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Evaluation of nutritive quality of common carp, Cyprinus carpio L.



Common carp is the most important commercial fish species in Serbia. This fish is a valuable source of nutritive components and plays a role in healthy human nutrition. This review evaluates the nutritive quality of common carp including proximate and fatty acid compositions as well as their effects on human health. The fat content and fatty acid composition of carp have been shown to vary due to different environmental factors and particularly due to nutrition. Technology of production and composition of planktonic and benthic organisms in fish ponds have been recognised as significant factors affecting carp meat quality and desirable chemical and fatty acid composition. Carp meat quality but also production parameters and fish health are positively influenced by a balanced feed mixture. Due to the low content of saturated fatty acids and cholesterol plus high levels of unsaturated fatty acids, common carp meat consumption could be linked with reduced risk of different heart diseases in humans. Also, fish proteins can have many beneficial roles in the preservation of human health. This paper emphasises the importance of consumption of common carp in order to prevent many diseases and preserve human health.
IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science
Evaluation of nutritive quality of common carp,
Cyprinus carpio
To cite this article: D Ljubojevi et al 2017 IOP Conf. Ser.: Earth Environ. Sci. 85 012013
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59th International Meat Industry Conference MEATCON2017 IOP Publishing
IOP Conf. Series: Earth and Environmental Science 85 (2017) 012013 doi :10.1088/1755-1315/85/1/012013
Evaluation of nutritive quality of common carp, Cyprinus
carpio L.
D Ljubojević1, V Đorđević2 and M Ćirković1
1 Scientific Veterinary Institute “Novi Sad”, Rumenački put 20, 21000 Novi Sad,
Republic of Serbia
2 Institute of Meat Hygiene and Technology, Kaćanskog 13, 11000 Belgrade, Republic
of Serbia
Abstract. Common carp is the most important commercial fish species in Serbia. This fish is a
valuable source of nutritive components and plays a role in healthy human nutrition. This
review evaluates the nutritive quality of common carp including proximate and fatty acid
compositions as well as their effects on human health. The fat content and fatty acid
composition of carp have been shown to vary due to different environmental factors and
particularly due to nutrition. Technology of production and composition of planktonic and
benthic organisms in fish ponds have been recognised as significant factors affecting carp meat
quality and desirable chemical and fatty acid composition. Carp meat quality but also
production parameters and fish health are positively influenced by a balanced feed mixture.
Due to the low content of saturated fatty acids and cholesterol plus high levels of unsaturated
fatty acids, common carp meat consumption could be linked with reduced risk of different
heart diseases in humans. Also, fish proteins can have many beneficial roles in the preservation
of human health. This paper emphasises the importance of consumption of common carp in
order to prevent many diseases and preserve human health.
1. Introduction
Aquaculture has been one of the fastest growing branches of animal protein production during recent
decades, and common carp is one of the most frequently farmed fish worldwide and also in Central
and Eastern Europe. It is a highly esteemed fish species due to numerous desirable traits such as fast
growth rate, good feed conversion ratio of both natural and supplementary feeds and relative
resistance to poor environmental conditions and diseases. Common carp is the most widespread fish
species on the market in Serbia and undoubtedly is a valuable nutritional source of proteins, lipids and
other nutritive components which play many important roles in human health. Besides that, meat of
common carp possesses a specific flavour and is easily digested. Having that in mind, information
regarding factors affecting the quality of common carp meat is very necessary. The proximate
composition and fatty acid composition of common carp are influenced by age, season, different
environmental factors, culture systems and diet. The aim of this review is to evaluate the nutritive
quality of common carp. We also highlight the importance of consuming common carp in order to
promote human health.
59th International Meat Industry Conference MEATCON2017 IOP Publishing
IOP Conf. Series: Earth and Environmental Science 85 (2017) 012013 doi :10.1088/1755-1315/85/1/012013
2. Factors which affect nutritional composition of common carp
The fat content and fatty acid composition of different fish species vary significantly [1-4], even
among fish belonging to the same family. The other factors which affect nutritional composition of
common carp meat are environmental factors, structure of natural food present in fish ponds, cultural
system including production technology and particularly, diet [1,5-7]. The use of formulated feed
which contained ingredients of both animal and vegetable origin showed many positive effects on fish
health, conditions, production parameters and meat quality [3,5,8]. The development of better feeding
practice is important prerequisite in sustainable common carp production and enables the improvement
of growth performance and chemical and fatty acid composition of carp.
3. The diet effect on meat quality of common carp
A variety of feeds are provided for carp raised in aquaculture, and the feed type mainly depends on the
culture system. Traditional culture systems for carp are the extensive culture system, in which only the
natural food available in the fish ponds is used, and the semi-intensive culture system, in which, to
supplement natural food, cereals such as corn are used as additional feed. Also, simple mixtures of
agricultural products which are easily accessible and cheap are often used. These are rice, wheat,
barley, peas and defatted meals of oil-producing plants such as soya bean, sunflower, cotton or
rapeseed meal. Undoubtedly, the quantity of feed given as well as the percentage of each component
in the mixture varies considerably.
The main problem in traditional culture systems is that addition of corn frequently leads to
increased accumulation of fat in the meat of common carp and especially around the internal organs
[5,9]. That fact further leads to the prejudice that common carp is a very fatty fish. Examination of
common carp muscle tissues from fish obtained from different culture systems showed that this really
is prejudice, and that the accumulation of lipids in common carp meat is linked with the culture system
and, consequently, with nutrition [5,7] (table 1).
During recent decades, due to the expansion and intensification of carp rearing, traditional feed
consisting of locally accessible components has been replaced by industrially-produced feed which
contains protein components of animal or plant origin. Such feed, used together with the exploitation
of natural food, has become more common in the carp facilities in Serbia. The main result has been
improvement of meat quality, particularly in terms of lowering the fat content and improving the fatty
acid composition in comparison with the traditional semi-intensive system [4,5,9]. The importance of
adequate preparation of fish ponds in these culture systems, which achieves a desirable structure of
plankton and benthic organisms was described earlier [1]; these organisms are a significant source of
nutritive components for carp [8]. Plankton and benthos contain high concentrations of n-3
polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA), including eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic
acid (DHA) [8,10].
The lipid content of common carp fillets can differ greatly, from 6.3 to 15% [3] and from 1 to 13%
[11,12] in commercially-sized fish, mainly depending on diet. Furthermore, the high average lipid
content in carp fillets was probably the result of the fact that the energy-protein ratio in the fish diet
was not well balanced [3]. It is known that feed rich in saccharides leads to an increased percentage of
lipids in fish and a simultaneous decrease in the percentage of protein. Unsuitably high levels of
carbohydrates and fats in common carp feed negatively affects the meat quality of this fish. Common
carp deposits fats mainly around the organs, but also stores it in muscular tissue [13]. When carp were
fed only natural food from their fish pond, their fillets contained only 1.76% fat, while fillets of carp
fed supplementary maize contained 13.26% fat; fillets of carp fed supplementary wheat contained
11.22% fat and fillets of carp fed supplementary triticale contained 9.72% fat [14].
The fatty acid composition of fish meat corresponds to that of the feed which is ingested. The
relatively undesirable composition of fatty acid profile in the lipids of common carp reported earlier
[3] is connected with the diet. Also, the ratio of n-3/n-6 fatty acids in common carp varied by feed [5].
Carp grown on natural food had a high content of both n-6 and n-3 fatty acids [1,15]. Supplementary
59th International Meat Industry Conference MEATCON2017 IOP Publishing
IOP Conf. Series: Earth and Environmental Science 85 (2017) 012013 doi :10.1088/1755-1315/85/1/012013
feeding with grains leads to reduced amounts of essential fatty acids in fish meat, and this is due to the
lower proportion of natural food in the diet of the carp which received additional grains. Moreover, the
PUFA/SFA ratio was the most favourable in the carp fed complete feed mixtures and the least in those
fish fed with maize and wheat (table 1) [5]. The recommended ratio of PUFA/SFA, which is an
important indicator of the quality of fish fat, should be above 0.4 [16]. Since some meats of
terrestrially-farmed animals naturally have a PUFA/SFA ratio of around 0.1 [16], meat has been
implicated in causing the imbalanced fatty acid intake of today’s consumers. The ratio of unsaturated
fatty acids and SFA (USFA/SFA) is also of great importance for assessing the quality of fats. It is
assumed that the favourable ratio is above 0.35 [17]. Generally, fish fats contain relatively low
percentages of SFA, less than 30% (table 1), with the exception of a few species [18]. Oleic acid was
reported as the dominant MUFA in common carp (table 1) [3-6,18]. This fatty acid also plays an
important role in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases [19]. High levels of oleic acid, arachidonic
acid and palmitoleic acid are characteristic for fat of freshwater fish [3-6,18] (table 1).
Table 1. Content of protein (%), fat (%) and selected fatty acids (%) of total fatty acids) of the muscle
of common carp fed different diets, adapted from Ćirković et al. [1] and Ljubojević et al. [4,5,6].
Wild carp
caught in
Carp reared in
olyculture on
natural food
Carp reared in
on natural
Carp fed
grains (80%
corn and 20%
Carp fed feed
mixtures in
earthen ponds
Carp fed feed
mixtures in
Protein content 16.69 16.21 15.4 15.59 17.1 16.23
Fat content 7.13 2.42 2.07 6.85 3.19 9.79
C16:0 19.4 18.35 20.99 17.31 16.89 12.52
C18:1, cis-9 30.2 19.39 32.58 51.35 34.45 33.55
C18:2, n-6 8.79 10.29 13.49 8.7 22.57 38.43
C18:3, n-3 2.71 5.96 4.59 0.61 2.12 3.16
C20:4, n-6 2.42 6.21 2.79 0.73 1.44 1.13
C20:5, n-3 1.36 4.05 1.17 0.2 0.93 0.20
C22:6, n-3 0.87 5.75 2.22 0.25 1.86 0.43
SFAa 27.59 27.15 28.82 24.19 22.4 17.18
MUFAb 52.94 28.79 43.49 64.31 45.12 37.25
PUFAc 19.7 44.08 27.69 11.53 32.48 45.46
n-6 13.73 22.96 17.93 10.24 26.01 41.56
n-3 5.97 21.12 9.75 1.29 6.48 4.00
n-3/n-6 0.44 0.92 0.54 0.13 0.25 0.1
n-6/n-3 2.30 1.09 1.84 7.99 4.02 10.79
PUFA/SFA 0.71 1.62 0.64 0.18 0.72 2.65
USFAd/SFA 2.63 2.68 0.96 0.48 1.45 4.82
a SFA – saturated fatty acids.
b MUFA – monounsaturated fatty acids.
c PUFA – polyunsaturated fatty acids.
d USFA – unsaturated fatty acids.
4. Consumer preference regarding meat quality of common carp
In some countries (Asia, Israel, Central and Eastern Europe), common carp is a highly esteemed fish
species, and carp meat is highly regarded due to its specific savoury flavour and its high digestibility.
In contrast, in other parts of the world, especially in North America and Australia, this species is
considered as a weed-inhabiting fish that is not desirable for human consumption. However, many
dishes can be prepared using this fish, undoubtedly confirming the gastronomic quality of carp [2].
59th International Meat Industry Conference MEATCON2017 IOP Publishing
IOP Conf. Series: Earth and Environmental Science 85 (2017) 012013 doi :10.1088/1755-1315/85/1/012013
Common carp meat contains highly valuable proteins, fats and other nutritive substances. It is a
medium fatty fish and stores most of its fats as adipose tissue in the abdominal wall [11]. The amount
of fat in muscle tissue contributes to its sensory properties, including organoleptic properties, texture
and flavour. Meat which is rich in fat is juicy, while lean tissue is dry and often perceived as thickly
fibrous [20]. The fat content in fish can sometimes exceed the protein content [21]. Such excessive fat
content (>10%) has a negative effect on the sensory properties of common carp meat, which becomes
soapy. This can occur when fish are cultured in earthen ponds where the amount of natural food is
insufficient and a lot of grain is given as a supplementary feed [21]. On the other hand, an excessively
low fat content in carp muscle has a negative impact on the sensory properties, and also consumption
of so lean a fish reduces the intake of fatty acids in the human diet.
5. Cholesterol content in common carp and other fish
The amount of total cholesterol was 48.9 mg/100 g in one-year old carp in April and 54.3 mg/100 g in
the same aged fish harvested in June [22]. The cholesterol content in female and male carp fillets was
69.4 mg/100g to 77.6 mg/100g [23], and was 55.8 mg/100g in two-year-old carp [1]. The total
cholesterol content of common carp was 47mg/100g [24], and cholesterol in carp muscle varied
considerably, from 38 to 120 mg/100g, depending on fish breed and age, husbandry system, and
harvest season [25]. In other literature on cholesterol in fish, the cholesterol content of many
freshwater fish species ranged between 40.99 and 52.79 mg/100g [26], while the total cholesterol in
freshwater fish is lower than in marine fish [27]. In humans, daily intake of cholesterol is currently
recommended not to exceed 300 mg [4].
6. The beneficial effects of common carp in human diet
Common carp should be included in human diets for at least three reasons: as a general source of
nutritional components; as low fat, high protein food; and as source of PUFA. In carp meat, all
nutrients and especially essential fatty acids are present in optimum quantities for human needs
[1,3,5]. Consumption of n-3 PUFA from fish meat has positive effects on human health, especially in
the prevention of heart attack, stroke, atherosclerosis and high blood pressure. Furthermore, there are
positive effects on the circulatory system, the process of remembering and learning, reproductive
system and photoreceptors [28].
It is well known that fish are the most important source of n-3 long-chain fatty acids and highly
unsaturated fatty acids (n-3 HUFA) in human diets. A favourable n-3/n-6 ratio has a positive impact
on human health [28]. There are various recommendations from world organizations related to fish
consumption and intake of n-3 fatty acids, as well as of appropriate ratios of different groups of fatty
acids. The optimal range of n-3/n-6 ratio for human health recommended by WHO/FAO is 0.5 to 0.25
[28]. There are various data regarding the n-3/n-6 ratio of common carp which varies between 0.8 and
2.4 [29]. Other studies reported this ratio is about 0.5 [5,25], or about 0.2 [5,22] (table 1).
The importance of fats and fatty acids from common carp for human health is highlighted in this
review, but it is impossible to explain the beneficial effects of fish meat on the human health only in
terms of fats, because the edible parts of fish include also muscle tissue, which provides a many other
nutritional ingredients, such as proteins. Fish protein, in relation to casein, lowered the level of blood
cholesterol in laboratory animals, showed anti-hypertensive properties and other beneficial effects
related to cardiovascular diseases as well as showed favourable effects against obesity [30,31]. The
percentage of essential amino acids in fish meat is very high, especially, for example, tryptophan, the
precursor of serotonin that likely contributes to feelings of well-being in humans [31].
7. Conclusion
Common carp meat is an important source of nutrients in human nutrition. It provides not only n-3
fatty acids but a variety of other nutrients that are important for health. The chemical and fatty acid
composition in carp meat varies significantly, which is due to different nutrition and environmental
59th International Meat Industry Conference MEATCON2017 IOP Publishing
IOP Conf. Series: Earth and Environmental Science 85 (2017) 012013 doi :10.1088/1755-1315/85/1/012013
factors. Overall, however, data on the nutritional composition of common carp meat highlight the
relative value of this food in balanced healthy human nutrition.
This work was supported by grants from the Ministry of Education, Science, and Technological
Development of the Republic of Serbia (project no. TR31011)
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IOP Conf. Series: Earth and Environmental Science 85 (2017) 012013 doi :10.1088/1755-1315/85/1/012013
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... Over centuries of production, Asian carp have played significant roles as food, providing high-quality dietary protein (Muhammad et al. 2011;Ljubojević et al. 2017;Pyz-Łukasik and Kowalczyk-Pecka 2017), in poverty reduction, and in promoting economic development of many Asian and European countries (Nie et al. 2019;B Li et al. 2021;Newton et al. 2021). More recently, the production, consumption, and trade in Asian carp have expanded to new regions such as North America, Western Europe, Africa, and Australia, where Asian carp are strongly rejected (Karnai and Szucs 2018). ...
... Asian carp are highly favored and nutritive species (Muhammad et al. 2011;Ljubojević et al. 2017;Pyz-Łukasik and Kowalczyk-Pecka 2017;, and the consumption of whole fish dishes is a common practice in Asia and other coastal regions (Akazawa et al. 2004;Kumar et al. 2021;Shishido et al. 2021). Casualties related to fishbone consumption are frequently reported, particularly in regions where fish is a vital part of most meals, e.g. ...
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Intermuscular bones (IBs) are a common characteristic of Asian carp. Ingested IBs and other fishbone fragments are associated with health complications and have remained a significant concern among consumers. Asian carp are bony, and their safety concerning IBs is a hot topic, prompting extensive research on possible ways of eliminating IBs from fish products. The research on IBs is ongoing and has covered many facets, including their formation, morphology, counts, evolution, proteome, and gene function. Processing technologies to eliminate IBs in carp products have become another trending subject. The available literature revealed that immediate solutions to the health threats associated with IBs could be through the effective application of processing technologies. Thus, this paper seeks to review the formation and morphology of IBs in Asian carp, emphasizing the implications of IBs on the health of consumers. The review also delves into the processing technologies that lessen the health threats of IBs to consumers and how they can provide the much-needed relief to consumers who are reluctant to consume Asian carp.
... This investigation has indicated that the farmed common carp was rich in linoleic acid which is in line with the findings of (Yeganeh et al., 2012) and (Ljubojević et al., 2017) on farmed fish. All freshwater fish can convert linoleic acid to arachidonic acid (Sargent et al., 2002). ...
... Therefore, the higher this ratio, the greater the effect (Chen and Liu, 2020). The present study found that PUFA/SFA (1.75 %) is similar to the value previously reported for farmed fish fed on feed mixture (Ljubojević et al., 2017). ...
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How to Cite: Ahmed, R. A. (2022). Evaluation of the nutritional quality of farmed common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) based on fatty and amino acids profile. Acta Aquatica Turcica, 18(2), 159-167. https://doi. Abstract: The common carp (Cyprinus carpio) is the main species of carp being cultured in mid and southern Iraq. The consumer believes that the farmed fish is less nutritious than the wild fish, which affects its market value. The current study was designed to investigate the nutritional value of the common carp cultivated in the Basrah province based on the fatty and amino acid profile. Fatty acids were determined by Gas chromatography (GC), while an Amino Acid Analyzer was used for the determination of amino acids. The results revealed that the tested fish is rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (especially essential omega-3 fatty acids), including α-linolenic acid (14.08±3.92%), docosahexaenoic acids (7.98 ±2.82 %), and eicosapentaenoic acid (2.81 ±0.34 %). Seven essential amino acids which are significant for the human body and the other ten non-essential amino acids were identified in the samples tested. Thus, it was established that the nutritional value of the farmed Cyprinus carpio is not less than the wild fish of the same species or family. Keywords  Common carp  Farmed fish  Fatty acid  Amino acids Özet: Sazan (Cyprinus carpio), orta ve güney Irak'ta yetiştirilen başlıca sazan türüdür. Tüketici, pazar değerini etkileyen çiftlik balıklarının, yabani balıklardan daha az besleyici olduğunu düşünmektedir. Çalışma, Basra İli'nde yetiştirilen sazan balığının besin değerini yağ ve amino asit profiline dayalı olarak araştırmak için tasarlanmıştır. Yağ asitleri, gaz kromatografisi (GC) ile belirlenirken, amino asitlerin belirlenmesi için bir Amino Asit Analizörü kullanıldı. Sonuçlar, test edilen balığın α-linolenik asit (%14.08±3.92), dekosaheksaenoik asitler (%7,98 ±2.82) ve eikosapentaenoik asit (2.81 ±) dahil olmak üzere çoklu doymamış yağ asitleri (özellikle esansiyel omega-3 yağ asitleri) açısından zengin olduğunu ortaya koydu. %0.34). Test edilen örneklerde insan vücudu için önemli olan yedi esansiyel amino asit ve diğer on esansiyel olmayan amino asit tespit edildi. Böylece çiftlikte yetiştirilen Cyprinus carpio'nun besin değerinin aynı tür veya familyaya ait yabani balıklardan daha az olmadığı tespit edilmiştir.
... Notably, such mutant evolution and fish-infecting microbial strains in aquaculture are not exempt in the future. It might result in diseased, low nutritional value carps with high mortality and adversely affect aquaculture (Ljubojević et al., 2017). Earlier studies reported that AGL as a bioactive metabolite, when supplemented in fish feed at the high dose of 75, 150 mg kg − 1 showed improved growth performance and immunity in Labeo rohita and Monopterus albus. ...
In aquaculture, the therapeutic potential of andrographolide had been beneficially documented but still restricted owing to its high dosage and low bioavailability. To maximize andrographolide's potential value in carps, we want to create an effective delivery mechanism. During the 8-week Cyprinus carpio feeding trial, we aimed to test a low dose (0.05 g kg⁻¹ or 0.005%) andrographolide-supplemented diet with or without a novel delivery system (chitosan particles stabilized Pickering emulsion). The experiment included four treatment groups, having a commercial carp feed as basal diet (control), diet containing Pickering emulsion without andrographolide encapsulation (PE), diet with free andrographolide (without Pickering emulsion) (AGL), diet with andrographolide encapsulated Pickering emulsion (AGL-PE). A significantly improved (p < 0.05) body weight, thermal growth coefficient and feed conversion ratio of the AGL-PE group was observed than control or AGL alone. It demonstrated improvement of AGL's efficacy may be brought by a proper delivery system. However, the delivery system alone (PE) did not significantly interfere with the results, as the differences of PE group were non-significant (p > 0.05) with either control or AGL group. The apparent digestibility coefficient of dietary nutrients, most notably protein, fiber, carbohydrates, and energy, had improved significantly (p < 0.05) by AGL-PE treatment compared to control. This most likely resulted in improved feed utilization and growth. AGL-PE addition in carp feed did not alter the ionic concentration of common blood electrolytes or metabolites, with the exception of nitrogen factors such as NH3, urea, and creatinine, possibly because of a higher digestible intake of nitrogen. Haemato-biological parameters showed a significant increase in lymphocyte, albumin, globulin, total protein, triacylglycerol with AGL-PE group (p > 0.05) than control supporting a stress free and strengthened immune system. Additionally, AGL-PE significantly improved survivability of common carp when challenged with koi herpes virus (KHV) due to immunostimulant effect of andrographolide (and chitosan in PE). Neutrophil left shift, a marker we used for establishing immunostimulant effect, was persistently high when either PE or andrographolide was introduced in diet; even maximum when they formed a hurdle system in AGL-PE diet. Modulation of Neutrophil left shift was possibly associated with amplified gut microbiota activity that coincided with higher fiber (and NFE) digestibility of AGL-PE group. The results firmly establish application of AGL-PE system as prebiotic additive in commercial aquafeed to simultaneously improve digestibility, feed utilization, growth, immunomodulatory and haematological properties in cultured fish.
... The quality of fish fillets is one of the most important aspects for consumers, fish meat freshness parameters are widely analyzed in practice (Cheng et al., 2014). It has been shown that the diet is one of the most crucial factors influencing the nutritional value of carp fillets, their quality, and structure (Ljubojević, 2017). The results of the meat colorimetric analysis ...
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The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of carrot pomaces dried at two temperatures as a feed component on growth performance, environmental sustainability, and meat quality in common carp ( Cyprinus carpio ). Three diets were developed: a control without pomace (CON); CPL with 15.5% carrot pomace dried at 40°C and CPH with 23.6% carrot pomace dried at 120°C. A total of 240 two-year-old common carp (average body weight of individual: 1025 g) were randomly distributed into 12 tanks, four per treatment, including 20 fish per tank. The experiment was performed using an outdoor open flow aquaculture system. The growth trial lasted 60 days, after which fish samples were taken for analysis of meat quality parameters. There were no significant differences between groups in terms of the final body weight, protein efficiency ratio, or survival rate. However, in terms of weight gain, specific growth rate, and feed conversion ratio, fish fed the CPH diet exhibited significant worsening. Moreover, the fillets of fish from the CPH group exhibited a darker coloration compared to the CON diet. It is concluded that high temperature drying of carrot pomace added to carp diet negatively affected fish quality. It should be also emphasized that inclusion of the both carrot pomaces tested in this study significantly increased the usage of fish meal per kilogram of fish body weight gain. These results showed a reduced efficacy of using carrot pomace in practical and sustainable common carp nutrition.
... The carp Cyprinus carpio (L.) is a very demanded fish for human consumption ( Ljubojević et al., 2017) and considered as one of the best suitable freshwaters for culture due to its good growth and excellent consumption for artificial food. Water is very essential for the fish to carry out all their physical roles in water. ...
... Common carp, Cyprinus carpio, is widely distributed in eutrophic freshwater in Europe and Asia. The species is highly valuable food source for ever growing human population with desirable aquaculture capabilities including high growth rate, better feed conversion ratio, higher capability of using carbohydrates and plant protein sources along with relatively high resistance to variable environmental conditions and diseases (Ljubojević et al., 2017). Following grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idellus, and silver carp, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, common carp had the highest global finfish aquaculture production, 4.557 million tons during 2015-2016, nearly accounting for 8% of total world finfish aquaculture product. ...
Dietary aflatoxin B1 contamination is a demanding challenge for aquaculture industry. The present study was conducted to elucidate the effect of dietary aflatoxin B1 contamination on growth and digestive status of juvenile common carp. The effect of dietary inclusion of rosemary and thyme to prevent such effects was also investigated. Fingerlings were subjected to seven treatments including various dietary aflatoxin B1 contamination (0, 50, 100, 200, 300 and 400 ppb) and a group received diet contained 400 ppb aflatoxin B1 and 4% rosemary and thyme powder. The experiment lasted for 12 weeks. Results revealed that dietary aflatoxin B1 contamination did not affect growth performance. However, intestinal alkaline protease, lipase and amylase activity of fish were increased according to aflatoxin B1 diet levels. In addition, intestine tissue lesions including necrosis, immune cell infiltration and fibroplasia were manifested with increasing dietary aflatoxin B1 content. Digestive enzymes activity was ameliorated by dietary incorporation of the plant powder in those fish received diet with 400 ppb aflatoxin B1, but it did not prevent intestinal lesions. In conclusion, juvenile common carp showed no changes regarding various growth indices even at 400 ppb aflatoxin B1 level. Although, 50 ppb dietary aflatoxin B1 did not significantly affect growth or digestive enzymes activity of juveniles, it caused mild intestinal tissue deteriorative changes. Including the medicinal powder blend in diet with 400 ppb aflatoxin B1 could ameliorate the increased digestive enzymes activity; however, it did not prevent the intestinal tissue pathological changes. Understanding the exact mechanisms behind such protective effect requires further studies.
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Wastewater from slaughterhouses in many countries is still discharged into rivers, without having been adequately treated. Such wastewater contains plenty of organic matter which is an ideal source of nutrients for fish, but also for the development of microorganisms. Thus, usage of wastewater in aquaculture could become a health risk for humans, fish due to the introduction of microorganisms into the aquatic environment. In the available literature, there is insufficient data on health and meat safety regarding common carp reared in purified wastewater. The aim of this study was to assess the health and meat safety of common carp cultivated in a fishpond supplemented with slaughterhouse wastewater that was subjected to tertiary treatment. The number of parasites was not significant and not a single parasitic disease was found in this study, but the number of parasite species detected was as expected and typical for carp production. No spring viraemia of carp or koi herpesvirus disease was found. The carp cultivated were in good health and completely safe for human consumption in terms of the presence of microbial contaminants. The safe use of wastewater for fish rearing should be encouraged, but proper treatment of wastewater must be applied before its use.
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The study is a preface to redesign farming of carp, and the aim was to determine the influence of three artificial feeds on carp growth performance, chemical composition, intestinal and liver histology, and the expression of two main genes of fatty acid catabolism: acyl-coenzyme A oxidase 1 (acox1) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (pparα). The 61-days trials were run in set of 9 floating cages in triplicate (n=3 per diet). The results showed that zootechnical parameters (i.e. feed conversion ratio, protein efficiency ratio) significantly improved with increased level of fat in diet, for instance, the lowest FCR was noted for fish fed diet A (9.90 ± 0.23% of fat). Additionally, gene expression analysis revealed that activity of acox1 and ppar in the liver depend on the fat level in carp diet. The expression of pparα and its target gene acox1 in the intestine of fish showed a distinct pattern in relation to liver samples, since feeds with high and low levels of fat exerted a comparable effect on the mRNA level of the studied genes. In conclusion, this study showed that the level of fat in common carp diets correlated with the level of lipids in the meat.
Consisting of 25 to 30% of protein in carp, water‐soluble sarcoplasmic proteins lost in wash water, have been recovered and freeze‐dried into a protein‐rich powder. Study objectives were to evaluate protein quality and safety of a silver carp sarcoplasm derived protein powder (CSP) compared to commercial protein supplements, casein, and whey. In vivo protein quality assessment of CSP showed a lower (P < 0.05) protein digestibility corrected amino acid score compared to the commercial protein sources. Despite greater (P < 0.05) fecal amino acid excretion in casein‐fed rats, there were no significant differences in liver and muscle amino acid profiles. All low (10% kcal) protein diets supported growth with the normal range. However, whey protein supplementation resulted in greater (P < 0.05) adiposity. CSP, casein, or whey‐fed rats showed no differences in major organ weights, renal damage biomarkers, or bone indices. Collectively, results indicated CSP was safe with protein quality comparable to casein. Practical Application As much as 40 percent of protein in fish can be lost due to sarcoplasmic protein solubilization in processing wash water. Silver carp sarcoplasm protein powder may have similar commercial potential as a sustainable and nutritious alternative to whey and casein proteins. This project aimed to verify the protein quality and safety of this economical protein source.
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The paper presents a comparative analysis of proximate and fatty acid composition of seven fish species from the Danube River including asp (Aspius aspius), common bream (Abramis brama), common barbel (Barbus barbus), common carp (Cyprinus carpio), sterlet (Acipenser ruthenus) and northern pike (Esox lucius). Eight samples of each species of freshwater fish were caught from the Danube. The amount of protein ranged from 16.69 g/100 g (common carp) to 18.61 g/100 g (barbel). Fat content in the fillets of pike, asp, bream, sterlet, common carp and barbel was 1.61; 2.78; 3.24; 5.39; 7.13 and 7.78 g/100 g, respectively. The total cholesterol content was the highest in the sterlet fillets (73.59 mg/100 g) and the lowest in the asp (36.26 mg/100 g). The total amount of saturated fatty acids was the highest in pike (39.9%) and the lowest in bream (27.27%). The sum of polyunsaturated fatty acid was however the highest in pike (28.15%) and the lowest percentage of PUFA was in bream (17.07%) and the lowest n-3/n-6 ratio was in common carp (0.44). The chemical composition and quantity of n-3 fatty acids varied largely by the fish species. The meat of warm water fishes from the Danube River represents a valuable source of healthy nutrition for the consumers.
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Fat quality of marketable fresh water fish species in the Republic of Serbia. Czech J. Food Sci., 31: 445–450. The chemical and fatty acid composition were evaluated of commercially important fish species (common carp, silver carp, bighead carp, grass carp, Wels catfish, and zander) which were collected from retail stores in the area of Novi Sad, Republic of Serbia. The amount of protein was the highest in zander (19.27%) and the lowest in grass carp fillets (14.73%). The percentage of fat ranged from 1.8 in zander to 10.07 in common carp. The total cholesterol content was the highest in Chinese carps fillets (approximately 65.38 mg/100 g), and the lowest in Wels catfish (33.14 mg/100 g). SFA were lowest in zander (28.6%). Bighead carp meat contained the highest percentage of PUFA (33.73%) while the lowest percentage was detected in common carp (20.1%). The chemical and fatty acid compositions of fish vary greatly between different species and within the same species. The quality of fish meat in Serbian retail stores is quite good but it should be improved by using feed mixtures on fish ponds.
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The muscle lipid and fatty acid composition of carp, Cyprinus carpio in Beysehir Lake the largest freshwater lake in Turkey, was determined. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) of carp, the most abundant fish species in Beysehir Lake, were found to be higher than those of saturated fatty acids (SFA) in spring, summer and autumn and also the monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) in spring and summer. Palmitic acid was the major SFA (14.6-16.6%) in all seasons. Oleic acid was identified as the major MUFA (15.1-20.3%). Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) was the major PUFA in summer and winter, whereas linoleic acid (LA) was the major PUFA in spring and autumn. The percentages of total ω3 fatty acid were higher than those of total ω6 fatty acid in the fatty acid composition of carp in winter. It was shown that the fatty acid composition in the muscle of carp was significantly influenced by feeding period and seasons. Copyright © 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
The content of fat in carp (Cyprinus carpio) tissue was evaluated throughout one year. The following tissues were evaluated: skeletal muscle, soft roe, hard roe, fat tissue, and hepatopancreas. Respective fatty acids were determined using gas liquid chromatography (GLC). The highest content of valuable polyunsaturated acids, like eicosahexaenoic acid, was found in soft roe and in skeletal muscle during summer, in hepatopancreas during spring, in hard roe during fall. The content of eicosahexaenoic acid in hard roe remains high in all seasons except summer. Saturated fatty acids like palmitic acid and stearic acid do not fluctuate very much throughout the year. The maximum concentration of oleic acid was found in summer. Differences in fatty acid concentration among different carp tissues depended on the living style, but their variation in the same tissue within the year depended on the main fodder of fish.
This paper presents the results of a study dealing with chemical composition of fillets and fatty acid composition (saturated fatty acid: SFA, monounsaturated fatty acid: MUFA, polyunsaturated fatty acid: PUFA) of lipids. Three groups of the mirror hybrid carp in age of three years: M2 x L15 - the Hungarian Szarvas mirror carp (M2) and the Hungarian hybrid mirror strain (L15), M2 x DOR 70 (the Israeli breed - DOR70), M2 x M72 (Northern mirror carp - M72) were compared with: the pure breed M2 and scaly hybrid ROP x TAT - the Ropsha (ROP) and the Tata (TAT) carp. ROP x TAT hybrid fillets contained (in more (P < 0.01) dry matter (283.1 +/- 23.87) and lipids (99.3 +/- 30.60). Fat in all of the monitored carp groups was made up of more than 50% of MUFA (from 51 to 64%), 25 - 29% of SFA and 10 - 22% of PUFA. Fillets of mirror hybrids M2 x DOR70, M2 x M72 and breed M2 contained less lipids (P < 0.01), less MUFA(sum) (P < 0.01), particularly less oleic acid (C18:1(n-9)), and more PUFA(n-3) (P < 0.01), more eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5(n-3)) and docosahexaenic acid (C22:6(n-3)). The differences in fatty acid profile can be related to the different genetic effects of different groups of common carp.
The aim of the study was to examine the production parameters and chemical composition of fillets in tench, Tinca tinca L., farmed in one of two systems: an extensive system based on only natural food (NF) available in the fish ponds; and a semi-intensive system based on natural food plus the addition of formulated feeds supplemented with various oils: fish (FO), rapeseed (RO), soybean (SO), or linseed oil (LO). Proper pond preparation resulted in a favourable amount and structure of natural food in all ponds. The rearing system had a significant influence on the tench yield, muscle lipid contents and fatty acid composition, and the supplemented feed influenced the fatty acid composition. The percentages of eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acid and total highly unsaturated n-3 fatty acids (n-3 HUFA) were higher in the fish oil and the natural food groups than in the others. The n-3/n-6 ratio in the five dietary treatments was notably variable, and in any case higher in fillets than in the diets. In conclusion, the present study suggests that RO, SO and LO represent effective lipid sources for tench fed formulated diets. On the other hand, tench that fed on naturally available pond foods had a high content of n-3 HUFA in their muscle lipids, but poor growth parameters and low yields.