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Cultivating youth resilience to prevent bullying and cyberbullying victimization

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Abstract

In an effort to better prevent and respond to bullying and cyberbullying, schools are recognizing a need to focus on positive youth development. One often-neglected developmental construct in this rubric is resilience, which can help students successfully respond to the variety of challenges they face. Enhancing this internal competency can complement the ever-present efforts of schools as they work to create a safe and supportive learning environment by shaping the external environment around the child. Based on a national sample of 1204 American youth between the ages of 12 and 17, we explore the relationship between resilience and experience with bullying and cyberbullying. We also examine whether resilient youth who were bullied (at school and online) were less likely to be significantly impacted at school. Results show resilience is a potent protective factor, both in preventing experience with bullying and mitigating its effect. Implications for school and community-based interventions are offered.

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... νηηεηηθή πεξίνδν, ε ςπρηθή αλζεθηηθφηεηα ηείλεη λα ζεσξείηαη έλα ςπρνζπλαηζζεκαηηθφ ραξαθηεξηζηηθφ απνθξπζηαιισκέλν ζε κεγαιχεξν βαζκφ ζπγθξηηηθά κε πξνεγνχκελεο ειηθηαθέο πεξηφδνπο (Connor & Davidson, 2003. Zhou et al., 2017, ην νπνίν δχλαηαη λα ιεηηνπξγήζεη σο πξνζηαηεπηηθφ θίιηξν γηα πνηθίιεο ξηςνθίλδπλεο ζπκπεξηθνξέο (Silbereisen & Lerner, 2007. Hinduja & Patchin, 2017. ...
... Nam et al., 2018. Yen, Lin, Chou, Liu, & Ko, 2018 θαη εθθνβηζηηθήο ζπκπεξηθνξάο ζην δηαδίθηπν (Hinduja & Patchin, 2017. Kabadayi & Sari, 2018. ...
... λ γεληθψο πεξηζζφηεξν ηθαλά λα ππεξβαίλνπλ επηηπρεκέλα λέεο, απξφζκελεο ή/θαη δχζθνιεο θαηαζηάζεηο, αηζζάλνληαη ιηγφηεξν ηελ αλάγθε λα αλαδεηήζνπλ «θαηαθχγην» ζην δηαδίθηπν πξνθεηκέλνπ λα «μεραζηνχλ», κε απνηέιεζκα λα πεξηνξίδεηαη θαη ε πηζαλφηεηα λα πξνβνχλ ζε ππεξβνιηθή ή/θαη αθαηάιιειε ρξήζε ηνπ δηαδηθηχνπ (θαη ην αληίζηξνθν) (Bilgin & Tas, 2018. Hinduja & Patchin, 2017. Yen et al., 2018. Σν γεγνλφο απηφ κε ηε ζεηξά ηνπ ζπκβάιιεη ζηελ ελδπλάκσζε ηεο ςπρηθήο αλζεθηηθφηεηαο θαη ηεο γεληθφηεξεο ςπρνινγηθήο πξνζαξκνγήο ηνπ αηφκνπ ή ην αληίζεην, δεκηνπξγψληαο έηζη έλα θαχιν θχθιν (Bilgin & Tas, 2018. Hinduja & Patchin, 2017. Kabadayi & Sari, 2018. Nam et al., 2018. Yen et al., 2018. Σα παξαπάλσ θαίλεηαη λα ...
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Στην παρούσα έρευνα εξετάστηκε ο εθισμός στο διαδίκτυο και η εμπλοκή σε περιστατικά ηλεκτρονικού εκφοβισμού μεταξύ φοιτητών/ριών Ψυχολογίας κατά την περίοδο της αναδυόμενης ενηλικίωσης, καθώς και ο ρόλος του παράγοντα της ψυχικής ανθεκτικότητας στην εκδήλωση των παραπάνω φαινομένων. Στην έρευνα συμμετείχαν 252 φοιτητές/ήτριες (233 γυναίκες, 19 άνδρες) του Τμήματος Ψυχολογίας του Αριστοτέλειου Πανεπιστημίου Θεσσαλονίκης. Στο δείγμα χορηγήθηκε ερωτηματολόγιο αυτοαναφοράς, το οποίο περιελάμβανε ερωτήσεις σχετικά με την ψυχική ανθεκτικότητα (The Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale - CD-RISC), την εθιστική χρήση του διαδικτύου (Internet Addiction Test) και την εμπλοκή σε περιστατικά ηλεκτρονικού εκφοβισμού (συντομευμένη μορφή του Cyberbullying Questionnaire). Σύμφωνα με τα αποτελέσματα, διαπιστώθηκε ότι οι συμμετέχοντες/ουσες εμπλέκονται τόσο με το φαινόμενο του εθισμού όσο και του εκφοβισμού στο διαδίκτυο, τα οποία συσχετίζονται θετικά μεταξύ τους. Επιπλέον, η ψυχική ανθεκτικότητα των φοιτητών/ριών βρέθηκε ότι προβλέπει αρνητικά την υπερβολική/εθιστική χρήση του διαδικτύου, ωστόσο, δεν συνδέθηκε με το φαινόμενο του ηλεκτρονικού εκφοβισμού. Τα ευρήματα, μεταξύ άλλων, υποδηλώνουν την αναγκαιότητα υλοποίησης συμβουλευτικών δράσεων εντός του πανεπιστημιακού χώρου, με έμφαση σε ζητήματα ενδυνάμωσης της ψυχικής ευημερίας/ανθεκτικότητας των φοιτητών/ριών αλλά και πρόληψης ριψοκίνδυνων συμπεριφορών στον κυβερνοχώρο.
... Among the most common consequences for victims are being excluded from the group and reduction to their reputation and self-esteem (DiFonzo & Bordia, 2007;Rosnow, 2001), which has a significant impact on their well-being, mainly during adolescence, a stage in which acceptance and the feeling of belonging to the group are key social objectives (Allen & Kern, 2017). Despite this, no studies have focused to date on describing the consequences and protective factors of the effect of cyber-rumour on the victims, although some previous studies have shown how resilience plays a protective, mediating role in the impact of cyber aggression on the victim's well-being (Hinduja & Patchin, 2017;Raskauskas & Huynh, 2015). ...
... Resilience has been defined as the intrapersonal ability to cope with trauma, and it is a dynamic process of adaptation and recovery which the individual uses in response to adverse situations, to adjust positively to their environment (Campbell-Sills & Stein, 2007;Windle et al., 2011). According to previous studies, resilience is not only a protective factor, but also softens the impact and the effects these experiences have on the victim (Hinduja & Patchin, 2017;Raskauskas & Huynh, 2015). Despite this, only one study has described the mediating role of resilience in the impact of victimization on levels of depression in adolescents, and its findings suggested that resilience mediated the impact of cybervictimization on the levels of depression experienced by victims (Santos et al. al., 2021). ...
... However, further research is required along these lines to identify whether resilience also has a mediating role for levels of anxiety and stress, specifically in the context of cyber-rumours. It could also be especially relevant to analyse the level of resilience of a victim of cyber-rumour, given that social media makes rumours longer-lasting and more extended, thus leading to higher levels of frustration and impotence in the victim and contributing to a lack of self-confidence in their capacity to adapt to the situation (Hinduja & Patchin, 2017). The aim of this study was to explore whether correct management of the situation and of their own emotional response could minimize the impact on the victim's well-being. ...
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Digital media have acquired a key role in the social dynamics among adolescents, increasing the prevalence of risk behaviors such as cyberbullying. Although its study has increased in recent decades, there are still few studies focused on the effects of a specific type of cybervictimization, such as cyber-rumor. The aims of this study were first to examine whether victims of cyber-rumor have higher levels of internalizing symptoms and second to explore whether resilience mediates this association, controlling for the sex effect. A total of 558 students (54.3% girls) aged between 10 and 17 years old (M = 14.57; SD = 1.30) participated in the study. Data processing followed a mediation model through PROCESS. The results evidenced that both girls and cyber-rumor victims presented higher levels of depression, anxiety and stress. The mediation models showed that resilience only mediated the effect that being victim of cyber-rumor had on levels of depression and anxiety, but not on stress levels. Sex was not found to moderate such effects. In conclusion, these results underscore the importance of attending to cyberaggression phenomena given their effects on social and emotional well-being identified in this study. This suggests the need to design prevention programs that include among their strategies the promotion of skills for coping with cyber-rumor.
... Previous studies have indicated that personal factors, such as social-emotional character, respect for others, and resiliency positively influence cyberbullying victimization (Ansary, 2020;Cantone et al., 2015;Hinduja & Patchin, 2017). In this study, the 'personal traits' cluster yielded the protective factors such as a positive mindset (i.e., statement 11; e.g., 'Having a positive mindset'), self-esteem (i.e., statement 17; e.g., 'Having high self-esteem'), problem-solving skills (i.e., statement 27; e.g., 'Having high problem-solving skills'), thoughtfulness (i.e., statement 42; e.g., 'Being very thoughtful'), being honest (i.e., statement 45; e.g., 'Being comfortable sharing his/her honest feelings with others'), being benevolent (i.e., statement 54; e.g., 'Having a benevolent attitude toward his/her friends'), and helping behavior (i.e., statement 57; e.g., 'Helping those that are struggling'). ...
... The Conduent Healthy Communities Institute (2020) provides a list of promising practices (i.e., evidence-based, effective, and good ideas) reviewed by the US Center for Disease Control and Prevention community guide. From this list of programs, practitioners may consider using evidence-based programs intended to improve emotional and social competencies and reduce student aggression and behavioral problems (e.g., the step-to-respect program and promoting alternative thinking strategies) (Cantone et al., 2015;Conduent Healthy Communities Institute, 2020;Hinduja & Patchin, 2017). ...
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This study conceptualized the protective factors for cyberbullying victimization as perceived by 43 Korean adolescents and explored gender differences in such conceptualizations using concept mapping method, a mixed-methods approach. Concept mapping revealed six major protective factors against cyberbullying victimization: ‘supportive relationships’ (M = 3.75, SD = 0.39), ‘school’s interest in cyberbullying’ (M = 3.58, SD = 0.11), ‘personal traits’ (M = 3.57, SD = 0.22), ‘reporting and monitoring system’ (M = 3.51, SD = 0.36), ‘education and help-seeking’ (M = 3.38, SD = 0.31), and ‘personal traits in online behavior’ (M = 3.30, SD = 0.60). Overall, the ‘supportive relationships’ cluster received the highest ratings from both male and female participants. Moreover, pattern matching by gender revealed lack of agreement (r = 0.54). In particular, male participants gave higher ratings to the ‘personal traits’ cluster, whereas female participants perceived ‘education and help-seeking’ to be a more important cluster than their counterparts. These results suggest that school-based intervention strategies can be used to improve supportive relationships, personal traits, netiquette, and awareness of online behaviors. At the institutional level, an automatic reporting and monitoring system and more school-linked cyberbullying laws could be implemented.
... A meta-analysis indicated that resilience was positively associated with positive indicators of mental health (such as positive affect and life satisfaction) and negatively associated with negative indicators of mental health (such as depression and anxiety) [62]. Previous studies have suggested that students with a high level of resilience are less likely to be bullied [63][64][65][66][67]. Moreover, some bullying victims can overcome the negative effects of victimization through their own resilience [68]. ...
... School belonging could be successfully improved by building students' strengths and improving positive interactions between students and teachers and among students [88]. Resilience could be improved by adopting a whole-child approach [65] and focusing on developing programs that could build migrant children's strength and enhance support from peers, teachers and parents. School-based lectures, consultations and workshops could be conducted to cultivate migrant children's sense of optimism and self-efficacy and help them build their strength. ...
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School bullying victimization among children is a significant public health issue that may negatively influence their mental health. However, few studies have been conducted on the bullying of migrant children in urban China. A positive psychological perspective has rarely been adopted in examining the mechanisms through which bullying victimization influences mental health, and the protective factors remain understudied. This research investigates the factors that may contribute to reducing the negative effects of bullying victimization on mental health, focusing on the protective roles of school belonging and resilience in the association between bullying victimization and mental health. Data were collected from 1087 school-aged migrant children in Shanghai and Nanjing, China. The PROCESS macro was used to conduct moderated mediation analyses to test the hypothesized models. The results of moderated mediation modeling revealed that bullying victimization (β = −0.386, p < 0.001) was negatively linked with mental health through decreased school belonging (β = 0.398, p < 0.001). Moreover, resilience buffered the indirect negative effects of bullying victimization on migrant children’s mental health via school belonging (β = −0.460, p < 0.01). Specifically, lower resilience was clearly associated with stronger indirect effects. Our findings suggest that school belonging and resilience must be incorporated into mental health prevention and intervention programs targeting migrant children with bullying victimization experiences.
... Resiliency focuses on positive contextual, social, and individual variables that interfere with the developmental trajectories from adversity to problematic behaviors, mental distress, and poor health outcomes. These positive contextual, social, and individual variables are known as promotive factors, work in opposition to adversity, and help youth to overcome negative effects of adversity exposure (19,20). The two types of promotive factors identified by Fergus and Zimmerman (19) are assets and resources. ...
... In Figure 2, we further stratified the participants based on the type of bullying victimization, (i.e., physical, verbal, relational, and cyber victimization), to investigate whether the type of bullying victimization modifies the protective effect that resilience has against depression. Our results showed that for the lowest resilience level group (score [13][14][15][16][17][18][19][20][21][22] Each model was adjusted for gender, age, peer support, family support, mother's ethnicity, mother's education, father's employment status, and household structure. Robust standard deviation was used. ...
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Introduction Resilience refers to the ability to adapt to difficult situation or adversity. Resilience is what gives people the psychological strength to cope with stress and hardship. Previous studies have investigated the relationship between resilience and bullying victimization and mental health problems. But whether the moderating effect of resilience against depression varies among victims of different types of bullying victimization remains unknown. Methods The study used data from the Taiwan Adolescent to Adult Longitudinal Study (TAALS), which was a school based, nationwide, longitudinal study conducted among adolescents in Taiwan. Between 2015 and 2019, the survey was repeated three times to capture changes in health behaviors. Meanwhile, our study is a cross-sectional study focusing on the 2nd follow-up survey of the TAALS, where we recruited 4,771 Grade 7 (12–13 years) and Grade 10 (15–16 years) students who had experienced bullying at school. Results This study confirms the protective effect of resilience on depression among adolescents who have experienced bullying. The mode resilience score was used as a reference group. Compared to the reference group, victims of verbal bullying from the lowest resilience group were at the greatest risk of depression (OR = 5.91, CI = 4.38–7.99). Compared to the reference group, victims of cyber bullying from the highest resilience group had the lowest risk of depression (OR = 0.72, CI = 0.57–0.90). Conclusion Regardless of the type of bullying victimization, resilience has been shown to offer protection against depression. Specifically, higher resilience levels offer the greatest protection against depression for victims of cyber bullying compared to other three types of bullying victimization. Early interventions to reduce negative effects of bullying victimization may start with increasing an individual's resilience during adolescence.
... Nadalje Tone i Tully (2014) iznose pretpostavku kako empatija u određenim okolnostima može predstavljati rizik za razvoj internaliziranih problema u ponašanju. Navedeni rezultati istraživanja sugeriraju kako pojedini čimbenici otpornosti u određenim kontekstima nisu nužno zaštita victims of bullying (Hinduja and Patchin, 2017). Regarding cooperation and communication, our results correspond to previous findings. ...
... Experiences of peer violence can be under-reported due to an individual's tendencies to always provide socially acceptable answers (Van de Mortel, 2008). Furthermore, other studies have emphasised that data stemming from an individual's recollection about the past is inherently unreliable due to the tendency to misrepresent or distort facts from an earlier time period (Hinduja and Patchin, 2017). ...
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Svrha je ovog rada utvrditi doprinos čimbenika otpornosti u objašnjenju doživljenog vršnjačkog nasilja kao temelju planiranja znanstveno utemeljenih intervencija za promociju pozitivnog razvoja/prevenciju rizičnih ponašanja mladih. Istraživanje je provedeno na uzorku od 1647 adolescenata iz Varaždinske županije, a raspon dobi kreće se od 14 do 19 godina. Za potrebe ovog rada korišten je Upitnik o demografskim podacima (izrađen za potrebe projekta), CTC Upitnik za učenike (Mihić, Novak i Bašić, 2010) i Modificirana verzija Resilience and Youth Development Module (California Department of Education, 1997). U svrhu ostvarivanja cilja ovog istraživanja od statističkih metoda i analiza korištena je logistička regresijska analiza. Provedenom logističkom regresijskom analizom utvrđeno je da se na temelju spola, dobi, individualnih čimbenika otpornosti (suradnja i komunikacija, samoučinkovitost, empatija, rješavanja problema, samosvijest, ciljevi i aspiracije), čimbenika otpornosti u okruženju vršnjaka (visoka očekivanja – prosocijalni vršnjaci, brižni odnosi), čimbenika otpornosti u obiteljskom okruženju (visoka očekivanja, brižni odnosi, smislena uključenost) te čimbenika otpornosti u zajednici (visoka očekivanja, brižni odnosi, smislena uključenost) zajedno može objasniti 13,8% doživljenog vršnjačkog nasilja barem jednom u posljednja četiri tjedna. Prediktori koji povećavaju vjerojatnost doživljenog vršnjačkog nasilja jesu ženski spol i empatija. S druge strane prediktori koji smanjuju vjerojatnost doživljenog vršnjačkog nasilja jesu suradnja i komunikacija, samoučinkovitost, visoka očekivanja – prosocijalni vršnjaci te brižni odnosi s vršnjacima i u obiteljskom okruženju. / The aim of this study is to determine the role of resilience factors in peer violence experienced by youth as the basis of planning evidence based interventions for positive development promotion and risk behaviour prevention among youth. Our research was based on a sample of 1,647 adolescents, aged 14-19 years, from Varaždin County. The following questionnaires were used in this study: the Demographic Data Survey (developed for the purpose of this project), the CTC Youth Survey (Mihić, Novak and Bašić, 2010), and a modified version of the Resilience and Youth Development Module (California Department of Education, 1997). Using logistic regression analysis, we found that 13.8 % of peer violence experienced at least once in the last four weeks can be explained by a combination of sex, age, individual resilience factors (cooperation and communication, self-efficacy, empathy, problem solving, self-awareness, goals and aspirations), resilience factors in the peer environment (high expectations – prosocial peers, caring relationships), resilience factors in the family environment (high expectations, caring relationships, meaningful participation), and resilience factors in the community (high expectations, caring relationships, meaningful participation). Predictors that increase the probability of experiencing peer violence are empathy and the female sex. On the other hand, the predictors that reduce the probability of experiencing peer violence are cooperation and communication, self-efficacy, high expectations – prosocial peers, and caring relationships with peers and family.
... Among this research, findings show that resilience is an important protective factor that can either prevent cyberbullying victimization or mitigate the consequences of being a victim of cyberbullying (Hinduja & Patchin, 2017;Navarro et al., 2018;Santos et al., 2020). Briefly, resilience is often conceptualized as the ability to successfully adapt, despite exposure to risk and adversity (Fergus & Zimmerman, 2005;Luthar et al., 2000). ...
... As a reminder, resilience refers to an internal resource that is resistant to risk, and can signal overcoming adversity or stress (Rutter, 2006). Considering that girls often are more attentive to interpersonal relations (Jordan, 1995), girls with higher levels of resilience may be less likely to perceive stressful life events, such as cyberbullying, as a purposeful act (Hinduja & Patchin, 2017), and may also be less vulnerable to bullying victimization (Bowes et al., 2010). Additionally, because girls tend to rely on internalization strategies to cope with stress (Daughters et al., 2009;Hankin et al., 2007), higher levels of resilience can make a substantial difference among girls by reducing the stress of exposure to cyberbullying and expediting recovery from harmful experiences. ...
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Although a growing number of studies have examined the underlying mechanisms of cyberbullying victimization, less is known about the gender differences in developmental nature of cyberbullying victimization. This study aims to examine 1) developmental pathways of cyberbullying victimization by gender, and 2) gender differences in the risk and protective factors. Relying on longitudinal data of Korean youth, we found three latent trajectories for girls and four subgroups for boys. In general, results found somewhat different developmental patterns of cyberbullying victimization by gender. Also, results showed both gender similarities and differences in predictors. Peer support was the only consistent factor across boys and girls and there were gendered predictors as well. Implications for practice and suggestions for future research are discussed.
... A positive school climate that provides a safe and supportive environment was found to be protective for (cyber)bullying victimization (Barón et al., 2016;Bevilacqua et al., 2017;Choi et al., 2019;Gage et al., 2014;Hinduja & Patchin, 2017;Kowalski et al., 2014;Simão et al., 2017). In contrast, a hostile school environment has been linked with a higher likelihood of cyberbullying victimization (Hong et al., 2016;Smith & Steffgen, 2013). ...
... Against expectations, school support did not appear to have any effect on the risk of victimization by cyberhate. This was surprising insofar as school climate and school safety emerged as one of the strongest factors in intervention and prevention efforts against cyberbullying (Bevilacqua et al., 2017;Choi et al. 2019;Fanti et al., 2012;Hinduja & Patchin, 2017;Kowalski et al., 2014;Simão et al., 2017;Zych et al., 2019). Perhaps it is here where one of the distinctions between cyberhate and cyberbullying surfaces. ...
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There is some indication that discrimination as well as low levels of life satisfaction render young people at risk of cyberhate victimization. Adopting a socio-ecological perspective, this paper examines whether supportive family, peer and school environments may buffer against the effects of perceived discrimination and low life satisfaction on cyberhate victimization. Data from four countries (N = 3,396) of the EU Kids Online IV survey on children aged 11-17 (51% girls) revealed a positive association between perceived discrimination and cyberhate victimization, but this impact was moderated by supportive family and peer environments. A negative association between life satisfaction and cyberhate victimization was mitigated by peer support. However, no associations with the school context were found. The current study provides new insights on how social support on different levels of the social environment may buffer against potential risk factors for cyberhate victimization and can inform decision-makers towards intervention and prevention strategies.
... Fourteen out of the thirty studies in this review investigated online resilience, of which three employed qualitative methods (Jacobs, Goossens, Dehue, Völlink, & Lechner, 2015;Nansen, Chakraborty, Gibbs, Macdougall, & Vetere, 2012;Racatau, 2014) and eleven provided quantitative evidence. As for wellbeing, the concept of resilience is often treated rather loosely, and it is noteworthy that only the study by Hinduja and Patchin (2017) employed a validated scale to measure resilience, using a refined 10-item version of the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (Connor & Davidson, 2003) by Campbell-Sills and Stein (2007). The majority of studies, however, included the coping strategies that young people employ to prevent or deal with the negative consequences of online risk experiences as an indicator for online resilience. ...
... Hence, they argued that these young people may have built online resilience as they have learned coping strategies to reduce the feelings of harm that emerge after an online risk experience (McHugh et al., 2017). The study by Hinduja and Patchin (2017) supported these claims, as they found a medium-strength negative association between online resilience and cyberbullying victimization: young people who are more resilient are less often the victim of cyberbullying. As they conclude, "resilience is a potent protective factor, both in preventing experience with bullying and mitigating its effect" (p.51), leading the authors to identify and advocate for educational interventions to promote resilience (digital and more general) from an early age. ...
Article
Previous studies suggest that online resilience, which is the capacity to bounce back from adversity by, for instance, coping with online risks in an effective way, and digital literacy serve as potential safeguards for young people against harmful consequences of negative online experiences. However, research on these factors largely resides in separate bodies of literature. By means of a systematic review, we aim to integrate the literature on young people’s online resilience, digital literacy, and well-being in the context of negative online experiences, and we examine the associations among them. The review of 30 empirical articles shows that negative online experiences undermine young people’s well-being but are also essential to developing online resilience. While a limited number of studies have focused on the protective roles of online resilience and digital literacy and on the link between these two factors, the review identified that more research is needed to establish whether this is truly the case. The review enables us to propose guidelines for further empirical research on the relations among young people’s digital literacy, online resilience, and well-being.
... It refers to an individual's ability successfully to deal with things or cope with problems [23]. Resilience is a multi-dimensional concept consisting of internal and external factors: internal factors include goal concentration, emotion regulation, and positive cognition; external factors include family support and interpersonal assistance [24]. Among the internal factors, it has been found that emotion regulation is significantly associated with the onset of anxiety [25]. ...
... Among external factors, the prominent association between family support and anxiety has also been reported: a previously published meta-analysis revealed that insufficient family support, characterized by less parental warmth, was associated with an increased risk of anxiety in adolescents [26]. Meanwhile, involvement in bullying victimization has been found to be significantly related to a diminished level of resilience in youths [24]. Moreover, one study found that adolescents with higher resilience level experienced less anxiety after school bullying victimization [27], which suggested moderation by resilience in the bullying-anxiety association. ...
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Background School bullying victimization is associated with increased risk of anxiety in children and adolescents. However, little is known about the role of resilience in this association. The purpose of this study was to investigate the possible mediation by resilience in this association in a large group of Chinese children and adolescents. Methods A population-based cross-sectional study adopting two-stage simple random cluster sampling was implemented in Yunnan province, southwestern China. A comprehensive questionnaire was used to collect information from the participants. Among all the participants, 4624 were included in the final analysis. Descriptive statistics were used to present general characteristics of the study participants. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were adopted to estimate crude and adjusted associations among bullying victimization, anxiety, and resilience. A path model was used to analyze the hypothesized mediation by resilience in the association between bullying victimization and anxiety. Results Analytical results of multivariate logistic regression models suggested that bullying victimization was significantly associated with anxiety in Chinese children and adolescents; compared with individuals who had not been bullied, victims of bullying were more likely to experience anxiety symptoms, with an adjusted odds ratio (OR) of 3.02 (95% CI 2.46–3.71). Path analysis revealed a prominent mediating effect of resilience in the association between bullying victimization and anxiety, accounting for 31.89% of the total association. Further analysis indicated that, among the five dimensions of resilience, emotional regulation, interpersonal assistance, and family support were significant mediators, accounting for 30.34%, 10.79%, and 8.35% of the total association. Conclusions Our major findings highlighted the promising role of resilience-based intervention measures in reducing the risk of anxiety associated with school bullying victimization in Chinese children and adolescents.
... Good peer interaction was a protective factor against the behavior of bully/victim and a low use of technology in terms of frequency was protective against cyberbullying [47]. In the same direction, Hinduja and Patchin found the construct of resilience a strong protective factor against bullying and cyberbullying behaviors [48]. Several intervention programs have been recognized as effective in reducing bullying behavior in school and other contexts [49][50][51]. ...
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In youths, callous–unemotional (CU) traits and conduct problems (CP) are independently associated with bullying perpetration and these effects are also observed when controlling for sex. Moreover, research indicates that the co-existence of high levels of both CU and CP further increase the risk. Although several studies have examined the relationship between CU traits and traditional bullying, few have also included a measure of cyberbullying and very few of them have focused the early adolescence. The aim of this study was to replicate and extend these findings in a large sample of Italian early adolescents considering both traditional and cyberbullying behaviors. Data were extracted from the Bullying and Youth Mental Health Naples study (BYMHNS) which included 2959 students of 10–15 years of age. CP, CU traits, traditional bullying behaviors, and cyberbullying behaviors were assessed by multi-item self-report scales. As expected, we replicated the significant and specific association between CU traits and traditional bullying, extending the findings to cyberbullying. In addition, in the latter case the effect was moderated by CP. The theoretical and clinical implications of these results were discussed.
... E-mail, text messaging, chat rooms, and social media offer adolescents a greater reach to harass, intimidate, or embarrass peers. These behaviors are considered forms of cyberbullying, which is similar in scope to traditional bullying but perpetrated through electronic devices (Gaffney et al., 2019;Hinduja & Patchin, 2017). In the extant literature, cyberbullying is often conceptualized as the intentional and repetitive harm perpetrated through computers, cell phones, and other electronic devices (Englander et al., 2017;Peter & Petermann, 2018). ...
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Data from the 2017 National Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System, consisting of 14,765 students, ranging in age from 12 to 18 years, were used to investigate patterns of cyberbullying victimization, with particular focus on understanding the interplay between traditional bullying victimization and other relevant predictors of cyberbullying. Through a conjunctive analysis of case configurations (CACC), results from the current study show that (1) incidents of cyberbullying cluster significantly among specific situational profiles, which are defined by the unique combination of variable attributes; (2) students most likely to be cyberbullying victims have always experienced traditional bullying, but students least likely to experience cyberbullying victimization almost never experience traditional bullying; and (3) being a victim of traditional bullying can increase the chances of cyberbullying victimization by as much as 17% in some situational contexts, but can have almost no influence on cyberbullying victimization in others. Current findings are discussed in light of existing cyberbullying scholarship and recommendations for policy and future areas of research are offered.
... Taking the overall findings first, the relationship between resilience and suicide ideation in this study population held even when controlling for several other protective and risk factors known to be associated with both outcomes, including hope, stressful life events, and perceived schooling belonging. This finding echoes the literature on both the moderating and mediating roles resilience can play between life stressors and poor mental health [49,50]. Given the high national rates of suicide ideation and attempts for adolescents [4], this inverse relationship between resilience and suicide ideation has important implications for general prevention programming. ...
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Purpose Nearly 20% of U.S. adolescents have considered suicide. Yet, gaps remain in understanding correlates of resilience and suicide risk, especially among populations born outside the United States who may face unique migration- and acculturation-related stressors. This study adds to the literature by exploring correlates of suicide ideation among a diverse population. Methods This study analyzes quantitative data (N = 357) from the Study of Adolescent Lives after Migration to America, in Detroit and Harrisonburg. More than 40% of the sample was born outside the United States, with the majority born in the Middle East and North Africa. Path analysis was used to model dual outcomes of resilience and suicide ideation using measures of hope, school belonging, stressful life events, and being born outside the United States. Results Suicide ideation and resilience were negatively correlated (ß = -.236[.069]; p < .001). Adolescents with greater hope (ß = .367; p < .001) and school belonging (ß = .407; p < .001) reported higher resilience, while lower levels of school belonging correlated with higher levels of suicide ideation (ß = -.248; p = .009). More stressful life events were associated with suicide ideation (ß = .243; p < .001), while fewer were correlated with resilience (ß = -.106; p = .003). Being born outside the United States was associated with suicide ideation (ß = .186; P-.015), with this finding driven by those from the Middle East and North Africa region, who faced significantly increased risk of suicide ideation (ß = .169; p = .036). Conclusions Findings suggest that adolescents born in the Middle East and North Africa region may represent a vulnerable group needing targeted and culturally responsive interventions to destigmatize mental health and psychosocial well-being, boost existing sources of resilience, and encourage help-seeking behaviors.
... It can be concluded that resilience is the ability to understand problems which then proceed until someone can rise from pressure. Resilience is very crucial because it relates to how a person survives and adapts to the problems at hand [24], and can suppress the effects of cyberbullying such as reducing stress levels due to feeling [25]. The role of resilience can be explained as a process of forming oneself to be much better and stronger [26]. ...
... According to Wang, Tao, Bowers, Brown, and Zhang (2017) to become a resilient individual, one of the important factors is to increase self-efficacy or ability. Hinduja, and Patchin (2017) stated that positive selfdevelopment strategies or increased resilience have a link between resilience and self-efficacy. The development of resilience in adolescents is done by increasing adolescent self-efficacy, it is shown by students who have the confidence to carry out tasks or actions needed to improve academic achievement. ...
... Cyberbullying is harmful for every segment of individuals, but it is particularly critical for students as they are mostly young and become and easy victims of bullying on the internet (W. M. Al-Rahmi et al. 2019;Hinduja and Patchin 2017). ...
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Recent research reveals that the social media usage has been rapidly increased in higher education. Yet we know a little about the consequences of social media use among students. The current study is an attempt to understand how and when the use of social media by the students is related to their academic engagement and creativity. We collected the primary data from 267 graduate and undergraduate students enrolled at different universities situated in the Hefei city of the Anhui province of China. Findings reveal that social media use by the students is positively related to their creativity and academic engagement through intrinsic motivation while cyberbullying plays a boundary condition role on these relationships such that the direct and indirect relationships are weak when cyberbullying is higher. Important practical and theoretical implications as well as limitations and directions for future research have been discussed.
... Considering our results about the deficits in EI facets and life satisfaction scores from a preventative approach, training emotional skills will help adolescents to manage stressful life events and negative emotions more appropriately, developing more adaptive strategies to extend positive experiences [24,25,55] and, ultimately, to prevent them from getting involved in bullying and cyberbullying [36,58]. Promoting certain EI facets in adolescents will not only enable them to better understand their own emotions, but also provide them with the agency and autonomy required for well-being and resilience [59]. Particularly, it seems that self-emotion appraisal and the use of emotions are important for bullying and cyberbullying victims and bully-victims, whereas regulation of emotions emerged as a relevant facet explaining life satisfaction among bullying victims and bully-victims. ...
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Adolescents’ perception of their own emotional abilities has been related to psychological adjustment and well-being. However, there are still few studies focusing on specific emotional dimensions in relation to bullying and well-being in adolescence. This study analysed the relationship between emotional intelligence (EI) facets, satisfaction with life, bullying and cyberbullying in adolescents. The sample consisted of 3520 high school students (51.5% females) aged between 12 and 18 years (M = 14.37; SD = 1.67). The correlation analyses showed that the majority of EI facets were positively related to satisfaction with life and negatively with both types of violence. As was expected, bullying and cyberbullying victims and bully–victims scored lower in satisfaction with life and the majority of EI facets. Controlling for sex, age, and grade, self-emotion appraisal, use of emotions and regulation of emotion were the best predictors of life satisfaction in bully–victims of bullying and cyberbullying. Finally, we discuss the relevance of these findings for clinical and educational practice on EI seeking to promote subjective well-being among adolescents involved in bullying and cyberbullying.
... These approaches are considered 'universal' because they are typically delivered to all students in a particular grade or school. Focus may vary among prevention programs according to the ages of the target student population, and programs may focus on either general behaviors or specific ones such as bullying or dating violence, for example (Hahn et al., 2007;Hinduja and Patchin, 2017). ...
Article
This article describes the preliminary investigation of the initial feasibility of the ‘ Fostering Youth Resilience Project’, a universal school-based program delivered by school social workers to 54 high school students in Kuwait. Results reported significant positive change and high satisfaction with the program. The study provided initial evidence support to the applicability of the program for youth in a non-Western culture. Future research needs to evaluate the effect of the program in larger groups, using controlled trials and longer term follow ups. Discussion of limitations and practical implications for the social work profession are presented.
... With early parental mediation, education, and peer-based discussions about safety, the majority of youth is able to safely navigate online risk (Livingstone et al., 2017;Odgers, 2018;Shin & Lwin, 2017). Rather than focusing on risk prevention, experts recommend a risk resilience approach to online safety (Hinduja & Patchin, 2017;Pinter et al., 2017;Wisniewski, 2018). Resilience is defined as protective patterns used by youth to avoid adopting problem behavior in the face of risk (Catalano et al., 2004;National Research Council Institute of Medicine, 1996). ...
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Digital media use is central for youth as a means to facilitate identity development, social connection, and vocational competence. Emerging literature suggests that the influence of digital media use is more nuanced than the contemporary risk/benefit discourse, particularly for youth who experience social and emotional vulnerability. This youth-centered, developmentally informed study attends to the gap in literature addressing the digital media use experiences among youth in residential treatment (RT). McCracken’s Long Interview Method was utilized to conduct and analyze in-depth interviews with youth ( n = 15) aged 13 to 18 in RT. The analysis involved movement from particular to general coding, applying categorical observations, and thematic comparison of transcripts. Consistent with existing literature on other youth populations, participants reported that digital media use had both beneficial and problematic implications for their well-being. Internet access decreased experiences of isolation and stigma and increased capacity to contend with marginalized identities (e.g., disability, Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgendered, Queer, Two Spirited Plus [LGBTQ2S+], child welfare guardianship). They reported that following an initial digital disconnect and stabilization, digital media use facilitated pathways toward agency, leadership, and community engagement (e.g., LGBTQ2S+ community, recovery blogs, animal advocacy). The findings suggest that supporting youth in RT to identify their online opportunities and needs can encourage individual growth, wellness, and participation in social change.
... proactive personality) that drive their resilience capability (Kuntz et al., 2017;Sarkar and Fletcher, 2014). Workplace bullying researchers have acknowledged that employee resilience acts as a coping mechanism for self-managing the harmful behaviour (D'Cruz and Noronha, 2018;Hinduja and Patchin, 2017). In this sub-section, we explore whether employee's proactive personality interacts with resilience and shapes the process of managing workplace bullying. ...
Article
Purpose This paper develops and tests a model for managing workplace bullying by integrating employee perceived servant leadership, resilience and proactive personality. Specifically, this paper explores servant leadership as an inhibitive factor for workplace bullying, both directly and indirectly in the presence of employee resilience as a mediator. It further explores whether proactive personality moderates the indirect relationship. Design/methodology/approach This is an empirical study based on analysis of survey data collected from 408 employees working in services and manufacturing sector organisations in Pakistan. Structural equation modelling was used to test the research model. Findings Structural equation modelling results support the proposition that servant leadership helps in discouraging workplace bullying, both directly and indirectly, in the presence of employee resilience as a mediator. However, employee proactive personality moderates this process, such that the association between resilience and workplace bullying is stronger for individuals with high proactive personality. Research limitations/implications This study's findings illuminate the strong potential of servant leadership for managing workplace bullying. This potential is attributed to positive role modelling in the workplace, which may assist in building followers' resilience. This study provides evidence to support the importance of leadership in the process by which employees develop better psychological resources to combat bullying at work. Originality/value This is the first study that examines the direct relationship between servant leadership and bullying at work. In addition, this study introduced the mediating effect of resilience and the moderating effect of proactive personality on this relationship.
... For urban African American adolescents in low-resourced, inner-city neighborhoods, exposure to and experiences in bullying and the associated adverse outcomes support an urgent need for practitioners to promote positive youth development. In an effort to effectively prevent and respond to bullying, there has also been a growing recognition of a need to focus on resilience, which can facilitate positive response to a variety of challenges (Hinduja & Patchin, 2017). Resilience, a complex construct, is defined as "the attainment of positive outcomes, adaptations, or developmental milestones in spite of significant adversity, risk or stress" (Moore & Woodcock, 2017, p. 689). ...
Article
Purpose The current study explores which types of delinquent activities bullies, victims, and bully/victims are most at risk of from a sample of urban African American adolescents. Design and Methods The research design was cross-sectional, which includes a sample of low-income African American adolescents in Chicago's Southside. The study participants included 523 adolescents. Descriptive statistics, latent class analysis, and logistic regression analysis were conducted. Results Bullies, victims, and bully/victims are all at a heightened risk of theft, threatening behavior, and assaultive behavior. Irrespective of bullying status, delinquency is a serious problem for urban adolescents who are bullies, victims, or bully/victims. Conclusions Investigating the types of delinquent activities bullies, victims, and bully/victims are most likely to be involved in is important. Implications for Practice Evidence-based treatment plans require assessment tools that are tailored for urban African American adolescents. Nurses are advised to consider interventions that promote resilience.
... Siber zorbalık davranışını sergileyen bireylerin de siber mağduriyet yaşayan bireylerin de ciddi psikososyal sorunlar yaşama ihtimallerinin olduğunu söylemek mümkündür (Athanasiades, Baldry, Kamariotis, Kostouli & Psalti, 2016;Sticca, Ruggieri, Alsaker & Perren, 2013). Bu durum gerekli önlemlerin alınmazsa veya iyileştirici yöntemlerle müdahale edilmezse çocuklarda kalıcı bir takım ruhsal ve davranışsal problemlerin oluşmasına neden olabilir (Hinduja & Patchin, 2017;Ortega-Ruiz, Del-Rey & Casas, 2012). ...
... Entre ellos se incluyen trastornos de alimentación, malas relaciones, absentismo escolar, miedo a ir a la escuela y soledad. Además, se pueden generar diversos tipos de sentimientos negativos como ira, depresión y violencia (Hinduja y Patchin, 2017). ...
... Scholars should also look at the factors that increase or decrease likelihood of harm among youth. For example, does resilience play a role (Hinduja & Patchin, 2017)? Are some tweens more capable (or equipped) to buffer against hurtful comments received while gaming, on social media, or via text? ...
Article
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The goal of this study was to provide key prevalence rates for experiences with cyberbullying among tweens (children between the ages of 9 and 12 years old). We were also interested in the extent to which tweens engaged in helping behaviors when they observed cyberbullying. American tweens ( n = 1034; mean age = 10.52, SD = 1.12) completed an online survey in which they reported on their experience with cyberbullying victimization, offending, and witnessing. Respondents were also asked how being cyberbullied made them feel, and to describe if they helped when they observed online mistreatment. Results revealed that about one in five tweens has been exposed to cyberbullying as a witness, a target, or an aggressor. This population has been historically understudied when it comes to their online experiences, and these findings highlight the need for deeper inquiry as well as additional guidance and support.
... Recent studies show that resilience can serve as a protective factor to help youth cope with bullying or cyberbullying [33]. There has been a renewed call among scholars who study bullying that the answer lies less in attenuating risks and dangers, and more in developing protective assets to address social and emotional deficiencies [34,35]. ...
Article
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Background: Several challenges and emotional demands characterize adolescence, affecting the mental well-being of youths. Among these, bullying and cyberbullying are recognized nowadays as a major social problem, affecting more than one-third of adolescents, with extensive negative consequences for the victims involved, such as lower self-esteem, increased loneliness, depression, and anxiety. School programs and interventions that foster resilience, coping, and well-being are particularly important during adolescence as protective and preventive factors against the consequences of (cyber)bullying. The paper presents two recent co-designed interventions for (cyber)bullying prevention deployed in Europe, targeting early adolescents and their school communities. Methods: The UPRIGHT project developed an evidence-based, whole-school intervention to train resilience as a protective factor to promote mental well-being in adolescents, in a cross-national perspective. The CREEP project designed and implemented digital interventions to support schools in (i) early detection of cyberbullying events on social media and (ii) coaching adolescents (victims, bullies, bystanders) on how to cope with (cyber)bullying behaviors. Results: The main challenges and insights collected during the design and implementation of both interventions are discussed to inform future research and practice. Conclusion: The feasibility and acceptance of prevention programs are key to the reducing risk of (cyber)bullying and improving the psychological well-being of early adolescents.
... Resiliensi diperlukan oleh setiap korban bullying. Resiliensi merupakan pelindung yang kuat untuk mengatasi perlakuan bullying (Hinduja & Patchin, 2017). ...
Article
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Resiliensi harus dimiliki oleh korban bullying sehingga dapat mencegah timbulnya depresi dan stres yang dapat berujung pada masalah yang lebih serius. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendeskripsikan resiliensi siswa yang menjadi korban bullying, serta membandingkan variabel tersebut antara siswa laki-laki dan perempuan. Studi cross sectional secara online mengukur 256 responden sehingga diperoleh sebanyak 106 siswa yang pernah mendapatkan perlakuan bullying. Peneliti menggunakan dua skala dalam penelitian ini yakni Multidimensional Peer-Victimization Scale & Resilience Quotient Test (RQ-Test). Statistik deskriptif digunakan untuk menggambarkan korban bullying dan resiliensi, kemudian independent sample t-test untuk menguji perbedaan resiliensi ditinjau dari jenis kelamin. Baik siswa laki-laki maupun perempuan memiliki resiliensi yang relatif tinggi, namun skor yang diperoleh siswa laki-laki lebih tinggi dibandingkan siswa perempuan. Pengujian secara statistik juga menunjukkan bahwa terdapat perbedaan resiliensi di antara dua kelompok tersebut. Resiliensi perlu dimiliki oleh korban bullying. Di lingkungan sekolah, program layanan bimbingan dan konseling harus dimaksimalkan. Pencegahan dan penanggulangan bullying membutuhkan sinergi dan keseriusan semua pihak..
... Further, digital resilience can play a major role in promoting sustainable, productive, engaging, and healthy learning for students (10,21,35) and has a positive influence on self-efficacy (13,34). When digital resiliency attributes are absent, some negative outcomes may occur such as intense anxiety, fear, or feelings of distress (16,27). ...
Article
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Background Nowadays, in an informational society, digital technologies are present in most areas of life, including school education fields. Students encounter risks or threats during online experiences. Digital resilience helps individuals recognize and manage the risks and threats they come across when they socialize, explore, or work online and plays an important role in the digital technology challenges. However, so far, the concept of digital resilience among individuals in the educational field has not been analyzed in detail. Objectives The purpose of this study is to clarify the concept of digital resilience among students in a school education context, describe antecedents and consequences, and suggest a conceptual model for health educators. Methods Walker and Avants’ concept analysis method and standards of the scoping review were used to clarify the attributes, antecedents, and consequences from the included articles. A thematic analysis approach of literature was utilized to describe the study findings. No date limitations were applied. Results A total of 22 included articles provided data for digital resilience conceptualization. Five defining attributes for the concept were identified as follows: (1) understanding online threats; (2) knowing solutions; (3) learning knowledge and skills; (4) recovering from stress; and (5) moving forward through self-efficacy. Antecedents included digital technology-related threats influenced by individual external and internal factors. Consequences were divided into two categories: behavioral performance and psychosocial functioning. Conclusion Based on the results of the concept analysis, a preliminary conceptual model of digital resilience was described as a circular process toward greater performance and function in the form of understanding, knowing, learning, recovering, and moving forward, when facing stressors, challenges, or adversity. The conceptual model of digital resilience can be further tested and may inform the enhancement of digital-specific resilience measures and interventions for students.
... that psychological resilience relieves the detrimental influence of cyberbullying on victims' mental health [52]. Therefore, we expect that psychological resilience alleviates the harmful impact of cyberostracism on prosocial behaviors. ...
Article
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To reduce the negative consequences of cyberostracism on prosocial behaviors, we devel- oped a coping strategy based on psychological resilience, and revealed its effectiveness in combating the adverse effects of cyberostracism on prosocial behavior through two studies. Study 1 demon- strated that psychological resilience could mitigate the negative impact of cyberostracism on prosocial behaviors through experimental manipulation. By targeting ostracized people with impaired mental health and low resilience for an online self-help resilience intervention program, Study 2 confirmed that psychological resilience was effective in alleviating the detrimental effects of cyberostracism. These studies not only help us to recognize the negative effects of cyberostracism, but also extend Williams’ temporal need–threat model of ostracism in the context of online ostracism. As emerging technologies represent a promising new approach to intervention delivery, the most valuable contribution of this study is that we developed an online self-help psychological resilience intervention program that showed encouraging therapeutic effects and advantages for assisting in caring for a larger population of people who are at elevated risk for being cyberostracized.
... Internal factors might include self-esteem, selfcontrol, self-efficacy, and an internal locus of control. Notably, research suggests that the presence of internal factors can support the development and growth of external factors (Hinduja & Patchin, 2017). Despite the level of risk experienced by an individual child, healthy development and overall life success for all youth depend on both internal capabilities and external resources (Masten & Monn, 2015). ...
Article
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This study employed a randomized controlled trial with pre- and post-intervention measurement to investigate the impact of the Speaking to the Potential, Ability, and Resilience Inside Every Kid (SPARK) Teen Mentoring program on knowledge of the principles of mind, thought, and consciousness; communication, decision making, and problem-solving skills; emotional regulation; and resilience. The SPARK program is a resilience-focused social-emotional learning program designed to promote youth resilience, emotional well-being, and academic success. Study participants included 396 9th through 12th grade students from four high schools. Random assignment occurred at the classroom level and resulted in 12 classes (n = 200 students) in the intervention condition and 12 classes (n = 172 students) in the comparison condition. Students in the intervention condition received the SPARK intervention while students in the comparison condition continued with the regularly scheduled school curriculum. Results revealed that levels of knowledge of the principles of mind, thought, and consciousness; communication, decision making, and problem-solving skills; emotional regulation; and resilience increased for students who received the intervention and either decreased or remained unchanged for students who did not receive the intervention. Results from this study provide initial evidence for the efficacy of the SPARK program with high school age youth and demonstrate the positive effects of the program on the development of emotional and interpersonal capacity required for pro-social behavior and academic success. Considerations for future program development and evaluation efforts are discussed.
... A variety of studies have shown that psychological resilience has a positive impact on reducing major diseases, adversity, and stress disorders [49][50][51]. Recent research has shown that psychological resilience relieves the detrimental influence of cyberbullying on victims' mental health [52]. Therefore, we expect that psychological resilience alleviates the harmful impact of cyberostracism on prosocial behaviors. ...
To reduce the negative consequences of cyberostracism on prosocial behaviors, we developed a coping strategy based on psychological resilience, and revealed its effectiveness in combating the adverse effects of cyberostracism on prosocial behavior through two studies. Study 1 demonstrated that psychological resilience could mitigate the negative impact of cyberostracism on prosocial behaviors through experimental manipulation. By targeting continuously ostracized people with low resilience for an online self-help resilience intervention program, Study 2 confirmed that psychological resilience was effective in alleviating the detrimental effects of cyberostracism. These studies not only help us to recognize the negative effects of cyberostracism, but also extend Williams’ temporal need–threat model of ostracism in the context of online ostracism. As emerging technologies represent a promising new approach to intervention delivery, the most valuable contribution of this study is that we developed an online self-help psychological resilience intervention program that showed encouraging therapeutic effects and advantages for assisting in caring for a larger population of people who are at elevated risk for being cyberostracized.
... A variety of studies have shown that psychological resilience has a positive impact on reducing major diseases, adversity, and stress disorders [49][50][51]. Recent research has shown that psychological resilience relieves the detrimental influence of cyberbullying on victims' mental health [52]. Therefore, we expect that psychological resilience alleviates the harmful impact of cyberostracism on prosocial behaviors. ...
Article
Full-text available
To reduce the negative consequences of cyberostracism on prosocial behaviors, we developed a coping strategy based on psychological resilience, and revealed its effectiveness in combating the adverse effects of cyberostracism on prosocial behavior through two studies. Study 1 demonstrated that psychological resilience could mitigate the negative impact of cyberostracism on prosocial behaviors through experimental manipulation. By targeting continuously ostracized people with low resilience for an online self-help resilience intervention program, Study 2 confirmed that psychological resilience was effective in alleviating the detrimental effects of cyberostracism. These studies not only help us to recognize the negative effects of cyberostracism, but also extend Williams’ temporal need–threat model of ostracism in the context of online ostracism. As emerging technologies represent a promising new approach to intervention delivery, the most valuable contribution of this study is that we developed an online self-help psychological resilience intervention program that showed encouraging therapeutic effects and advantages for assisting in caring for a larger population of people who are at elevated risk for being cyberostracized.
... It has been found that cyberbullying incidents in schools have increased in recent years and the rates of cyberbullying differ from country to country (5.1% -41.4%) (Cantone vd., 2015). As a result of the study conducted by Hinduja and Patchin (2017) in primary and high schools in the United States in 2016, it was determined that the rate of encountering cyber victimization at least once in their lives was 33.8%. Similar to the rest of the world, cyberbullying incidents have increased rapidly in Turkey in recent years. ...
... For example, studies on coping showed that peer victims could use a more adaptive, problemfocused coping strategy if they were able to appraise the peer victimization situation with a sense of control (for a review, see Hansen et al., 2012;Raskauskas & Huynh, 2015). A study found that internal capacity to tolerate stressors mitigated the impact of peer victimization on their learning at school (Hinduja & Patchin, 2017). Another study, with rural-to-urban migrant elementary students (4th-6th grade) in China, showed that children's internal resilience protected against victimization and mitigated the negative effect of peer victimization on their depression (Ye et al., 2016). ...
Article
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The present cross-sectional study aimed to (a) expand our understanding of the role of risk and resilience factors for adolescent adjustment during coronavirus disease (COVID-19) and (b) examine personal resilience, peer and teacher-student relationships as protective factors against mental health difficulties. A total of 3,662 students from 4th to 11th grades in Urumchi, China completed a survey in June 2020. Urumchi is an ethnically diverse city, with nearly 40% of the population in this school district being ethnic minority students. The schools of Urumchi closed in February 2020 and reopened in April 2020. The results of latent moderated structural equation modeling suggested that peer victimization was associated with greater mental health difficulties in students. Personal resilience and teacher-student relationships were promotive factors for better mental health and also served as a buffer from the negative effect of peer victimization on mental health. The results also showed divergent patterns for elementary versus secondary school students as well as gender differences. Implications for how schools can support students during COVID-19 were discussed. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).
Article
Children with food allergies are a growing segment of the population who report high rates of bullying victimization. Yet, little is known about how bullying victimization experiences affect this population. Using data collected from an online survey administered to parents of children with food allergies (N = 621), this study examines if higher levels of food allergy severity are related to having higher odds of experiencing various harms from bullying victimization. Findings show that, according to parents, children with more severe food allergies have increased odds of experiencing emotional harms, social harms, psychological harms, and missed school from bullying victimization. Policy implications are discussed, such as allocating resources to build the emotional, social, and psychological resiliency among children with more severe food allergy conditions, as well as providing counseling services to food-allergic children and their families.
Article
The past decade saw a sharp increase in the use of smartphones and digital communication platforms. This manuscript reviews advancements in the study of digital communication and adolescent development over the last decade. We highlight theoretical models that seek to explain the power of digital media in adolescents’ lives. We then examine research conducted over the last decade on five aspects of digital media: (1) potential to contribute to adolescent development, (2) associations with mental health, (3) differential impact of active versus passive social media use, (4) cyberbullying, and (5) sexting. We conclude with a discussion of potential opportunities and challenges for studying the role of digital communication in adolescents’ development during the coming decade.
Article
This study used data from 2019 Minnesota Student Survey to explore patterns of traditional bullying perpetration. Using conjunctive analysis of case configurations (CACC), results from a sample of 166,351 students show that (1) incidents of traditional bullying perpetration cluster significantly among dominant situational profiles; (2) students most likely to be bullies experience victimization, but students least likely to bully their peers rarely experience bullying victimization; and (3) being a victim of traditional bullying can increase the chances of traditional bullying perpetration by as much as 100% in some situational contexts, but can have almost no influence on perpetration in other contexts. Current findings are discussed considering existing bullying scholarship and recommendations for policy and future areas of research are presented.
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يهدف البحث إلى دراسة دور الأسرة لتحقيق الاستخدام الآمن لوسائل التواصل الاجتماعي كما يدركها المراهقين بمحاوره وعلاقته بتعزيز أمنهم الفكري والأخلاقي بأبعادها، واستراتيجيات مواجهة التنمر الإلكتروني. واتبع البحث المنهج الوصفي التحليلي، تم استخدام عدة أدوات هي استمارة البيانات العامة، استمارة عادات ودوافع المراهقين في استخدام مواقع التواصل الاجتماعي، استبان دور الأسرة لتحقيق الاستخدام الآمن لوسائل التواصل الاجتماعي كما يدركها المراهقين، استبيان الأمن الفكري والأخلاقي، استبيان استراتيجيات مواجهة التنمر الإلكتروني. واشتملت العينة على 550 مراهق من محافظة المنوفية ويستخدمون وسائل التواصل الاجتماعي تم اختيارهم بطريقة قصديه. وبعد جمع البيانات تم تفريغها وتبويبها وجدولتها وتحليلها إحصائيا باستخدام برنامج SPSS. أظهرت النتائج وجود علاقة ارتباطية موجبة دالة إحصائيا بين دور الأسرة لتحقيق الاستخدام الآمن لوسائل التواصل الاجتماعي للمراهقين من وجهة نظرهم ومحاوره وتعزيز الأمن الفكري والأخلاقي، كما وجدت علاقة ارتباطية موجبة دالة إحصائيا بين دور الأسرة لتحقيق الاستخدام الآمن لوسائل التواصل الاجتماعي للمراهقين وإستراتيجيات مواجهة التنمر الإلكتروني. بينما لا توجد فروق دالة إحصائيا بين الذكور والإناث في دور الأسرة لتحقيق الاستخدام الآمن لوسائل التواصل الاجتماعي للمراهقين بمحاورها. لذا يوصي بإعداد برامج إرشاديه لتوعيه المراهقين والوالدين بالاستخدام الآمن والفعال لوسائل التواصل الاجتماعي ويقوم بإعدادها أخصائي إدارة مؤسسات الأسرة والطفولة من خلال وحدة الاستشارات الأسرية التابعة لكليات الاقتصاد المنزلي بجامعتي المنوفية وحلوان.
Article
BACKGROUND Youth with obesity are likely to experience weight-based bullying victimization, and adolescents have the highest obesity rates among children. Factors that protect youth from traditional bullying victimization may protect youth from weight-based bullying victimization: internal assets such as positive identity and social competence, and external assets such as perceived support from parents and friends. METHODS To examine this proposition, data from 8th, 9th, and 11th graders were obtained from the 2016 Minnesota Student Survey (N = 126,495). Logistic regressions were conducted to identify the relationship between assets and weight-based bullying and to determine possible moderation by weight status. RESULTS Results demonstrate that positive identity, parent support, and friend support were associated with lower odds of experiencing weight-based bullying victimization. Moderation analyses revealed that perceived parent support was most protective against experiencing weight-based bullying victimization among youth with obesity compared to youth with overweight, normal weight, or underweight. CONCLUSION School administrators, counselors, and teachers should be aware of the increased risk of weight-based bullying for youth with obesity and underweight. Results underscore the need to foster youth's internal assets like positive identity to promote a strength-based approach for prevention. Parent involvement is warranted in weight-based bullying prevention efforts.
Article
Purpose To examine the moderating role of resilience in the relationship between peer pressure and risky behaviors among nursing students. Design and Methods A cross‐sectional correlational study carried out with 512 students. Findings The mean age was 20.90 ± 1.66. Of the students, 82.4% were females 99.0% were single, 71.5% had moderate socioeconomic status. While peer pressure directly made an effect on whole subdimensions for risky behaviors (p < 0.001), resilience had an effect on antisocial behavior, dropout, eating habits, and suicidal tendency (p < 0.001). Moderation was supported as the relationship between peer pressure and substance use varied by resilience level (p < 0.001). Practical Implications Students with high levels of resilience are less prone to exhibit some risky behaviors based on peer pressure. Resilience‐building strategies should be incorporated into the curriculum.
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Amaç Siber zorbalık, çevrimiçi iletişimin kullanımıyla çocukların sağlığını olumsuz etkileme potansiyeli olan riskli bir durumdur. Bu ölçek siber zorba ve siber kurban olma durumlarını ölçmenin yanı sıra siber seyirci olma durumunu da ele almaktadır. Siber seyirci alt boyutunun ölçülebilmesinin, problemin kapsamlı bir şekilde tanımlanmasına katkı sağlayacağı düşünülmektedir. Bu çalışma, Siber Zorbalık Üçgeni Ölçeği’ni Türkçe’ye uyarlamak ve psikometrik özelliklerini incelemek amacıyla yapılmıştır. Gereç ve Yöntemler Bu çalışma, tanımlayıcı, korelasyonel ve metodolojik desendedir. Nisan 2019-Eylül 2019 tarihleri arasında 9-17 yaş aralığındaki 1256 çocuk ile gerçekleştirilmiştir. Veri toplama aşamasında sosyodemografik form ve Siber Zorbalık Üçgeni Ölçeği kullanılarak toplanmıştır. Açıklayıcı ve doğrulayıcı faktör analizleri, Cronbach alfa ve madde toplam puanı analiz edilmiştir. Bulgular Ölçek, 35 madde ve üç alt boyuttan oluşmaktadır. Üç alt ölçeğin, toplam varyansın %35'ini açıkladığı bulunmuştur. Açıklayıcı Faktör yükleri birinci alt boyut için 0,41-0,66, ikinci alt boyut için 0,38-0,64 ve üçüncü alt boyut için 0,64-0,73 arasındadır. Ölçeğin toplamı için Cronbach alfa katsayısı 0,87, alt ölçekler için; siber kurban 0,66, siber zorba 0,80 ve siber seyirci için 0,87’dir. Sonuç Siber Zorbalık Üçgeni Ölçeği, Türk kültüründeki çocuk örneklemi için geçerli ve güvenilir psikometrik özellikleri göstermektedir. Bu ölçek, çocukların deneyimlerini üç boyutlu ele alarak kapsamlı bir şekilde değerlendirebilir. Koruyucu ve önleyici çalışmalar için yön gösterici nitelikte olacağı düşünülmektedir. Anahtar Kelimeler Siber zorba; Siber kurban; Siber seyirci; Çocuk.
Article
This study explores how resilience mediates the association between peer victimization and mental well-being among left-behind children in the Chinese cultural context, and how gender groups differ in certain path. Data are collected from a random sample of 471 left-behind children from the City of Huai’an in mainland China. Results of this study shows that peer victimization is not only significantly and directly related, but also indirectly associated with children mental well-being through the intermediary mechanism of resilience. The theoretical model is applicable to both male and female left-behind children with no gender difference. The findings provide empirical support for the proposed theoretical framework that resilience plays a crucial mediator in the relationship between peer victimization and children mental well-being. Empirical evidence also shows that interventions focused on anti-bullying and cultivating resilience may be effective to improve children mental well-being.
Book
Multiperspectivity on School Bullying is unique in providing a comprehensive account of school bullying from the perspectives of schools, teachers, parents, students and institutional authorities. It identifies diverse viewpoints and discusses their implications for addressing bullying and thereby improving the mental health and well-being of children. Drawing on findings from studies conducted in a wide range of countries, including those undertaken by the author in his own country, Australia, this book examines experiences of bullying and debates around how bullying can be best understood, managed and discouraged. It outlines what is needed before an agreed understanding of the problem can be reached and more effective anti-bullying programs devised and implemented. The book examines both historical and cultural factors relating to bullying and violence; major theoretical and research perspectives on bullying; views of different social groups affected by bullying; and how different institutional authorities view school bullying. It highlights the need for a multiperspectivity approach to bullying, taking into account and evaluating a variety of viewpoints that are currently held. This book will be of great interest to academics, researchers and students in the fields of bullying, wellbeing and mental health in schools. It will also be valuable reading for educational leaders around the globe.
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Youth who experience bullying are at risk for psychopathology, indicating the necessity of identifying factors that may protect against the deleterious effects of being bullied. The present study expands upon prior research by examining resilience as a mediator of the effects of experiencing bullying on depression and anxiety within a sample of 2155 adolescents. Results indicated that youth who experienced bullying were more likely to have higher symptoms of depression and anxiety and lower resilience, while higher levels of resilience were associated with fewer symptoms of depression and anxiety. Resilience partially mediated the associations of experiencing bullying with depression and anxiety symptoms, suggesting that resilience may serve as a protective factor for adolescents who experience bullying. These findings have implications for programming that seeks to address bullying, peer victimization, and promotion of adolescent mental health.
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An internal locus of control contributes to positive youth outcomes such as a general well-being and academic success, while also serving as a protective factor against exposure to community violence and reducing negative behaviors like violence. Despite these benefits, very little is known about antecedents of an internal locus of control orientation. Without an understanding of what factors contribute to the development of an internal locus of control, it is not clear how to best encourage its formation. This study uses data from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods to examine whether various mesosystem variables (family management strategies, peer interactions, neighborhood context, and individual-level characteristics) are associated with an internal locus of control orientation among 1,076 youth ages 9-19 living in 78 Chicago neighborhoods. Study participants were Hispanic (46 %), African American (34 %), and White (15 %), and 50 % were female. The findings suggest that, while most levels of the mesosystem influence locus of control orientation, family management strategies are more prominent determinants of an internal locus of control than peers, neighborhood context, or individual characteristics. Parental supervision over the time a youth spends at home and family socioeconomic status are consistent predictors of an internal locus of control, while harsh discipline is associated with an external locus of control. The discussion examines the import of various parenting techniques in shaping an internal locus of control and considers future avenues for research to further unpack how antecedents of locus of control can vary across youth.
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Highly visible tragedies in high schools thought to involve bullying have directly contributed to public support for state-mandated K-12 anti-bullying programming. But are existing programs actually effective for these older adolescents? This paper first outlines theoretical considerations, including developmental changes in (a) the manifestation of bullying, (b) the underlying causes of bullying, and (c) the efficacy of domain-general behavior-change tactics. This review leads to the prediction of a discontinuity in program efficacy among older adolescents. The paper then reports a novel meta-analysis of studies that administered the same program to multiple age groups and measured levels of bullying (k = 19, with 72 effect sizes). By conducting a hierarchical meta-analysis of the within-study moderation of efficacy by age, more precise estimates of age-related trends were possible. Results were consistent with theory in that whereas bullying appears to be effectively prevented in 7th grade and below, in 8th grade and beyond there is a sharp drop to an average of zero. This finding contradicts past meta-analyses that used between-study tests of moderation. This paper provides a basis for a theory of age-related moderation of program effects that may generalize to other domains. The findings also suggest the more general need for caution when interpreting between-study meta-analytic moderation results.
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In Nigeria, emphasis has been placed on secondary school students’ academic performance because of its direct positive impact on national development. Young students in secondary schools today are expected to be leaders of tomorrow and their academic performance is sine qua non for gaining admission into higher institutions and the quality of manpower the nation can boast of in the future. Unfortunately and generally, secondary school students’ academic performance in Nigeria is a serious matter for concern. Many researchers in recent time are interested in the factors affecting academic performance with a view to finding permanent solutions to the problems of poor academic performance of secondary school students. It is on this premise that the current study was conducted to examine the influence of some psychological factors on students’ academic performance. Descriptive research design of correctional type was used for the study. The sample consisted of three hundred and sixty four students randomly selected from ten secondary schools. Two standardized instruments were used to collect data from the sample while students’ scores in their previous promotion examination were used to measure their academic performance. Through multiple regression analysis, the researchers found that academic self-efficacy and locus of control jointly predicted academic performance. Further analysis revealed that academic self-efficacy significantly predicted academic performance while locus of control was not a good predictor. It is recommended that teachers, school management, school administrators and counselling psychologists should use appropriate psychological interventions to enhance academic self-efficacy of secondary school students. DOI: 10.5901/mjss.2013.v4n11p570
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Cyberbullying has become an international public health concern among adolescents, and as such, it deserves further study. This paper reviews the current literature related to the effects of cyberbullying on adolescent health across multiple studies worldwide and provides directions for future research. A review of the evidence suggests that cyberbullying poses a threat to adolescents' health and well-being. A plethora of correlational studies have demonstrated a cogent relationship between adolescents' involvement in cyberbullying and negative health indices. Adolescents who are targeted via cyberbullying report increased depressive affect, anxiety, loneliness, suicidal behavior, and somatic symptoms. Perpetrators of cyberbullying are more likely to report increased substance use, aggression, and delinquent behaviors. Mediating/moderating processes have been found to influence the relationship between cyberbullying and adolescent health. More longitudinal work is needed to increase our understanding of the effects of cyberbullying on adolescent health over time. Prevention and intervention efforts related to reducing cyberbullying and its associated harms are discussed.
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Bullying involvement in any form can have lasting physical and emotional consequences for adolescents. For programs and policies to best safeguard youth, it is important to understand prevalence of bullying across cyber and traditional contexts. We conducted a thorough review of the literature and identified 80 studies that reported corresponding prevalence rates for cyber and traditional bullying and/or aggression in adolescents. Weighted mean effect sizes were calculated, and measurement features were entered as moderators to explain variation in prevalence rates and in traditional–cyber correlations within the sample of studies. Prevalence rates for cyber bullying were lower than for traditional bullying, and cyber and traditional bullying were highly correlated. A number of measurement features moderated variability in bullying prevalence; whereas a focus on traditional relational aggression increased correlations between cyber and traditional aggressions. In our meta-analytic review, traditional bullying was twice as common as cyber bullying. Cyber and traditional bullying were also highly correlated, suggesting that polyaggression involvement should be a primary target for interventions and policy. Results of moderation analyses highlight the need for greater consensus in measurement approaches for both cyber and traditional bullying.
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IMPORTANCE Peer victimization is related to an increased chance of suicidal ideation and suicide attempts among children and adolescents. OBJECTIVE To examine the relationship between peer victimization and suicidal ideation or suicide attempts using meta-analysis. DATA SOURCES Ovid MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and Web of Science were searched for articles from 1910 to 2013. The search terms were bully*, teas*, victim*, mobbing, ragging, and harassment in combination with the term suic*. Of the 491 studies identified, 34 reported on the relationship between peer victimization and suicidal ideation, with a total of 284 375 participants. Nine studies reported on the relationship between peer victimization and suicide attempts, with a total of 70 102 participants. STUDY SELECTION Studies were eligible for inclusion if they reported an effect size on the relationship between peer victimization and suicidal ideation or suicide attempt in children or adolescents. DATA EXTRACTION AND SYNTHESIS Two observers independently coded the effect sizes from the articles. Data were pooled using a random effects model. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES This study focused on suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. Peer victimization was hypothesized to be related to suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. RESULTS Peer victimization was found to be related to both suicidal ideation (odds ratio, 2.23 [95% CI, 2.10-2.37]) and suicide attempts (2.55 [1.95-3.34]) among children and adolescents. Analyses indicated that these results were not attributable to publication bias. Results were not moderated by sex, age, or study quality. Cyberbullying was more strongly related to suicidal ideation compared with traditional bullying. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Peer victimization is a risk factor for child and adolescent suicidal ideation and attempts. Schools should use evidence-based practices to reduce bullying.
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The aim of this study was to identify family resilience characteristics in families in which a child has been bullied, in the Western Cape province of South Africa. Forty-eight mothers represented their families and completed a biographical questionnaire containing an open-ended question, and seven self-report questionnaires. Results from the qualitative data showed that most of the families coped with the bullying by talking to a teacher, principal or the governing body, or by giving advice to the child who had been bullied. The quantitative results highlighted the quality of family communication, the fortitude and durability of the family unit, and the family's emphasis on being together. These findings can be utilised in interventions to strengthen families finding themselves in a similar crisis.
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The role of resilience in the relationship between bullying behaviors, victimization experiences, and self-efficacy was examined. Participants were 393 (191 young men, 202 young women) adolescents (M age = 15.88 years, SD = 0.64 years) from schools in Coimbatore, India, who completed scales to assess bullying behaviors and victimization experiences, resilience, and self-efficacy. Multigroup structural equation modeling, with separate groups created according to participant gender, revealed that resilience mediated the relationship between bullying behaviors and self-efficacy in young men. Young men engaged in bullying behaviors and experienced victimization more frequently than young women. The findings of the study have implication for designing intervention programs to enhance resilience among adolescents and young adults to enable them to manage bullying behaviors.
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Bullying in a school setting is an important social concern that has received increased scholarly attention in recent years. Specifically, its causes and effects have been under investigation by a number of researchers in the social and behavioral sciences. A new permutation of bullying, however, has recently arisen and become more common: Techsavvy students are turning to cyberspace to harass their peers. This exploratory article discusses the nature of bullying and its transmutation to the electronic world and the negative repercussions that can befall both its victims and instigators. In addition, findings are reported from a pilot study designed to empirically assess the nature and extent of online bullying. The overall goal of the current work is to illuminate this novel form of deviance stemming from the intersection of communications and computers and to provide a foundational backdrop on which future empirical research can be conducted.
Book
Developmental Assets and Asset-Building Communities examines the relationships of developmental assets to other approaches and bodies of work. It raises challenges about the asset-building approach and offers recommendations for how this approach can be strengthened and broadened in impact and research. In doing so, this book extends the scholarly base for the understanding of the character and scope of the systemic relation between young people's healthy development and the nature of developmentally attentive communities. The chapters in this volume present evidence that asset-building communities both promote and are promoted by positive youth development, a bi-directional, systemic linkage that - consistent with developmental systems theory - further civil society by building relationship and intergenerational places within a community that are united in attending to the developmental needs of children and adolescents.
Book
More than two decades after Michael Rutter (1987) published his summary of protective processes associated with resilience, researchers continue to report definitional ambiguity in how to define and operationalize positive development under adversity. The problem has been partially the result of a dominant view of resilience as something individuals have, rather than as a process that families, schools,communities and governments facilitate. Because resilience is related to the presence of social risk factors, there is a need for an ecological interpretation of the construct that acknowledges the importance of people's interactions with their environments. The Social Ecology of Resilience provides evidence for this ecological understanding of resilience in ways that help to resolve both definition and measurement problems. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012. All rights reserved.
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This study investigated the prevalence of bullying and victimization among students in grades 7 and 8. It also explored the relationship of bullying and victimization to gender, grade level, ethnicity, self-esteem, and depression. Three survey instruments were used to obtain data from a convenience sample of 454 public school students. Twenty-four percent reported bullying involvement. Chi-square tests indicated significantly more male than female bullying involvement, seventh graders reported more involvement than did eighth graders, and there were no statistically significant differences in involvement based on ethnicity. Both bullies and victims manifested higher levels of depression than did students who were neither bullies nor victims. There were no significant differences between groups in terms of self-esteem.
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With the increased number of schools adopting social-emotional learning (SEL) programming, there is increased emphasis on the role of implementation in obtaining desired outcomes. Despite this, the current knowledge of the active ingredients of SEL programming is lacking, and there is a need to move from a focus on “whether” implementation matters to “what” aspects of implementation matter. To address this gap, the current study utilizes a latent class approach with data from year 1 of a randomized controlled trial of Second Step® (61 schools, 321 teachers, over 7300 students). Latent classes of implementation were identified, then used to predict student outcomes. Teachers reported on multiple dimensions of implementation (adherence, dosage, competency), as well as student outcomes. Observational data were also used to assess classroom behavior (academic engagement and disruptive behavior). Results suggest that a three-class model fits the data best, labeled as high-quality, low-engagement, and low-adherence classes. Only the low-engagement class showed significant associations with poorer outcomes, when compared to the high-quality class (not the low-adherence class). Findings are discussed in terms of implications for program development and implementation science more broadly.
Article
Problem: Priority health-risk behaviors contribute to the leading causes of morbidity and mortality among youth and adults. Population-based data on these behaviors at the national, state, and local levels can help monitor the effectiveness of public health interventions designed to protect and promote the health of youth nationwide. Reporting period covered: September 2014-December 2015. Description of the system: The Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) monitors six categories of priority health behaviors among youth and young adults: 1) behaviors that contribute to unintentional injuries and violence; 2) tobacco use; 3) alcohol and other drug use; 4) sexual behaviors related to unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection; 5) unhealthy dietary behaviors; and 6) physical inactivity. In addition, YRBSS monitors the prevalence of obesity and asthma and other priority health behaviors. YRBSS includes a national school-based Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) conducted by CDC and state and large urban school district school-based YRBSs conducted by state and local education and health agencies. This report summarizes results for 118 health behaviors plus obesity, overweight, and asthma from the 2015 national survey, 37 state surveys, and 19 large urban school district surveys conducted among students in grades 9-12. Results: Results from the 2015 national YRBS indicated that many high school students are engaged in priority health-risk behaviors associated with the leading causes of death among persons aged 10-24 years in the United States. During the 30 days before the survey, 41.5% of high school students nationwide among the 61.3% who drove a car or other vehicle during the 30 days before the survey had texted or e-mailed while driving, 32.8% had drunk alcohol, and 21.7% had used marijuana. During the 12 months before the survey, 15.5% had been electronically bullied, 20.2% had been bullied on school property, and 8.6% had attempted suicide. Many high school students are engaged in sexual risk behaviors that relate to unintended pregnancies and STIs, including HIV infection. Nationwide, 41.2% of students had ever had sexual intercourse, 30.1% had had sexual intercourse during the 3 months before the survey (i.e., currently sexually active), and 11.5% had had sexual intercourse with four or more persons during their life. Among currently sexually active students, 56.9% had used a condom during their last sexual intercourse. Results from the 2015 national YRBS also indicated many high school students are engaged in behaviors associated with chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, cancer, and diabetes. During the 30 days before the survey, 10.8% of high school students had smoked cigarettes and 7.3% had used smokeless tobacco. During the 7 days before the survey, 5.2% of high school students had not eaten fruit or drunk 100% fruit juices and 6.7% had not eaten vegetables. More than one third (41.7%) had played video or computer games or used a computer for something that was not school work for 3 or more hours per day on an average school day and 14.3% had not participated in at least 60 minutes of any kind of physical activity that increased their heart rate and made them breathe hard on at least 1 day during the 7 days before the survey. Further, 13.9% had obesity and 16.0% were overweight. Interpretation: Many high school students engage in behaviors that place them at risk for the leading causes of morbidity and mortality. The prevalence of most health behaviors varies by sex, race/ethnicity, and grade and across states and large urban school districts. Long-term temporal changes also have occurred. Since the earliest year of data collection, the prevalence of most health-risk behaviors has decreased (e.g., riding with a driver who had been drinking alcohol, physical fighting, current cigarette use, current alcohol use, and current sexual activity), but the prevalence of other behaviors and health outcomes has not changed (e.g., suicide attempts treated by a doctor or nurse, smokeless tobacco use, having ever used marijuana, and attending physical education classes) or has increased (e.g., having not gone to school because of safety concerns, obesity, overweight, not eating vegetables, and not drinking milk). Monitoring emerging risk behaviors (e.g., texting and driving, bullying, and electronic vapor product use) is important to understand how they might vary over time. Public health action: YRBSS data are used widely to compare the prevalence of health behaviors among subpopulations of students; assess trends in health behaviors over time; monitor progress toward achieving 21 national health objectives for Healthy People 2020 and one of the 26 leading health indicators; provide comparable state and large urban school district data; and help develop and evaluate school and community policies, programs, and practices designed to decrease health-risk behaviors and improve health outcomes among youth.
Chapter
There has been a resurgence of interest in the unique ability of the faith community to support youth and promote their healthy development. Faith-based organizations (FBOs) according to White (1998) are “organizations or programs which claim to be affiliated with a religious congregation, or those organizations that are independent from a religious congregation or order, but who express a religious motivation for working with at-risk youth.” Recently, the U.S. federal government has expressed clear support for the role of FBOs in community efforts to improve health and life functioning for children and adults. In 2001, President George W. Bush submitted an executive order that created the White House Office of FaithBased and Community Initiatives. According to Jim Towey, director, this proposal was designed to make federal funds available to FBOs instrumental in providing a variety of community services that the federal and state governments have been unsuccessful in implementing (Abernethy, 2003). The Bush administration is adamant that funds will not be used to fund “clearly religious” programs but to fund those aspects or parts of programs that instead support programs that address human needs. Furthermore, organizations are forbidden from using federally supported programs as a means of proselytizing to recipients and/or promoting the organization’s religious beliefs.
Article
Findings from a 14 site mixed methods study of over 1500 youth globally support four propositions that underlie a more culturally and contextually embedded understanding of resilience: 1) there are global, as well as culturally and contextually specific aspects to young peoples lives that contribute to their resilience; 2) aspects of resilience exert differing amounts of influence on a childs life depending on the specific culture and context in which resilience is realized; 3) aspects of childrens lives that contribute to resilience are related to one another in patterns that reflect a childs culture and context; 4) tensions between individuals and their cultures and contexts are resolved in ways that reflect highly specific relationships between aspects of resilience. The implications of this cultural and contextual understanding of resilience to interventions with at-risk populations are discussed.
Book
Childhood resilience is the phenomenon of positive adaptation despite significant life adversities. While interest in resilience has burgeoned in recent years, considerable uncertainty remains regarding what research has revealed about this phenomenon. Integrated in this book are contributions from leading scientists who have studied children's adjustment across risks common in contemporary society. Chapters in the first half of the book focus on risks emanating from the family, and in the second half, on risks stemming from the wider community. The concluding chapter integrates the evidence presented to determine considerations for future research, and directions for interventions and social policies.
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The study of resilience in development has overturned many negative assumptions and deficit-focused models about children growing up under the threat of disadvantage and adversity. The most surprising conclusion emerging from studies of these children is the ordinariness of resilience. An examination of converging findings from variable-focused and person-focused investigations of these phenomena suggests that resilience is common and that it usually arises from the normative functions of human adaptational systems, with the greatest threats to human development being those that compromise these protective systems. The conclusion that resilience is made of ordinary rather than extraordinary processes offers a more positive outlook on human development and adaptation, as well as direction for policy and practice aimed at enhancing the development of children at risk for problems and psychopathology. The study of resilience in development has overturned many negative assumptions and deficit-focused models about children growing up under the threat of disadvantage and adversity.
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Objective: Most research on the effects of severe psychological stress has focused on stress-related psychopathology. Here, the author develops psychobiological models of resilience to extreme stress. Method: An integrative model of resilience and vulnerability that encompasses the neurochemical response patterns to acute stress and the neural mechanisms mediating reward, fear conditioning and extinction, and social behavior is proposed. Results: Eleven possible neurochemical, neuropeptide, and hormonal mediators of the psychobiological response to extreme stress were identified and related to resilience or vulnerability. The neural mechanisms of reward and motivation (hedonia, optimism, and learned helpfulness), fear responsiveness (effective behaviors despite fear), and adaptive social behavior (altruism, bonding, and teamwork) were found to be relevant to the character traits associated with resilience. Conclusions: The opportunity now exists to bring to bear the full power of advances in our understan...
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Cyberbullying is an established threat to the well-being of youth worldwide. How victims cope with cyberbullying has the potential to buffer against negative effects. The present study is a systematic review of research on coping with cyberbullying to identify whether the process of coping is being used to identify pathways to resilience. In this review the process of coping with cyberbullying, the Transactional Model of Stress and Coping, and to what degree existing studies have examined the process of coping were considered. Findings indicated that much of the prior literature has identified components of the process but few studies have looked at the process itself. Understanding the process of coping with cyberbullying has important implications for how victims appraise the threat of cyberbullying, select coping strategies, and perceive their ability to enact those strategies (self-efficacy). The need for additional research and an explanation of how a better understanding of the process is needed to design effective cyberbullying interventions are discussed.
Chapter
Adolescents are not resilient. Resilience is also not a functional feature of the ecology of adolescent development (e.g., as may be represented by the concept of “protective factors”). Rather, resilience is a concept denoting that the relationship between an adolescent and his or her ecology has adaptive significance. That is, the relationship involves a fit between characteristics of an individual youth and features of his or her ecology that reflects either adjustment (change) in the face of altered or new environmental threats, challenges, or “processes,” or constancy or maintenance of appropriate or healthy functioning in the face of environmental variations in the resources needed for appropriate or healthy functioning. As such, the individual–context relationship summarized by the term “resilience” reflects individual well-being at a given point in time, and thriving across the adolescent period, in the face of features within the ecological context that challenge adaptation. In turn, this relationship also implies that, for the ecology or context, there are actions that could maintain or further the quality of its structure (e.g., the family, schools, or community programs for youth development) or its function in the service of supporting healthy adolescent behavior and development (e.g., parenting that reflects warmth and appropriate monitoring; low student–teacher ratios involving engaged students and high quality institutions; and access to competent, caring, and committed mentors in out-of-school-time [OST] youth development programs, respectively).
Article
Mentoring develops resilience in youth. The author reflects on the power of mentoring, drawing on resilience science nnd school-based nteutors in her own troubled young life. If I have seen further, it is because I have stood on the shoulders of a giant. -Isaac Newton A mentor, by traditional standards, has been defined as a person who is usually 8 to 15 years older than his or her prospective mentee. The relationship between men-tor and mentee is described as a friendship which encompasses adult equality, but the mentor also per-forms the fatherly (and/or motherly) tasks of teach-ing, caring, criticizing, helping, and offering con-structive suggestions in both career and personal matters (Zastrow & Kirst-Ashman, 2001). Busch (1985) suggests that mentors feel that mentoring is just as important to them as to their mentees. Benefits to mentors include emotional satisfaction, psychological well-being, growth of the mentor's reputation, and rejuvenation and creativity. Mentoring has traditionally been viewed as a career development mechanism. I see it not only as a resource to pave the road in career development, but also as a social buffering technique—an intervention to reduce the negative psychological effects associat-ed with child maltreatment. Exposure to people or events that contradict risk effects will compensate for previous bad experiences and help counter the belief that risk is always present (Newman, 2002). A men-tor, in the case of an abused or neglected child, can be a grandparent or other relative, a foster or adoptive parent, teacher, coach, neighbor, or other unrelated adult. These "aunts" or "uncles" can promote social development of children and adolescents (Newman, 2002).
Article
It was a search for understanding the nature and origins of schizophrenia that brought Norman Garmezy to the study of children at risk for psychopathology, a pursuit that eventually led to the Project Competence studies of competence, adversity, and resilience (Garmezy, 1973). During the 1940s and 1950s, Garmezy developed an interest in the significance of competence in the history and prognosis of patients with serious mental disorders, with a particular focus on premorbid functioning in patients with schizophrenia (Garmezy & Rodnick, 1959). Eventually, the search for antecedents of psychopathology led Garmezy and others to study children of mentally ill parents because of their elevated risk of developing disorders. After his move to the University of Minnesota in 1961, Garmezy began to focus his work on children, and subsequently played a leading role in an international consortium of investigators who adopted the risk strategy for uncovering clues to the etiology and possible prevention or treatment of serious mental disorders (Watt, Anthony, Wynne, & Rolf, 1984). It was not long before Garmezy's interest in competence resurfaced. He became intrigued with observations that many children at risk for psychopathology were developing surprisingly well. By the early 1970s, he and his students turned their attention to the study of competence in children at risk due to parental mental illness and other risk factors, including poverty and stressful life experiences. At this time, Garmezy named his research program Project Competence.
Book
Scientific research and science-guided practice based on the promotion of an individual's strengths constitutes a radical shift in a new and growing area of study within the field of human development. Its trademark term is 'positive youth development'. This approach to human development is based on the idea that, in addition to preventing problems, science and practice should promote the development of competencies, skills, and motivation in order to enhance individuals' developmental pathways. Approaches to Positive Youth Development, is based on this concept and brings together authors from across Europe and America who are leaders in their respective fields. The main focus of the book, beyond a clarification of the paradigmatic foundations, concerns the major contexts of adolescents and young adults, namely, neighborhoods and leisure locales, school and family, and the major themes of healthy psychosocial development, namely, competences and knowledge, pro-social behavior, transcending problems of delinquency, civic engagement, identity, agency, and spirituality.
Article
Objective: The authors examined midlife outcomes of childhood bullying victimization. Method: Data were from the British National Child Development Study, a 50-year prospective cohort of births in 1 week in 1958. The authors conducted ordinal logistic and linear regressions on data from 7,771 participants whose parents reported bullying exposure at ages 7 and 11 years, and who participated in follow-up assessments between ages 23 and 50 years. Outcomes included suicidality and diagnoses of depression, anxiety disorders, and alcohol dependence at age 45; psychological distress and general health at ages 23 and 50; and cognitive functioning, socioeconomic status, social relationships, and well-being at age 50. Results: Participants who were bullied in childhood had increased levels of psychological distress at ages 23 and 50. Victims of frequent bullying had higher rates of depression (odds ratio=1.95, 95% CI=1.27-2.99), anxiety disorders (odds ratio=1.65, 95% CI=1.25-2.18), and suicidality (odds ratio=2.21, 95% CI=1.47-3.31) than their nonvictimized peers. The effects were similar to those of being placed in public or substitute care and an index of multiple childhood adversities, and the effects remained significant after controlling for known correlates of bullying victimization. Childhood bullying victimization was associated with a lack of social relationships, economic hardship, and poor perceived quality of life at age 50. Conclusions: Children who are bullied-and especially those who are frequently bullied-continue to be at risk for a wide range of poor social, health, and economic outcomes nearly four decades after exposure. Interventions need to reduce bullying exposure in childhood and minimize long-term effects on victims' well-being; such interventions should cast light on causal processes.
Article
Positive youth development (PYD) and resilience science differ in emphasis and focus but share many roots, assumptions, concepts, and goals. Both frameworks are grounded in developmental systems theory, both are focused on positive adaptation, and both are translational, sharing a common goal of promoting positive development. Yet there also are differences. This commentary examines the concepts, methods, and goals that define the PYD framework as embodied by the 4-H Study of PYD from the perspective of contemporary resilience science in human development, with an eye toward delineating similarities, differences, and future directions.