sample items were as follows:
“e most important concern is the good of all the people in the
team as a whole,” “Our major concern is always what is best for
the other person,” and “In this team, people look out for each
other’s good.”
Employee Voice Behavior
Employee voice behavior was measured using a 10-item scale
adapted from Liang et al. (2012). e sample items were as
follows: “Proactively develop and make suggestions for issues
that may inuence the team,” “Proactively suggest new projects,
which are benecial to the work team,” and “Raise suggestions to
improve the team’s working procedure.
Team Performance
Team leaders provided a comprehensive rating of the team
performance by using a 6-item measure of eective performance
developed by Barker etal. (2010). e sample items were as fol-
lows: “Members in this team can work eectively” and “Members
in this team can achieve or over the work demands.
Control Variables
We statistically controlled for demographic variables such as
gender, age, education, and tenure in the team as control vari-
ables at the individual level because of their potential eects on
the voice behavior of the team member (Wang et al., 2016).
To assess the caring ethical climate and team performance at
the team level, we also controlled for the gender, age, education,
and tenure of the leader.
ANALYTICAL APPROACH
Data Aggregation
According to previous studies, data such as leadership style,
ethical climate, and performance at the team level are oen
TABLE 2 | Confirmatory factor analyses results.
Model χ2Df RMSEA TLI CFI
Null modela1,658.49 231 0.24 0.00 0.00
Three-factor model 291.23 204 0.06 0.93 0.94
Two-factor modelb514.34 207 0.12 0.76 0.79
Two-factor modelc425.57 206 0.10 0.83 0.85
Single-factor modeld689.97 209 0.15 0.63 0.66
aIn the null model, there is no relationship between all variables measured.
bMerging inclusive leadership and caring ethical climate into a potential factor.
cMerging inclusive leadership and team performance into a potential factor.
dMerging all variables into a potential factor.
TABLE 1 | Means, SDs, and correlations at the team level.
Variables 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
1. Gender of leadera1
2. Age of leaderb0.15 1
3. Education of leaderc0.07 0.03 1
4. Tenure of leaderd0.05 0.40** 0.17* 1
5. Inclusive leader 0.07 0.01 0.06 0.12 1
6. Caring ethical climate 0.21* 0.01 0.01 0.13 0.31** 1
7. Team performance 0.24* 0.07 0.01 0.22* 0.36** 0.75** 1
Means 1.45 2.66 2.05 3.26 4.38 3.93 4.17
SD 0.25 0.42 0.39 1.29 0.23 0.25 0.26
**p<0.01, *p<0.05, N=105.
a(1) Male; (2) Female.
b(1) 26 years old below; (2) 26–35 years old; (3) 36–45 years old; (4) 46–55 years old;
(5) 55 years old above.
c(1) Junior college or below; (2) College; (3) Master; (4) Doctor.
d(1) 1 year below; (2) 1–3 years; (3) 4–6 years; (4) 7–10 years; (5) 11 years above.
TABLE 3 | Results of regression analysis between inclusive leadership and team
performance.
Team performance
Model 1 Model 2
Control variables
Gender of leader 0.24* 0.22*
Age of leader 0.03 0.04
Education of leader 0.04 0.01
Tenure of leader 0.20 0.15
Independent variable
Inclusive leadership 0.32**
R20.10 0.21
F2.88* 5.12**
ΔR20.10 0.11
ΔF2.88* 12.72**
The regression coefficient is the standard regression coefficient.
**p<0.01, *p<0.05.
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collected through individuals in the team and then integrated
into the team level. Since inclusive leadership and caring ethical
climate at the team level are rated by team members, the data
need to be integrated. To support the aggregation, we calcu-
lated two intra class correlation indexes (ICCs) to determine
whether aggregation of measures to group level was justied
(Raudenbush, 2004). ICC(1) indicates how much of the propor-
tion of the variance is explained by team membership (Hox and
Mass, 2002), and ICC(2) indicates whether teams can be dif-
ferentiated on the basis of the variable under consideration. We
also used the interrater agreement (Rwg) to justify aggregation,
with all mean Rwg values over the acceptable 0.70 cuto (George
and Bettenhausen, 1990). e ICC(1) and ICC(2) for inclusive
leadership were 0.65 and 0.85, and the Rwg of 99% teams for
inclusive leadership were 0.70. e ICC(1) and ICC(2) for car-
ing ethical climate at the team level were 0.57 and 0.80, and the
Rwg of 98% teams for the caring ethical climate at the team level
were 0.70. ey all met ICC(1)>0.05, ICC(2)>0.5, and more
than 90% of the team Rwg0.7. Taken together, these evidences
support the aggregation of the leadership style, ethical climate,
and performance ratings.
Descriptive Statistics
Tab le  1 presents the descriptive statistics of the variables at the
team level, and Tab le  2 presents the descriptive statistics of the
variables at the individual level. Inclusive leadership correlated
signicantly (p< 0.05) with caring ethical climate (r= 0.31;
p<0.01) and team performance (r=0.36; p<0.01), and caring
ethical climate correlated signicantly with team performance
(r=0.75; p<0.01).
Confirmatory Factor Analysis
AMOS 20.0 was used to verify the conrmatory factor analyses
(CFAs) of variables at the team level to establish construct valid-
it y. Ta bl e 2 presents the CFA results. As shown, the data of the
3-factor model were in good t [χ2(204) = 291.23, values of
CFI0.94, TLI0.93, and RMSEA=0.06]. e goodness-of-t
of this model is signicantly better than the other factor models
(2-factor model and single-factor model), indicating that the
measurement has a good discriminant validity.
Hypothesis Tests
Regression Analysis
Tab le  3 presents the results of regression analysis in the demo-
graphic variables. Gender of leadership shows a signicantly
positive correlation with team performance (β=0.24, p<0.05).
e F-values of each model were tested at the signicance
level of p<0.01, indicating a good t of the equation, and the
inclusive leadership showed good explanatory power for team
performance. e univariate correlations between inclusive
leadership and team performance (β=0.32, p<0.01) provided a
preliminary evidence to support Hypothesis 2, which states that
inclusive leadership exhibits a positive relationship with team
performance.
e control, independent, and mediator variables were
entered in separate steps. As shown in Tab le 4, inclusive lea-
dership was positively associated with both caring ethical
climate (β=0.28, p<0.01, Model 2) and team performance
(β=0.32, p<0.01, Model 4), supporting Hypotheses 3 and 5.
As presented in Model 5, caring ethical climate was positively
related to team performance (β=0.72, p<0.01, Model 5).
In Model 6, aer putting in the mediator variance of caring
ethical climate, no signicant relation between inclusive and
TABLE 5 | Results of hierarchical linear analysis of inclusive leadership and
employee voice behavior.
Employee voice behavior
Model 1 Model 2
First-level control variables
Gender of employee 0.06 (0.07) 0.06 (0.07)
Age of employee 0.05 (0.06) 0.05 (0.06)
Education of employee 0.03 (0.05) 0.03 (0.60)
Tenure of employee 0.03 (0.04) 0.03 (0.04)
Second level control variables
Gender of leader 0.23 (0.10)* 0.21 (0.03)*
Age of leader 0.08 (0.08) 0.09 (0.07)
Education of leader 0.03 (0.09) 0.01 (0.08)
Tenure of leader 0.01 (0.04) 0.01 (0.04)
Independent variables
Inclusive leadership 0.34 (0.12)**
Sigma square 0.19 0.19
Tau 0.19 0.16
Chi-square 416.05 (100)** 365.13 (99)**
Pseudo R2 change (level 1) 0
Pseudo R2 change (level 2) 15.8%
The regression coefficient is the standard regression coefficient; **p<0.01, *p<0.05;
values in parentheses are estimated SE; first level=individual level (N=329), second
level=team level (N=105).
TABLE 4 | Mediating role of caring ethical climate testing at the team level.
Caring ethical
climate
Team performance
Model 1 Model 2 Model 3 Model 4 Model 5 Model 6
Control variables
Gender of leader 0.20* 0.18 0.24* 0.22* 0.10 0.10
Age of leader 0.01 0.002 0.03 0.04 0.04 0.04
Education of leader 0.02 0.002 0.04 0.01 0.02 0.01
Tenure of leader 0.12 0.08 0.20 0.15 0.11 0.10
Independent variable
Inclusive leadership 0.28** 0.32** 0.13
Mediating variable
Caring ethical climate 0.72** 0.68**
R20.06 0.14 0.10 0.21 0.59 0.61
F1.50 3.08* 2.88* 5.12** 28.40** 24.97**
ΔR20.06 0.08 0.10 0.11 0.49 0.40
ΔF1.50 8.95** 2.88* 12.72** 117.07** 98.91**
The regression coefficient is the standard regression coefficient.
**p<0.01, *p<0.05.
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team performance was found; however, the eect of inclusive
leadership on team performance remains signicant (β=0.68,
p<0.01, Model 6), providing a preliminary evidence to support
Hypothesis 7, which states that caring ethical climate totally
mediated the relationship between inclusive leadership and
team performance.
Hierarchical Linear Modeling
HLM6.02 was used to verify the hypotheses in this study.
Hypothesis 1 proposed the main eect that inclusive leadership
exerted a signicantly positive eect on employee voice behavior.
First, the control variables of the rst and second levels, as well
as the independent variable of inclusive leadership were entered
in separate steps. As shown in Tab le  5 , inclusive leadership was
positively associated with employee voice behavior (β= 0.34,
p<0.01, Model 2), supporting Hypothesis 1.
Hypothesis 6 predicted that caring ethical climate mediates
the relationship between inclusive leadership and employee voice
behavior. According to Baron and Kenny (1986), full mediation
is supported provided that the following four conditions are
met: (1) the independent variable is signicantly related to the
mediator; (2) the independent variable is signicantly related to
the dependent variable; (3) the mediator is signicantly related
to the dependent variable; and (4) when the mediator is present,
the relationship between the independent and dependent vari-
ables becomes non-signicant. In support of Hypothesis 6, the
results in Tab le  6 indicated the following: (1) inclusive leader-
ship was positively related to caring ethical climate (β= 0.28,
p<0.01, Model 2); (2) inclusive leadership was positively related
to employee voice behavior (β=0.34, p<0.01, Model 4); (3)
caring ethical climate was positively related to employee voice
behavior (β=0.65, p<0.01, Model 5); and (4) aer entering car-
ing ethical climate, the relationship between inclusive leadership
and employee voice behavior became non-signicant (β=0.16,
n.s., Model 6), whereas caring ethical climate was still positively
related to employee voice behavior (β=0.61, p<0.01, Model 6).
ese results suggest that caring ethical climate totally mediates
the relation between inclusive leadership and employee voice
behavior. us, H6 is supported.
DISCUSSION
e present study contributes to our understanding of inclusive
leadership. At the individual level, we investigate and verify the
mechanism of inclusive leadership on employee voice behavior
on the basis of self-determination theory. At the team level, we
investigate and verify the mechanism of inclusive leadership
on team performance on the basis of social exchange theory.
Prior research has examined many factors that aect employee
voice behavior, such as psychological antecedents (Liang etal.,
2012), HR practice (Conway etal., 2016), leaders’ positive aect
(Liu etal., 2017), etc. While few studies investigated the relation-
ship between inclusive leadership and employee voice behavior.
e style of team leadership has an important role in the voice
behavior of the team members (Bienefeld and Grote, 2014). We
found evidence for the eect of inclusive leadership on employee
voice behavior. Employees who seek for equality and mutual
benet relationship tend to exhibit behavior that is benecial to
team or organization, such as proposing suggestions (promotive
voice) that can promote the operational eciency of the organi-
zation and pointing out problems (prohibitive voice) that would
be harmful to the organization, or to enhance team performance
to continuously improve work eciency and quality in order to
repay the leader and the team.
Inclusive leadership can positively aect the caring ethical
climate if team leaders treat employees inclusively, match words
with deeds, express their ideas truthfully, listen to the opinions
of others, improve their working methods consistently, and
promote their ability to work. Team members tend to work for
the overall interests of the team and take care of one another.
TABLE 6 | Inspection of the intermediary cross-level effect of caring ethical climate.
Caring ethical climate Employee voice behavior
Model 1 Model 2 Model 3 Model 4 Model 5 Model 6
First-level control variables
Gender of employee 0.06 (0.07) 0.06 (0.07) 0.06 (0.07) 0.06 (0.07)
Age of employee 0.05 (0.06) 0.05 (0.06) 0.05 (0.06) 0.05 (0.06)
Education of employee 0.03 (0.05) 0.03 (0.60) 0.03 (0.05) 0.03 (0.05)
Tenure of employee 0.03 (0.04) 0.03 (0.04) 0.03 (0.04) 0.03 (0.04)
Second-level control variables
Gender of leader 0.20* 0.18 0.23 (0.10)* 0.21 (0.03)* 0.09 (0.07) 0.10 (0.07)
Age of leader 0.01 0.002 0.08 (0.08) 0.09 (0.07) 0.08 (0.06) 0.09 (0.05)
Education of leader 0.02 0.002 0.03 (0.09) 0.01 (0.08) 0.02 (0.08) 0.02 (0.07)
Tenure of leader 0.12 0.08 0.01 (0.04) 0.01 (0.04) 0.02 (0.03) 0.04 (0.03)
Independent variables
Inclusive leadership 0.28** 0.34 (0.12)** 0.16 (0.12)
Mediator variable
Caring ethical climate 0.65 (0.08)** 0.61 (0.10)**
Sigma square 0.19 0.19 0.19 0.19
Tau – – 0.19 0.16 0.09 0.08
Chi-square 416.05 (100)** 365.13 (99)** 251.80 (99)** 238.30 (98)**
Pseudo R2 change (level 1) 0 0 0
Pseudo R2 change (level 2) (%) 15.8 52.6 50
The regression coefficient is the standard regression coefficient; **p<0.01, *p<0.05; values in parentheses are estimated standard errors; first level=individual level (N=329),
second level=team level (N=105).
7
Qi and Liu Effects of Inclusive Leadership
Frontiers in Communication | www.frontiersin.org September 2017 | Volume 2 | Article 8
e caring ethical climate signicantly aects employee voice
behavior. In the caring ethical climate at the team level, the
team members are willing to help one another, unite as one,
and oer positive advice to enhance eciency, help colleagues,
serve customers, and help the team improve. e caring ethical
climate signicantly aects and promotes team performance.
In the caring ethical climate at the team level, the team members
help one another, unite to reduce conicts in the workplace, and
promote team performance. From the point of view of the medi-
ating role of caring ethical climate, team leadership indirectly
aects employee behavior and team performance through the
team ethical climate.
Theoretical Contributions
Overall, three contributions emerge. First, our theory and results
help enrich inclusive leadership research. Inclusive leadership is
a new leadership style, and few studies on the empirical study
of inclusive leadership have been published locally. Our ndings
suggest that comparative studies on the role of other mediating
variables should be conducted in the future to obtain a more
comprehensive understanding of the tolerance mechanism of
leadership on employee behavior and team performance and
build a complete and systematic theoretical model.
Second, we found that inclusive leadership indirectly aects
employee voice behavior and team performance through the
mediating eect of the caring ethical climate. To encourage
employees to speak up, leaders may need to directly invite them
to do so by showing more specic, participative/open leadership
behaviors (Tangirala and Ramanujam, 2012). Accordingly, the
team members in our sample who are in the caring ethical climate
are more willing to express their suggestions, which contribute to
team improvement.
Finally, this study revealed the mechanism of positive cross-
level eects of inclusive leadership on caring ethical climate,
employee voice behavior, and team performance. Our results
indicated that leadership can positively aect employee behav-
ior through employee cognition. is outcome not only sup-
ported the conclusions in previous research but also elucidated
the relationship between leadership style and employee voice
behavior. erefore, this study extends the theoretical vision of
inclusive leadership, team ethical climate, and employee voice
be hav ior.
Practical Contributions
Our ndings provide three important contributions for human
resource management and practice. First, the results of our study
indicate that team leaders should be aware that high-quality
inclusive leadership style can lead to higher levels of caring ethical
climate so that they need to pay attention to leadership behavior.
Team leaders should demonstrate ethical and proper behavior
to their employees through their own individual behaviors and
interpersonal interaction with employees. ese behaviors should
be reected by consistent words and deeds, such as caring about
employees, showing respect to employees, and helping employ-
ees develop their ability. In formulating strategic planning and
management decisions, leaders should attach importance to the
shaping of inclusive leadership style, enhance the sense of belong-
ing of employees, and exhibit a high degree of loyalty. Employees
will then be willing to contribute to the team or organization with
suggestions and self-value.
Second, given the importance of the caring ethical climate
for highly satisfactory team performance, our results suggest the
value of actively focusing on organizational ethics. Organizational
ethics should be taken into consideration as enterprises develop
8
Qi and Liu Effects of Inclusive Leadership
Frontiers in Communication | www.frontiersin.org September 2017 | Volume 2 | Article 8
organizational development strategy and planning. Enterprises
should adopt positive ethical policies and increase individual
perception of the ethical environment of the organization.
At the organizational level, ethical systems, such as corporate
ethics policy, as well as ethics consultation, teaching, and training
should be constructed.
ird, the consistent results that we found involving caring ethi-
cal climate as the mediating variable provide important practical
contributions for positive employee behavior. Enterprises need
to create caring ethical climate to help employees obtain a greater
value and stimulate their higher-order needs. Employees receive
emotional benets such as creating positive emotions, gaining
mental and physical pleasure, being assured of obtaining care,
and feeling organizational warmth from caring ethical climate.
Leaders should pay attention to their interaction with employees,
encourage and help them carry out their tasks, enhance their
sense of belonging, as well as create a harmonious and friendly
ethical climate.
Limitations and Future Studies
As with any research, this study includes limitations that are
worth noting. First, the study has a small sample size. Whether
the sample size aected the results is dicult to determine. In the
future, a study with a larger sample size for data analysis should
be conducted. With time and resource constrains considered, the
samples in this study reect a narrow scope of enterprises. Future
studies should select better enterprise samples across the country
and attempt to reduce outcome deviations that are attributable to
regional dierences.
Another limitation concerns the generalizability of our
results. In the conduct of the study, we found a signicant dier-
ence in voice behavior between the nancial and manufacturing
industries. e team performance of high-technology enterprises
and non-high-technology enterprises also reect a signicant
dierence. In the future, studies on the eect of leadership style
on employee behavior and team performance can be evaluated
among dierent industries for the conclusion to provide more
practical contributions.
Finally, this study only validated the mediating role of
perceived caring ethical climate, implying that other mediators
that can reect psychological cognition have yet to be excavated;
similarly, this study only veried the positive eects of inclusive
leadership on positive employee behavior such as employee
voice behavior; the eects on other positive employee behaviors
(such as feedback seeking behavior and organizational citizen-
ship behavior) also need to be explored. erefore, while future
studies can further investigate the mediating eect of other vari-
ables, they should also explore the inuence of inclusive leader-
ship on driving positive action and outcome as well as conduct
a cross-cultural comparative study of inclusive leadership.
ETHICS STATEMENT
is research is carried out by means of a questionnaire survey,
the content of the questionnaire does not involve any sensitive
or personal privacy or ethical and moral topics. e way to ll
in the questionnaire is to take out the secret system, which can
further ensure the rights of the people who answer the question-
naire. erefore, there’s no need to apply for the permission of
the ethics committee.
AUTHOR CONTRIBUTIONS
Substantial contributions to the conception and design of the
work: LQ and BL. Statistical analyses: LQ. Draing the work:
LQ and BL. Critically revising the manuscript: LQ and BL. All
authors read and approved the nal version.
FUNDING
is work was funded by the National Social Science Foundation
“e research on leadership style, team ethical climate and
employee deviant behavior in Chinese situation” (14BGL073);
Major Program of Humanities and Social Sciences of Shandong
University; and Youth Team Project of Humanities and Social
Sciences of Shandong University.
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Conict of Interest Statement: e authors declare that the research was
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be construed as a potential conict of interest.
Copyright © 2017 Qi and Liu. is is an open-access article distributed under the
terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). e use, distribution or
reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) or licensor
are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance
with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted
which does not comply with these terms.
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Based on social learning theory, the present study investigates the influence of inclusive leadership on employees’ helping behaviors. Further, psychological mechanisms (psychological safety and psychological engagement) are investigated in the relationship between inclusive leadership and employees’ helping behaviors. The data was collected in three time-lags through a questionnaire from 409 nurses working in the health sector of Pakistan. The collected data was analyzed through IBM-SPSS and AMOS to test the proposed model. The study’s findings show that inclusive leadership positively influences employees helping behaviors. Moreover, the psychological factors (i.e., safety and engagement) mediate the relationship between inclusive leadership and employees’ helping behaviors. Theoretical and practical implications for managers, practitioners, and organizations are discussed, while study limitations and directions for future research are also highlighted.
... There is very limited research we found which attempted the research question like how inclusive leadership enhances voice behavior. More recently, Guo et al. (2020), J. Jiang et al. (2020), Jolly and Lee (2020), and Lee and Dahinten (2021), and L. Qi and Liu (2017) examined inclusive leadership-voice behavior relationship through caring ethical climate, need for competence, need for relatedness, leader-member exchange, psychological safety, and leader identification, yet there is need to explore more mechanism to understand when such leadership behavior effectively predicts voice behavior. Voice behavior technically is not part of job requirements and is required when employees encounter a problem that needs attention to address before it gets dangerous, therefore employees need sufficient motivation to show this extra-role behavior (Raub & Robert, 2013). ...
... nd showing concern about their welfare (Nembhard & Edmondson, 2006), inclusive leaders encouraged employees to contribute through their unique ideas, concerns, and suggestions. Meanwhile, some recent studies acknowledged that inclusive leadership significantly predicted voice behavior (i.e., Guo et al., 2020;J. Jiang et al., 2020;Jolly & Lee, 2020;L. Qi & Liu, 2017). Consequently, the following hypothesis is proposed: H1: Inclusive leadership is positively related to voice behavior. ...
... Thus, in an inclusive culture, employees feel more at ease to speak up. These findings are in line with the study of L. Qi and Liu (2017), Guo et al. (2020), Jolly and Lee (2020), and J. Jiang et al. (2020) who found inclusive leadership conducive to voice behavior, and also with studies of Javed, Khan et al. (2018) and Carmeli et al. (2010) who witnessed inclusive leadership enhancing employees' change-oriented behaviors. Moreover, the results support the positive relationship between inclusive leadership and psychological empowerment. ...
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Although there have been studies in the past that have highlighted the important role of leadership in motivating employees to speak up, relational leadership has been scarcely investigated in this context. Therefore, the current research investigates the relationship between inclusive leadership, as a form of relational leadership, and employees' voice behavior directly and indirectly via psychological empowerment. Using the data collected from 252 employees and their respective supervisors working in cargo companies across the United Kingdom, this study finds a positive relationship between inclusive leadership and voice behavior. The results further confirm the mediating role of psychological empowerment in the relationship between inclusive leadership and voice behavior. We use causal attribution theory to support the findings and discuss implications for research and practice.
... This commitment to the team can also be considered as team members' giving back to their leaders' inclusiveness from the perspective of the social exchange theory (Blau, 1964). Moreover, by overcoming the barriers between team members from different backgrounds, inclusive leadership can build a positive social environment where team members are more aware of the team goals and increase work coordination (Wasserman et al., 2008;Mor Barak, 2013;Qi and Liu, 2017), which might be the most important mediating mechanism for team outcomes (Anderson and West, 1998). Overall, at the team level, inclusive leadership improves the commitment to teams of team members and shapes a comprehensive work atmosphere where team members feel comfortable to generate innovative ideas and cooperate with each other to accomplish team innovation. ...
... Thus, inclusive leadership can affect individuals by affecting other team members. For another, by creating "an environment that acknowledges, welcomes, and accepts different approaches, styles, perspectives, and experiences" (Winters, 2014, p. 206), inclusive leadership effectively manages the workforce diversity and positively influences the team process by promoting coordination and mitigating conflicts (Qi and Liu, 2017;Randel et al., 2018). The environment created by inclusive leaders not only benefits the teams they lead but also makes every team member feel supported and energized to better engage in their tasks to repay their leaders (Pless and Maak, 2004). ...
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Taking both individual and team levels into consideration has been called for years in terms of research on leadership. Inclusive leadership, a trending leadership style emerging from the global needs of managing the increasingly diversified workplace nowadays, has yet been rarely studied at both levels. To answer these calls, we specifically analyzed the relationship between inclusive leadership, team psychological safety, and innovative performance via a multilevel analysis. The results are based on a study of 356 employees from 90 working teams. Individual perceptions of inclusive leadership are positively related to the individual innovative performance through the mediation of individual psychological safety. Team perceptions of inclusive leadership are positively related to the team innovative performance through the mediation of team psychological safety. Moreover, team perceptions of inclusive leadership are positively related to the individual innovative performance through the cross-level mediation of individual psychological safety. Implications for both theory and practice are discussed.
... It emphasizes that members of the organization consider the interests of others and use altruism as a basic guideline for identifying and resolving ethical issues. 25 about the interests of others and the organization than their own interests. 26 According to leadership substitution theory, the effectiveness of leadership behavior is enhanced when the organization can provide support factors that are consistent with leadership behavior. ...
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Purpose: Whether in traditional manufacturing or modern intelligent manufacturing, craftsmen have always been the backbone of China's manufacturing industry. Cultivating employee craftsmanship spirit has become one of the top tasks of human resource management in China's manufacturing industry. The question is what kind of leadership style will promote employee craftsmanship spirit and how can it be promoted? To answer this question, based on self-determination theory and social exchange theory, this study focuses on the influence of spiritual leadership on employee craftsmanship spirit, as well as the moderating effect of having a caring ethical climate and the mediating effect of autonomous motivation between spiritual leadership and employee craftsmanship spirit. Methods: The leaders and employees of 103 work teams from Chinese manufacturing enterprises were investigated, and 434 paired data points were obtained. Data analysis and hypothesis testing were conducted using data analysis software, such as HLM, SPSS, and AMOS. Results: The results reveal that spiritual leadership can significantly positively predict employee craftsmanship spirit. Employee autonomous motivation plays a partial mediating role in the positive correlation between spiritual leadership and craftsmanship spirit. Additionally, caring ethical climate positively moderates the correlation between spiritual leadership and the autonomous motivation of employees. The greater the caring ethical climate of teams is, the stronger the positive correlation between spiritual leadership and the autonomous motivation of employees. Conclusion: Leadership plays an important role in the process of employees improving their skills, acquiring the status of craftsmen, and developing craftsmanship beliefs. Therefore, it is of great significance to understand how spiritual leadership style can effectively promote craftsmanship spirit among employees for high-quality development of the manufacturing industry. This study reveals the ways that spiritual leadership influences employee craftsmanship spirit from a new perspective and confirms the mediating effect of autonomous motivation as well as the moderating effect of caring ethical climate. The research conclusions can provide practical solutions for cultivating employee craftsmanship spirit.
... Managers should be concerned about interacting with service employees, enhancing connectedness, and fostering an amicable caring climate (Qi and Liu, 2017). Following Dale's (2005) suggestions, managers need to help frontline employees feel they are cared for by (1) a personal touch, (2) personal follow-ups, (3) public compliments, (4) the use of frequent contact, and (5) personalized comments in writing. ...
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Purpose This study examines the mediating effects of burnout on the relationship between dysfunctional customer behavior and commitment to service quality. The study also investigates the moderated mediation effects of caring and instrumental climates. Design/methodology/approach Data were collected from 622 frontline employees and 81 managers. Data analysis uses multi-level structural equation modeling. Findings The findings show that employee burnout negatively mediates the relationship between dysfunctional customer behavior and commitment to service quality. Moreover, a caring climate weakens this indirect effect. Originality/value This study reveals that dysfunctional customer behavior decreases commitment to service quality through burnout and caring climate decrease weakens this indirect effect.
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Problem Inclusive leadership models have been introduced to represent a shift from traditional leadership approaches. However, missing from these models are principles of social justice and forward-thinking outcomes for building human relations. An examination of the detrimental consequences of exclusion is needed to realize the benefits of inclusion. Solution The Deconstructing Exclusion for Inclusive Leadership model, a framework for practice, is offered as a practical guide for deconstructing exclusionary practices and building positive, healthy human relations. The model is supported by affective behaviors and traits and cognitive competencies that inclusive leaders need to discourage exclusion and advocate for more inclusive relationships and social justice outcomes. Stakeholders Leaders, managers, practitioners, human resource development scholars, researchers, and educators.
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In this study, it is aimed to determine the mediating role of organizational commitment in the effect of organizational ethical climate on organizational voice. The data of the research were collected through a questionnaire. The population of research consists of all employees of machinery production company in Bandırma, Balıkesir, which has 170 employees, and the sample consists of 120 employees. As a result of the multi-correlation, there is a positive and significant relationship between ethical climate and organizational commitment, significant relationship between organizational commitment and organizational voice, significant relationships between ethical climate and organizational voice. As a result of the hierarchical regression, it was determined that organizational commitment has a mediating role in the effect of organizational ethical climate on organizational voice. In the last part, the results were discussed.
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Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the mediating effect of employee psychological empowerment in the leader-member exchange (LMX)-employee voice relationship, and whether role clarity moderated the effect. Design/methodology/approach – A paired questionnaire survey was used to collect data by 295 employees and their supervisors from nine firms in the People’s Republic of China. Findings – The hypothesized moderated mediation model used in this study was supported. Psychological empowerment mediated the positive relationship between LMX and employee voice, and stronger role clarity tends to strengthen this indirect relationship. Originality/value – Few studies have explored the mediating mechanism in the relationship between LMX and employee voice. Based on role theory, this study broadens the research on the LMX-employee voice relationship by introducing employee psychological empowerment as the mediator. This study further explores role clarity as the boundary condition for this indirect relationship.
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Although researchers have argued that employees often carefully examine social contexts before speaking up to leaders, the role of leaders' affective states has received little attention. The current research addresses this important issue from an emotion-associal-information perspective by exploring whether, why, and when leaders' affect influences employees' voice behavior. By collecting data of 640 daily interactions from both sides of 85 leader-employee dyads using the experience sampling method through mobile surveys, we found that leaders' positive affect was positively related to employees' voice behavior. Furthermore, such a relationship could be accounted for through employees' psychological safety directly via the emotional contagion mechanism (through employees' own positive affect) but not directly via the signaling mechanism (through employees' assessment of leaders' positive affect); and the effects of both employees' own positive affect and their assessments of leaders' positive affect on psychological safety were stronger when the leader-member exchange relationship was weak. Interestingly, we also found that leaders' negative affect was positively related to employees' voice, but neither emotional contagion nor signaling mechanisms explained this effect. These findings highlight the important role of leaders' affect in the voice process and also provide insights for when employees would choose to speak up to their leaders.
Book
Mor Barak, Managing Diversity: Toward a Globally Inclusive Workplace Managing Diversity won the prestigious Academy of Management’s George Terry Book award for “the most outstanding contribution to the advancement of management knowledge” and received the CHOICE Award for Outstanding Academic Titles by the Association of College and University Libraries. “An excellent resource to develop, theorize, and work out the inclusive workplace in a very comprehensive, encompassing, and interdisciplinary way. .. Boxes, tables, graphs, and figures as well as practical examples and empirical illustrations… make the book very interesting for both the conceptual, pedagogical research interest and the practical, educational interest.” - Cordula Barzantny, Academy of Management Learning & Education Journal This book introduces a unique and refreshing prism that is highly useful for managers and scholars alike. The authentic examples and case studies bring the content to life and make this book a very interesting and captivating read. Managing Diversity is a ‘must read’ for managers who need to effectively manage today’s diverse work force in order to survive and thrive in the global economy. - Alan D. Levy, Chairman and CEO Tishman International Companies Successful management of today’s increasingly diverse global workforce is among the most important challenges faced by corporate leaders, human resource managers, and management consultants. In the Third Edition of this award-winning book, Michàlle E. Mor Barak argues that exclusion is one of the most significant problems facing today’s diverse workforce, and she provides strategies for unleashing the potential embedded in a multicultural and diverse global workforce. Key Features: • Offers up-to-date information and statistics on the new realities of the global workforce, including demographic, legislation, and social policy trends around the world • Analyzes the causes and consequences of workforce exclusion, highlighting the groups commonly excluded in various countries and providing theories that explain exclusion and inclusion in the workplace • Provides an original and comprehensive model of the Inclusive Workplace suggesting policies, procedures and programs that facilitate its implementation New to This Edition • New and revised diversity case examples from around the world • Updated statistics on global workforce trends and new legislations and social policies in different countries • New information about leadership in diversity management • Up-to-date research on diversity management outcomes • Assessment tools for organizational diversity climate and for inclusion-exclusion with data on their psychometric properties A password-protected instrucot teaching site at… includes PowerPoint slides, chapter overviews and outlines and test questions. Michàlle E. Mor Barak is a professor at the University of Southern California with a joint appointment at the School of Social Work and the Marshall School of Business. She holds the Lenore Stein-Wood and William S. Wood Professorship of Social Work and Business in a Global Society.
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Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship between transformational leadership and voice during the change-planning process. The authors propose a moderated mediation model to investigate the relationship between voice, other change-related variables, and the boundary conditions of transformational leadership. Design/methodology/approach – The authors collected survey data from 124 employees and their leaders in a medical technology company in Norway. The organization was planning a major restructuring of its working procedures. The authors analyzed the data using PROCESS and a fixed effect approach. Findings – The results suggest that transformational leadership has no effect on change-related voice (CRV) by itself. However, there is an indirect effect through affective commitment to change. This effect is conditional on the employees’ level of perceived change impact. Research limitations/implications – The paper is limited by the cross-sectional design of the study. Other potential limitations are discussed. Originality/value – The paper is the first to explore the relationship between transformational leadership and CRV, and is thus interesting for practitioners who wish to increase the level of CRV from their employees. Furthermore, researchers interested in organizational change and proactivity constructs such as voice will also find the paper valuable.
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This paper reports the development and psychometric validation of a multi-dimensional measure of facet-specific climate for innovation within groups at work: the Team Climate Inventory (TCI). Brief reviews of the organizational climate and work group innovation literatures are presented initially, and the need for measures of facet-specific climate at the level of the proximal work group asserted. The four-factor theory of facet-specific climate for innovation, which was derived from these reviews, is described, and the procedures used to operationalize this model into the original version measure described. Data attesting to underlying factor structure, internal homogeneity, predictive validity and factor replicability across groups of the summarized measure are presented. An initial sample of 155 individuals from 27 hospital management teams provided data for the exploratory factor analysis of this measure. Responses from 121 further groups in four occupations (35 primary health care teams, 42 social services teams, 20 psychiatric teams and 24 oil company teams; total N = 971) were used to apply confirmatory factor analysis techniques. This five-factor, 38-item summarized version demonstrates robust psychometric properties, with acceptable levels of reliability and validity. Potential applications of this measure are described and the implication of these findings for the measurement of proximal work group climate are discussed.
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We examined the mediating roles of affective organizational commitment and employee creativity in the relationship between inclusive leadership and employee work engagement. Participants were 246 employees of 6 companies in the services industry in Vietnam, and they completed the Employee Work Engagement Scale, Inclusive Leadership Scale, Affective Organizational Commitment Scale, and Employee Creativity Scale. We found that inclusive leadership was positively related to employee work engagement, and that both affective organizational commitment and employee creativity mediated this relationship. Our findings represent a theoretical contribution to social exchange theory and provide useful managerial implications for organizations to improve work engagement among employees.
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The present study demonstrates how three psychological antecedents (psychological safety, felt obligation for constructive change, and organization-based self-esteem) uniquely, differentially, and interactively predict supervisory reports of promotive and prohibitive "voice" behavior. Using a two-wave panel design, we collected data from a sample of 239 employees to examine the hypothesized relationships. Our results showed that felt obligation was most strongly related to subsequent promotive voice; psychological safety was most strongly related to subsequent prohibitive voice; and organization-based self-esteem was reciprocally related to promotive voice. Further, although felt obligation strengthened the positive effect of psychological safety on both forms of voice, organization-based self-esteem weakened this effect for promotive voice. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.