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Azzuni2017 paper DefinitionsDimensionsEnergySecurityLiteratureRev WIREenergyEnviron Supplementary

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One of the crucial issues in Europe at the moment is securing reliable gas supply. Achieving security of gas supply implies diversifying gas sources, while having enough supply, transportation, and storage capacity to meet demand peaks and supply interruptions. In 2013, the Baltic States still remain disintegrated from the rest of Europe in one crucial way: their natural gas infrastructure isolates them into “energy islands”. The Eastern Baltic Sea European Union (EU) member states of Finland, Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania are the only ones which remain isolated from the present integrated EU natural gas transmission system. The gas demand in these isolated member states is approximately ten billion cubic meters (bm3) of natural gas per year. The third energy package of EU proposes a new series of measures to promote competition and create a single European energy market. Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Finland now for the first time have a chance to secure their energy independence by connecting their natural gas systems with those of their European allies and evolving them into market-based trading systems. Liquefied natural gas (LNG) is an important energy source that contributes to energy security and diversity, therefore a concept of a regional LNG terminal has been proposed. In this paper the authors give an overview of the current situation and present possible future scenarios with the development of Eastern Baltic regional LNG terminal. 2013 is a crucial time as in September the decision will be made regarding weather the regional LNG terminal will be chosen as a project of common interest in the trans-European energy networks.
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Over the last few decades, the debate about “Peak Oil” became increasingly common and frustrating to governments, oil companies, and individuals. Also in the last decade or so, some unusual events took place which have raised the concern about the future of energy resources. These events lead policy makers to consider what is known today as “Energy Security.” The UK is one of these countries that fears the unknown future should petroleum resources worldwide become scarce or vanish. After the dwindling of the North Sea production, the UK found itself on the brink of losing its energy self-sufficiency. This article asks the questions: Has the UK’s oil and gas production peaked yet? If so, does the UK have a serious energy security problem, and if so, how may this problem be solved and what are the possible short, medium, and long-term solutions for such a concern? In answering these questions, the article discusses the concerns and challenges to the UK energy security and brings about the government plans for tackling these concerns. It is found that the UK does not experience an energy security problem on the short to medium-term, but it may suffer energy insecurity on the longer-term.
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Energy security is strongly related to energy and climate policies. Understanding of energy security implications is critically important for shaping policy measures. This study presents the future energy security assessment in Thailand under three energy scenarios. The assessment was based on the use of energy security indicators to track the impact of changes in the energy system under different energy scenarios for the period 2012–2030. These indicators were clustered into four groups, including energy demand, diversification of energy supply resources, environmental dimension, and energy market. The three scenarios were derived from published data. The analysis suggests that Thailand needs to develop specific policy measures to enhance energy security in terms of energy market dimension and to pay more attention in national energy efficiency and total CO2 emissions to maintain the economic growth.
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Using indicator-based assessment, this study examines the energy security of nine Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) member countries to see how it has evolved over the past 12 years and identifies a country-specific energy security context for each country. The assessment uses 42 energy security indicators, which can be separated into five components: overall energy balance, socio-economic aspect, domestic energy resources, overseas energy demands and resources, and diversification of energy supply. The findings show different energy security situations among ASEAN member nations that are a result of national energy contexts, specifically uneven economic and energy infrastructure developments. The context, at a national level, affects the connotation of energy security and the interpretation of the indicators, which reflects different primary issues of concern regarding energy security. At the international level, due to the diversity, the interconnection of intra-regional energy markets could contribute to energy self-reliance of the region. Adversely, the difference could hinder the prospect of cooperation due to the lack of consensus on shared value.
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Modern energy systems are increasingly complex and face ever-changing demands. As energy markets become increasingly global and interdependent, the issues affecting energy systems have also increased in number and complexity. Geopolitical events, natural disasters, severe weather, public acceptance of energy activities, increasingly automated and integrated energy systems, and the impact of climate change are just some of the factors impacting on energy systems. Consequently, the assessment of risks, threats and vulnerabilities in energy systems has become more urgent and more challenging.
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Energy is essential for goods and services. Japan's economy is dependent on imported energy which is 85% per year, the highest percentage among industrialised nations. The study measures energy supply security (ESS). Four indices; dependency index, intensity index, local production index and composite index are constructed and statistical models are formed out to investigate the significance and the sensitivities between the ESS indexes and the input parameters that are; petroleum prices (PP), gross domestic products (GDP), total primary energy supply (TPES), energy consumption (PCEC), renewable energy (REN), CO2 emissions (CEM), population (P), traffic volume (TV), human development index (HDI) and mean of democracy indexes of energy suppliers (DI). A comprehensive methodology is used with five statistical procedures including simple correlation analysis, multiple linear regression models, stepwise multiple linear regression model, principal component analysis and cluster analysis. Empirical results indicate that PCEC, P and HDI have significant effect on ESS.
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As ASEAN is now pursuing regional energy cooperation, it is important to measure the status of energy security performance of member nations. This paper assesses the security of energy supply among nine ASEAN member nations and examines whether and how it has evolved over the past decade. The analysis uses 35 indicators selected based on three dimensions of energy security: supply security, socio-economic and environmental dimension. The evaluation findings show how concept of energy security differs among ASEAN member nations. Despite uneven economic and energy development, existing intra-regional energy markets are interconnected. The concept of regional self-reliance could be useful in designing and promoting ASEAN energy security cooperation.
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Imagine that you could wave a magic wand and provide everyone in the world with easy access to clean and affordable energy. In one stroke you would make the world a far cleaner, richer, fairer, and safer place. Suddenly, a billion and a half of the world's poorest people could discover what it is like to turn on an electric light in the evening. The looming threat posed by climate change would largely disappear. From the South China Sea to the Middle East to the Arctic, geopolitical tensions over energy resources would fade away. Human health would benefit, too, as vaccines and perishable foods could be refrigerated the world over. And many of the world's most corrupt government officials could no longer enrich themselves by bleeding their countries dry of revenues from fossil fuel sales.
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This article explores the relationship between diversification and energy security risks. It uses portfolio theory to conceptualise energy security as an insurance mechanism against disruptions to energy import markets. It provides quantitative measures of systematic and specific risks associated with Japanese energy imports during the period 1970—99. It suggests that Japan's policy of diversification of energy import sources has reduced specific risks, although fundamental changes in the political and economic structure of international energy and, in particular, oil markets have also significantly reduced systematic risks. The article concludes that, despite their limitations, portfolio measures provide a much more theoretically and methodologically robust indicator of energy import security than traditional measures of dependence.
Book
This volume examines energy security in a privatized, liberalized, and increasingly global energy market, in which the concept of sustainability has developed together with a higher awareness of environmental issues, but where the potential for supply disruptions, price fluctuation, and threats to infrastructure safety must also be considered. Part I commences with an essential introductory chapter which defines energy security and sets forth the key issues and themes of the book. There then follows several cross-cutting chapters which include sceptical analysis of energy security claims from an environmental perspective and a broader geopolitical analysis of energy security. Part II examines a wide variety of international, regional, and national approaches to energy security issues. Energy security concerns differ considerably from country to country; however, most of the chapters examining particular nations provide an economic and historical context of their energy security concerns, followed by a detailed analysis of the legal provisions relating to each of the main energy sectors (oil, gas, coal, electricity, nuclear, and renewable). This entails examination of regulation, organization, and planning for security and other purposes. In a number of cases, energy security law is shaped by other factors such as market liberalization, environmental protection, and competition policy. Part III comprises two final chapters, the first contrasting the various national and regional approaches and analysing cross-cutting issues, whilst the concluding chapter forecasts future trends in the legal regulation of energy security.
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For over five decades, the world’s oil map has centered on the Middle East. However, with the advent of the 21st century, a new map is emerging, shifting from the Middle East to the Western Hemisphere. Some analysts assert that the world energy’s new map will change the existing world political order because the world’s new map will make the Mideast oil producers less powerful and less relevant. Furthermore, as the United States is getting less dependent on Mideast oil, it is most likely to readjust its Mideast policy accordingly. Yet, the argument in this article is that as the world has only one oil market, improved energy security of the United States alone will not necessarily lead to improved energy security on a global scale, nor will the United States automatically become immune to new disruptions of Mideast oil supply and to a new world oil price crisis. Rather, the fact that the Mideast geopolitical contradictions are structurally uncompromising and historically enduring will continue to affect the oil supply from the Middle East and therefore affect the US economy. Given the important role that the Mideast oil plays in boosting the global economy and conditioning world geopolitics, as well as in shaping America’s energy policy and economic policy, the author concludes that the power status of the Mideast oil will persist for quite some time to come.
Book
This Handbook brings together energy security experts to explore the implications of framing the energy debate in security terms, both in respect of the governance of energy systems and the practices associated with energy security. © Hugh Dyer and Maria Julia Trombetta 2013. All rights reserved.
This article examines the energy security implications of the Sarawak Corridor of Renewable Energy in Malaysia (SCORE), a US$105 billion infrastructure development plan in Sarawak on the island of Borneo. SCORE aims to build a series of hydroelectric dams along a 320-kilometer corridor by 2030. The article begins by explaining the methodology utilized for its research interviews and site visits. It goes on to argue that energy security in Southeast Asia should consist of simultaneously improving the availability, affordability, efficiency and stewardship of energy services for end users. Availability involves diversifying the fuels and technologies in energy production and minimizing dependence on imports; affordability means providing electricity and fuel within the income range of most consumers; efficiency means improving the performance of equipment and lowering demand for energy; and stewardship is minimizing political, social, and environmental hazards associated with energy production and consumption. The paper next introduces the SCORE project before making an assessment utilizing the four criteria of energy security. While SCORE partially improves availability, we argue that it erodes aspects of affordability, efficiency and stewardship. Cost overruns and delays in financing will make the electricity from SCORE suitable only to industrial users, not the energy poor. SCORE is predicated on the assumption that electricity demand should grow greatly in the future rather than the idea that energy efficiency and demand side management programmes should attempt to reduce growth in demand for electricity. SCORE also has a pernicious set of social, environmental and political consequences.
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This paper compares different results from a set of energy scenarios produced by international energy experts, in order to analyze projections on increasing European external energy dependence and vulnerability. Comparison among different scenarios constitutes the basis of a critical review of existing energy security policies, suggesting alternative or complementary future actions. According to the analysis, the main risks and negative impacts in the long term could be the increasing risk of collusion among exporters due to growing dependence of industrialized countries and insufficient diversification; and a risk of demand/supply imbalance, with consequent instability for exporting regions due to insufficient demand, and lack of infrastructures due to insufficient supply. Cooperation with exporting countries enhancing investments in production capacity, and with developing countries in order to reinforce negotiation capacity of energy importing countries seem to be the most effective policies at international level.
Chapter
The search for energy security in the twenty-first century has become a key policy goal of states at the national, regional and global levels. Impacted upon by unprecedented economic growth, industrialization, urbanization, population increase and the technological revolution, the need for energy and its sustained supply have pushed energy security to the forefront of the national agenda of states in the domestic and external arenas.
Chapter
Buzan (1991) and his colleagues (Buzan/Waever/de Wilde 1998) widened the concept of security to include political, economic, societal, and environmental dimensions as well as a military component.
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This analysis contributes to recent efforts to better understand the evolution of energy security in a low-carbon world. Our objective was to assess how energy security may change over the course of the century, and to what extent these changes depend on the uncertainty of the factors that drive the evolution of energy systems, including future technologies, improved energy efficiency, fossil fuel resources and markets, and economic growth. To this end, we focused on Europe and on a set of energy security indicators based on three perspectives: sovereignty, robustness and resilience. A database of scenarios allowed us to account for the large uncertainties surrounding the determinants of future energy systems. We then analyzed the way energy security indicators evolve over time, and how their trajectories vary across scenarios. We identified the indicators that vary the most between scenarios, i.e., the indicators whose future evolution is the most uncertain. For these indicators, we performed an analysis of variance to estimate the contribution of each driver to the uncertainty of the indicators. The paper shows that the European double target of significantly decreasing CO2 emissions and increasing the security of the supply of energy may be difficult to reach. Nevertheless, some levers could facilitate the transition to a low-carbon society while improving energy security, or by limiting its degradation. The results emphasize not only the importance of policies in favor of low or zero carbon technologies in power generation but also the differences in their contributions to the complete uncertainty of the indicators. Policies promoting energy efficiency also play a role but only in the resilience of TPES. These policies are thus important levers for mitigating the negative impacts of climate policies on energy security.
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In this paper we discuss the historical dimensions of energy in rural Alaska to argue that energy securityi n rural locations involves different considerations than in urban areas, and as such a definition of energy security needs to be downscaled to a place-based perspective, addressing individual and household needs as opposed to national issues of supply, consumption, and distribution. The definition of energy security for local communities that we propose is adapted from the food security literature: having sufficientaccess to energy generation or provisioning services to conduct a sustainable life. Also similar to the food security literature, the framework we propose includes four dimensions to energy security: availability,access, quality, and stability. This paper applies the proposed definition and framework to the example of rural Alaska. Alaska has an abundance of energy sources, from oil and gas to a host of renewables, however due to colonial legacies, lack of infrastructure, policies and social structure a number of communities in rural Alaska struggle with energy insecurity.
Chapter
The provision of adequate, reliable, and affordable energy, in conformity with social and environmental requirements is a vital part of sustainable development. Currently, countries are facing a two-fold energy challenge: on the one hand they should assure the provision of environmentally sustainable energy, while, on the other, energy services should be reliable, affordable, and socially acceptable. To evaluate such aspects of energy services one needs energy sustainability barometers, which provide the means to monitor the impacts of energy policies and assist policymakers in relevant decision making. Although sustainability is an ambiguous, complex, and polymorphous concept, all energy sustainability barometers incorporate the three major sustainability dimensions: social, economic, and environmental. In this chapter, we review three models for assessing the sustainability of energy development of countries: ESI, SAFE, and EAPI. We also present a brief discussion of the results, the applied methodologies, and the underlying assumptions of these sustainability barometers.
Chapter
This chapter examines the broad interplay between energy and security. It offers a new framework for thinking about the overlap between energy and security as it relates to “hard” national security issues, focusing on how energy influences every component of a country's grand strategy. Energy may be an ends to a grand strategy, shaping political, military, diplomatic, and economic strategies created by leaders seeking to secure energy resources. Energy can also provide the ways or the tools through which countries advance their non-energy goals. And energy can also provide the means - or revenues - for countries to pursue particular foreign policy or domestic agendas. The chapter uses this framework, in conjunction with many contemporary examples, to demonstrate the importance of energy in shaping the international security landscape.
Article
During the last decade a number of long-held tenets of the energy sector have been rewritten. With the rise of new technologies and the help of policies favouring RES (renewable energy sources) a transformation of our understanding of the energy system and its possibilities has encouraged dramatic changes in the World's energy landscape. As some importers became exporters, countries long-defined as significant energy exporters became centres of demand growth. In these turbulent times, it is the awareness of the dynamics underpinning energy markets that is crucial for both decision-makers and investors to form informed opinions on how to reconcile a string of technical, environmental, economic and social factors in order to provide for best solutions regarding country specifics and demands. The right combination of policies and technologies could fuel economic growth, whilst still providing secure and affordable energy in line with low-carbon goals. Those that might successfully anticipate energy developments can derive a significant advantage on the market, while those that fail to recognise the importance of new movements risk making poor policy and investment decisions. In this light and following the accession of Croatia in the European Union, a number of questions are raised regarding the country's energy sector legal framework and development policy and their ability to cope with the demands faced. Taking Croatia as a practical example, the impact of different development strategies is considered through the application of a novel approach suggested by the paper. This study presents an overview aimed to help clarify some of the aspects behind forming a successful framework capable of making the right decisions for the future, today.
Article
This article correlates energy policy and practice with the multidimensional concept of energy security and empirical performance over forty years. Based on an analysis of 22 countries in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development between 1970 and 2010, it concludes that many industrialized countries have made limited progress toward the goal of achieving secure, reliable and affordable supplies of energy while also transitioning to a low-carbon energy system. However, some national best practices exist, which are identified by examining the relative performance of four countries: the United Kingdom and Belgium (both with noteworthy improvements), and Sweden and France (both with limited improvements). The article concludes by offering implications for energy policy more broadly and by providing empirical evidence that our four dimensions (availability, affordability, energy efficiency, and environmental stewardship) envelop the key strategic components of energy security.
Article
This study aims to examine how China's energy security has changed over 30 years of reform and the opening period. It constructs a 4-As quantitative evaluation framework—the availability of energy resources, the applicability of technology, the acceptability by society, and the affordability of energy resources. The quantitative results show that China's energy security was at its best during the sixth FYP period (1981-1985), but then deteriorated until it hit higher levels between 1995 and 2005. However, it was still lower than the level reached during the sixth FYP period. During the eleventh FYP period (2006-2010), the energy security situation deteriorated again. Differences in policy priority over the study period appear to affect the country's energy security status. This study suggests that China needs to develop renewable energy resources on a large scale and pay more attention to emissions control to reverse the downward trend in energy security.
Article
The European Union has faced a number energy challenges, ranging from over dependence on imports, depletion of reserves and uncoordinated energy infrastructure. The current European Union (EU) energy policy is premised on three policy pillars; internal energy market, security of supply and sustainable energy production and use. EU has initiated a number of policies, legislative and institutional frameworks aimed at realising its energy objectives. Critical to this discussion is the granting of shared competence in energy matters to EU under Lisbon Treaty. Shared competence exists in areas where EU and member states are both able to act. Thus member states are free to act in the same area as long as they do not enact legislation that is in conflict with European law or principles. This paper will intrinsically analyse how EU's position has been elevated in acting upon energy issues to improve its security of supply using external energy policy. This paper will navigate through EU's energy statistics, challenges to energy security, pre and post Lisbon Treaty policy issues aimed at security energy supply. The essay will further discuss how EU has used its internal energy market structures to extend its energy policy beyond borders. Finally, the final part will look at the bottlenecks to full realisation of EU's external energy policy and how to improve it. Finally, the conclusion will give an overview of how EU can better serve Europe's energy security.
Article
The procedure of step-by-step quantitative assessment of strategic threats is described, which is an important part of strategic studies of fuel and energy complex development and includes the identification of an unstable zone in the area of prediction and the calculation of investment risks of particular projects and scenarios. A system of indices (indicators) for the complex evaluation of potential capacity commissioning deficiency and unacceptable energy price growth is proposed.
Article
The institutions and policies that were set up after the 1973 Arab oil embargo can no longer meet the needs of energy consumers or producers. The definition of energy security needs to be expanded to cope with the challenges of a globalized world.
Article
The study investigates the dynamics surrounding potential threats to energy security and sustainable electricity production from a regional perspective, by identifying a host of factors that are likely to affect sustainable energy production and supply using seemingly unrelated regression estimation, which produces efficient estimates by solving two unrelated regression simultaneously. Our results show that the identified threats to energy generation matter considerably. Energy security which we described as the level of diversification in regional specific energy generating sources is probably being affected by regional specific level of industrialization and domestic energy consumption. Issues of over dependence on specific sources of energy supply (particularly nuclear production sources) were also found to have a negative effect on energy security and probably increase the risk of future failure in energy supply. Energy policy was also found to have a significant effect on energy security. The impacts of various constraints on electricity production were also considered. It was found that many factors affect electricity output production in regions particularly environmental factors that affect consumption and the generation process.
Article
How would a low-carbon energy transformation affect energy security? This paper proposes a framework to evaluate energy security under long-term energy scenarios generated by integrated assessment models. Energy security is defined as low vulnerability of vital energy systems, delineated along geographic and sectoral boundaries. The proposed framework considers vulnerability as a combination of risks associated with inter-regional energy trade and resilience reflected in energy intensity and diversity of energy sources and technologies. We apply this framework to 43 scenarios generated by the MESSAGE model as part of the Global Energy Assessment, including one-baseline scenario and 42 'low-carbon' scenarios where the global mean temperature increase is limited to 2 degrees C over the pre-industrial level. By and large, low-carbon scenarios are associated with lower energy trade and higher diversity of energy options, especially in the transport sector. A few risks do emerge under low-carbon scenarios in the latter half of the century. They include potentially high trade in natural gas and hydrogen and low diversity of electricity sources. Trade is typically lower in scenarios which emphasize demand-side policies as well as non-tradable energy sources (nuclear and renewables) while diversity is higher in scenarios which limit the penetration of intermittent renewables.
Article
Energy security has received remarkably little conceptual attention, despite an abundant literature in which various meanings of the term proliferate, together with a copious proxy terminology. This article attempts to clear this conceptual underbrush and to address the question, in what sense is energy a security issue? Drawing on academic and policy-related sources, the article demonstrates that three distinct logics of energy security are currently in circulation: a logic of war, a logic of subsistence and a ‘total’ security logic. These distinct logics carry different meanings of energy and security, embed political hierarchies, and have distinct vocabularies, policy vehicles and normative consequences. Yet, affixing energy to security affects not only energy policy but also the manner in which we understand security itself. At least potentially, the ubiquity of energy as a ‘prime mover’ makes security ubiquitous, thus blurring the boundaries that have made it a domain of specialist knowledge and practice. By making security politically unexceptional and ‘total’, energy can thus strip security of its precise meaning, rendering it banal and vacuous. Taking a contextual perspective that emphasizes conceptual variation and the participation of lay actors in producing the meaning of security, the article rejects the banalization of security, and discusses the normative and political problems inherent in any totalizing view of the kind latent in energy security.
Article
Energy security has in recent years grown as a salient policy and political issue. To better understand energy security and sustainability concerns, this study's main objective is to present an energy security index which measures national performance on energy security over time. Based on three years of research involving interviews, surveys, and an international workshop, this study conceptualizes energy security as consisting of the interconnected factors of availability, affordability, efficiency, sustainability, and governance. It then matches these factors with 20 metrics comprising an energy security index, measuring international performance across 18 countries from 1990 to 2010. It offers three case studies of Japan (top performer), Laos (middle performer), and Myanmar (w]orst performer) to provide context to the index's results. It then presents four conclusions. First, a majority of countries analyzed have regressed in terms of their energy security. Second, despite the near total deterioration of energy security, a great disparity exists between countries, with some clear leaders such as Japan. Third, tradeoffs exist within different components of energy security. Fourth, creating energy security is as much a matter of domestic policy from within as it is from foreign policy without.
Article
A framework is described that can be used to analyze energy security issues. Five sets of issues horizontal nuclear proliferation, geopolitical implications of resource distribution, energy and military readiness, political change and external intervention in the Persian Gulf, and political change and conflict behavior - are examined along with the responses available to national governments. The interactions of energy economics with domestic politics and international security are examined as they affect the oil-importing developing countries and the Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development countries. Three possible patterns could develop during the 1980s: (1) continued energy price increases with no supply disruptions, (2) a tightening international market with significant market shocks, or (3) a major supply disruption threatening political and military intervention. The author feels that, in spite of the problems involved, the US still has the opportunity to address political instabilities, unsteady alliance structures, and military confrontations aggravated or even caused by energy problems more effectively than it has haudled domestic energy policy. (DCK)
Article
In November 2006, the American Council On Renewable Energy (“ACORE”), along with the Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Caucuses of the United States Senate and House of Representatives, convened the national policy conference, “Renewable Energy in America: Phase II Market Forecasts and Policy Requirements” (“Phase II”). Several speakers at Phase II argued that continued private sector financing of renewable energy projects will substantially depend on the expansion of the electrical transmission network. The argument follows this logic: developing renewable energy to the point that it can power America's growing energy needs will require substantial investment from private sector investors. These investors will hesitate to invest money unless they are confident that they will be able to profit by selling the energy on a national market. Unfortunately, the current network of transmission facilities faces serious technological challenges in each major part of the electricity value chain, from power production to power delivery and end-use. The difficulties involved in transporting energy from where it is produced to where it is needed reduce incentives to invest in renewable energy. Investors fear that these projects may not be profitable because of transmission congestion. While this situation somewhat resembles a “which came first, the chicken or the egg?” dilemma, it is apparent that at some point, new transmission facilities will need to be built and existing facilities will need to be upgraded if renewable energy is going to become a major source of power in America. This paper explores the problem and solution while operating under the main premise that it should be a national priority to do whatever it takes to optimize the domestic production of energy from clean, renewable resources. Particularly, the transmission network should be upgraded. Furthermore, because industries need investment to get going, this development must be supported by a combination of private sector investment and federal and state government incentives and investment.
Article
This study provides an index for evaluating national energy security policies and performance among the United States, European Union, Australia, New Zealand, China, India, Japan, South Korea, and the ten countries comprising the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN). Drawn from research interviews, a survey instrument, and a focused workshop, the article first argues that energy security ought to be comprised of five dimensions related to availability, affordability, technology development, sustainability, and regulation. The article then breaks these dimensions down into 20 components and correlates them with 20 metrics that constitute a comprehensive energy security index. We find that the top three performers of our index for all data points and times are Japan, Brunei, and the United States and the worst performers Vietnam, India, and Myanmar. Malaysia, Australia, and Brunei saw their energy security improve the most from 1990 to 2010 whereas Laos, Cambodia, and Myanmar saw it decline the most. The article concludes by calling for more research on various aspects of our index and its results.
Article
This article examines the indirect effects of the amount of money the major Western arms-exporting nations spend on imported oil on increases in the dollar volume of arms exports. In other words, are the United States, Britain, France, West Germany, and Italy using arms exports to offset the cost of imported oil? The effects of the dollar volume of oil imports on the dollar volume of arms exports are hypothesized to be mediated through the negative impact that oil imports have on the terms of trade and the positive impact they have on unemployment. These hypotheses are supported by the results of the data analysis. For most of the European countries, arms exports also show a significant increase in response to the declining share of central government expenditures allocated to defense, declining terms of trade, and to increases in rates of unemployment. The results apply to increases in the absolute levels of arms exports. Declining terms of trade and unemployment do not have a strong causal impact on arms exports as a percentage of total exports. The latter is responsive only to changes in the defense budget's share of central government expenditures. Thus alleged “arms-for-oil” deals of the middle and late 1970s are too superficial an explanation of European and American arms sales after the 1973 oil crisis.
Article
Energy is a key-resource to economic development and is required to be available continuously and in adequate amounts. Also, it is expected to be affordable and environmentally friendly. Ensuring this is a challenge, yet strategic to maintain economies running under a sustainable pattern. Energy security is neither a new concept, nor a new concern. However, because of new issues, it requires a novel, broader approach. Such an approach should address both demand (security of supply) and supply (security of demand) sides, as well as take into account energy scarcity situations and surplus opportunities. In addition, it should allow for both private (markets) and public (policies and regulations) initiatives. This paper presents a theoretical and practical basis for the economics of energy security. Energy security is defined, in this context, as the ability of an economy to provide sufficient, affordable and environmentally sustainable energy services so as to maintain a maximum welfare state, even when issues would press it otherwise. We introduce the notion of energy security gap to represent the economy's failure to show such ability. Additionally, we also propose a framework to support the evaluation, planning and implementation of energy security in an economy. This framework relies on the concepts of resilience, adaptability and transformability (Walker et al, 2004) to prescribe indicators to assess the energy security of an economy. Furthermore, it proposes mechanisms to enhance energy security, as well as a continuous process to increasingly achieve this.
Article
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to compare the security of oil supply of the 27 European Union (EU27) member countries throughout the measurement of the vulnerability that their economies have exhibited to oil during the period from 1995 to 2007. Additionally, the EU27 future oil vulnerability is to be estimated for two indicative scenarios: a low oil price projection and a high price one. The two projections are going up to 2030. Design/methodology/approach Six indicators that quantify the core concepts that affect the security of supply of a country have been integrated in a synthetic index that measures the vulnerability of the case study countries for the time period under consideration. For the development of the synthetic index the principal component analysis (PCA) has been applied. Findings The results of this paper are illustrative of the existing vulnerabilities in the oil supply that may signal for a common EU policy addressing the energy availability risk issue. Research limitations/implications The main limitation of the analysis is the usage of six indicators in order to capture the core essence of vulnerability and security of supply. The integration of additional indicators in the synthetic index may strive towards a more precise analysis. Originality/value The contribution of the paper lies in the usage of a statistical technique, PCA, for the development of a synthetic index that specifies the vulnerability in oil for EU27.
Article
The extreme volatility of global energy markets since the early 2000s has prompted the Commission of the European Communities to issue a new Green Paper, ‘A European strategy for sustainable, competitive and secure energy’. This important document seeks to identify the main steps EU members need to take to enhance their energy outlooks. The first section in this article discusses the concept ‘energy security’. This is followed by an examination of Europe's energy mix (oil, natural gas, coal, nuclear power and renewables). The third section analyses European efforts to establish and strengthen energy partnerships with Russia, the Caspian Sea region and the Middle East. In other words, the article seeks to examine Europe's efforts to diversify its energy mix and energy sources. The main argument is that stability and predictability in energy markets are shared goals between producing regions and major consumers.
This article reveals the evolution of the concept of energy security with a particular focus on the challenges of the 21st century and develops the author's concept of the new energy order (NEO). NEO defines the basic premises of energy security within a broad context and aims to respond to the challenges and dilemmas arising from the transition to desired energy mix systems. The article discusses the basic characteristics of the global shift to a complex system of energy mix in which carbon fuels, nuclear energy, renewables (and newly emerging alternatives such as hydrogen) play significant roles. The narrow understanding of energy security (based on amount, price, location, and time) is then transformed to a broader understanding (with environmental and societal concerns) which is argued to be more relevant for the defined challenges. Having elucidated the NEO, the article introduces feasibility, accessibility, sustainability and transparency (FAST) as the global principles which are necessary to attain an equitable and a sustainable new energy order.
Article
Through an application of Regional Security Complex Theory and empirical examination, this article explores the pros and cons of regional and inter-regional energy co-operation. In spite of present unilateral and bilateral manoeuvres on the part of EU Member States to the contrary, a common energy security policy appears feasible over the next five to ten years. However, EU-Russian co-operation in the energy sector is not likely to improve considerably over this period, and EU attempts to counterbalance the dominant and growing position that Russia has occupied in the supply of gas to EU countries by seeking alternative energy supply from central Asia are likely to be thwarted by countervailing Russian measures. Copyright (c) 2010 The Author(s). Journal compilation (c) 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.